The Info List - 2nd Millennium

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The second millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, 1001 of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
and ended on December 31, 2000 of the Gregorian calendar.[1] It was the second period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini
Anno Domini
or Common Era. It is distinct from the millennium known as the 1000s which began on January 1, 1000 and ended on December 31, 1999. It encompassed the High and Late Middle Ages, the Mongol Empire, the Renaissance, the Baroque era, the early Modern Age, the age of Enlightenment, the age of colonialism, industrialization, the rise of nation states, and the 19th and 20th century
20th century
with the impact of science, widespread education, and universal health care and vaccinations in many nations. The centuries of expanding large-scale warfare with high-tech weaponry (of the World wars and nuclear weapons) were offset by growing peace movements, the United Nations, plus doctors and health workers crossing borders to treat injuries and disease, and the return of the Olympics
as contest without combat. Scientists prevailed in explaining intellectual freedom; humans took their first steps on the Moon
during the 20th century; and new technology was developed by governments, industry, and academia across the world, with education shared by many international conferences and journals. The development of movable type, radio, television, and the internet spread information worldwide, within minutes, in audio, video, and print-image format to inform, educate and entertain billions of people by the end of the 20th century. The Renaissance
saw the beginning of the second migration of humans from Europe, Africa, and Asia
to the Americas, beginning the ever-accelerating process of globalization. The interwoven international trade led to the formation of multi-national corporations, with home offices in multiple countries. International business ventures reduced the impact of nationalism in popular thought. The world population doubled over the first seven centuries of the millennium (from 310 million in 1000 to 600 million in 1700) and later increased tenfold over its last three centuries, exceeding six billion in 2000. Consequently, unchecked human activity had considerable social and environmental consequences, giving rise to extreme poverty, climate change and biotic crisis.[2]


1 Calendar 2 Civilizations 3 Events 4 Significant people 5 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 6 Centuries and decades 7 Notes 8 References

Calendar[edit] The 2nd millennium
2nd millennium
was a period of time that began on January 1, 1001, and ended on December 31, 2000. It was the second period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini
Anno Domini
or Common Era.[1] The Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was used in Europe
at the beginning of the millennium, and all countries that once used the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
had adopted the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
by the end of it. So the end date is always calculated according to the Gregorian calendar, but the beginning date is usually according to the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
(or occasionally the proleptic Gregorian calendar). Stephen Jay Gould
Stephen Jay Gould
argued that it is not possible to decide if the millennium ended on December 31, 1999, or December 31, 2000.[3] The Associated Press reported that the third millennium began on January 1, 2001, but also reported that celebrations in the US were generally more subdued at the beginning of 2001, compared to the beginning of 2000.[4] The second millennium is perhaps more popularly thought of as beginning and ending a year earlier, thus starting at the beginning of 1000 and finishing at the end of 1999. Many public celebrations for the end of the millennium were held on December 31, 1999 – January 1, 2000[5]—with few on the actual date a year later. Civilizations[edit] The civilizations in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Civilizations of the 2nd millennium
2nd millennium

Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

Fatimid Empire Mamluk Sultanate Almoravid dynasty Almohad dynasty Sultanate of Ifat Sultanate of Hobyo Sultanate of the Geledi Warsangali Sultanate Ayyubids Saadi dynasty Mali Empire Songhai Empire Sokoto Caliphate Funj sultanate of Sinnar Ashanti Empire Kingdom of Dahomey Ottoman Empire Oyo Empire. Benin Empire Kongo Empire Merina
Kingdom Buganda
Empire Kingdom of Rwanda Kingdom of Burundi Empire of Kitara Mutapa Empire Maravi Empire Luba Empire Lunda Empire Zulu Empire Kingdom of Nri Kingdom of Bonny Opobo Onitsha Kalabari Kingdom Jukun

Maya civilisation Toltec Mississippian culture Vinland Chimú Kingdom of Cuzco Aztec Empire Inca Empire Iroquois
Confederacy Muisca Confederation United States
United States
of America Haiti United Provinces of the River Plate Argentina Paraguay Gran Colombia Colombia Venezuela Ecuador Chile Perú Mexican Empire Federal Republic of Central America Empire of Brazil Canada Cuba Panamá

Afsharid dynasty Chola Dynasty Empire of Japan Tondo Dynasty Goryeo Hoysala Empire Jin dynasty Joseon Dynasty Khmer Empire Liao dynasty Mongol Empire Ming Dynasty Mughal Empire Mysore empire Ottoman Empire Pagan Kingdom Qing Dynasty Safavids Seljuks Song dynasty Vijayanagara Empire Western Xia Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty Zand dynasty First Philippine Republic Republic of Pakistan Republic of India Republic of Bangladesh Republic of Sri Lanka Republic of Philippines

