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The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (Russian: XXII Олимпийские зимние игры, tr. XXII Olimpiyskiye zimniye igry) and commonly known as Sochi
Sochi
2014, was a major international multi-sport event held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014. Both the Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics
2014 Winter Paralympics
were organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee (SOOC). Sochi
Sochi
was selected as the host city in July 2007, during the 119th IOC
IOC
Session held in Guatemala
Guatemala
City. It was the first Olympics in Russia
Russia
since the breakup of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was previously the host nation for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. These were the first Olympic Games
Olympic Games
under the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) presidency of Thomas Bach. A total of 98 events in 15 winter sport disciplines were held during the Games. A number of new competitions—a total of 12 accounting for gender—were held during the Games, including biathlon mixed relay, women's ski jumping, mixed-team figure skating, mixed-team luge, half-pipe skiing, ski and snowboard slopestyle, and snowboard parallel slalom. The events were held around two clusters of new venues: an Olympic Park constructed in Sochi's Imeretinsky Valley
Imeretinsky Valley
on the coast of the Black Sea, with Fisht Olympic Stadium, and the Games' indoor venues located within walking distance, and snow events in the resort settlement of Krasnaya Polyana. The 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
were the most expensive Olympics in history. While originally budgeted at US$12 billion, various factors caused the budget to expand to US$51 billion, which is more than three times the cost of the Olympics in London and surpassing the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
in Beijing. In 2016, an independent report commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency confirmed allegations that the Russian Olympic team had been involved in a state-sponsored doping program, active from at least late-2011 through August 2015. The program was active during the Winter Olympics in Sochi, and athletes had benefited from the cover-up.[4][5][6] In December 2017, the IOC
IOC
voted to suspend the Russian Olympic Committee, with an option for whitelisted athletes to compete independently during the 2018 Winter Olympics.[7][8]

Contents

1 Bidding process 2 Cost and financing

2.1 The breakdown of the 2014 Sochi
Sochi
Winter Olympics costs[16]

3 Venues

3.1 Sochi
Sochi
Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster) 3.2 Krasnaya Polyana (Mountain Cluster) 3.3 Post-Olympic usage

4 Marketing

4.1 Logo and branding 4.2 Mascots 4.3 Video game 4.4 Stamps and coins

5 Construction

5.1 Telecommunications 5.2 Power infrastructure 5.3 Transportation 5.4 Other infrastructure

6 The Games

6.1 Torch relay 6.2 Opening ceremony 6.3 Participating National Olympic Committees

6.3.1 National houses

6.4 Sports 6.5 Closing ceremony

7 Medals

7.1 Medal table 7.2 Podium Sweeps

8 Calendar 9 Security

9.1 Measures 9.2 Incidents and threats

10 Media

10.1 Broadcasting rights 10.2 Filming

11 Concerns and controversies

11.1 Russian doping scandal

12 See also 13 Notes and references 14 External links

Bidding process Main article: Bids for the 2014 Winter Olympics

Fans celebrating Sochi's bid win

Sochi
Sochi
was elected on 4 July 2007 during the 119th International Olympic Committee (IOC) session held in Guatemala
Guatemala
City, Guatemala, defeating bids from Salzburg, Austria; and Pyeongchang, South Korea.[9] This is the first time that the Russian Federation has hosted the Winter Olympics. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was the host of the 1980 Summer Olympics held in and around Moscow.

