8th century is the period from
800 in accordance with the
Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the Middle East, the coast of
North Africa and the
Iberian Peninsula quickly come under
domination. The westward expansion of the
Arab Empire was famously
halted at the Siege of
Constantinople by the
Byzantine Empire and the
Battle of Tours
Battle of Tours by the Franks. The tide of
Arab conquest came to an
end in the middle of the 8th century.
In Europe, late in the century, the Vikings, seafaring peoples from
Scandinavia, begin raiding the coasts of
Europe and the Mediterranean,
and go on to found several important kingdoms.
In Asia, the
Pala Empire is founded in Bengal. The Tang dynasty
reaches its pinnacle under Chinese Emperor Xuanzong. The Nara period
begins in Japan.
2 Significant persons
3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions
Estimated century in which the poem
Beowulf is composed.
Maya civilization begins to decline.
The first Serbian state is formed at the beginning of the century.
Borobodur, the famous Indonesian
Buddhist structure, begins
construction, probably as a non-
Borobudur in Indonesia
Jataka stories are translated into Syriac and Arabic as
Kalilag and Damnag.
An account of Buddha's life is translated into Greek by Saint John of
Damascus, and widely circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaam
Height of the Classic period in pre-Columbian Maya civilization
Buddhist monk at Nalanda Monastery in India, composes
the famous Bodhicharyāvatāra, or Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of
The height of the
Giant Wild Goose Pagoda
Giant Wild Goose Pagoda in Xian,
China is extended
by 5 stories.
Taihō Code is enacted in late
Asuka period Japan.
705: Overthrow of Empress Wu Zetian, the reign of China's first and
only sole-ruling empress ends.
705: Justinian II is forced to give the title Caesar of Byzantium to
the Bulgarian Emperor Tervel. The
Byzantine Empire begins to pay
annual tributes to Bulgaria.
708 – 711: The
Bulgarians defeat Justinian II at the battle of
Arab armies occupied Sindh.
Empress Genmei moves the capital to Heijō-kyū (present day
Nara), initiating the
Nara period of Japan.
Palenque is conquered by Toniná.
A prisoner from
Palenque in Toniná
Tariq ibn Ziyad
Tariq ibn Ziyad crosses the Straits of Gibraltar. With the
creation of Al-Andalus, most of the
Iberian Peninsula is conquered by
Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and
beginning almost eight centuries of Muslim rule.
Liutprand, King of the Lombards
Liutprand, King of the Lombards begins his reign (until 744).
c. 712: Metropolitan episcopal see is established by the Church of the
East in Chinese capital of Chang'an.
712 – 756: Emperor Xuanzong reigned, the time was considered one of
China's high points.
712 – 740:
Caliphate campaigns in India
713: Death of Dajian Huineng, sixth and last Patriarch of Chán
717 – 718: Siege of Constantinople. The
Bulgarians and the
Byzantines decisively defeat the invading Arabs, thus halting the Arab
advance toward Europe.
718: Sri Indravarman King of
Srivijaya send a letter to the Caliph
Umar bin Abdul Aziz
Umar bin Abdul Aziz of the
Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus, signing
early ancient Indonesian official contact with
Islamic world in the
Leo III the Isaurian
Leo III the Isaurian destroys the icon of
Christ above the
Chalke Gate in the capital city of Constantinople,
beginning the first phase of the Byzantine Iconoclasm.
Bede completes his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum
(Ecclesiastical History of the English People).
732: Battle of Tours. Near Poitiers, France, leader of the Franks
Charles Martel and his men defeat a large army of Moors under the
governor of Cordoba, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, who is killed during the
Battle of Tours
Battle of Tours halts the advance of Islam into Western
Europe and establishes a balance of power between Western Europe,
Islam and the Byzantine Empire.
Sanjaya dynasty is founded around this time according to the
Tang dynasty Chinese clay figurine of a Sogdian man (an
Eastern Iranian person) wearing a distinctive cap and face veil,
possibly a camel rider or even a
Zoroastrian priest engaging in a
ritual at a fire temple, since face veils were used to avoid
contaminating the holy fire with breath or saliva; Museum of Oriental
Art (Turin), Italy.
