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The 2018 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games (Korean: 제23회 동계 올림픽, translit. Jeisipsamhoe Donggye Ollimpik) and commonly known as PyeongChang 2018, was an international winter multi-sport event held between 9 and 25 February 2018 in Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
County, Gangwon Province, South Korea, with the opening rounds for certain events held on 8 February 2018, the eve of the opening ceremony. Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
was elected as the host city in July 2011, during the 123rd IOC Session in Durban, South Africa. This was the first time that South Korea
South Korea
had hosted the Winter Olympics and the second Olympics held in the country overall, after the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. It was the third time that an East Asian country had hosted the Winter Games, after Sapporo
Sapporo
(1972) and Nagano
Nagano
(1998), both in Japan. It was also the first of three consecutive Olympics to be held in East Asia, the other two being the 2020 Summer Olympics
2020 Summer Olympics
in Tokyo and the 2022 Winter Olympics
2022 Winter Olympics
in Beijing. The Games featured 102 events in fifteen sports, with the addition of "big air" snowboarding, mass start speed skating, mixed doubles curling, and mixed team alpine skiing to the Winter Olympic programme. 2,914 athletes from 92 NOCs competed, including the debuts of Ecuador, Eritrea, Kosovo, Malaysia, Nigeria and Singapore. After a state-sponsored doping program was exposed following the 2014 Winter Olympics, the Russian Olympic Committee
Russian Olympic Committee
was suspended, and selected athletes were allowed to compete neutrally under the IOC
IOC
designation of "Olympic Athletes from Russia". Despite tense relations, North Korea agreed to participate in the Games, enter with South Korea during the opening ceremony as a unified Korea, and field a unified team in women's ice hockey. Norway led the total medal tally with 39, followed by Germany's 31 and Canada's 29.[3] Germany
Germany
and Norway were tied for the most gold medals won; both won fourteen golds. Host nation South Korea
South Korea
won seventeen medals, their highest medal haul at a Winter Olympics, five of which were gold.

Contents

1 Bidding and election 2 Development and preparation

2.1 Medals 2.2 Torch relay 2.3 Venues

2.3.1 Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
(mountain cluster) 2.3.2 Gangneung
Gangneung
(coastal cluster)

2.4 Ticketing

3 The Games

3.1 Opening ceremony 3.2 Sports 3.3 Participating National Olympic Committees

3.3.1 Number of athletes by National Olympic Committee

3.4 Event scheduling 3.5 Calendar 3.6 Medal table 3.7 Podium sweeps 3.8 Records 3.9 Closing ceremony

4 Broadcasting 5 Marketing

5.1 Branding 5.2 Mascots 5.3 Video games 5.4 Sponsors

6 Concerns and controversies

6.1 North Korean relations 6.2 Russian doping 6.3 National Hockey League

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Bidding and election[edit] Main article: Bids for the 2018 Winter Olympics Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
bid to host both the 2010 and 2014 Winter Olympics, but lost in the final rounds of voting to Vancouver
Vancouver
and Sochi respectively.[4] Munich
Munich
also launched a bid to host these Games. Prior to Beijing's successful 2022 Winter Olympics
2022 Winter Olympics
bid, Munich
Munich
would have become the first city to host both the Winter and the Summer Games, having previously hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics, but received only 25 votes. Annecy
Annecy
(in southeastern France) launched their own bid, which failed to secure public support from the local citizens. Their bid ended up receiving seven votes.[5] Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
was elected as the host city at the 123rd IOC Session in Durban
Durban
in 2011, earning the necessary majority of at least 48 votes in just one round of voting, more votes than its competitors combined. With this, Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
became the third Asian city to host the Winter Games; the first two were in Japan, at Sapporo
Sapporo
(1972) and Nagano (1998).[6][7]

2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
bidding results

City Nation Votes

Pyeongchang  South Korea 63

Munich  Germany 25

Annecy  France 7

Development and preparation[edit]

Pyeongchang

Location in South Korea

On 5 August 2011, the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) announced the formation of the Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
2018 Coordination Commission.[8][9] On 4 October 2011, it was announced that the Organizing Committee for the 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
would be headed by Kim Jin-sun. The Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic & Paralympic Winter Games (POCOG) was launched at its inaugural assembly on 19 October 2011. The first tasks of the organizing committee were putting together a master plan for the Games as well as forming a design for the venues.[10] The IOC
IOC
Coordination Commission for the 2018 Winter Olympics made their first visit to Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
in March 2012. By then, construction was already underway on the Olympic Village.[11][12] In June 2012, construction began on a high-speed rail line that would connect Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
to Seoul.[13] The International Paralympic Committee
International Paralympic Committee
met for an orientation with the Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
2018 organizing committee in July 2012.[14] Then-IOC President Jacques Rogge
Jacques Rogge
visited Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
for the first time in February 2013.[15] The Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic & Paralympic Winter Games created Pyeongchang WINNERS in 2014 by recruiting university students living in South Korea
South Korea
to spread awareness of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
through social networking services and news articles.[16]