2014 host city election – ballot results

City Country (NOC) Round 1 Round 2

Sochi  Russia 34 51

Pyeongchang  South Korea 36 47

Salzburg  Austria 25 —

Cost and financing See also: Cost of the Olympic Games As of October 2013, the estimated combined cost of the 2014 Winter Olympics had topped US$51 billion.[10] This amount included the cost for Olympic games themselves and cost of Sochi
Sochi
infrastructural projects (roads, railroads, power plants). This total is over four times the initial budget of $12 billion (compared to the $8 billion spent for the 2010 Winter Olympics
2010 Winter Olympics
in Vancouver), and made the Sochi games the most expensive Olympics in history, exceeding the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
in Beijing,[11] which hosted 3 times as many events.[12] Dmitry Kozak was the main overseer for the events in Sochi.[13][14][15] In its final budget published in June 2014, Olimpstroy—the state corporation that oversaw the Sochi
Sochi
Olympics development—reported the total allocated funds for the 2014 Sochi
Sochi
Winter Olympics of 1,524 billion rubles (US$49.5 billion).[16] However, only about a fifth of that budget ($10.8 billion) was directly related to the Olympic games, while the rest went into urban and regional regeneration and the conversion of the Sochi
Sochi
region into an all-year round sea and alpine resort.[16] The breakdown table below is based on a report that has analyzed the distribution of Olimpstroy's $49.5 billion budget. Estimates also suggest that additional unrecoverable operational costs (including for security) could have added another $3 billion.[16] The breakdown of the 2014 Sochi
Sochi
Winter Olympics costs[16]

Costs million RUB million US$

DIRECT OLYMPICS COSTS (a)+(b)+(c) 331,098 10,753

(a) Olympic venues 221,592 7,197

Coastal Cluster 96,366 3,130

Fisht Olympic Stadium 18,994 617

Bolshoy Ice Dome 10,102 328

Shayba Arena 3,484 113

Adler Arena Skating Centre 7,406 241

Iceberg Skating Palace 8,127 264

Ice Cube Curling
Curling
Centre 735 24

Main Media Centre 17,426 566

The Olympic Park 9,871 321

Olympic Village
Olympic Village
(3000 places) 12,217 397

A complex for Olympic partners (1285 apartments) 8,003 260

Mountain Cluster 125,226 4,067

Rosa Khutor Extreme Park (freestyle skiing, snowboarding) 3,393 110

Rosa Khutor Alpine Skiing
Skiing
Centre 11,911 387

Sanki Sliding Centre (bobsleigh, luge, skeleton) 7,487 243

RusSki Gorki Jumping Centre (ski jumps, Nordic combined) 9,889 321

Laura Centre (biathlon and cross-country) and Olympic Village
Olympic Village
(1100 places)

74,525 2,420

Main Alpine Olympic Village
Olympic Village
(2600 places) at Rosa Khutor 18,021 585

(b) Site preparation and supporting infrastructure 85,370 2,773

Key infrastructure for Olympic venues (roads, energy, water, waste, security), planning and other works

81,413 2,644

SOCOG office building 3,957 129

(c) Operational costs (part of) 24,135 784

Opening/closing ceremonies (equipment and organisation) 3,444 112

Broadcasting and photo equipment 13,330 433

Vehicles for visitors and logistics 6,958 226

Live Sites city programme 403 13

INDIRECT COSTS (d)+(e) 1,193,348 38,758

(d) Skiing
Skiing
and Tourist Resorts 189,937 6,169

Gazprom Alpine Tourist Centre 60,723 1,972

Rosa Khutor 35,078 1,139

Gornaya Karusel/Gorky Gorod 72,728 2,362

Alpika Service 21,408 695

(e) Other projects 1,003,411 32,589

Hotels and health resorts 130,755 4,247

Formula One
Formula One
Racing 11,982 389

Olympic University 12,946 420

Combined rail- and motor- road linking the two clusters 317,224 10,303

Railways and rail terminals 38,015 1,235

Road infrastructure 189,532 6,156

Sochi
Sochi
Airport 22,895 744

Sochi
Sochi
Seaport 27,673 899

Housing projects 11,379 370

Power generation and grids 74,305 2,413

Gasification projects 46,048 1,496

Other engineering, water, waste, telecommunications and other infrastructure

104,912 3,407

Nature and culture parks 11,346 369

Two hospitals 4,399 143

TOTAL (a)+(b)+(c)+(d)+(e) 1,524,445 49,511

Venues Main article: Venues of the 2014 Winter Olympics

Sochi

Location of Sochi
Sochi
on the eastern coast of the Black Sea.