Quiriguá declares independence from Copan
740: Battle of Akroinon. Byzantines win their first large-scale
victory in a pitched battle against the Arabs.
742: For the municipal census of the Tang-dynasty Chinese capital city
Chang'an and its metropolitan area of Jingzhou Fu (including small
towns in the vicinity), the
New Book of Tang records that in this year
there were 362,921 registered families with 1,960,188 persons.
748: The Chinese
Buddhist monk Jian Zhen writes in his Yue Jue Shu of
the international sea traffic coming to Guangzhou, ships from Borneo,
Persia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and others bringing tons of goods.
750: The last
Marwan II (744–750) is overthrown and
executed by the first
Abbasid Caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah. The
Caliphate is moved to
Baghdad which would later develop into a centre
of trade and culture. The
Ghana Empire begins in western Africa.
8th century -
Great Wild Goose Pagoda
Great Wild Goose Pagoda at Ci'en Temple, Xi'an,
Shanxi, is rebuilt.
8th century - Camel Carrying a Group of Musicians, from a tomb
near Xi'an, Shanxi, is made. Tang dynasty. It is now kept at Museum of
Chinese History, Beijing.
751: Arabian armies defeat Chinese
Tang dynasty troops in the Battle
of Talas, in the high
Pamirs near Samarkand, and conquer Central Asia
752: The Hindu Medang (Mataram) kingdom flourishes and declines.
755 – 763: The
An Shi Rebellion
An Shi Rebellion devastates
China during the mid Tang
Offa of Mercia
Offa of Mercia becomes dominant ruler in England.
Arab and Persian pirates and travelers burn and loot the Chinese
city of Guangzhou, while the Tang Dynasty authorities shut the port
down for the next five decades.
760: The construction of
768: Pepin dies; Charles becomes king at Noyan and his brother
Carloman becomes king at Soissons.
770's – 780's: Java launched series of naval raids on ports of Dai
Viet, Champa and Cambodia; Sontay in Tonkin (767); Nha Trang (774);
captured Indrapura in Cambodia (770); Phan Rang (787). The naval raids
was probably launched by Sailendran-Srivijayan Maharaja
772 – 804:
Charlemagne invades what is now northwestern Germany,
Saxons for more than thirty years and finally crushing
their rebellion, incorporating Saxony into the
Frankish Empire and the
778: Kalasan temple constructed according to Kalasan inscription.
Nestorian Monument is erected in China.
Buddhist monk Prajna reaches
Chang'an and translates the sutras
Tang dynasty begins landing regular maritime missions on the
coast of East Africa, cutting out middlemen
Arab sea merchants.
785 – 805: Chinese geographer
Jia Dan describes large lighthouse
pillars built in the Persian Gulf, which is confirmed a century later
by al-Mas'udi and al-Muqaddasi.
787: The Empress
Irene of Athens
Irene of Athens convenes the Seventh Ecumenical
Council, ending the first phase of Byzantine Iconoclasm.
792: Battle of Marcelae. The Bulgarian victory over the Byzantines
marks the end of the half-century political instability in Bulgaria.
792: The Manjusrigrha (Sewu) temple is completed according to
793: The first written account of a
Viking raid carried out on the
Lindisfarne in northern England.
Frisian–Frankish wars come to an end with the last uprising
of the Frisians.
Emperor Kanmu moves the capital to
Heian-kyō (present day
Kyoto), initiating the
Heian period of Japan.
800: Beginning of the ancient West African state of
Takrur or Tekrour,
which flourished roughly parallel to the Ghana Empire.
800: On Christmas Day,
Charlemagne is crowned the first Holy Roman
Emperor by Pope Leo III.