2018 Olympics gold medal

2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
torch

Medals[edit] The Games' medal designs were unveiled on 21 September 2017. Designed by Lee Suk-woo, they feature a pattern of diagonal ridges on both sides, with the front including the Olympic rings, and the obverse featuring the Games' emblem, the event name and the discipline. The edge of the medals features extrusions of hangul alphabets, while the ribbons are made from a traditional South Korean textile.[17] Torch relay[edit] Main article: 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
torch relay The torch relay started on 24 October 2017 in Greece and ended at the start of the Olympics on 9 February 2018. On 1 November 2017 the relay entered Korea. The relay lasted 101 days. There were 7,500 torch bearers to represent the Korean population of 75 million people. There were also 2,018 support runners to guard the torch and act as messengers. The torch and its bearers traveled by a diverse means of transportation, including by turtle ship in Hansando Island, sailboat on the Baengmagang River
Baengmagang River
in Buyeo, marine cable car in Yeosu, zip-wire over Bamseom
Bamseom
Island, steam train in the Gokseong
Gokseong
Train Village, marine rail bike along the east coast in Samcheok, and by yacht in Busan Metropolitan City. There were also robot torch relays in Jeju and Daejeon.[18] Venues[edit]

Olympic venues 2018

Main article: Venues of the 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
and Paralympics

Dragon Valley (Alpensia) Ski Resort

Most of the outdoor snow events were held in the county of Pyeongchang, while the downhill, combined and super-G events in the Alpine skiing
Alpine skiing
were held in the neighboring county of Jeongseon. The indoor ice events were held in Pyeongchang's neighboring city of Gangneung. Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
(mountain cluster)[edit] The Alpensia Sports Park in Daegwallyeong-myeon, Pyeongchang, was the focus of the 2018 Winter Olympics.[19][20] It was home to the Olympic Stadium,[21] the Olympic Village and most of the outdoor sports venues.

Alpensia Ski Jumping Centre – ski jumping, Nordic combined, snowboarding (big air) Alpensia Biathlon
Biathlon
Centre – biathlon Alpensia Cross-Country Skiing Centre – cross-country skiing, Nordic combined Alpensia Sliding Centre – luge, bobsleigh, skeleton Yongpyong Alpine Centre – alpine skiing (slalom, giant slalom)

Additionally, a stand-alone outdoor sports venue was located in Bongpyeong-myeon, Pyeongchang:

Phoenix Snow Park – freestyle skiing, snowboarding

Another stand-alone outdoor sports venue was located in Pyeongchang's neighboring county of Jeongseon:

Jeongseon Alpine Centre – alpine skiing (downhill, super-G, combined)

Gangneung
Gangneung
(coastal cluster)[edit] The Gangneung
Gangneung
Olympic Park in the city of Gangneung
Gangneung
includes four indoor sports venues, all in close proximity to one another.

Gangneung
Gangneung
Hockey Centre – ice hockey (men's competition) Gangneung
Gangneung
Curling
Curling
Centre – curling Gangneung
Gangneung
Oval[21] – long track speed skating Gangneung
Gangneung
Ice Arena – short track speed skating, figure skating

Additionally, a stand-alone indoor sports venue was located in the grounds of Catholic Kwandong University.

Kwandong Hockey Centre – ice hockey (women's competition)

Ticketing[edit] Ticket prices for the 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
were announced in April 2016 and tickets went on sale in October 2016. Event tickets ranged in price from ₩20,000 (approx. US$17) to ₩900,000 (~US$776) while tickets for the opening and closing ceremonies ranged from ₩220,000 (~US$190) to ₩1.5 million (~US$1293). The exact prices were determined through market research; around 50% of the tickets were expected to cost about ₩80,000 (~US$69) or less, and tickets in sports that are relatively unknown in the region, such as biathlon and luge, were made cheaper in order to encourage attendance. By contrast, figure skating and the men's ice hockey gold-medal game carried the most expensive tickets of the Games.[22] As of 11 October 2017, domestic ticket sales for the Games were reported to be slow. Of the 750,000 seats allocated to South Koreans, only 20.7% had been sold. International sales were more favorable, with 59.7% of the 320,000 allocated tickets sold.[23][24] However, as of 31 January 2018, 77% of all tickets had been sold.[25] The Games[edit] Opening ceremony[edit]

Olympic cauldron in Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
Olympic Stadium

Main article: 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
opening ceremony The opening ceremony of the 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
was held at the Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
on 9 February 2018; the US$100 million facility was only intended to be used for the opening and closing ceremonies of these Olympics and the subsequent Paralympics, and is scheduled to be demolished following their conclusion.[26] Sports[edit] The 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
featured 102 events in 15 sports,[27] making it the first Winter Olympics to surpass 100 medal events. Six new events in existing sports were introduced to the Winter Olympic program in Pyeongchang, including men's and ladies' big air snowboarding, mixed doubles curling, men's and ladies' mass start speed skating, and mixed team alpine skiing.[28][27]

