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The 6th century
6th century
is the period from 501
501
to 600
600
in accordance with the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in the Common Era. In the West, this century marks the end of Classical Antiquity
Classical Antiquity
and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
late in the previous century, Europe fractured into many small Germanic Kingdoms, which competed fiercely for land and wealth. From this upheaval the Franks
Franks
rose to prominence, and carved out a sizeable domain encompassing much of modern France and Germany. Meanwhile, the surviving Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
began to expand under the emperor Justinian, who eventually recaptured North Africa from the Vandals, and attempted to fully recover Italy
Italy
as well in the hope of re-establishing Roman control over the lands once ruled by the Western Roman Empire. During its second Golden Age, the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
reached the peak of its power under Khosrau I
Khosrau I
in the 6th century.[1] The classical Gupta Empire of Northern India, largely overrun by the Huna, ended in the mid-6th century. In Japan, the Kofun period
Kofun period
gave way to the Asuka period. After being divided for more than 150 years into the Southern and Northern Dynasties, China
China
was reunited under the Sui Dynasty toward the end of the 6th century. The Three Kingdoms of Korea persisted throughout the 6th century. The Göktürks
Göktürks
became a major power in Central Asia
Central Asia
after defeating the Rouran. In the Americas, Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
began to decline in the 6th century
6th century
after having reached its zenith between AD 150 and 450. Classic Period of the Maya civilization
Maya civilization
in Central America.

Contents

1 Events 2 Significant people 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 References

Events[edit]

This Buddhist
Buddhist
stela from China, Northern Wei
Northern Wei
period, was built in the early 6th century.

Early 6th century
6th century
Ah Suytok Tutul Xiu founds Uxmal.

