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The Info List - 4 Wheel Drive


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Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, and is typically linked via a transfer case providing an additional output drive-shaft and, in many instances, additional gear ranges. A four-wheeled vehicle with torque supplied to both axles is described as "all-wheel drive" (AWD). However, "four-wheel drive" typically refers to a set of specific components and functions, and/or intended offroad application, which generally complies with modern use of the terminology.

Contents

1 Definitions

1.1 4×4 1.2 4WD 1.3 AWD 1.4 IWD 1.5 SAE Recommended Practices

2 Design

2.1 Differentials 2.2 Limiting slippage 2.3 Operating Modes

3 History

3.1 Late 1800s 3.2 1900s-1920s 3.3 1930s–1944 3.4 1945-1960s 3.5 1970s-1990s 3.6 2000-present

4 Uses

4.1 Road racing 4.2 In heavy trucks 4.3 In construction equipment

5 Terminology 6 Unusual systems 7 Introduction to off-roaders 8 Introduction to passenger cars 9 Systems by design type

9.1 Center differential with mechanical lock 9.2 Torsen
Torsen
center differential 9.3 Non-locking center differential 9.4 Multiple-clutch systems 9.5 Multi-plate clutch
Multi-plate clutch
coupling 9.6 Part-time

10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Definitions[edit] 4×4/4WD/AWD systems were developed in many different markets and used in many different vehicle platforms. There is no universally accepted set of terminology to describe the various architectures and functions.[1] The terms used by various manufacturers often reflect marketing rather than engineering considerations or significant technical differences between systems.[2][3] SAE International's standard J1952 recommends only the term All-Wheel-Drive with additional sub classifications which cover all types of AWD/4WD/4x4 systems found on production vehicles.[4] 4×4[edit] Four-by-four (4×4) refers to the general class of vehicles. The first figure represents the total wheels (more precisely, axle ends), and the second, the number that are powered. Syntactically, 4×2 means a four-wheel vehicle that transmits engine torque to only two axle-ends: the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive.[5] Alternatively, a 6×4 vehicle has three axles, two of which provide torque to two wheel ends each.

Center transfer case sending power from the transmission to the rear axle (right) and front axle (left)

4WD[edit] Four wheel drive (4WD) refers to vehicles with two axles providing torque to four wheel ends. In the North American market the term generally refers to a system that is optimized for off-road driving conditions.[6] The term "4WD" is typically designated for vehicles equipped with a transfer case which switches between 2WD and 4WD operating modes, either manually or automatically.[7] AWD[edit] Main article: AWD (vehicle) All wheel drive (AWD) historically was synonymous with "four-wheel drive" on four-wheeled vehicles, and six-wheel drive on 6×6s, and so on, being used in that fashion at least as early as the 1920s.[8][9] Today in North America the term is applied to both heavy vehicles as well as light passenger vehicles. When referring to heavy vehicles the term is increasingly applied to mean "permanent multiple-wheel drive" on 2×2, 4×4, 6×6 or 8×8
8×8
drive train systems that include a differential between the front and rear drive shafts.[10] This is often coupled with some sort of anti-slip technology, increasingly hydraulic-based, that allows differentials to spin at different speeds but still be capable of transferring torque from a wheel with poor traction to one with better. Typical AWD systems work well on all surfaces, but are not intended for more extreme off-road use.[10] When used to describe AWD systems in light passenger vehicles, it refers to a system that applies torque to all four wheels (permanently or on demand) and/or is targeted at improving on-road traction and performance (particularly in inclement conditions), rather than for off-road applications.[6] Some all wheel drive electric vehicles solve this challenge using one motor for each axle, thereby eliminating a mechanical differential between the front and rear axles. An example of this is the dual motor variant of the Tesla Model S, which on a millisecond scale can control the torque distribution electronically between its two motors.[11] IWD[edit] Individual-wheel drive (IWD) is used to describe electric vehicles with each wheel being driven by its own electric motor. This system essentially has inherent characteristics that would be generally attributed to four-wheel drive systems like the distribution of the available torque to the wheels. However, because of the inherent characteristics of electric motors, torque can be negative, as seen in the Rimac Concept One
Rimac Concept One
and SLS AMG Electric. This can have drastic effects, as in better handling in tight corners.[12] The term IWD can refer to a vehicle with any number of wheels. For example, the Mars rovers are 6-wheel IWD. SAE Recommended Practices[edit] Per the SAE International
SAE International
standard J1952, AWD is the preferred term for all the systems described above. The standard subdivides AWD systems into three categories.[4] Part-Time AWD systems require driver intervention to couple and decouple the secondary axle from the primarily driven axle and these systems do not have a center differential (or similar device). The definition notes that part-time systems may have a low range. Full-Time AWD systems drive both front and rear axles at all times via a center (inter-axle) differential. The torque split of that differential may be fixed or variable depending on the type of center differential. This system can be used on any surface at any speed. The definition does not address inclusion or exclusion of a low range gear. On-Demand AWD systems drive the secondary axle via an active or passive coupling device or "by an independently powered drive system". The standard notes that in some cases the secondary drive system may also provide the primary vehicle propulsion. An example is a hybrid AWD vehicle where the primary axle is driven by a internal combustion engine and secondary axle is driven by an electric motor. When the internal combustion engine is shut off the secondary, electrically driven axle is the only driven axle. On-demand systems function primarily with only one powered axle until torque is required by the second axle. At that point either a passive or active coupling sends torque to the secondary axle. In addition to the above primary classifications the J1952 standard notes secondary classifications resulting in a total of eight system designations:

Part-Time Non Synchro System Part-Time Synchro System Full-Time Fixed Torque
Torque
System Full-Time Variable Torque
Torque
Passive System Full-Time Variable Torque
Torque
Active System On-Demand Synchro Variable Torque
Torque
Passive System On-Demand Synchro Variable Torque
Torque
Active System On-Demand Independently Powered Variable Torque
Torque
Active System

Design[edit] Differentials[edit] Main article: Differential

The Lamborghini Murciélago
Lamborghini Murciélago
is an AWD that powers the front via a viscous coupling unit if the rear slips.

The HMMWV
HMMWV
is a 4WD/AWD that powers all wheels evenly (continuously) via a manually lockable center differential, with Torsen
Torsen
differentials for both front and rear.

Two wheels fixed to the same axle turn at the same speed as a vehicle goes around curves. This either forces one to slip, if possible, to balance the apparent distance covered, or creates uncomfortable and mechanically stressful wheel hop. To prevent this the wheels are allowed to turn at different speeds using a mechanical or hydraulic differential. This allows one driveshaft to independently drive two output shafts, axles that go from the differential to the wheel, at different speeds. The differential does this by distributing angular force (in the form of torque) evenly, while distributing angular velocity (turning speed) such that the average for the two output shafts is equal to that of the differential ring gear. When powered each axle requires a differential to distribute power between the left and right sides. When power is distributed to all four wheels a third or 'center' differential can be used to distribute power between the front and rear axles. The described system handles extremely well, as it is able to accommodate various forces of movement and distribute power evenly and smoothly, making slippage unlikely. Once it does slip, however, recovery is difficult. If the left front wheel of a 4WD vehicle slips on an icy patch of road, for instance, the slipping wheel will spin faster than the other wheels due to the lower traction at that wheel. Since a differential applies equal torque to each half-shaft, power is reduced at the other wheels, even if they have good traction. This problem can happen in both 2WD and 4WD vehicles, whenever a driven wheel is placed on a surface with little traction or raised off the ground. The simplistic design works acceptably well for 2WD vehicles. It is much less acceptable for 4WD vehicles, because 4WD vehicles have twice as many wheels with which to lose traction, increasing the likelihood that it may happen. 4WD vehicles may also be more likely to drive on surfaces with reduced traction. However, since torque is divided amongst four wheels rather than two, each wheel receives approximately half the torque of a 2WD vehicle, reducing the potential for wheel slip.

