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The 8th century
8th century
is the period from 701
701
to 800
800
in accordance with the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in the Common Era. In the Middle East, the coast of North Africa
North Africa
and the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
quickly come under Islamic
Islamic
Arab domination. The westward expansion of the Arab
Arab
Empire was famously halted at the Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
by the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Battle of Tours
Battle of Tours
by the Franks. The tide of Arab
Arab
conquest came to an end in the middle of the 8th century.[1] In Europe, late in the century, the Vikings, seafaring peoples from Scandinavia, begin raiding the coasts of Europe
Europe
and the Mediterranean, and go on to found several important kingdoms. In Asia, the Pala Empire
Pala Empire
is founded in Bengal. The Tang dynasty reaches its pinnacle under Chinese Emperor Xuanzong. The Nara period begins in Japan.

Contents

1 Events 2 Significant persons 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 References

Events[edit]

Estimated century in which the poem Beowulf
Beowulf
is composed. Classical Maya civilization
Maya civilization
begins to decline. The first Serbian state is formed at the beginning of the century. Borobodur, the famous Indonesian Buddhist
Buddhist
structure, begins construction, probably as a non- Buddhist
Buddhist
shrine.

Borobudur
Borobudur
in Indonesia

Buddhist
Buddhist
Jataka
Jataka
stories are translated into Syriac and Arabic as Kalilag and Damnag. An account of Buddha's life is translated into Greek by Saint John of Damascus, and widely circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaam and Josaphat. Height of the Classic period in pre-Columbian Maya civilization history. Śāntideva, a Buddhist
Buddhist
monk at Nalanda Monastery in India, composes the famous Bodhicharyāvatāra, or Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life. The height of the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda
Giant Wild Goose Pagoda
in Xian, China
China
is extended by 5 stories. 701: The Taihō Code
Taihō Code
is enacted in late Asuka period
Asuka period
Japan. 705: Overthrow of Empress Wu Zetian, the reign of China's first and only sole-ruling empress ends. 705: Justinian II is forced to give the title Caesar of Byzantium to the Bulgarian Emperor Tervel. The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
begins to pay annual tributes to Bulgaria. 708
708
– 711: The Bulgarians
Bulgarians
defeat Justinian II at the battle of Anchiallus. Arab
Arab
armies occupied Sindh.[1] 710: Empress Genmei
Empress Genmei
moves the capital to Heijō-kyū (present day Nara), initiating the Nara period
Nara period
of Japan. 711: Palenque
Palenque
is conquered by Toniná.

A prisoner from Palenque
Palenque
in Toniná

711: Tariq ibn Ziyad
Tariq ibn Ziyad
crosses the Straits of Gibraltar.[1] With the creation of Al-Andalus, most of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
is conquered by Arab
Arab
and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and beginning almost eight centuries of Muslim rule. 712: Liutprand, King of the Lombards
Liutprand, King of the Lombards
begins his reign (until 744). c. 712: Metropolitan episcopal see is established by the Church of the East in Chinese capital of Chang'an. 712
712
– 756: Emperor Xuanzong reigned, the time was considered one of China's high points. 712
712
– 740: Caliphate
Caliphate
campaigns in India 713: Death of Dajian Huineng, sixth and last Patriarch of Chán Buddhism. 717
717
– 718: Siege of Constantinople. The Bulgarians
Bulgarians
and the Byzantines decisively defeat the invading Arabs, thus halting the Arab advance toward Europe. 718: Sri Indravarman King of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
send a letter to the Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz
Umar bin Abdul Aziz
of the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
in Damascus, signing early ancient Indonesian official contact with Islamic
Islamic
world in the Middle East.[2] 726: Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
Leo III the Isaurian
Leo III the Isaurian
destroys the icon of Christ above the Chalke Gate
Chalke Gate
in the capital city of Constantinople, beginning the first phase of the Byzantine Iconoclasm. 731: Bede
Bede
completes his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (Ecclesiastical History of the English People).[3] 732: Battle of Tours. Near Poitiers, France, leader of the Franks Charles Martel
Charles Martel
and his men defeat a large army of Moors under the governor of Cordoba, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, who is killed during the battle. The Battle of Tours
Battle of Tours
halts the advance of Islam into Western Europe
Europe
and establishes a balance of power between Western Europe, Islam and the Byzantine Empire. 732: The Sanjaya dynasty
Sanjaya dynasty
is founded around this time according to the Canggal inscription.[4]

An 8th-century Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
Chinese clay figurine of a Sogdian man (an Eastern Iranian person) wearing a distinctive cap and face veil, possibly a camel rider or even a Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
priest engaging in a ritual at a fire temple, since face veils were used to avoid contaminating the holy fire with breath or saliva; Museum of Oriental Art (Turin), Italy.[5]