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(330–1453) Kingdom of England Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of Great Britain United Kingdom Holy Roman Empire Kingdom of France Kingdom of Bosnia
Kingdom of Bosnia
(1154–1463) French colonial empire
French colonial empire
(1605–1960) Dutch Empire
Dutch Empire
(1543–1975) Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
(1000–1526) Crown of Aragon Crown of Castile Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1299–1922) Second Bulgarian Empire
Second Bulgarian Empire
(1185–1396) Kievan Rus
Kievan Rus
(880–1150) Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
(1217–1346) Serbian Empire
Serbian Empire
(1346–1371) Kingdom of Poland Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
(1402–1975) Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
(1415–2000) Habsburg Empire
Habsburg Empire
(1526–1867) Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
(1867–1918) British Empire
British Empire
(1583–1997) Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
(1861–1946) German Empire
German Empire
(1871–1918) Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
(1933–1945) Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(1721–1917) Soviet Union
Soviet Union

Tuʻi Tonga Empire
Tuʻi Tonga Empire
(c. 950–1865)

Events[edit] The events in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Events of the 2nd millennium
2nd millennium

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

11th century

1043 Eze Nri Ìfikuánim becomes first king of Nri Kingdom 1054 Almoravid dynasty
Almoravid dynasty
established[6] 1060 Kingdom of Kanem converts to Islam[6]

  1000 Cahokia
(present-day Illinois, USA) becomes regional chiefdom of Mississippian culture

1005 Treaty of Shanyuan signed 1008 The Tale of Genji
The Tale of Genji
completed[7] 1044 Gunpowder recipe published[7]

1054 The East–West Schism
East–West Schism
divides the Christian church 1088 The foundation of the first University[7] 1095 First Crusade[7]


12th century

1143 Almohad dynasty
Almohad dynasty
take control from the Almoravids[6] 1171 Salah-ad-Din deposes Fatimid ruler of Egypt and establishes the Ayyubid dynasty[6] 1173 Ayyubids
capture Qasr Ibrim in Nubia[6]

1100 Toltecs establish capital at Tula[8] 1124 Arnaldur appointed first bishop of Greenland[8] 1175 Destruction of Toltec

1117 The magnetic compass is used at sea[7] 1120 Meng Yuanlao describes four-star dining in Kaifeng[7] 1150 Construction of Angkor Wat[7] 1192 Defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan
Prithviraj Chauhan
in second Battle of Tarain

1143 Establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal[9] 1169 Averoes translates Aristotle[7]


  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

13th century

1200 Kingdom of Mwenemutapa established in Zimbabwe[6] 1203 Sumaguru Kante of Sosso conquers kingdom of Ghana [6] 1250 Mamluk soldiers take Egypt from the Ayyubids

1200 Chichén Itzá abandoned[8] 1200 Kingdom of Cuzco
Kingdom of Cuzco
founded [8] 1200 Expansion of Chimú
state of Chimor [8]

1206 Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Builds an Empire[7]

1215 Magna Carta[7] 1260 Dedication of the Cathedral at Chartres[7] 1279 Establishment of the oldest bourders in Europe
today, the Portuguese boundering[10]

1200 Tahitians colonize Hawaii [8]

14th century

1324 Musa's pilgrimage to Mecca[7] 1365 Crusade led by king of Cyprus sacks Alexandria[6] 1375 Kingdom of Songhai breaks away from Mali [6]

1315 Founding of Tenochtitlan[7] 1350 Norsemen abandon Greenland[8] 1350 War between Inca and Chimú[8]

1350 Coffee was first brewed[7] 1368 Zhu Yuanzhang ousts the Mongols from power[11]

1348 Black Plague[7] 1350 Emergence of fashion[7] 1382 Wycliffe's Bible

1300 Polynesian immigration to New Zealand[12] 1300 Hawaiians develop class structure[13] 1300 Huge stone statues erected on Easter Island[13]

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

15th century

1400 capital of Sayfawa Dynasty
Sayfawa Dynasty
moved to Borno 1400 Funj settled Alodia 1496 Spain conquers Melilla, Morocco[6]

1428 Aztecs conquer Atzcapotzalco, ally with Texcoco and Tlacopan, become the dominant state in Mexico[8] 1470 Incas conquer Chimú
empire [8] 1492
Voyages of Christopher Columbus[7]