Uxmal

Early 6th century
6th century
– Archangel Michael, panel of a dyptich probably from the court workshop at Constantinople, is made. It is now kept at The British Museum, London. Early 6th century
6th century
– Page with Rebecca at the Well, from "Book of Genesis", probably made in Syria
Syria
or Palestine, is made. It is now kept at Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna. By 6th century
6th century
Shilpa Shastras
Shilpa Shastras
is written. Early 6th century
6th century
– first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur
Gundeshapur
founded in Iran
Iran
by Khosrau I
Khosrau I
of Persia. Early 6th century
6th century
– Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia
Caledonia
(later known as Scotland). Migration from south-west Britain to Brittany. Early 6th century
6th century
Glendalough
Glendalough
monastery, Wicklow
Wicklow
Ireland
Ireland
founded on St. Kevin. Many similar foundations in Ireland
Ireland
and Wales. Early 6th century
6th century
Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
enters Vietnam
Vietnam
from China. Early 6th century
6th century
– Haniwa, from Kyoto, is made during the Kofun period Early 6th century
6th century
– Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe's apse's mosaic is completed. 502: Chinese annals mentioned the existence of the Buddhist
Buddhist
Kingdom, Kanto Lim in South Sumatra, presumably in the neighborhood of present-day Palembang. 507: Battle of Vouillé 518: Eastern Roman Emperor
Emperor
Anastasius I dies and is succeeded by Justin I. 522: Byzantines obtain silkworm eggs and begin silkworm cultivation c.524: Boethius
Boethius
writes his Consolation of Philosophy. 525: Having settled in Rome
Rome
c. 500, Scythian monk Dionysius Exiguus invents the Anno Domini
Anno Domini
era calendar based on the estimated birth year of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. 527: Justinian
Justinian
I succeeds Justin I
Justin I
as Emperor
Emperor
of the Eastern Roman Empire. 529: Saint Benedict of Nursia
Benedict of Nursia
founds the monastery of Monte Cassino
Monte Cassino
in Italy. 532: Nika riots
Nika riots
in Constantinople; the cathedral is destroyed. They are put down a week later by Belisarius
Belisarius
and Mundus; up to 30,000 people are killed in the Hippodrome. 535: Postulated volcanic eruption in the tropics which causes several years of abnormally cold weather, resulting in mass famine in the Northern Hemisphere. (See Extreme weather events of 535–536.) 537: Battle of Camlann, final battle of legendary King Arthur. 541-542: First pandemic of bubonic plague (Plague of Justinian) hits Constantinople
Constantinople
and the rest of Byzantine Empire. 543/544: One of Justinian's edict leads to the Three-Chapter Controversy 545: Nubian Kingdom of Nobatia
Nobatia
converts to Christianity. Mid- 6th century
6th century
Cassiodorus
Cassiodorus
founds a cenobitic monastery and scriptorium at Vivarium in Italy Mid- 6th century
6th century
Buddhist
Buddhist
Jataka
Jataka
stories are translated into Persian by order of the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
king Khosrau. Mid- 6th century
6th century
– Cave-Temple of Shiva at Elephanta Caves, Maharashtra, India, is built. Post- Gupta period. Mid- 6th century
6th century
– Eternal Shiva, rock-cut relief in the Cave-Temple of Shiva at Elephanta Caves, is made Second half of 6th century
6th century
– Virgin and Child with Saints and Angels, icon, is made. It is now kept at Saint Catherine's Monastery, Egypt. 550: Kingdom of Funan
Kingdom of Funan
dies out. 551: Bumin Khagan founded the Turkic Khaganate
Turkic Khaganate
in the Central Asia 552: Buddhism
Buddhism
introduced to Japan
Japan
from Baekje
Baekje
during the Asuka period. 553: Second Council of Constantinople 554: Eviction of the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
from Rome, and the re-unification of all Italy
Italy
under Byzantine rule. 561
561
to 592: Buddhist
Buddhist
monk Jnanagupta
Jnanagupta
translates 39 sutras from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to Chinese. 563: The monastery on Iona
Iona
is founded by St. Columba. 566: Birth of Lǐ Yuān, founder of the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
and Emperor
Emperor
of China
China
under the name of Gaozu (618-626) 568: Lombards
Lombards
invade Italy
Italy
and establish a federation of dukedoms under a king. 569: Nubian kingdom of Alodia
Alodia
converts to Christianity. 569: Nubian kingdom of Makuria
Makuria
converts to Christianity. 570: Birth of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. 574: The Byzantine empire is invaded by various Slavs, the Balkans are plundered by the Slavs. 577: China's Chen Dynasty
Chen Dynasty
invents matches. 579
579
to 590: Reign of Persian Shah
Shah
Hormizd IV. 582
582
to 602: Reign of Byzantine Emperor
Emperor
Maurice. 585: Suebian Kingdom conquered by Visigoths
Visigoths
in Spain. 587: Reccared, king of the Visigoths
Visigoths
in Spain, converts to Catholicism. 588: Shivadeva ascends the throne of the Lichchhavi dynasty in Nepal. 589: Third Council of Toledo adds the "filioque" clause to the Nicene Creed in Spain. 589: China
China
reunified under the Sui Dynasty
Sui Dynasty
( 589
589
– 618). 590: Gregory the Great succeeds Pope Pelagius II
Pope Pelagius II
(who dies of plague) as the 64th pope. 595: Pope Gregory sends Roman monks led by Augustine to England.

Significant people[edit]

Amalasuntha, (c. 495
495
– 534/535), Queen of the Ostrogoths, daughter of Theoderic the Great Arator, Christian poet from Liguria King Arthur, legendary British king and victor over the Anglo-Saxons

King Arthur

Aryabhata, Discoverer of Zero Augustine of Canterbury, Roman monk, missionary, and bishop B'alam Nehn, (504–544), was the 7th Ajaw
Ajaw
of Copan Belisarius, Byzantine general Benedict of Nursia, (480–547), Umbrian founder of Western Monasticism Beowulf, legendary king of the Geats Bodhidharma, founder of Chan Buddhism Boethius, (c. 480–525), Roman philosopher and theologian Bozorgmehr, Persian sage Caesarius of Arles, (468/470 – 542), Bishop and Theologian Cassiodorus, (c. 485 – c. 585), Roman senator and scholar Clovis I, (c. 466–511), first sole King of the Franks Columbanus, (540–615), Irish monk and missionary Dayi Daoxin, (580–651), fourth Chán
Chán
Buddhist
Buddhist
Patriarch Dazu Huike, (487–593), second Chán
Chán
Buddhist
Buddhist
Patriarch Ennodius, (473/4 – 521), Bishop of Pavia, poet Gregory the Great, (c. 540–604), theologian, sixty-fourth pope (590–604), and civil administrator of Rome Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
(c. 538–594), Frankish bishop and historian Hrodgar, legendary Danish king
Danish king
depicted in Beowulf Jianzhi Sengcan, (died 606), third Chán
Chán
Buddhist
Buddhist
Patriarch Jizang, (549–623), Buddhist
Buddhist
monk and scholar, founder of the Three Treatise School Jordanes, Byzantine author of the Getica Justinian, (527–565), Byzantine Emperor K'ak' Chan Yopaat
K'ak' Chan Yopaat
(578–628) 11th Ajaw
Ajaw
of Copan