738: Quiriguá
Quiriguá
declares independence from Copan 740: Battle of Akroinon. Byzantines win their first large-scale victory in a pitched battle against the Arabs. 742: For the municipal census of the Tang-dynasty Chinese capital city Chang'an
Chang'an
and its metropolitan area of Jingzhou Fu (including small towns in the vicinity), the New Book of Tang records that in this year there were 362,921 registered families with 1,960,188 persons. 748: The Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
monk Jian Zhen writes in his Yue Jue Shu of the international sea traffic coming to Guangzhou, ships from Borneo, Persia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and others bringing tons of goods. 750: The last Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliph
Caliph
Marwan II
Marwan II
(744–750) is overthrown and executed by the first Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah. The Caliphate
Caliphate
is moved to Baghdad
Baghdad
which would later develop into a centre of trade and culture. The Ghana Empire
Ghana Empire
begins in western Africa. mid- 8th century
8th century
- Great Wild Goose Pagoda
Great Wild Goose Pagoda
at Ci'en Temple, Xi'an, Shanxi, is rebuilt. c. mid- 8th century
8th century
- Camel Carrying a Group of Musicians, from a tomb near Xi'an, Shanxi, is made. Tang dynasty. It is now kept at Museum of Chinese History, Beijing. 751: Arabian armies defeat Chinese Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
troops in the Battle of Talas, in the high Pamirs
Pamirs
near Samarkand, and conquer Central Asia completely. 752: The Hindu Medang (Mataram) kingdom flourishes and declines.[6] (to 1045) 755
755
– 763: The An Shi Rebellion
An Shi Rebellion
devastates China
China
during the mid Tang dynasty. 757: King Offa of Mercia
Offa of Mercia
becomes dominant ruler in England. 758: Arab
Arab
and Persian pirates and travelers burn and loot the Chinese city of Guangzhou, while the Tang Dynasty authorities shut the port down for the next five decades. 760: The construction of Borobudur
Borobudur
started.[7] 768: Pepin dies; Charles becomes king at Noyan and his brother Carloman becomes king at Soissons. 770's – 780's: Java launched series of naval raids on ports of Dai Viet, Champa and Cambodia; Sontay in Tonkin (767); Nha Trang (774); captured Indrapura in Cambodia (770); Phan Rang (787). The naval raids was probably launched by Sailendran-Srivijayan Maharaja Dharmasetu or Dharanindra.[8] 772
772
– 804: Charlemagne
Charlemagne
invades what is now northwestern Germany, battling the Saxons
Saxons
for more than thirty years and finally crushing their rebellion, incorporating Saxony into the Frankish Empire
Frankish Empire
and the Christian world. 778: Kalasan temple constructed according to Kalasan inscription. 781: Nestorian Monument
Nestorian Monument
is erected in China. 782: Buddhist
Buddhist
monk Prajna reaches Chang'an
Chang'an
and translates the sutras into Chinese. 785: The Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
begins landing regular maritime missions on the coast of East Africa, cutting out middlemen Arab
Arab
sea merchants. 785
785
– 805: Chinese geographer Jia Dan describes large lighthouse pillars built in the Persian Gulf, which is confirmed a century later by al-Mas'udi and al-Muqaddasi. 787: The Empress Irene of Athens
Irene of Athens
convenes the Seventh Ecumenical Council, ending the first phase of Byzantine Iconoclasm. 792: Battle of Marcelae. The Bulgarian victory over the Byzantines marks the end of the half-century political instability in Bulgaria. 792: The Manjusrigrha (Sewu) temple is completed according to Manjusrigrha inscription. 793: The first written account of a Viking
Viking
raid carried out on the abbey of Lindisfarne
Lindisfarne
in northern England. 793: The Frisian–Frankish wars
Frisian–Frankish wars
come to an end with the last uprising of the Frisians. 794: Emperor Kanmu
Emperor Kanmu
moves the capital to Heian-kyō
Heian-kyō
(present day Kyoto), initiating the Heian period
Heian period
of Japan. 800: Beginning of the ancient West African state of Takrur
Takrur
or Tekrour, which flourished roughly parallel to the Ghana Empire. 800: On Christmas Day, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
is crowned the first Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III. 800: The agriculturally based Buddhist
Buddhist
Sailendra
Sailendra
kingdom flourishes and declines.[4] (to 832)