1407 Work begins on Forbidden City, Beijing[11] 1431 Ayutthaya conquers Angkor [11]

1413 The invention of modern linear perspective[7] 1453 Ottoman conquest of Constantinople[7] 1455 Gutenberg Bible
Gutenberg Bible
printed[7] 1494 Luca Pacioli
Luca Pacioli
publishes the first work on accounting[7] 1498 Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
discovers sea route to India[14] 1500 Discovery of Brazil
by Pedro Álvares Cabral[15]

1400 Tongans build ceremonial centre at Muʻa[13]

16th century

1509 African slaves arrive in the Americas[7] 1517 Ottomans capture Egypt[16] 1535 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V conquers Tunis[16] 1546 Songhai Empire
Songhai Empire
takes Niani

1535 Europeans discover tobacco[7][dubious – discuss] 1537 Europeans discover potatoes[7] 1545 The discovery of silver in the Andes mountains[7]

1555 Rise of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in South Asia;

1517 The Ninety-Five Theses
The Ninety-Five Theses
published[7] 1541 Publication of Quartic function
Quartic function
on the Ars Magna (Gerolamo Cardano) 1543 Publication of On the Structure of the Human Body[7] 1596 Invention of the toilet[7]

1550 Maoris of New Zealand build fortified enclosures[17]

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

17th century

1600 Kingdom of Rwanda
Kingdom of Rwanda
founded 1600 Dahomey
Kingdom founded 1644 Start of the Char Bouba[16]

1607 Virginia colony founded[18] 1624 Manhattan island purchased from Native Americans[18] 1697 Last Mayan resistance defeated [18]

1610 Tea spreads to the world[7] 1637 Japanese prohibition against European contact[19]

1603 First performance of Hamlet[7] 1610 Galileo publishes his observations of Jupiter[7] 1666 Discovery of gravitation[7]

1600 Tu'i Konokupolu dynasty take power in Tonga[17] 1642 Abel Tasman sights New Zealand[20]

18th century

1700 Maravi Empire
Maravi Empire
tears apart 1754 Usman dan Fodio
Usman dan Fodio
is born 1799 Discovery of the Rosetta Stone[7]

1742 Native American revolt against Spanish in Peru[7] 1776 United States
United States
Declaration of Independence published[7]

1751 Chinese occupy Tibet[19] 1760 Rise of the British Rule in India

1722 Bach composed the Well-Tempered Clavier[7] 1769 Invention of the steam engine[7] 1796 The first vaccination[7]

  1795 Formation of the Kingdom of Hawaii

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

19th century

1869 The Suez Canal opens[7] 1879 Battle of Isandlwana 1896 Battle of Adwa

1821 Bolívar liberates Venezuela[7] 1876 Menlo Park opens[7] 1876 First telephone transmission[7]

1868 End of Japanese seclusion[7]

1830 First steam railway[7] 1859 Origin of Species[7] 1882 Germ theory proven[7]

1840 Treaty of Waitangi signed[21] 1845 New Zealand land wars[22] 1845 Formation of the Kingdom of Tonga
by Taufaʻahau

20th century

1956 Suez Crisis[23] 1967 Six-Day War[23] 1994 End of apartheid[23]

1903 First controlled, powered airplane flight[7] 1908 Ford builds the Model T[7] 1928 First television broadcast[7] 1942 Creation of the world's first nuclear reactor[7] 1969 First Moon

1917 The Russian Revolution[7] 1934 Mao's long march[7] 1945 Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki[7] 1947 Partition of India 1971 Formation of Bangladesh 1992 Destruction of the Babri Mosque by Hindus

1901 First transatlantic radio transmission[7] 1906 Alberto Santos-Dumont
Alberto Santos-Dumont
realizes the first officially recorded powered flight in Europe 1914 Beginning of World War I 1918 End of World War I 1922 Establishment of Italian Fascism 1928 Discovery of penicillin[7] 1933 Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
appointed Chancellor of Germany[7] 1939 Beginning of World War II 1945 End of World War II

1915 Australians and New Zealanders serve in the Gallipoli Campaign 1985 Nuclear Free Zone established in New Zealand[24] 2000 Autonomous Bougainville Government
Autonomous Bougainville Government

Significant people[edit] The people in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

11th century Humai ibn Salamna Eze Nri Ìfikuánim Yahya ibn Ibrahim Eight Deer Jaguar Claw Leif Eriksson Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī Abu Ḥasan al-Haytham Omar Khayyám Khwaja Abdullah Ansari Al-Juwayni Atiśa Rajendra Chola I Shen Kuo Pope Gregory VII William the Conqueror Basil II Samuel El Cid  