To prevent slippage from happening some vehicles have controls for independently locking center, front, and rear differentials

Limiting slippage[edit] Main article: Limited-slip differential
Limited-slip differential
(LSD) Many differentials have no way of limiting the amount of engine power that gets sent to its attached output shafts. As a result, if a tire loses traction on acceleration, either because of a low-traction situation (e.g., - driving on gravel or ice) or the engine power overcomes available traction, the tire that is not slipping receives little or no power from the engine. In very low traction situations, this can prevent the vehicle from moving at all. To overcome this, there are several designs of differentials that can either limit the amount of slip (these are called 'limited-slip' differentials) or temporarily lock the two output shafts together to ensure that engine power reaches all driven wheels equally. Locking differentials work by temporarily locking together a differential's output shafts, causing all wheels to turn at the same rate, providing torque in case of slippage. This is generally used for the center differential, which distributes power between the front and the rear axles. While a drivetrain that turns all wheels equally would normally fight the driver and cause handling problems, this is not a concern when wheels are slipping. The two most common factory-installed locking differentials use either a computer-controlled multi-plate clutch or viscous coupling unit to join the shafts, while other differentials more commonly used on off-road vehicles generally use manually operated locking devices. In the multi-plate clutch the vehicle's computer senses slippage and locks the shafts, causing a small jolt when it activates, which can disturb the driver or cause additional traction loss. In the viscous coupling differentials the shear stress of high shaft speed differences causes a dilatant fluid in the differential to become solid, linking the two shafts. This design suffers from fluid degradation with age and from exponential locking behavior.[citation needed] Some designs use gearing to create a small rotational difference that hastens torque transfer. A third approach to limiting slippage is taken by a Torsen differential. A Torsen
Torsen
differential allows the output shafts to receive different amounts of torque. This design does not provide for traction when one wheel is spinning freely, where there is no torque, but provides excellent handling in less extreme situations.[citation needed] A typical Torsen
Torsen
II differential can deliver up to twice as much torque to the high traction side before traction is exceeded at the lower traction side. A fairly recent innovation in automobiles is electronic traction control. Traction control typically uses a vehicle's braking system to slow a spinning wheel. This forced slowing emulates the function of a limited-slip differential, and, by using the brakes more aggressively to ensure wheels are being driven at the same speed, can also emulate a locking differential. It should be noted that this technique normally requires wheel sensors to detect when a wheel is slipping, and only activates when wheel slip is detected. Therefore, there is typically no mechanism to actively prevent wheel slip (i.e., you can't "lock the differential" in advance of wheel slip), rather the system is designed to expressly permit wheel slip to occur, and then attempt to send torque to the wheels with the best traction. If preventing all-wheel slip is a requirement, this is a limiting design. Operating Modes[edit] The architecture of an AWD/4WD system can be described by describing its possible operating modes.[1] A single vehicle may have the ability to operate in multiple modes depending on driver selection. Mohan describes the modes as follows:

Selection lever: 2H for two-wheel drive, 4H for high-range 4WD, 4L for low-range 4WD, and N for Neutral

Two Wheel Drive (2WD) Mode - In this mode only one axle (typically the rear axle) is driven. The drive to the other axle is disconnected. The operating torque split ratio is 0:100. Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
(4WD) Mode - Here, depending on the nature of torque transfer to the axles, we can define three sub-modes (below).

Part-time Mode - The front and rear axle drives are rigidly coupled in the transfer case. Since the driveline does not permit any speed differentiation between the axles and would cause driveline wind-up, this mode is recommended only for ‘part-time’ use in off-road or loose surface conditions where driveline wind-up is unlikely. Up to full torque could go to either axle depending on the road condition and the weight over the axles. Full-time Mode - Both axles are driven at all times but an inter-axle differential permits the axles to turn at different speeds as needed. This allows the vehicle to be driven ‘full-time’ in this mode, regardless of the road surface, without fear of driveline wind-up. With standard bevel gear differentials the torque split is 50:50. Planetary differentials can provide asymmetric torque splits as needed. A system that operates permanently in the full-time mode is sometimes called ‘All-the-Time 4WD’, 'All-Wheel-Drive' or ‘AWD’. If the inter-axle differential is locked out then the mode reverts to a ‘part-time mode’. On-Demand Mode - In this mode the transfer case operates primarily in the 2WD mode. Torque
Torque
is transferred to the secondary axle as needed by modulating the transfer clutch from ‘open’ to a rigidly coupled state while avoiding any driveline wind-up. The torque modulation may be achieved by active electronic/hydraulic control systems, or by passive devices, based on wheel slip or wheel torque, as described in the section on traction control systems.

In addition to these basic modes there could be implementations that combine these modes. The system could have a clutch across the center differential, for example, capable of modulating the front axle torque from a Full-time mode with the 30:70 torque split of the center differential to the 0:100 torque split of the 2WD mode History[edit]

The Lohner-Porsche
Lohner-Porsche
Mixte Hybrid was both the world's first hybrid vehicle, and the first four-wheel drive without a steam-engine

The 1903 Spyker
Spyker
60-HP was the world's first 4WD, that was directly powered by an internal combustion engine, and the first 4WD race-car.

Late 1800s[edit] In 1893, before the establishment of a modern automotive industry in Britain, English engineer Bramah Joseph Diplock
Bramah Joseph Diplock
patented a four-wheel-drive system for a steam-powered traction engine,[13] including four-wheel steering and three differentials, which was subsequently built. The development also incorporated Bramah's Pedrail wheel system in what was one of the first four-wheel-drive automobiles to display an intentional ability to travel on challenging road surfaces. It stemmed from Bramagh's previous idea of developing an engine that would reduce the amount of damage to public roads. Ferdinand Porsche
Ferdinand Porsche
designed and built a four-wheel-driven electric vehicle for the k. u. k. Hofwagenfabrik Ludwig Lohner & Co. in Vienna in 1899, presented to the public during the 1900 World Exhibition in Paris. The vehicle was a series hybrid car, that used an electric hub motor at each wheel, powered by batteries, which were in turn charged by a gasoline-engine generator.[14][15] It was clumsily heavy and due to its unusual status the so-called Lohner-Porsche
Lohner-Porsche
is not frequently given its credit as the first four-wheel-driven automobile. 1900s-1920s[edit]

The Jeffery / Nash Quad was the world's first 4WD vehicles produced in five-figure numbers (1913–1928).