With an average February temperature of 8.3 °C (42.8 °F) and a humid subtropical climate, Sochi
Sochi
is the warmest city to host a Winter Olympic Games.[17] Sochi
Sochi
2014 is the 12th straight Olympics to outlaw smoking; all Sochi
Sochi
venues, Olympic Park bars and restaurants and public areas were smoke-free during the Games.[18] It is also the first time that an Olympic Park has been built for hosting winter games.[citation needed] Sochi
Sochi
Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster) Main article: Sochi
Sochi
Olympic Park

Panoramic view of the Sochi
Sochi
Olympic Park

The Sochi
Sochi
Olympic Park was built by the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast in the Imeretinsky Valley, about 4 km (2.5 miles) from Russia's border with Abkhazia/Georgia.[19][20] The venues were clustered around a central water basin on which the Medals Plaza is built, allowing all indoor venues to be within walking distance. It also features "The Waters of the Olympic Park" (designed by California-based company WET), a choreographed fountain which served as the backdrop in the medals awards and the opening and closing ceremonies of the event.[21][22] The new venues include:[23]

Fisht Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
– ceremonies (opening/closing) 40,000 spectators Bolshoy Ice Dome
Bolshoy Ice Dome
– ice hockey (final), 12,000 spectators Shayba Arena
Shayba Arena
– ice hockey, 7,000 spectators Adler Arena Skating Center
Adler Arena Skating Center
– speed skating, 8,000 spectators Iceberg Skating Palace
Iceberg Skating Palace
– figure skating, short track speed skating, 12,000 spectators Ice Cube Curling Center
Ice Cube Curling Center
– curling, 3,000 spectators Main Olympic village International broadcasting centre and main press room

A sketch of the layout of Sochi
Sochi
Olympic Park.

Krasnaya Polyana (Mountain Cluster)

Chairlift in Krasnaya Polyana

Main article: Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi, Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Krai

Laura Biathlon
Biathlon
& Ski Complex – biathlon, cross-country skiing Rosa Khutor Extreme Park – freestyle skiing and snowboarding Rosa Khutor Alpine Resort
Rosa Khutor Alpine Resort
– alpine skiing Sliding Center Sanki
Sliding Center Sanki
– bobsleigh, luge and skeleton RusSki Gorki Jumping Center
RusSki Gorki Jumping Center
– ski jumping and Nordic combined
Nordic combined
(both ski jumping and cross-country skiing on a 2 km route around the arena) Roza Khutor plateau Olympic Village

2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
Mountain Cluster Venues (interactive map)

Post-Olympic usage

Fisht Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
under re-construction in 2015.

A street circuit known as the Sochi
Sochi
Autodrom was constructed in and around Olympic Park. Its primary use is to host the Formula One Russian Grand Prix, which held its inaugural edition in October 2014.[24][25][26] In January 2015, work began on adapting Fisht Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
into an open-air football stadium to host matches during the 2018 FIFA World Cup.[27][28] A new ice hockey team in the Kontinental Hockey League, HC Sochi Leopards, now plays in Bolshoy Arena. Marketing

A Soyuz rocket with Olympic livery. Its flight to the International Space Station, TMA-11M, was part of Sochi's torch relay.

Logo and branding The emblem of the 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
was unveiled in December 2009. While more elaborate designs with influence from Khokhloma
Khokhloma
were considered, organizers chose to use a more minimalistic and "futuristic" design instead, consisting only of typefaces with no drawn elements at all. The emblem was designed so that the "Sochi" and "2014" lettering would mirror each other vertically, "reflecting" the contrasts of Russia's landscape (such as Sochi
Sochi
itself, a meeting point between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Western Caucasus).[29] Critics, including Russian bloggers, panned the logo for being too simplistic and lacking any real symbolism; Guo Chunning, designer of the 2008 Summer Olympics emblem Dancing Beijing, criticized it for its lack of detail, and believed it should have contained more elements that represented winter and Russia's national identity, aside from its blue color scheme and its use of .ru, the top-level domain of Russia.[29] The Games' official slogan, Hot. Cool. Yours. (Жаркие. Зимние. Твои.), was unveiled on 25 September 2012, 500 days before the opening ceremony. Presenting the slogan, SOC president Dmitry Chernyshenko explained that it represented the "passion" and heated competition of the Games' athletes, the contrasting climate of Sochi, and a sense of inclusion and belonging.[30][31] Mascots Main article: 2014 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
mascots