Alpine skiing
Alpine skiing
(11) (details) Biathlon
Biathlon
(11) (details) Bobsleigh
Bobsleigh
(3) (details) Cross-country skiing
Cross-country skiing
(12) (details) Curling
Curling
(3) (details) Figure skating
Figure skating
(5) (details) Freestyle skiing
Freestyle skiing
(10) (details) Ice hockey
Ice hockey
(2) (details) Luge
Luge
(4) (details) Nordic combined
Nordic combined
(3) (details) Short track speed skating
Short track speed skating
(8) (details) Skeleton (2) (details) Ski jumping
Ski jumping
(4) (details) Snowboarding
Snowboarding
(10) (details) Speed skating
Speed skating
(14) (details)

Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each sport. Participating National Olympic Committees[edit] A total of 92 teams qualified at least one athlete to compete in the Games. The number of athletes who qualified per country is listed in the table below (number of athletes shown in parentheses). Six nations made their Winter Olympics debut: Ecuador, Eritrea, Kosovo, Malaysia, Nigeria and Singapore.[29][30] Athletes from three further countries – the Cayman Islands, Dominica and Peru – qualified to compete, but all three National Olympic Committees returned the quota spots back to the International Ski Federation
International Ski Federation
(FIS).[31] Under an historic agreement facilitated by the IOC, qualified athletes from North Korea
North Korea
were allowed to cross the Korean Demilitarized Zone into South Korea
South Korea
to compete in the Games.[32][33][34] The two nations marched together under the Korean Unification Flag
Korean Unification Flag
during the opening ceremony.[35][36] A unified Korean team, consisting of 12 players from North Korea
North Korea
and 23 from South Korea, competed in the women's ice hockey tournament under a special IOC
IOC
country code designation (COR) following talks in Panmunjom
Panmunjom
on 17 January 2018.[37] The two nations also participated separately: the South Korea
South Korea
team competed in every sport and the North Korea
North Korea
team competed in alpine skiing, cross-country skiing, figure skating and short track speed skating.[38] See North Korea
North Korea
at the 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
for further details. On 5 December 2017, the IOC
IOC
announced that the Russian Olympic Committee had been suspended due to the Russian doping controversy and the investigation into the 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
in Sochi. Individual Russian athletes, who qualified and could demonstrate they had complied with the IOC's doping regulations, were given the option to compete at the 2018 Games as "Olympic Athletes from Russia" (OAR) under the Olympic flag
Olympic flag
and with the Olympic anthem played at any ceremony.[39]

  The participating countries at the Winter Olympics 2018   Debuting countries at the Winter Olympics

Participating National Olympic Committees[40][41][42][43][44][45]

 Albania (2)  Andorra (5)  Argentina (7)  Armenia (3)  Australia (50)  Austria (105)  Azerbaijan (1)  Belarus (33)  Belgium (22)  Bermuda (1)  Bolivia (2)  Bosnia and Herzegovina (4)  Brazil (9)  Bulgaria (21)  Canada (225)  Chile (7)  China (80)  Chinese Taipei (4)  Colombia (4)  Croatia (19)  Cyprus (1)  Czech Republic (93)  Denmark (17)  East Timor (1)  Ecuador (1)  Eritrea (1)  Estonia (22)  Finland (100)  France (106)  Georgia (4)  Germany (153)  Ghana (1)  Great Britain (58)  Greece (4)  Hong Kong (1)  Hungary (19)  Iceland (5)  India (2)  Iran (4)  Ireland (5)  Israel (10)  Italy (120)  Jamaica (3)  Japan (124)  Kazakhstan (46)  Kenya (1)  Korea (35)[a]  Kosovo (1)  Kyrgyzstan (2)  Latvia (34)  Lebanon (3)  Liechtenstein (3)  Lithuania (9)  Luxembourg (1)  Macedonia (3)  Madagascar (1)  Malaysia (2)  Malta (1)  Mexico (4)  Moldova (2)  Monaco (4)  Mongolia (2)  Montenegro (3)  Morocco (2)  Netherlands (33)  New Zealand (21)  Nigeria (3)  North Korea (10)[a]  Norway (109)  Olympic Athletes from Russia (168)[b]  Pakistan (2)  Philippines (2)  Poland (62)  Portugal (2)  Puerto Rico (1)  Romania (27)  San Marino (1)  Serbia (4)  Singapore (1)  Slovakia (56)  Slovenia (71)  South Africa (1)  South Korea (122)[a] (host nation)  Spain (13)  Sweden (116)  Switzerland (166)  Thailand (4)  Togo (1)  Tonga (1)  Turkey (8)  Ukraine (33)  United States (241)  Uzbekistan (2)

NOCs that participated in 2014, but not in 2018. NOCs that participated in 2018, but not in 2014.