800: The agriculturally based
Sailendra kingdom flourishes
and declines. (to 832)
Further information: Category:8th-century people
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan,
685 to 705
Abu Muslim, leader of the
Adi Shankara, philosopher, theologian, and pioneer of Advaita Vedanta
Adrian I or Hadrian I, Pope from
772 to 795
Alcuin, English monk, deacon, scholar, and teacher; Charlemagne's
advisor in educational affairs
An Lushan, military leader of Sogdian and
Tujue origin, led An Shi
755 to 763
Bede the Venerable, English monk and scholar
Charles Martel, Frankish leader until
741 (Battle of Tours, 732)
Charlemagne, King of the
771 to 814
Desiderius, last King of the
756 to 774
Dezong, Emperor of
779 to 805
Du Fu, Chinese poet
Genmei, Empress of
707 to 715
Guo Ziyi, who ended the
An Shi Rebellion
An Shi Rebellion and was revered as the best
East Asia during his lifetime.
Han Gan, Chinese painter
Harun al-Rashid, fifth
786 to 809
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik,
723 to 743, during his
Caliphate reached its maximum expansion
Irene of Athens, Byzantine Empress from
797 to 802
Jia Dan, Chinese scholar-official, cartographer, and geographer
Jianzhen or Ganjin, Chinese monk who helped to spread Buddhism in
John of Damascus, Syrian Christian monk, scholar
K'ak' Joplaj Chan K'awiil 14th
Ajaw of Copan
K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil 749–
Ajaw of Copan
Kanmu, Emperor of
781 to 806
Kōken, Empress of
758 and again with the name
764 to 770
Leo III the Isaurian,
Byzantine Emperor from
717 to 741, repelled the
Arabs and initiated Byzantine Iconoclasm
Leo III, pope from
795 to 816
Li Bai, Chinese poet
Liutprand, King of the Lombards
Liutprand, King of the Lombards from
712 to 744
754 to 775, consolidated Abbasid
Muhammad bin Qasim,
Arab general who conquered
Sindh and Punjab
Padmasambhava, Tantric master who created vajrayana buddhism in Tibet
Paolo Lucio Anafesto, first doge of
697 to 717
Paul the Deacon, Lombard scholar, historian, poet
Paulinus II of Aquileia, Carolingian scholar, poet, patriarch of
787 to 802
Pippin the Younger, king of the
Franks until 768
Stephen II, Pope from
752 to 757, enlisted Frankish aid against the
Qutayba ibn Muslim, Muslim conqueror of
Transoxania in 705-715
Tervel, Khan of
700 to 721
Theodulf of Orléans, Carolingian scholar, poet, bishop of Orleans
798 to 818
Church of the East
Church of the East Patriarch of Baghdad, promoter of missions
Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil
Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil 695–
Ajaw of Copan
Umar bin Abdul Aziz,
Buddhist monk from India
al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik,
705 to 715
Wu Zetian, Empress of
690 to 705
Xuanzong, Emperor of
China at height of Tang cultural influence from
712 to 756
Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat 763–after 810 16th
Ajaw of Copan
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
8th century silk fragment, central Asia
Heavy plow in use in the
Horse collar in use in Northern
Europe in 8th or 9th century—perhaps
introduced from Asia.
8th century – papermaking introduced from
China to Arabs.
Iron horseshoes came into common use around 770.
Pattadakal, Chalukya architecture.
Yi Xing applies a clockwork escapement
mechanism to operate and rotate his astronomical celestial globe.
The first European triangular harp designed by the
Picts of Scotland.
^ a b c Roberts, J., History of the World, Penguin, 1994.
^ Azra, Azyumardi (2006). Islam in the Indonesian world: an account of
institutional formation. Mizan Pustaka. ISBN 979-433-430-8.
^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History.
Century Ltd. pp. 34–37. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
^ a b Miksic (1997)
^ Lee Lawrence. (3 September 2011). "A Mysterious Stranger in China".
The Wall Street Journal. Accessed on 31 August 2016.
^ Miksic (2003)
^ Taylor (2003), p. 37.
^ Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian
Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier
Millet. p. 171. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to 8th century.
Decades and years
6th century ← 7th century ← ↔ → 9th
century → 10th century
Centuries and millennia