Ajaw
Ajaw
K'ak' Chan Yopaat

Karaikkal Ammeiyar, one of few females among the 63 Nayanmars in early Tamil literature Khosrau I
Khosrau I
of Persia, Sassanid
Sassanid
Shah
Shah
(531–579) Leander of Seville, (c. 534–601), Spanish bishop and theologian Mohammad, Final Prophet of Islam, (born 570) Muhan Khan, Khagan
Khagan
of Göktürk Empire
Göktürk Empire
from (554–572) during which Sogdian influence reached its zenith Procopius, Byzantine historian Radegund
Radegund
(c. 520–587), Thuringian princess and Frankish queen, later nun and founder of Abbey of the Holy Cross, Poitiers Suiko, Japanese Empress Shōtoku Taishi, (573–621), Japanese statesman, philosopher, and writer of a 17-article constitution Sak-Lu (551–553) 9th Ajaw
Ajaw
of Copan Taliesin, Welsh poet Theodora, (c. 500–548), Byzantine empress, wife and counselor to Emperor
Emperor
Justinian
Justinian
I Theoderic the Great, (c. 454–526), King of Ostrogoths, King of Italy, regent of Visigoths, patricius of Roman Empire Tirunavukkarasar, (late 6th – mid-7th c.) Indian poet Tuun K'ab' Hix
Tuun K'ab' Hix
Ajaw
Ajaw
of The Kaan Kingdom (Calakmul) (520–546) Tzi-B'alam (553–578) 10th Ajaw
Ajaw
of Copan Uneh Chan, Maya Ajaw
Ajaw
of Kaan kingdom (Calakmul) Ruled AD 579–611. Symmachus (fl. 522–526) consul, praefectus urbi', father-in-law of Boethius Venantius Clemens Honoratus Fortunatus (c. 540
540
– 600/609), Venetian poet, traveler, bishop of Poitiers
Poitiers
(c. 599
599
– 600/609) Emperor
Emperor
Wen of Sui, founder and first emperor of Chinese Sui Dynasty Wil Ohl K'inich (532–551) 8th Ajaw
Ajaw
of Copan Xiao Yan, founding emperor of the Liang dynasty Yax Yopaat
Yax Yopaat
was a Maya Ajaw
Ajaw
of the Kaan kingdom (Calakmul), ruled AD 572–579

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

Dionysius Exiguus creates the Anno Domini
Anno Domini
system, inspired by the birth of Jesus, in 525. This is the system upon which the Gregorian calendar and Common Era
Common Era
systems are based. Backgammon
Backgammon
(nard) invented in Persia
Persia
by Burzoe. Chess, as chaturanga, entered Persia
Persia
from India
India
and was modified to shatranj. Breast-strap horse harness in use in Frankish kingdom. Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
acquires silk technology from China. Chen Dynasty
Chen Dynasty
from China
China
invents matches in 577. Silk
Silk
is a protected palace industry in the Byzantine Empire. Vaghbata, Indian medical books. In 589
589
AD, the Chinese scholar-official Yan Zhitui makes the first reference to the use of toilet paper in history. Significant to the history of agriculture, the Chinese author Jia Sixia wrote the treatise Qi Min Yao Shu in 535, and although it quotes 160 previous Chinese agronomy books, it is the oldest existent Chinese agriculture treatise. In over one hundred thousand written Chinese characters, the book covered land preparation, seeding, cultivation, orchard management, forestry, animal husbandry, trade, and culinary uses for crops.

References[edit]

^ Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.

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