 British Virgin Islands  Cayman Islands  Dominica  Nepal  Paraguay  Peru  Russia[b]  Tajikistan  Venezuela  Virgin Islands  Zimbabwe

 Bolivia  Colombia  Ecuador  Eritrea  Ghana  Kenya  Korea[a]  Kosovo  Madagascar  Malaysia  Nigeria  North Korea[a]  Olympic Athletes from Russia[b]  Puerto Rico  Singapore  South Africa

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committee[edit]

IOC
IOC
Code Country Athletes

USA  United States 242

CAN  Canada 225

SUI  Switzerland 169

OAR  Olympic Athletes from Russia[b] 168

GER  Germany 156

JPN  Japan 124

KOR  South Korea[a] 122

ITA  Italy 122

SWE  Sweden 116

NOR  Norway 109

FRA  France 107

FIN  Finland 106

AUT  Austria 105

CZE  Czech Republic 95

CHN  China 80

SLO  Slovenia 71

POL  Poland 62

GBR  Great Britain 58

SVK  Slovakia 56

AUS  Australia 50

KAZ  Kazakhstan 46

COR  Korea[a] 35

LAT  Latvia 34

NED  Netherlands 33

BLR  Belarus 33

UKR  Ukraine 33

ROU  Romania 27

EST  Estonia 22

BEL  Belgium 22

BUL  Bulgaria 21

NZL  New Zealand 20

CRO  Croatia 19

HUN  Hungary 19

DEN  Denmark 17

ESP  Spain 13

ISR  Israel 10

PRK  North Korea[a] 10

BRA  Brazil 9

LTU  Lithuania 9

TUR  Turkey 8

CHI  Chile 7

ARG  Argentina 7

AND  Andorra 5

ISL  Iceland 5

IRL  Ireland 5

BIH  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4

COL  Colombia 4

GEO  Georgia 4

GRE  Greece 4

IRI  Iran 4

MEX  Mexico 4

MON  Monaco 4

SRB  Serbia 4

TPE  Chinese Taipei 4

THA  Thailand 4

ARM  Armenia 3

JAM  Jamaica 3

LBN  Lebanon 3

LIE  Liechtenstein 3

MKD  Macedonia 3

MNE  Montenegro 3

NGR  Nigeria 3

ALB  Albania 2

BOL  Bolivia 2

IND  India 2

KGZ  Kyrgyzstan 2

MAS  Malaysia 2

MDA  Moldova 2

MGL  Mongolia 2

MAR  Morocco 2

PAK  Pakistan 2

PHI  Philippines 2

POR  Portugal 2

UZB  Uzbekistan 2

AZE  Azerbaijan 1

BER  Bermuda 1

CYP  Cyprus 1

ECU  Ecuador 1

ERI  Eritrea 1

GHA  Ghana 1

HKG  Hong Kong 1

KEN  Kenya 1

KOS  Kosovo 1

LUX  Luxembourg 1

MAD  Madagascar 1

MLT  Malta 1

PUR  Puerto Rico 1

SMR  San Marino 1

SGP  Singapore 1

RSA  South Africa 1

TLS  East Timor 1

TGA  Tonga 1

TOG  Togo 1

a Apart from the respective delegations, North Korea
North Korea
and South Korea formed a unified Korean women's ice hockey team. b Russian athletes participated as Olympic Athletes from Russia
Olympic Athletes from Russia
(OAR) if individually cleared by the IOC. Event scheduling[edit] To accommodate primetime broadcasts in the Americas, figure skating events were scheduled with morning start times; figure skating in particular has typically been one of the most popular Winter Olympic sports among U.S. viewers. This scheduling practice had an impact on the events themselves, including skaters having to adjust to the modified schedule, as well as the attendance levels of the sessions themselves.[46] Conversely, and somewhat controversially, eight of the eleven biathlon events were scheduled at night, making it necessary for competitors to ski and shoot under floodlights, with colder temperatures and blustery winds.[47] Calendar[edit] See also: Chronological summary of the 2018 Winter Olympics

All dates are KST (UTC+9)

OC Opening ceremony ● Event competitions 1 Event finals EG Exhibition gala CC Closing ceremony

February 8th Thu 9th Fri 10th Sat 11th Sun 12th Mon 13th Tue 14th Wed 15th Thu 16th Fri 17th Sat 18th Sun 19th Mon 20th Tue 21st Wed 22nd Thu 23rd Fri 24th Sat 25th Sun Events

Ceremonies

OC

CC N/A

Alpine skiing

1

2 2 1 1

1 2

1

11

Biathlon

1 1 2

2

1 1

1

1 1

11

Bobsleigh

● 1 ● 1

● 1 3

Cross-country skiing

1 1

2

1 1 1 1

2

1 1 12

Curling ● ● ● ● ● 1 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 1 1 3

Figure skating

● 1

● 1 ● 1

● 1 ●

1

EG 5

Freestyle skiing

1 1

● 1 1 2 ● 1 1 1 1

10

Ice hockey

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 1 ● ● 1 2

Luge

● 1 ● 1 1 1

4

Nordic combined

1

1

1

3

Short track speed skating

1

1

2

1

3

8

Skeleton

● 1 1

2

Ski jumping ●

1

1

● 1

1

4

Snowboarding

● 1 1 1 1 1 1

● 1

3

10

Speed skating

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1

2

1 2

14

Daily medal events 0 0 5 6 7 8 4 9 7 9 6 3 5 7 10 4 8 4 102

Cumulative total 0 0 5 11 18 26 30 39 46 55 61 64 69 76 86 90 98 102

February 8th Thu 9th Fri 10th Sat 11th Sun 12th Mon 13th Tue 14th Wed 15th Thu 16th Fri 17th Sat 18th Sun 19th Mon 20th Tue 21st Wed 22nd Thu 23rd Fri 24th Sat 25th Sun Total events