The world's first four-wheel drive car directly powered by an internal combustion engine, and the first with a front-engine, four-wheel-drive layout was the Dutch Spyker
Spyker
60 H.P. Commissioned for the Paris to Madrid race of 1903, it was presented that year by brothers Jacobus and Hendrik-Jan Spijker of Amsterdam.[16][17] The two-seat sports car featured permanent four-wheel drive and was also the first car ever equipped with a six-cylinder engine, as well as four-wheel braking. Later used as a hill-climb racer, it is now an exhibit in the Louwman Museum (the former Nationaal Automobiel Museum) in the Hague, the Netherlands.[18] Designs for four-wheel drive in America came from the Twyford Company of Brookville, Pennsylvania
Brookville, Pennsylvania
in 1905, six were made there around 1906; one still exists and is displayed annually.[19] The Reynolds-Alberta Museum has a four-wheel-drive vehicle, named "Michigan", from 1905 in an unrestored storage. The first four-wheel drive vehicles to go into mass-production were built by (what became) the American Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Auto Company (FWD) of Wisconsin, founded in 1908 [20] (not to be confused with the term "FWD" as an acronym for front-wheel drive). Along with the 2-ton Nash Quad (see below), the 3-ton FWD Model B became a standard military four-wheel-drive truck for the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
in World War I. Some 16,000 FWD Model B trucks were built for the British and American armies during World War I – about half by FWD and the rest by other licensed manufacturers. Only about 20 percent of the trucks built were four-wheel-drives, but the 4x4s were more often on the front lines.[21][22] Approximately 11,500 of the Jeffery / Nash Quad trucks were built for similar use between 1913 and 1919. The Quad not only came with four-wheel drive and four-wheel brakes, but also featured four-wheel steering.[22] The Quad was one of the first successful four-wheel drive vehicles ever to be made, and its production continued for 15 years with a total of 41,674 units made by 1928.[23] Daimler-Benz
Daimler-Benz
also has a history in four-wheel drive. After the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft had built a four-wheel-driven vehicle called Dernburg-Wagen, also equipped with four-wheel steering, in 1907, that was used by German colonial civil servant, Bernhard Dernburg, in Namibia; Mercedes and BMW, in 1926, introduced some rather sophisticated four-wheel drives, the G1, the G4 and G4 following. Mercedes and BMW
BMW
developed this further in 1937. 1930s–1944[edit] The American Marmon-Herrington
Marmon-Herrington
Company was founded in 1931 to serve a growing market for moderately priced four-wheel-drive vehicles. Marmon-Herrington
Marmon-Herrington
specialized in converting Ford
Ford
trucks to four-wheel drive and got off to a successful start by procuring contracts for military aircraft refueling trucks, 4×4 chassis for towing light weaponry,[24] commercial aircraft refueling trucks, and an order from the Iraqi Pipeline Company for what were the largest trucks ever built at the time. Dodge
Dodge
developed its first four-wheel drive truck in 1934 — a military 1½ ton designated K-39-X-4(USA), of which 796 units were built for the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
in several configurations.[25] Timken supplied front axles and transfer-cases, added to militarized a civilian truck. The Timken transfer case was the first part-time design,[26] that allowed the driver to engage or disengage four-wheel drive using a lever inside the cabin.[27][28] In spite of the limited 1930s U.S. military budgets, the ’34 truck was liked well-enough that a more modern 1½ tonner was developed, and 1,700 RF-40-X-4(USA) trucks were produced in 1938, and 292 TF-40-X-4(USA) in 1939.[29][25] Starting in 1936, Japanese company Tokyu Kurogane Kogyo
Tokyu Kurogane Kogyo
built approximately 4,700 four-wheel-drive roadsters, called the Kurogane Type 95 reconnaissance car, used by the Imperial Japanese Army from 1937 until 1944, during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Three different bodystyles were manufactured; a 2-door roadster, a 2-door pickup truck and a 4-door phaeton, all equipped with a transfer case that engaged the front wheels, powered by a 1.3 litre, 2-cylinder, air-cooled OHV V-twin engine.[30] The 1937 Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
G5 and BMW
BMW
325 4×4 featured full-time four-wheel drive, four-wheel steering, three locking differentials, and fully independent suspension. They were produced because of a government demand for a four-wheel-drive passenger vehicle. The modern G-series/Wolf such as the G500 and G55 AMG still feature some of the attributes, with the exception of fully independent suspension since it can compromise ground clearance. The Unimog
Unimog
is also a result of Mercedes 4x4 technology. The first Russian produced four-wheel-drive vehicle, also in part for civilian use, was the GAZ-61, developed in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1938. "Civilian use" may be a bit of a misnomer, as most if not all were used by the Soviet government and military (as command cars), but the GAZ-61-73 version is the first four-wheel drive vehicle with a normal closed sedan body. Elements of the chassis were used in subsequent military vehicles such as the 1940 GAZ-64
GAZ-64
and the 1943 GAZ-67, as well as the post-war GAZ-69, and the properly civilian GAZ-M-72, based on the rear-wheel drive GAZ-20 "Victory" and built from 1955-1958. Soviet civilian life did not allow the proliferation of civilian products such as the Jeep
Jeep
in North America, but through the 1960s the technology of Soviet 4×4 vehicles stayed on par with British, German, and American models, even exceeding it in some aspects, and for military purposes just as actively developed, produced and used. It was not until "go-anywhere" vehicles were needed for the military on a large scale, that four-wheel drive found its place. The World War II Jeep, originally developed by American Bantam
American Bantam
but mass-produced by Willys
Willys
and Ford, became the best-known four-wheel-drive vehicle in the world during the war.[31] 1945-1960s[edit] Willys
Willys
introduced the model CJ-2A in 1945, the first full-production four-wheel-drive vehicle for sale in the general marketplace. Thanks to the ubiquitous World War II jeep's success, its rugged utilitarianism set the pattern for many four-wheel drive vehicles to come.[32] The similarly boxy, also inline-4 powered Land Rover
Land Rover
appeared at the Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Motor Show in 1948. Originally conceived as a stop-gap product for the struggling Rover car company, despite chronic under-investment it succeeded far better than the passenger cars. Inspired by a Willys MB
Willys MB
– the ubiquitous WWII “jeep” – that was frequently run off-road on the farm belonging to chief engineer Maurice Wilks, Land Rover
Land Rover
developed the more refined yet still off-road capable luxury 4WD Range Rover
Range Rover
in the 1970s. With the acquisition of the "Jeep" name in 1950 Willys
Willys
had cornered the brand. Its successor, Kaiser Jeep, introduced a revolutionary 4WD wagon called the Wagoneer in 1963. Not only was it technically innovative, with independent front suspension and the first automatic transmission coupled to 4WD, it was equipped and finished as a regular passenger automobile.[33] In effect, it was the ancestor of the modern SUV. The luxury Rambler or Buick
Buick
V8s powered Super Wagoneer produced from 1966 to 1969 raised the bar even higher. Jensen applied the Formula Ferguson (FF) full-time all-wheel-drive system to 318 units of their Jensen FF
Jensen FF
built from 1966 to 1971, marking the first time 4WD was used in a production GT sports car.[34] While most 4WD systems split torque evenly, the Jensen split torque roughly 40% front, 60% rear by gearing the front and rear at different ratios. 1970s-1990s[edit] American Motors
American Motors
(AMC) acquired Kaiser's Jeep
Jeep
Division in 1970 and quickly upgraded and expanded the entire line of off-road 4WD vehicles. With its added roadworthiness, the top range full-size Grand Wagoneer continued to compete with traditional luxury cars.[35] Partially hand-built, it was relatively unchanged during its production through 1991, even after Chrysler's buyout of AMC. Subaru
Subaru
introduced the category-expanding Leone in 1972, an inexpensive compact station wagon with a light-duty, part-time four-wheel drive system that could not be engaged on dry pavement. In September AMC introduced Quadra Trac full-time AWD for the 1973 model year Jeep Cherokee and Wagoneer.[36] Thanks to full-time AWD, which relieved the driver of getting out to lock hubs and having to manually select between 2WD and 4WD modes, it dominated all other makes in FIA rally competition. Gene Henderson and Ken Pogue won the Press-on-Regardless Rally FIA championship with a Quadra Trac equipped Jeep
Jeep
in 1972.[37]