12th century Abd al-Mu'min Saladin Dunama I Manco Cápac Genghis Khan Khublai Khan Abdul Qadir Gilani Muhammad al-Idrisi Frederick Barbarossa Dante Alighieri Richard I of England Henry II of England Hildegard of Bingen  

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

13th century Sundiata Keita Dunama Dabbalemi Mansa Uli   Muhammad Rumi Moinuddin Chishti Shah Jalal Thomas Aquinas Leonardo Fibonacci Francis of Assisi Pope John XXII William Wallace Roy Mata[13]

14th century Musa I of Mali Muhammad Ture Ibn Khaldun Baibars Kato Kintu

Acamapichtli Ibn Taymiyyah Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani Yongle Emperor Madhava Timur Osman I Filippo Brunelleschi Marco Polo Leonardo Bruni Jan Hus Geoffrey Chaucer Guillaume de Machaut  

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

15th century Ilunga Tshibinda Sonni Ali Zara Yaqob Christopher Columbus Moctezuma I Muḥammad Khaldun Mehmed II The Great Muhammad Babur Hongxi Emperor Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Leonardo da Vinci Johannes Gutenberg Nicolaus Copernicus Niccolò Machiavelli Filippo Brunelleschi Joan of Arc Lorenzo de' Medici Giovanni Domenico Cassini Henry VII of England Isabella of Castile  

16th century Idris Aloma Orompoto Ahmad al-Mansur Amerigo Vespucci Atahualpa Cuauhtémoc Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizzaro Humayun Akbar
The Great Mohammad Salim Jahangir Shah Jahan Xu Guangqi Galileo Galilei William Shakespeare Martin Luther Michelangelo Elizabeth I of England Suleiman the Magnificent Manuel I of Portugal Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Miguel de Cervantes

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

17th century Wegbaja Osei Tutu Okomfo Anokye Powhatan Pocahontas Squanto Roger Williams John Winthrop Anne Hutchinson Samuel de Champlain Juana Inés de la Cruz Peter Claver Kangxi Emperor Muhammad Alamgir Bahadur Shah I Jahandar Shah Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
II Matsuo Basho Isaac Newton Johannes Kepler René Descartes Francesco Redi Marcello Malpighi Peter the Great Antonio Vivaldi Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz Charles I of England and Scotland Pedro Calderón de la Barca  

18th century Usman Dan Fodio Opoku Ware I Dossou Agadja George Washington Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson James Madison Alexander Hamilton Túpac Amaru II José Celestino Mutis Toussaint Louverture Tipu Sultan Muhammad Shah Ahmad Shah Bahadur Qianlong Emperor Raja Ram Mohan Roy Siraj ud-Daulah Napoleon Alessandro Volta Adam Smith Cesare Beccaria Immanuel Kant Catherine the Great Gian Lorenzo Bernini Louis XVI of France Lazzaro Spallanzani Mozart Beethoven Sake Dean Mahomed Voltaire Marie Antoinette Kamehameha I

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

19th century Moshoeshoe I Shaka Menelik II Thomas Edison Abraham Lincoln Simón Bolívar Francisco de Paula Santander George Washington
George Washington
Carver Susan B. Anthony Landell de Moura Ali bey Huseynzade Empress Dowager Cixi Mangal Pandey Swami Vivekananda Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Charles Darwin Carl Friedrich Gauss Marie Curie Alfred Nobel Guglielmo Marconi Victoria Otto von Bismarck Karl Marx Giacomo Leopardi Florence Nightingale Bernhard Riemann Te Kooti

20th century Nelson Mandela Hassan al-Banna Sayyid Qutb Gamal Abdel Nasser Mo Ibrahim Desmond Tutu Haile Selassie Franklin D. Roosevelt Elvis Presley Bob Dylan Neil Armstrong John F. Kennedy Cesar Chavez Martin Luther
Martin Luther
King, Jr. Jonas Salk Ronald Reagan Mahatma Gandhi Mao Zedong Muhammad Ali Jinnah Hirohito Muhammad Iqbal Chiang Kai-shek Abul A'la Maududi Rabindranath Tagore Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq Jagadish Chandra Bose Albert Einstein Werner Karl Heisenberg Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Joseph Stalin Winston Churchill Enrico Fermi Max Planck Niels Bohr Vladimir Lenin Mikhail Gorbachev Pablo Picasso Yuri Gagarin The Beatles Alan Turing Donald Bradman Howard Florey Banjo Paterson Margaret Battye Douglas Mawson

See also

Lists of people by nationality Category:People by century Category:People by nationality and period Gottlieb, Agnes Hooper; Henry Gottlieb; Barbar Bowers; Brent Bowers (1998). 1,000 Years, 1,000 People: Ranking the Men and Women Who Shaped the Millennium. Kodansha International. ISBN 1-56836-253-6. 