Medal table[edit] Main article: 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
medal table   *   Host nation (South Korea)[48]

Rank NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total

1  Norway (NOR) 14 14 11 39

2  Germany (GER) 14 10 7 31

3  Canada (CAN) 11 8 10 29

4  United States (USA) 9 8 6 23

5  Netherlands (NED) 8 6 6 20

6  Sweden (SWE) 7 6 1 14

7  South Korea (KOR)* 5 8 4 17

8  Switzerland (SUI) 5 6 4 15

9  France (FRA) 5 4 6 15

10  Austria (AUT) 5 3 6 14

11  Japan (JPN) 4 5 4 13

12  Italy (ITA) 3 2 5 10

13  Olympic Athletes from Russia (OAR) 2 6 9 17

14  Czech Republic (CZE) 2 2 3 7

15  Belarus (BLR) 2 1 0 3

16  China (CHN) 1 6 2 9

17  Slovakia (SVK) 1 2 0 3

18  Finland (FIN) 1 1 4 6

19  Great Britain (GBR) 1 0 4 5

20  Poland (POL) 1 0 1 2

21  Hungary (HUN) 1 0 0 1

 Ukraine (UKR) 1 0 0 1

23  Australia (AUS) 0 2 1 3

24  Slovenia (SLO) 0 1 1 2

25  Belgium (BEL) 0 1 0 1

26  Spain (ESP) 0 0 2 2

 New Zealand (NZL) 0 0 2 2

28  Kazakhstan (KAZ) 0 0 1 1

 Latvia (LAT) 0 0 1 1

 Liechtenstein (LIE) 0 0 1 1

Total (30 NOCs) 103 102 102 307

Podium sweeps[edit] Three podium sweeps were recorded during the Games.

Date Sport Event NOC Gold Silver Bronze Ref

10 February Speed skating Women's 3000 metres  Netherlands Carlijn Achtereekte Ireen Wüst Antoinette de Jong [49]

11 February Cross-country skiing Men's 30 km skiathlon  Norway Simen Hegstad Krüger Martin Johnsrud Sundby Hans Christer Holund [50]

20 February Nordic combined Individual large hill/10 km  Germany Johannes Rydzek Fabian Rießle Eric Frenzel [51]

Records[edit] Main article: World and Olympic records set at the 2018 Winter Olympics

Noriaki Kasai
Noriaki Kasai
of Japan
Japan
became the first athlete in history to participate in eight Winter Olympics when he took part in the ski jumping qualification the day before the opening of the Games.[52] The previous record of seven Winter Olympics was held by Russian luger Albert Demchenko. American Nathan Chen
Nathan Chen
became the first figure skater to land five quadruple jumps in one program.[53] German figure skaters Aliona Savchenko
Aliona Savchenko
and Bruno Massot
Bruno Massot
set a new ISU best free skating score of 159.31 in pair skating.[54] Canadian figure skaters Tessa Virtue
Tessa Virtue
and Scott Moir
Scott Moir
set a new ISU best short dance score of 83.67[55] and a new ISU best combined total score of 206.07[56] in ice dance. French ice dancers Gabriella Papadakis
Gabriella Papadakis
and Guillaume Cizeron
Guillaume Cizeron
set a new ISU best free dance score of 123.35.[57] Russian figure skater Alina Zagitova
Alina Zagitova
set a new ISU best short program score of 82.92 in Ladies' single skating.[58] Dutch speed skater Sven Kramer
Sven Kramer
won gold in the men's 5000m event, becoming the only male speed skater to win the same Olympic event three times. He was also the first man to win a total of eight Olympic medals in speed skating.[59] Dutch speed skater Ireen Wüst
Ireen Wüst
won an individual gold medal for the fourth Olympics in a row, the first time this had been achieved by a Winter Olympian. She also became the first speed skater (male or female) to win ten Winter Olympic medals and the first female Winter Olympian to win nine individual medals.[60] Chinese short track speed skater Wu Dajing
Wu Dajing
beat the men's 500m world record twice en route to winning a gold medal, becoming only the second person in history to skate the discipline in under 40 seconds (after American J. R. Celski), and the first to achieve this at "sea level".[61] Dutch athlete Jorien ter Mors
Jorien ter Mors
became the first female athlete to win Olympic medals in two different sports at a single Winter Games;[62] she won a speed skating gold medal in the 1000 meters and she was also part of the Dutch short track team that won bronze in the 3000 metre relay. Ester Ledecká
Ester Ledecká
of the Czech Republic won gold in the skiing super-G event and another gold in the snowboarding parallel giant slalom, making her the first female athlete to win Olympic gold medals in two different sports at a single Winter Games.[63] Norwegian cross-country skier Marit Bjørgen
Marit Bjørgen
won bronze in the women's team sprint and gold in the 30 kilometre classical event, bringing her total Olympic medal
Olympic medal
haul to fifteen, the most won by any athlete (male or female) in Winter Olympics history.[64] The record was previously held by fellow Norwegian athlete Ole Einar Bjørndalen
Ole Einar Bjørndalen
who has thirteen Olympic medals. Germany
Germany
and Canada
Canada
tied for gold in the two-man bobsleigh event, only the second time in history that two countries had tied for a gold medal in this particular event, the first time being in the 1998 Winter Olympics twenty years earlier.[65] Norway won a total of 39 medals, setting a new record for the highest number of medals won at a single Winter Olympics. Their 39th medal was the gold won by cross-country skier Marit Bjørgen
Marit Bjørgen
in the 30 km classical event. The record was previously held by the USA who won 37 medals in Vancouver
Vancouver
in 2010.[66]