1969 Jensen FF, world's first 4WD in a production GT sports car

1987 AWD AMC Eagle
AMC Eagle
wagon, the most popular model in the line

1981 AMC Eagle
AMC Eagle
AWD convertible

American Motors
American Motors
introduced the innovative Eagle for the 1980 model year.[38] These were the first American mass production cars to use the complete front-engine, four-wheel drive system.[39] The AMC Eagle was offered as a sedan, coupe, and station wagon with permanent automatic all-wheel-drive passenger models. The new Eagles combined Jeep
Jeep
technology with an existing and proven AMC passenger automobile platform. They ushered a whole new product category of "sport-utility" or crossover SUV. AMC's Eagles came with the comfort and high-level appointments expected of regular passenger models and used the off-road technology for an extra margin of safety and traction.[40] The Eagle's thick viscous fluid center differential provided quiet and smooth transfer of power that was directed proportionally to the axle with the greatest traction. This was a true full-time system operating only in four-wheel drive without undue wear on suspension or driveline components. There was no low range in the transfer case. This became the forerunner of the designs that followed from other manufacturers.[41] The automobile press at the time tested the traction of the Eagles and described it as far superior to the Subaru's and that it could beat many so-called off-road vehicles. Four Wheeler magazine concluded that the AMC Eagle
AMC Eagle
was "The beginning of a new generation of cars."[42] The Eagles were popular (particularly in the snowbelt), had towing capacity, and came in several equipment levels including sport and luxury trims. Two additional models were added in 1981, the sub-compact SX/4 and Kammback. A manual transmission and a front axle-disconnect feature were also made available for greater fuel economy. During 1981 and 1982 a unique convertible was added to the line. The Eagle's monocoque body was reinforced for the conversion and had a steel targa bar with a removable fiberglass roof section.[43] The Eagle station wagon remained in production for one model year after Chrysler
Chrysler
acquired AMC in 1987. Audi
Audi
also introduced a permanently all-wheel-driven road-going car, the Audi
Audi
Quattro, in 1980. Audi's chassis engineer, Jörg Bensinger, had noticed in winter tests in Scandinavia that a vehicle used by the German Army, the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Iltis, could beat any high-performance Audi. He proposed developing a four-wheel-drive car, that would also be used for rallying to improve Audi's conservative image. The Audi Quattro system became a feature on production cars. In 1987, Toyota
Toyota
also developed a car built for competition in rally campaigns.[44] A limited number of road-going FIA Homologation Special Vehicle Celica GT-Four (known as Toyota
Toyota
Celica All-Trac
All-Trac
Turbo in North America) were produced. The All-Trac
All-Trac
system was later available on serial production Toyota
Toyota
Camry, Toyota
Toyota
Corolla, and Toyota
Toyota
Previa models. Some of the earliest mid-engined four-wheel-drive cars were the various road-legal rally cars made for Group B
Group B
homologation, such as the Ford
Ford
RS200 made from 1984 to 1986. In 1989, niche maker Panther Westwinds created a mid-engined four-wheel-drive, the Panther Solo
Panther Solo
2. 2000-present[edit] In the United States, as of late 2013, AWD vehicles comprised 32 per cent of new light vehicle sales, up five per cent since 2008.[45] This is in large part due to the popularity of the crossover.[45] Most crossovers offer the popular technology, in spite of it increasing vehicle price and fuel consumption.[46] Car
Car
manufacturers have inundated consumers with marketing proclaiming AWD as a safety feature, although the advantage of AWD over FWD is in accelerating, not braking or steering.[47] Tests have shown that though AWD gives improved acceleration in wintery conditions, it does not help with braking.[48] In 2008, Nissan
Nissan
introduced the GT-R featuring a rear-mounted transaxle. The AWD system requires two drive shafts, one main shaft from the engine to the transaxle and differential and a second drive shaft from the transaxle to the front wheels.[49] Uses[edit] Road racing[edit] Spyker
Spyker
is credited with building and racing the first ever four-wheel drive racing car, the Spyker
Spyker
60 HP in 1903.[50][17] Bugatti
Bugatti
created a total of three four-wheel-drive racers, the Type 53, in 1932, but the cars were notorious for having poor handling. Miller produced the first 4WD car to qualify for the Indianapolis 500, the 1938 Miller Gulf Special. Ferguson Research Ltd.
Ferguson Research Ltd.
built the front-engine P99 Formula One
Formula One
car that actually won a non-World Championship race with Stirling Moss
Stirling Moss
in 1961. In 1968, Team Lotus
Team Lotus
raced cars in the Indy 500
Indy 500
and three years later in Formula 1 with the Lotus 56, that had both turbine engines and 4WD, as well as the 1969 4WD-Lotus 63 that had the standard 3-litre V8 Ford Cosworth
Cosworth
engine. Matra also raced a similar MS84, and McLaren entered their M9A in the British Grand Prix, while engine manufacturers Ford- Cosworth
Cosworth
produced their own version which was tested but never raced. All these F1 cars were considered inferior to their RWD counterparts, as the advent of aerodynamic downforce meant that adequate traction could be obtained in a lighter and more mechanically efficient manner, and the idea was discontinued, even though Lotus tried repeatedly. Nissan
Nissan
and Audi
Audi
had success with all-wheel drive in road racing with the former's advent of the Nissan
Nissan
Skyline GT-R in 1989. So successful was the car that it dominated the Japanese circuit for the first years of production, going on to bigger and more impressive wins in Australia before weight penalties eventually levied a de facto ban on the car. Most controversially was the win pulled off at the 1990 Macau Grand Prix where the car led from start to finish. Audi's dominance in the Trans-Am Series
Trans-Am Series
in 1988 was equally controversial as it led to a weight penalty mid season and to a rule revision banning all-AWD cars, its dominance in Super Touring
Super Touring
eventually led to a FIA ban on AWD system in 1998. New 2011 24 Hours of Le Mans
2011 24 Hours of Le Mans
regulations may revive AWD/4WD in road racing, though such systems are only allowed in new hybrid-powered Le Mans Prototypes.[51] One example is the Audi
Audi
R18 e-tron quattro (winner of 2012 race, the first ever hybrid/4WD to win Le Mans), utilizing an electric motor in the front axle while combining the engine motor in the rear.[52] In heavy trucks[edit] Medium-duty trucks and Heavy-duty trucks have recently adopted 4×4 drive-trains. 4×4 medium-duty trucks became common after Ford
Ford
Motor Company began selling Ford
Ford
Super Duty trucks. The Super Duty trucks shared many parts between the light duty and medium duty, reducing production costs. The Dana 60
Dana 60
front axle is used on both medium- and light-duty Super Duty trucks. Furthermore, the Big Three share/shared parts between the companies reducing costs. The Dana S 110
Dana S 110
is currently being used for the rear drive, under Ford
Ford
and Ram's medium-duty trucks. The Dana 110 was also used on the General Motors 4×4s as well. Ram Trucks
Ram Trucks
began selling medium-duty trucks, 4×4 and 4×2, in 2008. General Motors
General Motors
sold a 4×4 for model years 2005-2009.