Significant persons[edit] Further information: Category:8th-century people

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliph
Caliph
from 685
685
to 705 Abu Muslim, leader of the Abbasid
Abbasid
Revolution Adi Shankara, philosopher, theologian, and pioneer of Advaita Vedanta Adrian I or Hadrian I, Pope from 772
772
to 795 Alcuin, English monk, deacon, scholar, and teacher; Charlemagne's advisor in educational affairs An Lushan, military leader of Sogdian and Tujue
Tujue
origin, led An Shi Rebellion from 755
755
to 763 Bede
Bede
the Venerable, English monk and scholar Charles Martel, Frankish leader until 741
741
(Battle of Tours, 732) Charlemagne, King of the Franks
Franks
from 771
771
to 814 Desiderius, last King of the Lombards
Lombards
from 756
756
to 774 Dezong, Emperor of China
China
from 779
779
to 805 Du Fu, Chinese poet Genmei, Empress of Japan
Japan
from 707
707
to 715 Guo Ziyi, who ended the An Shi Rebellion
An Shi Rebellion
and was revered as the best general in East Asia
East Asia
during his lifetime. Han Gan, Chinese painter Harun al-Rashid, fifth Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph
Caliph
from 786
786
to 809 Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliph
Caliph
from 723
723
to 743, during his reign the Caliphate
Caliphate
reached its maximum expansion Irene of Athens, Byzantine Empress from 797
797
to 802 Jia Dan, Chinese scholar-official, cartographer, and geographer Jianzhen
Jianzhen
or Ganjin, Chinese monk who helped to spread Buddhism in Japan John of Damascus, Syrian Christian monk, scholar K'ak' Joplaj Chan K'awiil 14th Ajaw
Ajaw
of Copan K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil 749– 763 15th Ajaw
Ajaw
of Copan Kanmu, Emperor of Japan
Japan
from 781
781
to 806 Kōken, Empress of Japan
Japan
from 749
749
to 758
758
and again with the name Shōtoku from 764
764
to 770 Leo III the Isaurian, Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from 717
717
to 741, repelled the Arabs
Arabs
and initiated Byzantine Iconoclasm Leo III, pope from 795
795
to 816 Li Bai, Chinese poet Liutprand, King of the Lombards
Liutprand, King of the Lombards
from 712
712
to 744 al-Mansur, second Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph
Caliph
from 754
754
to 775, consolidated Abbasid power Muhammad bin Qasim, Arab
Arab
general who conquered Sindh
Sindh
and Punjab Padmasambhava, Tantric master who created vajrayana buddhism in Tibet Paolo Lucio Anafesto, first doge of Venice
Venice
from 697
697
to 717 Paul the Deacon, Lombard scholar, historian, poet Paulinus II of Aquileia, Carolingian scholar, poet, patriarch of Aquileia
Aquileia
from 787
787
to 802 Pippin the Younger, king of the Franks
Franks
until 768 Stephen II, Pope from 752
752
to 757, enlisted Frankish aid against the Lombards Qutayba ibn Muslim, Muslim conqueror of Transoxania
Transoxania
in 705-715 Tervel, Khan of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
from 700
700
to 721 Theodulf of Orléans, Carolingian scholar, poet, bishop of Orleans from 798
798
to 818 Timothy, Church of the East
Church of the East
Patriarch of Baghdad, promoter of missions to China Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil
Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil
695– 738
738
13th Ajaw
Ajaw
of Copan Umar bin Abdul Aziz, Caliph
Caliph
of Islamic
Islamic
Empire Vimalamitra, Buddhist
Buddhist
monk from India al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik, Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliph
Caliph
from 705
705
to 715 Wu Zetian, Empress of China
China
from 690
690
to 705 Xuanzong, Emperor of China
China
at height of Tang cultural influence from 712
712
to 756 Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat 763–after 810 16th Ajaw
Ajaw
of Copan

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

8th century
8th century
silk fragment, central Asia

Heavy plow in use in the Rhine
Rhine
valley. Horse collar
Horse collar
in use in Northern Europe
Europe
in 8th or 9th century—perhaps introduced from Asia. Mid 8th century
8th century
– papermaking introduced from China
China
to Arabs. Iron horseshoes came into common use around 770. Pattadakal, Chalukya architecture. The Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
monk Yi Xing
Yi Xing
applies a clockwork escapement mechanism to operate and rotate his astronomical celestial globe. The first European triangular harp designed by the Picts
Picts
of Scotland.

References[edit]

^ a b c Roberts, J., History of the World, Penguin, 1994. ^ Azra, Azyumardi (2006). Islam in the Indonesian world: an account of institutional formation. Mizan Pustaka. ISBN 979-433-430-8.  ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 34–37. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.  ^ a b Miksic (1997) ^ Lee Lawrence. (3 September 2011). "A Mysterious Stranger in China". The Wall Street Journal. Accessed on 31 August 2016. ^ Miksic (2003) ^ Taylor (2003), p. 37. ^ Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. p. 171. ISBN 981-4155-67-5. 

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8th century 6th century ← 7th century ← ↔ → 9th century → 10th century

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700s 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709

710s 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719

720s 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729

730s 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739

740s 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749

750s 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759

760s 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769

770s 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779

780s 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789

790s 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799

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