Closing ceremony[edit] Main article: 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
closing ceremony The closing ceremony of the 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
was held at the Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
on 25 February 2018, as Thomas Bach, the IOC
IOC
president, declared the Games closed, and the cauldron extinguished. Broadcasting[edit] Main article: List of 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
broadcasters Broadcast rights to the 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
in some countries were already sold as part of long-term broadcast rights deals, including the Games' local rightsholder SBS, which in July 2011 had extended its rights to the Olympics through to 2024.[67] SBS sub-licensed its rights to MBC and KBS.[68] On 29 June 2015, the IOC
IOC
announced that Discovery Communications had acquired exclusive rights to the Olympics across all of Europe outside of Russia, from 2018 through to 2024. Discovery's pan-European Eurosport
Eurosport
networks were promoted as the main rightsholder of the Games, but Discovery free-to-air channels such as DMAX in Spain,[69] Kanal 5 in Sweden and TVNorge
TVNorge
in Norway, were also involved.[70] Discovery was required to sub-licence at least 100 hours of coverage to free-to-air broadcasters in each market;[71][72][73] some of these agreements required certain sports to be exclusive to Eurosport
Eurosport
and its affiliated networks.[74][74] The deal did not initially cover France
France
due to France
France
Télévisions' rights, which run through to the 2020 Games.[75] In the United Kingdom, Discovery held exclusive pay television rights under license from the BBC, in return for BBC sub-licencing the free-to-air rights to the 2022 and 2024 Olympics from Discovery.[76] Despite the Russian team being formally banned from competing under its flag in Pyeongchang, Russian state broadcaster Channel One, and sports channel Match TV, still committed to covering the Games with a focus on Russian athletes.[75] Russia
Russia
was not affected by the Eurosport
Eurosport
deal, due to a pre-existing contract held by a marketing agency which runs through to 2024.[75] In the United States, the Games were once again broadcast by NBCUniversal properties under a long-term contract.[77][78] As U.S. Eastern Time is fourteen hours behind Pyeongchang, morning events naturally fell within traditional U.S. prime time hours (8:00 to 11:00 pm). This allowed NBC to broadcast its prime time coverage live in all U.S. time zones, rather than showing "plausibly live" delayed footage as they had in previous Olympics. As per previous Games, the ceremonies were still shown on TV via tape delay only, but NBC did, for the first time, offer live streaming of the opening ceremony online.[79][80] Notably, figure skating events were deliberately scheduled for the morning in Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
to accommodate the network’s live broadcast to a peak U.S. audience in the evening.[46] NHK
NHK
and Olympic Broadcasting Services
Olympic Broadcasting Services
(OBS) once again filmed portions of the Games, including 90 hours of footage of selected events and the opening ceremonies, in high-dynamic-range 8K resolution
8K resolution
video.[81][82] In South Korea, ATSC 3.0 digital terrestrial television at 4K resolution was introduced in 2017 in time for the Olympics.[83][84] In the U.S., this footage was delivered in 4K by NBCUniversal parent Comcast
Comcast
to participating television providers, including its own Xfinity, as well as DirecTV
DirecTV
and Dish Network. NBC's Raleigh, North Carolina affiliate WRAL-TV
WRAL-TV
also held demonstration viewings as part of its ATSC 3.0 test broadcasts.[85][86][87] The 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
were also used to showcase 5G wireless technologies, as part of a collaboration between domestic wireless sponsor KT, and worldwide sponsor Intel. Several venues were outfitted with 5G networks to facilitate features such as live camera feeds from bobsleds, and multi-camera views from cross-country and figure skating events. These were offered as part of public demonstrations coordinated by KT and Intel.[88][89] Marketing[edit] Branding[edit] The emblem for the Games was unveiled on 3 May 2013. It is a stylized representation of the hangul letters p and ch, these being the initial sounds of 평창 Pyeongchang. The left-hand symbol is said to represent the Korean philosophical triad of heaven, earth and humanity (Korean: 천지인 cheon-ji-in), and the right-hand symbol represents a crystal of ice.[90] In the emblem and all official materials, Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
was stylized in CamelCase
CamelCase
as "PyeongChang", in order to alleviate potential confusion with Pyongyang, the similarly-named capital of neighbouring North Korea.[91]

Soohorang (left) and Bandabi (right), respective mascots of 2018 Winter Olympics and Paralympics.