GM 4×4 medium-duty trucks

Heavy duty International Workstar

Ford
Ford
medium-duty 4×4 drive train

In construction equipment[edit]

A Case backhoe loader with 4WD

Volvo
Volvo
introduced the Model 646 four-wheel drive backhoe loader in 1977.[53] Case Corporation followed suit in the U.S. in 1987.[citation needed] Terminology[edit] In engineering terms, "four-wheel drive" designates a vehicle with power delivered to four wheel ends spread over at least two axles. The term 4×4 (pronounced four by four) was in use to describe North American military four-wheel-drive vehicles as early as the 1940s,[54] with the first number indicating the number of wheel ends on a vehicle and the second indicating the number of driven wheels. Trucks with dual tires on the rear axle and two driven axles are designated as 4×4s despite having six wheels because the paired rear wheels behave as a single wheel for traction and classification purposes. True 6×6 vehicles which have three powered axles, and are classified as 6×6s regardless of how many wheels they have. Examples of these with two rear, one front axle are the 6-wheeled Pinzgauer, which is popular with defense forces around the globe, and 10-wheeled GMC CCKW
GMC CCKW
made famous by the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
in World War II. 4-wheeler
4-wheeler
(or four-wheeler) is a related term applying to all-terrain vehicles, and not to be confused with four-wheel drive. The "four" in the instance referring to the vehicle having four wheels, not necessarily all driven. Unusual systems[edit] Prompted by a perceived need for a simple, inexpensive all-terrain vehicle for oil exploration in North Africa, the French motor manufacturer Citroën
Citroën
developed the 2CV Sahara in 1958. Unlike other 4×4 vehicles which use a conventional transfer case to drive the front and rear axle, the Sahara had two engines, each independently driving a separate axle, with the rear engine facing backwards. The two throttles, clutches and gear change mechanisms could be linked, so the two 12 hp (9 kW) 425 cc (26 cu in) engines could run together, or they could be split and the car driven solely by either engine. Combined with twin fuel tanks and twin batteries (which could be set up to run either or both engines), the redundancy of two separate drive trains meant that they could make it back to civilization even after major mechanical failures. Only around 700 of these cars were built, and only 27 are known to exist today.[55] BMC experimented with a twin-engine Mini Moke
Mini Moke
(dubbed the "Twini Moke") in the mid-1960s, but never put it into production. This made advantage of the Mini's 'power pack' layout, with a transverse engine and the gearbox in the engine sump. Simply by fitting a second engine/gearbox unit across the rear, a rudimentary 4×4 system could be produced. Early prototypes had separate gear levers and clutch systems for each engine. Later versions sent for evaluation by the British Army
British Army
had more user-friendly linked systems. In 1965, A. J. M. Chadwick patented a 4WD system, GB 1113068, that used hemispherical wheels for an all-terrain vehicle. Twenty years later, B. T. E. Warne, patented, GB 2172558, an improvement on Chadwick's design that did not use differential gear assemblies. By using near-spherical wheels with provision to tilt and turn each wheel co-ordinatively, the driven wheels maintain constant traction. Furthermore, all driven wheels steer and, as pairing of wheels is not necessary, vehicles with an odd number of wheels are possible without affecting the system's integrity. Progressive deceleration is made possible by dynamically changing the front-to-rear effective wheel diameter ratios. Suzuki Motors
Suzuki Motors
introduced the Suzuki Escudo
Suzuki Escudo
Pikes Peak Edition in 1996. Earlier Suzuki
Suzuki
versions were twin engined, from 1996 on the engine is a twin-turbocharged 2.0 L V6, mated to a sequential 6-speed manual transmission. Nissan
Nissan
Motors has developed a system called E-4WD. It is designed for cars that are normally front-wheel drive; however, the rear wheels are powered by electric motors. This system was introduced in some variants of the Nissan
Nissan
Cube and Tiida. (This is similar to the system used on the Ford
Ford
Escape Hybrid AWD.[56]) Chrysler's Jeep
Jeep
Division debuted the twin engine, 670 hp (500 kW) Jeep
Jeep
Hurricane concept at the 2005 North American International Auto Show in Detroit. This vehicle has a unique "crab crawl" capability, which allows it to rotate 360° in place. This is accomplished by driving the left wheels as a pair and right wheels as a pair, as opposed to driving the front and rear pairs. A central gearbox allows one side to drive in the opposite direction to the other. It also has dual Hemi V8s. Some hybrid vehicles such as the Lexus
Lexus
RX400h provide power to an AWD system through a pair of electric motors, one to the front wheels and one to the rear. In the case of the AWD model version of the Lexus RX400h (and its Toyota-branded counterpart, the Harrier hybrid), the front wheels can also receive drive power directly from the vehicle's gasoline engine as well as via the electric motors, whereas the rear wheels derive power only from the second electric motor. Transfer of power is managed automatically by internal electronics based on traction conditions and need, making this an all-wheel-drive system. The 4RM system used in the Ferrari FF
Ferrari FF
in 2011 is unique in that it has a rear transaxle with secondary front transaxle connected directly to the engine. The car operates primarily as a rear wheel drive vehicle. Clutches in the front transaxle engage when the rear wheels slip. Drive to the front wheels is transmitted through two infinitely-variable clutch packs which are allowed to 'slip' to give the required road wheel speeds. The front transaxle has three gears, two forward, and reverse. The two forward gears of the front transmission match the lower four forward gears of the rear transmission. It is not used in higher gears. The connection between this gearbox and each front wheel is via independent haldex-type clutches, without a differential. Due to the difference in ratios the clutches continually slip and only transmit, at most, 20% of the engine's torque.[57] Introduction to off-roaders[edit]

Year Manufacturer Model/Series Mass Military

1941 GAZ GAZ-64

x

1941 Willys-Overland Willys
Willys
MA/MB

x

1941 Volkswagen Typ 128 Schwimmwagen

x

1945 Willys CJ-2A x

1946 Dodge Power Wagon

x

1947 Jeep Willys
Willys
truck x

1948 Ford F-series x

1948 Rover Land Rover
Land Rover
Series x

1951 Alfa Romeo Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Matta

x

1951 Austin Motor Company Austin Champ

x

1951 Fiat Fiat
Fiat
Campagnola

x

1951 Nissan Nissan
Nissan
Patrol x

1954 Toyota Land Cruiser x

1956 Auto Union DKW Munga

x

1963 Kaiser Jeep Wagoneer (SJ) x

1968 Suzuki Lj10 x

1970 British Leyland Range Rover x

1972 UAZ UAZ-469

x

1976 Lada Lada
Lada
Niva x

1979 Mercedes-Benz G-Class x

1982 Mitsubishi Pajero x

Introduction to passenger cars[edit]

Year Manufacturer Model/Series Mass Small series

1938 GAZ GAZ-61

x (238)

1955 GAZ GAZ
GAZ
M-72

x (4677 units)

1966 Jensen Jensen FF

x (320 units)

1972 Subaru Subaru
Subaru
Leone x

1980 American Motors AMC Eagle x

1980 Audi Audi
Audi
Quattro x

1982 Renault Renault
Renault
18 Combi 4×4 x

1983 Fiat Fiat
Fiat
Panda 4×4 x

1984 Alfa Romeo Alfa 33
Alfa 33
4×4 x

1984 Mitsubishi Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Cordia 4WD Turbo x

1984 Volkswagen Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Passat Syncro x

1984 Peugeot Peugeot
Peugeot
205 T16

x (200 units)

1985 BMW BMW
BMW
325iX x

1985 Lancia Lancia
Lancia
Delta HF 4WD x

1985 Mazda Mazda
Mazda
323 4WD x

1985 Suzuki Suzuki
Suzuki
Samurai x

1986 Toyota Toyota
Toyota
Celica GT-Four All-Trac
All-Trac
Turbo x

1986 Ford Ford
Ford
RS200

x (220 units)

1987 Mercedes-Benz Mercedes W124 4MATIC x

1987 Porsche Porsche
Porsche
959

x (292 units)

1988 Opel Opel
Opel
Vectra 4×4 x

1988 Pontiac Pontiac
Pontiac
6000 STE AWD x

1989 Citroën Citroën
Citroën
BX x

1990 Chevrolet Chevrolet Astro
Chevrolet Astro
Full-time AWD

x

1991 Lamborghini Lamborghini
Lamborghini
Diablo VT

x

1991 Bugatti Bugatti
Bugatti
EB110

x (ca. 300 units)