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

Inventions, discoveries and introductions

Communication and Technology Mathematics and Science Manufacturing Transportation and Space exploration Warfare

press[25] Thermometer Electrical battery Telegraph Photography Telephone Animation Television Computer Transistor Satellite Internet[25] Electrostatic generator

Accounting Probability Calculus Vaccination[25][26] Atomic theory[26] Anesthesia[25][26] Natural selection[26] Genetics[25][26] Special
relativity[26] Penicillin[25][26] DNA[26] Quantum mechanics[26] Electricity

Canned food Plastic[26] Assembly line Sliced bread Frozen food Nuclear reactor Food processor Finite geometry

Barometer Bicycle Steam engine Steam turbine Internal combustion engine Steam locomotive Human flight Moon
landing Space shuttle Space station GPS navigation

Longbow Rockets Aircraft carrier Nuclear weapon Submarine Tanks Firearms

Centuries and decades[edit]

11th century 1000s[note 1] 1010s 1020s 1030s 1040s 1050s 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s

12th century 1100s 1110s 1120s 1130s 1140s 1150s 1160s 1170s 1180s 1190s

13th century 1200s 1210s 1220s 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s 1280s 1290s

14th century 1300s 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s 1360s 1370s 1380s 1390s

15th century 1400s 1410s 1420s 1430s 1440s 1450s 1460s 1470s 1480s 1490s

16th century 1500s 1510s 1520s 1530s 1540s 1550s 1560s 1570s 1580s 1590s

17th century 1600s 1610s 1620s 1630s 1640s 1650s 1660s 1670s 1680s 1690s

18th century 1700s 1710s 1720s 1730s 1740s 1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s

19th century 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s

20th century 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s


^ 9 of the 10 years of the decade are in this millennium


^ a b United States
United States
Naval Observatory, "The 21st Century and the 3rd Millennium:When Did They Begin?" (Washington, DC, June 14, 2011). ^ "The Sixth Extinction – The Most Recent Extinctions". Archived from the original on 2015-12-18.  ^ Stephen Jay Gould, Questioning the Millennium: A Rationalist's Guide to a Precisely Arbitrary Countdown (New York: Harmony Books, 1999), ch 2. ^ Associated Press, "Y2K It Wasn't, but It Was a Party", Los Angeles Times, January 1, 2001. ^ " Millennium FAQs – Frequently Asked Questions". When does the Millennium start?. Greenwich2000.ltd.uk. 2008-08-12. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-29.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k " Africa
AD 600–1500". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-17.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd Toast, Scott (2002-02-19). "Top 100 Events of the Millennium". adapted from LIFE Magazine. Scott Toast. Retrieved 2008-11-14.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k " Americas
AD 1000–1492". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-16.  ^ nationsonline.org, klaus kästle -. "Portugal – Portuguese Republic – Country Profile – República Portuguesa – Travel and Tourism Portugal". www.nationsonline.org. Retrieved 2015-09-15.  ^ "www.visitportugal.com". www.visitportugal.com. Retrieved 2015-09-15.  ^ a b c " Asia
AD 1200–1500". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.  ^ Whitmore, Robbie. "Timeline of events in New Zealand history". New Zealand in History. Retrieved 2008-11-16.  ^ a b c d "Oceania AD 1000–1520". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16.  ^ Society, National Geographic. "Da Gama Discovers a Sea Route to India". Retrieved 2015-09-15.  ^ "Cabral Discovers Brazil
History Today". www.historytoday.com. Retrieved 2015-09-15.  ^ a b c " Africa
AD 1500–1850". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.  ^ a b "Oceania AD 1520–1770". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16.  ^ a b c " Americas
1492–1800". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-16.  ^ a b " Asia
AD 1500–1800". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.  ^ "European discovery of New Zealand". Encyclopedia of New Zealand ^ Michael King (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-301867-1.  ^ Belich, James (1986). The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict. Oxford University Press. ISBN 1-86940-002-X.  ^ a b c " Africa
AD 1950–2000". World Timelines. The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-23.  ^ "New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act". Retrieved 25 November 2008.  ^ a b c d e f Keeley, Larry (2007-02-16). "The Greatest Innovations of All Time". BusinessWeek. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-12.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The Big 100: the Science
Channels 100 Greatest Discoveries". Discovery Communications, LLC. 2008. Archived from the original on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 

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1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th and beyond


201st and prior 200th to 11th 10th 9th 8th 7th 6th 5