Mascots[edit] Main article: Soohorang and Bandabi The official mascots of the 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
and Paralympics were unveiled on 2 June 2016. The Olympic mascot, Soohorang (Korean: 수호랑), is a white tiger. The mascot's name is a portmanteau of "Sooho", a Korean word for "protection", and "Rang" which is derived both from the Korean word for "tiger" and from the name of a traditional Korean folk song originating from Gangwon Province.[92] Tigers have a strong association with Korean culture and folklore. Video games[edit]

Intel
Intel
Extreme Masters Season 12 – Pyeongchang

Tournament information

Sport StarCraft II

Location Pyeongchang, South Korea

Administrator(s) Electronic Sports League

Final positions

Champions Scarlett

Runner-up sOs

← Oakland 2017 Katowice 2018 →

In June 2017, Ubisoft
Ubisoft
announced that it would release an expansion pack for its winter sports video game Steep entitled Road to the Olympics, which features new game modes and content inspired by the 2018 Winter Olympics.[93][94] In November 2017, the IOC
IOC
announced it would support and sponsor an Intel
Intel
Extreme Masters StarCraft II
StarCraft II
tournament in Pyeongchang
Pyeongchang
preceding the Games. Its support of the tournament as a de facto demonstration event came on the heels of a report by the IOC
IOC
which recognized that eSports "could be considered as a sporting activity".[95][96][97] The tournament was won by Sasha "Scarlett" Hostyn of Canada; she became the second North American pro to place first at a major StarCraft II tournament in South Korea, and the first woman to win a major tournament.[98][99] Sponsors[edit] The 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
saw increasing granularity in official sponsorships for technology vendors; Intel
Intel
signed with the IOC
IOC
to become part of its Worldwide Olympic Partner program, to promote 5G wireless technology, as well as broadcasting technology such as 360-degree video
360-degree video
and virtual reality. Alibaba Group
Alibaba Group
was also named the official e-commerce and cloud services provider. These categories affected how the vendors were allowed to promote themselves within the context of the Olympics: Samsung could showcase VR experiences but only within the context of its own smartphones due to Intel's sponsorship rights in relation to VR; Alibaba could not promote Alipay due to Visa Inc.
Visa Inc.
sponsorship rights; and Intel
Intel
could not promote end-user applications of 5G due to national sponsorship rights held by KT Corporation.[100][101] Concerns and controversies[edit] Main article: Concerns and controversies at the 2018 Winter Olympics North Korean relations[edit] See also: North Korea– South Korea
South Korea
relations and North Korea
North Korea
at the 2018 Winter Olympics

Protesters at Gwanghwamun Plaza
Gwanghwamun Plaza
criticizing the game's pro-North Korean measures, calling it the " Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Olympics"