1992 Fiat Tempra 4×4 x

1997 Volvo 850 AWD x

2001 Jaguar Jaguar X-Type x

2008 Saab Saab 9-3
Saab 9-3
Turbo X x

2010 Dacia Dacia Duster x

2011 Ferrari Ferrari
Ferrari
FF

x (ca. 800 units)

Systems by design type[edit] Center differential with mechanical lock[edit]

Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
164 Q4 (central viscous coupling, epicyclic unit and Torsen rear differential) Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
155 Q4 (central epicyclic unit, Ferguson viscous coupling and Torsen
Torsen
rear differential) AMC Eagle
AMC Eagle
(central viscous coupling) Audi
Audi
- Quattro Coupé, 80, 90, 100 & 200 (locking center and rear differentials) - up to 1987 Audi
Audi
Q7 -double pinion 50/50 with lockup clutch pack BMW
BMW
3 series and 5 series in the 1980s - planetary center differential with a 37-63 (front-back) torque split and viscous lock (also in rear differential but not front differential) Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Rounded-Line K Fleetside, K Stepside, K Blazer, and K Suburban - permanent four-wheel drive (1973-1979) two-speed New Process 203 transfer case, center differential with 50:50 torque split and lock. An Eaton Automatic Differential Lock was optional for the rear hypoid differential. Ford
Ford
- Escort (RS 2000 16v 4×4 models and RS Cosworth), Sierra Cosworth, Sierra and Granada 4×4 models, Dodge
Dodge
Power Wagon - permanent four-wheel drive (1974-1979) two-speed New Process
New Process
203 transfer case, center differential with 50:50 torque split and lock. Ford
Ford
Expedition (1997–present) and Expedition EL/Max (2007–present) - automatic ControlTrac four-wheel drive with two-speed dual range BorgWarner
BorgWarner
transfer case and intelligent locking center multi-disc differential Ford
Ford
Explorer (1995–2010) - automatic ControlTrac four-wheel drive with two-speed dual range BorgWarner
BorgWarner
transfer case and intelligent locking center multi-disc differential Ford
Ford
F-Series - permanent four-wheel drive (1974-1979) two-speed New Process 203 transfer case, center differential with 50:50 torque split and lock. GMC Rounded-Line K Wideside, K Fenderside, K Jimmy, and K Suburban - permanent four-wheel drive (1973-1979) two-speed New Process
New Process
203 transfer case, center planetary differential with 50:50 torque split and lock. An Eaton Automatic Differential Lock was optional for the rear hypoid differential. H1 & Humvee
Humvee
NVG 242HD AMG open center differential, locked center differential, Neutral, low range locked. Also Torsen1 differential at the front and rear axle, The H1 moved to Torsen2 when ABS was added. The H1 Alpha had optional locking differentials in place of torsens Hummer H2, H3 40/60 planetary with lock Jeep
Jeep
Grand Cherokee, Commander (except models equipped with Quadra-Trac
Quadra-Trac
I) Jeep
Jeep
Liberty, Jeep
Jeep
Cherokee (XJ), Dodge
Dodge
Durango (Select-Trac) - NV 242 transfer case- rear drive, open center differential, locked center differential, Neutral, low range Full size Jeeps with Borg Warner QuadraTrac: limited slip center differential, 50/50 locked center differential. Low range could be used in locked or unlocked mode, allowing for use of low range on pavement. Land Rover
Land Rover
Defender (and Series III V8 models) Land Rover
Land Rover
Discovery/LR3 Land Rover
Land Rover
Freelander Lada
Lada
Niva (VAZ-2121) - full-time 4WD using open center differential. Transfer case
Transfer case
with high/low range and manual central diff lock. Low range selectable in locked or unlocked mode, allowing use on pavement. Lexus
Lexus
RX300 -viscous coupling across the otherwise open center differential. Lincoln Navigator
Lincoln Navigator
(1998–2006) - automatic ControlTrac four-wheel drive with two-speed dual range BorgWarner
BorgWarner
transfer case and intelligent locking center multi-disc differential

Navigator and Navigator L (2007–present) use one-speed single range transfer case, no reduction gearing

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Unimog
Unimog
(locking center and rear with up to 10 low range gears). Mercedes-Benz G-Class
Mercedes-Benz G-Class
(locking center and lockers on both front- and rear axle) Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
GL-Class - 4Matic
4Matic
all-wheel-drive system Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Pajero (also known as Montero or Shogun) Porsche
Porsche
Cayenne - 38/62 planetary with lockup clutch pack Range Rover
Range Rover
Classic 1970–1995 all full-time 4WD either plate LSD, manual lock or Ferguson viscous centre differential. Range Rover
Range Rover
2nd Gen. 1994–2002 full-time 4WD Ferguson viscous centre differential Suzuki
Suzuki
Grand Vitara/Escudo (2005 and later models, excepting the XL-7) -full-time 4WD using limited-slip center differential, off-road 4WD with selectable center differential lock and low range transfer case 4 mode (4h, 4h lock, 4l n), traction control and electronic stability control Subaru
Subaru
- manual transmissions come with 50/50 viscous-type center differential; performance models include a planetary differential with computer regulated lockup; automatic transmission models have an electronically controlled variable transfer clutch. Toyota
Toyota
Land Cruiser Toyota
Toyota
Sequoia (Multi-mode) Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Touareg -double pinion 50/50 with lockup clutch pack

Torsen
Torsen
center differential[edit]

Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Q4s - with ( Torsen
Torsen
T-3):

156 Crosswagon and Sportwagon 159 Brera, Spider

Audis with quattro - various iterations of Torsen, the T-3 starting from the 2007 B7 RS4

80, 90 & Coupé
Coupé
(Typ 89) 100 & 200 A4, S4, RS4 A5 & S5 A6, S6, RS6 A8, S8 Q5, Q7

Bentley Continental GT, Bentley Continental Flying Spur (2005) initially Torsen
Torsen
T-2, current have T-3 Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Trailblazer SS Torsen
Torsen
T-3 Lexus
Lexus
GX470, Toyota
Toyota
Land Cruiser Prado 120 Torsen
Torsen
T-3 Range Rover
Range Rover
3rd Gen. 2002–2009 Toyota
Toyota
4Runner (only Limited V8 model & 2010 Limited V6 model) Torsen
Torsen
T-3 with lock Toyota
Toyota
FJ Cruiser (only manual models) Torsen
Torsen
T-3 with lock Toyota
Toyota
Hilux Surf Torsen
Torsen
T-3 with lock Toyota
Toyota
Land Cruiser 200/2008/V8 Torsen
Torsen
T-3 with lock Toyota
Toyota
Sequoia (North America) (only 2005-07 Models) Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Passenger Cars with 4motion:

Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Passat Torsen
Torsen
T-2 (B5.5 model, not latest B6 model with transverse engine) Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Phaeton Torsen
Torsen
T-2

Non-locking center differential[edit]

BMW
BMW
3-series and X5 between 2001 and xDrive - planetary center differential with permanent 38-62 (front-back) torque split # Cadillac Escalade, STS AWD, SRX AWD (The first two generations had a viscous clutch on the center differential) # Chrysler
Chrysler
300C AWD# Dodge
Dodge
Ramcharger 1974–1981 - NP203 FullTime 4WD Transfer Case Dodge
Dodge
Magnum, Charger AWD # GMC Yukon Denali, XL Denali, Sierra Denali # Mercedes 4MATIC
4MATIC
cars, R class, and ML class (note some MLs had low range) # Plymouth Trailduster 1974–1981 - NP203 FullTime 4WD Transfer Case Toyota
Toyota
Highlander # Toyota
Toyota
Sienna AWD (-2010 only) #