Due to the state of relations between North and South Korea, concerns were raised over the security of the 2018 Winter Olympics, especially in the wake of tensions over North Korean missile and nuclear tests. On 20 September 2017, South Korean president Moon Jae-in
Moon Jae-in
stated that the country would ensure the security of the Games.[102] The next day, Laura Flessel-Colovic, the French Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports, stated that France
France
would pull out of the Games if the safety of its delegation could not be guaranteed.[103] The next day, Austria and Germany
Germany
raised similar concerns and also threatened to skip the Games. France
France
later reaffirmed its participation.[104] In early December 2017, the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, Nikki Haley, told Fox News
Fox News
that it was an "open question" whether the United States was going to participate in the Games, citing security concerns in the region.[105] However, days later the White House Press Secretary, Sarah Huckabee Sanders, stated that the United States would participate.[106] In his New Year's address on 1 January 2018, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un proposed talks in Seoul
Seoul
over the country's participation in the Games, which would be the first high-level talks between the North and South in over two years. Because of the talks, held on 9 January, North Korea
North Korea
agreed to field athletes in Pyeongchang.[107][108] On 17 January 2018, it was announced that North and South Korea
South Korea
had agreed to field a unified Korean women's ice hockey team at the Games, and to enter together under a Korean Unification Flag
Korean Unification Flag
during the opening ceremony.[109][110] These moves were met with opposition in South Korea, including protests and online petitions; critics argued that the government was attempting to use the Olympics to spread pro-North Korean sentiment, and that the unified hockey team would fail.[111] A rap video entitled "The Regret for Pyeongchang" (평창유감), which echoed this criticism and called the event the " Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Olympics", went viral in the country.[112] Japan's foreign affairs minister Tarō Kōno
Tarō Kōno
warned South Korea
South Korea
to be wary of North Korea's "charm offensive", and not to ease its pressure on the country.[109][113] The South Korean President, Moon Jae-in, at the start of the Olympics shook hands with the sister of North Korean leader Kim Jong-un
Kim Jong-un
and a prominent figure of the regime, Kim Yo-jong. This marked the first time since the Korean War
Korean War
that a member of the ruling Kim dynasty had visited South Korea.[114][115] In contrast, U.S. vice president Mike Pence met with Fred Warmbier (father of Otto Warmbier, who had died after being released from captivity in North Korea) and a group of North Korean defectors in Pyeongchang.[116] American officials said that North Korea
North Korea
cancelled a meeting with Pence at the last minute.[117] At the closing ceremony, North Korea
North Korea
sent general Kim Yong-chol
Kim Yong-chol
as its delegate. His presence was met with hostility from South Korean conservatives, as there were allegations that he had a role in the ROKS Cheonan sinking
ROKS Cheonan sinking
and other past attacks. The Ministry of Unification stated that "there is a limitation in pinpointing who was responsible for the incident." Although he is subject to sanctions, they did not affect his ability to visit the country for the Games.[118][119] Russian doping[edit] Main articles: Doping in Russia, McLaren Report, Oswald Commission, Russia
Russia
at the 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
§ Doping scandal after Olympics, Russia
Russia
at the 2016 Summer Olympics, and Olympic Athletes from Russia
Russia
at the 2018 Winter Olympics Russia's participation in the 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
was affected by the aftermath of its state-sponsored doping program. As a result, the IOC suspended the Russian Olympic Committee
Russian Olympic Committee
in December 2017, although Russian athletes whitelisted by the IOC
IOC
were allowed to compete neutrally under the OAR (Olympic Athletes from Russia) designation.[120] The official sanctions imposed by the IOC
IOC
included: the exclusion of Russian government officials from the Games; the use of the Olympic Flag and Olympic Anthem
Olympic Anthem
in place of the Russian flag and anthem; and the submission of a replacement logo for the OAR uniforms.[121] By early January 2018, the IOC
IOC
had banned 43 Russian athletes from competing in the 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
and all future Olympic Games
Olympic Games
(as part of the Oswald Commission). Of those athletes, 42 appealed against their bans to the Court of Arbitration for Sport
Court of Arbitration for Sport
(CAS) and 28 of the appeals were successful, but eleven of the athletes had their sanctions upheld due to the weight of evidence against them. The IOC stated that the court ruling did not prove that the 28 athletes were innocent and that they would not necessarily be invited to the 2018 Games. Three of the athletes who appealed are still awaiting their hearings.[122] The eventual number of neutral Russian athletes that participated at the 2018 Games was 168. These were selected from an original pool of 500 athletes that was put forward for consideration and, in order to receive an invitation to the Games, they were obliged to meet a number of pre-games conditions to rule out any possibility of doping. Russian president Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and other officials had signalled in the past that it would be a humiliation if Russian athletes were not allowed to compete under the Russian flag.[123] However, there were never actually any official plans to boycott the 2018 Games[120] and in late 2017 the Russian government agreed to allow their athletes to compete at the Games as individuals under a neutral designation.[124][125] Despite this public show of co-operation, there were numerous misgivings voiced by leading Russian politicians, including a statement from Putin himself saying that he believed the United States had used its influence within the IOC
IOC
to "orchestrate the doping scandal".[126] 86% of the Russian population opposed participation at the Olympics under a neutral flag,[127] and many Russian fans attended the Games wearing the Russian colours and chanting "Russia!" in unison, in an act of defiance against the ban.[128] The IOC's decision was heavily criticized by Jack Robertson, primary investigator of the Russian doping program on behalf of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), in whose opinion the judgement was commercially and politically motivated. He argued that not only was doping rife amongst Russian athletes but that there was no sign of it being eradicated.[129] The CAS decision to overturn the life bans of 28 Russian athletes and restore their medals was also fiercely criticised, by Olympic officials, IOC
IOC
president Thomas Bach
Thomas Bach
and whistleblower Grigory Rodchenkov's lawyer.[130] National Hockey League[edit] For the first time since 1998, the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
did not provide accommodations (including a break in the season for all teams during the Olympics) to allow its players to participate in the men's ice hockey tournament. The NHL's decision stemmed from their demands that the IOC
IOC
cover the cost of insuring the NHL players who participated in the Games. Although the IOC
IOC
did pay to insure NHL players in Sochi, the commission was unwilling to do so for Pyeongchang, and was concerned that the NHL's demand could set a precedent for other professional sports bodies to follow. NHL Commissioner Gary Bettman
Gary Bettman
added that a factor in the decision was that the IOC
IOC
did not allow the NHL to promote the involvement of its players in the Olympics.[131][132][133] The NHL secured the cooperation of the International Ice Hockey Federation
International Ice Hockey Federation
and the IOC, who agreed to establish a blacklist forbidding national teams from nominating or accepting players under NHL contract to their Olympic rosters.[134][135] Other leagues, such as the Swedish Hockey League, did not close during the games,[136] but teams had to accept that some players took part in the games instead of the league. See also[edit]

2010s portal

Olympics portal

South Korea
South Korea
portal

2018 Winter Paralympics 2018 Summer Youth Olympics Winter Olympic Games Olympic Games International Olympic Committee List of IOC
IOC
country codes Soohorang and Bandabi

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