The above systems ending with "#" function by selectively using the traction control system (via ABS) to brake a slipping wheel. Multiple-clutch systems[edit]

Acura
Acura
RL, RDX (SH-AWD) Right and left axle shaft Acura
Acura
MDX SH-AWD & VTM4 Ford
Ford
Explorer - Ford's full-time shift-on-the-fly Intelligent 4WD System (I-4WD) on the 2011 Explorer with Terrain Management System and RSC (Roll Stability Control), Curve Control functionality, HDC (Hill Descent Control) and HAA (Hill Ascent Assist).[58][59] Honda
Honda
Ridgeline Honda
Honda
Pilot Infiniti FX
Infiniti FX
( ATTESA E-TS) Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
1st generation 4MATIC
4MATIC
(normally rear-drive, automatic clutch in transfer case engages 4WD on demand) Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
GTO MR/3000GT VR-4 Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Lancer Evolution Series S-AWC 2010 Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Outlander GT S-AWC Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Outlander (2003–2006) independent front and rear axle coupling, and Active Center Differential. Nissan GT-R
Nissan GT-R
( ATTESA E-TS) Nissan
Nissan
Skyline GT-R ( ATTESA E-TS and ATTESA E-TS-PRO) front axle coupling, rear differential locking Nissan
Nissan
Skyline GTS4 ( ATTESA E-TS) Nissan
Nissan
A31 Cefiro SE4 ( ATTESA E-TS) Porsche
Porsche
959 PSK front axle coupling, rear differential locking Saab 9-3, Saab 9-5, Saab 9-4X
Saab 9-4X
(Saab XWD).

Multi-plate clutch
Multi-plate clutch
coupling[edit]

Audi
Audi
A3 quattro, Audi
Audi
S3, Audi
Audi
TT quattro, Audi
Audi
R8 (with Haldex Traction) BMW
BMW
xDrive: latest 3 Series, latest 5 series, X3, latest X5 series Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Equinox (GMPCA) Chrysler
Chrysler
Pacifica ( BorgWarner
BorgWarner
ITM3e) (on 2007 model) Dodge
Dodge
Nitro ( Quadra-Trac
Quadra-Trac
1) Dodge
Dodge
Caliber Ford: Escape, Freestyle, Edge, Fusion, Five Hundred (Freestyle, FiveHundred Haldex Traction
Haldex Traction
based)(Escape Control Trac II, based) Honda
Honda
CR-V, HR-V, Element Hyundai Santa Fe, Hyundai Tucson
Hyundai Tucson
Borg-Warner ITM 3e magnetic multi-plate clutch coupling Hyundai Veracruz
Hyundai Veracruz
IMJ magnetic multi-plate clutch coupling Infiniti: G35x, M35x Jeep
Jeep
Compass (Freedom Drive) Jeep
Jeep
Grand Cherokee and SRT8 NVG 249, 247 Land Rover
Land Rover
Freelander 2/LR2 (also Haldex Traction)[60] Lamborghini: AWD variants VT series (viscous traction) Lincoln: MKS, MKZ Mazdaspeed6
Mazdaspeed6
(a power takeoff unit linked to clutch pack with torque sensitive rear differential) Mazda: Tribute, CX-7, CX-9 (tribute Control Trac II, based) Mercury: Milan, Montego, Mariner (Montego Haldex Traction-based) Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Outlander (current generation) Nissan
Nissan
Murano automatic with manual lockup switch Porsche
Porsche
911 AWD variants (a version of BorgWarner
BorgWarner
ITM3e) — excluding the 964-series Porsche
Porsche
911 Carrera 4 31/69 planetary center differential Pontiac
Pontiac
Torrent (GMPCA) Subaru
Subaru
low powered automatic transmission models Subaru
Subaru
Legacy, Outback, Impreza, Forester, Tribeca automatic transmission models: mechanical front drive, clutch coupled rear axle. Suzuki: SX4, XL7, Aerio, Swift/Cultus based Subaru
Subaru
Justy. (viscous clutch) Toyota
Toyota
RAV4 - from 2005 (third generation only) Toyota
Toyota
Sienna AWD (2011 and newer only) Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Golf 4motion, Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Jetta 4motion, Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Tiguan 4motion, Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Passat (B6) 4motion
4motion
(initially viscous coupling, later with Haldex Traction) Volvo: S40, S60, S80, V50, V70, XC70, XC90 (Visco system until 2003; then all Haldex Traction-based)

Note: the above all function like 2WD when multi-plate clutch coupling is not engaged (with exception of Subaru
Subaru
models), and like 4WD highrange in a part-time 4WD system when the clutch is engaged (usually by computer although some allow manual control). Some in this category have varying degrees of control in the torque distribution between front and rear by allowing some of the clutches in a multi-plate clutch coupling to engage and slip varying amounts. An example of a system like this is the BorgWarner
BorgWarner
i-Trac(TM) system. Note: the Haldex Traction-based car list was created from the list on Haldex Traction
Haldex Traction
corporate web site: Haldex Cars. A version of the BorgWarner
BorgWarner
ITM3e system is used on 2006 and up Porsche
Porsche
911TT's. The Borg-Warner ITM 3e is also used in the 2006-now Hyundai Santa Fe
Hyundai Santa Fe
and the Hyundai Tucson. In the Hyundais, the ITM 3e acts like a full-time AWD with 95:5 normal torque split. In extreme conditions, the system can be locked in a 50:50 split via the 4WD LOCK button. Part-time[edit] These are vehicles that have no center differential. Since there is no center differential to allow for speed differences between the front and rear wheels when turning, a small amount of tire slippage must occur during turns. When used on slick surfaces, this is not a problem, but when turning on dry pavement, the tires grip, then are forced to slip, then grip again, and so on, until the turn is completed. This causes the vehicle to exhibit a 'hopping' sensation. Using an engaged part-time 4WD system on a hard surface is not recommended, as damage to the drive-line eventually occurs.

Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Rounded-Line K Fleetside, K Stepside, K Blazer, and K Suburban - conventional four-wheel drive (1973-1987) or shift-on-the-move four-wheel drive (1981-1987) two-speed New Process 205 or 208 transfer case. 0:100 torque split in Two High. 50:50 torque split lock in Four High and Four Low. An Eaton Automatic Differential Lock was optional for the rear hypoid differential. Note Rounded-Line "K" Pickups and Utilities were temporarily renamed to "V" for 1987 Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Tahoe, Trailblazer (LT1 and LT3 models only), Tracker, Suburban, Silverado, Avalanche, Colorado, S-10 series, K5 Blazer Dodge
Dodge
Power Wagon (a Ram version with front and rear differential locks) Dodge
Dodge
Ram, Dakota Dodge
Dodge
Nitro ( Quadra-Trac
Quadra-Trac
2) Ford
Ford
F series Ford
Ford
Explorer (1991-1994) & Sport Trac Ford
Ford
Ranger Geo Tracker GMC Rounded-Line K Wideside, K Fenderside, K Jimmy, and K Suburban - conventional four-wheel drive (1973-1987) or shift-on-the-move four-wheel drive (1981-1987) two-speed New Process
New Process
205 or 208 transfer case. 0:100 torque split in Two High. 50:50 torque split lock in Four High and Four Low. An Eaton Automatic Differential Lock was optional for the rear hypoid differential. Note Rounded-Line "K" Pickups and Utilities were temporarily renamed to "V" for 1987 GMC Envoy, Yukon, Sierra, Jimmy, Sonoma Infiniti
Infiniti
QX56 (All-mode 4WD) Auto-engages 4WD with slip Isuzu i-series, Isuzu Wizard Jeep
Jeep
Cherokee ( Quadra-Trac
Quadra-Trac
2) Jeep
Jeep
Cherokee (XJ), Jeep
Jeep
Comanche, Jeep
Jeep
Grand Cherokee (ZJ), Jeep Liberty (Command-Trac) Jeep Wrangler
Jeep Wrangler
(Rubicon model has locking front and rear differentials) Kia Sorento
Kia Sorento
(some 2002-2009 models with 2WD/4HI/4LO - mostly LX) Land Rover
Land Rover
Series I, II & III (except V8 models) Lincoln Mark LT Mazda
Mazda
B-series Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
G-Class Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Raider Nissan
Nissan
Patrol Nissan
Nissan
Terrano II Nissan
Nissan
Armada, Pathfinder (All-mode 4WD) Auto-engages 4WD with slip Nissan
Nissan
Titan, Xterra, Frontier (rear locker an option) Subaru
Subaru
Loyale, GL/DL, BRAT Front/4wd/4wd lo, Justy
Justy
4WD Suzuki
Suzuki
Sidekick (pre-2005 models, and XL-7), Jimny, Vitara Toyota
Toyota
Hilux Toyota
Toyota
Tacoma (rear locking differential optional) Toyota
Toyota
Tundra TRD Toyota
Toyota
FJ Cruiser (automatic transmission models) (also locking rear differential) Toyota
Toyota
4Runner (only SR5 and pre 2010 Limited V6 models, 2010 Trail edition V6 models) (also locking rear differential on 2010 V6)

See also[edit]

Category:All-wheel-drive vehicles Four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive
in Formula One Limited slip differential Off-road vehicle Sport utility vehicle Dune bashing Rock crawling 4WS Transfer case

References[edit]

^ a b Mohan, Sankar (12 June 2000). "All - Wheel Drive / Four - Wheel Drive Systems and Strategies" (PDF). Seoul 2000 FISITA World Automotive Congres.  ^ Andreev, Alexandr F.; Kabanau, Viachaslau; Vantsevich, Vladimir (2010). Driveline Systems of Ground Vehicles: Theory and Design. CRC Press. p. 34.  ^ Dykes, Alex. "Alphabet Soup: 4×4 vs 4WD vs AWD Where's the Differential?". thetruthaboutcars.com. Retrieved 18 December 2015.  ^ a b "Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice - J1952 - All-Wheel Drive System Classification". SAE International. October 2013.  ^ Walczak, Jim. "4WD vs 2WD: The Differences Between 4×4 And 4×2". about com. Retrieved 7 August 2010.  ^ a b Collard, Chris. "2WD vs AWD vs 4WD". ConsumerReports.com. Consumer Reports Magazine. Retrieved 15 December 2015.  ^ Williams, Mark. "4WD vs AWD: What's the Diff". MotorTrend.com. Motor Trend Magazine. Retrieved 15 December 2015.  ^ Allisons.org Automotive History [1]"1929: AEC started to build AWD trucks in conjunction with FWD (UK)" ^ MEYER, DONALD E. THE FIRST CENTURY OF GMC TRUCK HISTORY [2] "By December [1939], GMC had orders for more than 4,400 all-wheel-drive military trucks." ^ a b Sheppard, Tom (1 September 2005). " Jeep
Jeep
Grand Cherokee 4WD System Breakthrough - 4x... For?". Four Wheeler Network. Retrieved 27 May 2014.  ^ Davies, Alex (10 October 2014). "The Model D Is Tesla's Most Powerful Car
Car
Ever, Plus Autopilot". Wired.com. Retrieved 11 October 2014. Musk said the added efficiency is thanks to the electronic system that will shift power between the front and rear motors from one millisecond to the next, so each is always operating at its most efficient point  ^ http://www.carscoops.com/2013/04/harris-helps-us-understand-negative.html ^ The History of 4 Wheel Drive – Haley Dodge ^ "History of Hybrid Vehicles". HybridCars.com. 2006-03-27. Archived from the original on 2009-09-04. Retrieved 2011-10-25.  See year 1898. ^ " Lohner-Porsche
Lohner-Porsche
Mixte Voiturette". Ultimate Car
Car
Page. 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2011-10-25.  ^ History of 4WD Sport – OF4WD ^ a b "1903 Spyker
Spyker
60 HP". Retrieved 6 May 2011.  ^ Spyker
Spyker
60-hp Four-wheel Drive Racing Car
Car
– Louwman Museum ^ "The Novak Guide to the Dana Spicer Model 18 Transfer Case". Novak Conversions. Retrieved 16 September 2012.  ^ The Badger and F.W.D. Four-Wheel Drive Automobiles – The Old Motor ^ Allen, Jim (8 May 2016). "FWD Seagrave Model B: One of the First Successful 4x4 Trucks". Fourwheeler Network. Extreme Ventures, LLC. Retrieved 2018-02-15.  ^ a b Eckermann, Erik (2001). World history of the automobile. Society of Automotive Engineers. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-7680-0800-5. Retrieved 21 January 2013.  ^ Redgap, Curtis; Watson, Bill (2010). "The Jefferys Quad and Nash Quad — 4x4 Ancestor to the Willys
Willys
Jeep". Allpar. Retrieved 6 December 2014.  ^ Nylund, Jimmy (February 2009). "27 Trailer Towing Tips". Four Wheeler. Retrieved 16 September 2012.  ^ a b 1943 Dodge
Dodge
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External links[edit]

v t e

Car
Car
design

Car
Car
classification

By size

Microcar City car Kei Subcompact Supermini Family car Compact Mid-size Full-size

Custom

Hot rod Lead sled Lowrider Street rod T-bucket

Luxury

Compact executive Executive Personal luxury car

(MPV)

Compact MPV Mini MPV

(SUV)

Compact SUV Crossover SUV Mini SUV

Sports

Grand tourer Hot hatch Muscle Pony Sport compact Supercar

Antique Classic Economy Leisure activity vehicle Ute Van Voiturette

Body styles

2+2 Baquet Barchetta Berlinetta Brougham Cabrio coach Cabriolet / Convertible Coupé Coupé
Coupé
de Ville Coupé
Coupé
utility Drophead coupe (Convertible) Fastback Hardtop Hatchback Landaulet Liftback Limousine Multi-stop truck Notchback Panel van Phaeton Pickup truck Quad coupé Retractable hardtop Roadster Runabout Saloon / Sedan Sedan delivery Sedanca de Ville ( Coupé
Coupé
de Ville) Shooting-brake Spider / Spyder (Roadster) Station wagon Targa top Torpedo Touring car Town car ( Coupé
Coupé
de Ville) T-top Vis-à-vis

Specialized vehicles

Amphibious Driverless (autonomous) Hearse Gyrocar Roadable aircraft Taxicab Tow truck

Propulsion

Alternative fuel Autogas Biodiesel Diesel Electric (battery NEV) Ethanol (E85) Fuel cell Gasoline / petrol (direct injection) Homogeneous charge compression ignition Hybrid (plug-in) Hydrogen Internal combustion Liquid nitrogen Steam

Drive wheels

Front-wheel Rear-wheel Two-wheel Four-wheel Six-wheel Eight-wheel Twelve-wheel

Engine position

Front Mid Rear

Layout (engine / drive)

Front / front   Front mid / front   Rear / front   Front / rear   Rear mid / rear   Rear / rear   Front / four-wheel   Mid / four-wheel   Rear / four-wheel 

Engine configuration (internal combustion)

Boxer Flat Four-stroke H-block Reciprocating Single-cylinder Straight Two-stroke V (Vee) W engine Wankel

.