Postage stamps depicting the three Olympic mascots

For the first time in Olympic history, a public vote was held to decide the mascots for the 2014 Winter Olympics; the 10 finalists, along with the results, were unveiled during live specials on Channel One. On 26 February 2011, the official mascots were unveiled, consisting of a polar bear, a snow hare, and a snow leopard. The initial rounds consisted of online voting among submissions, while the final round involved text messaging.[32][33][34] A satirical mascot known as Zoich
Zoich
(its name being an interpretation of the stylized "2014" lettering from the Games' emblem as a cyrillic word), a fuzzy blue frog with hypnotic multi-coloured rings (sharing the colors of the Olympic rings) on his eyeballs and the Imperial Crown ("to remind about statehood and spirituality"), proved popular in initial rounds of online voting, and became a local internet meme among Russians, with some comparing it to Futurama's "Hypnotoad". Despite its popularity, Zoich
Zoich
did not qualify for the final round of voting, with its creator, political cartoonist Egor Zhgun, claiming that organizers were refusing to respect public opinion. However, it was later revealed that Zoich
Zoich
was deliberately planted by organizers to help virally promote the online mascot vote.[34][35] Video game The official Olympic video game is the fourth game in the Mario & Sonic series, Mario & Sonic at the Sochi
Sochi
2014 Olympic Winter Games. It was released by Nintendo
Nintendo
for the Wii U
Wii U
on 8 November 2013 in Europe, and 15 November 2013 in North America.[36] Others were Sochi 2014: Ski Slopestyle
Slopestyle
Challenge for Android operating system and Sochi 2014: Olympic Games
Olympic Games
Resort for online social network Facebook.[37] Stamps and coins In commemoration of the Games, Russian Post
Russian Post
released a series of postage stamps depicting athletes, venues, and the mascots of the Games. The Bank of Russia
Russia
also issued special coins and 100-ruble notes for the Games.[38] Construction

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and Laura Bush
Laura Bush
examining the models of the Olympic facilities for Sochi, April 2008

100 Russian ruble
Russian ruble
banknote issued in 2013 by the Central Bank of Russia

The Olympic infrastructure was constructed according to a Federal Target Program (FTP). In June 2009, the Games' organizers reported they were one year ahead in building the main Olympic facilities as compared to recent Olympic Games.[39] In November 2011, IOC
IOC
President Jacques Rogge
Jacques Rogge
was in Sochi
Sochi
and concluded that the city had made significant progress since he last visited eighteen months earlier.[40] Telecommunications See also: Telecommunications in Russia According to the FTP, US$580 million would be spent on construction and modernization of telecommunications in the region. Avaya
Avaya
was named by the Sochi
Sochi
Organizing Committee as the official supplier of telecommunications equipment. Avaya
Avaya
provided the data network equipment, including switches, routers, security, telephones and contact-center systems. It provided engineers and technicians to design and test the systems, and worked with other technology partners to provide athletes, dignitaries and fans information about the Games.[41][42] The 2014 Olympics is the first "fabric-enabled" Games using Shortest Path Bridging (SPB) technology.[43] The network is capable of handling up to 54,000 Gbit/s (54 Tbit/s) of traffic.[44] Infrastructure built for the games included:

A network of TETRA
TETRA
mobile radio communications for 100 user groups (with capacity of 10,000 subscribers); 712 km (442 mi) of fiber-optic cables along the Anapa-Dzhubga- Sochi
Sochi
highways and Dzhubga– Krasnodar
Krasnodar
branch; Digital broadcasting infrastructure, including radio and television broadcasting stations (building and communications towers) with coverage from Grushevaya Polyana (Pear Glade) to Sochi
Sochi
and Anapa cities. The project also included construction of infocommunications centre for broadcasting abroad via three HDTV satellites.

During the Games, the core networks of Rostelecom
Rostelecom
and Transtelekom were used.[45] In January 2012, the newest equipment for the television coverage of the Games arrived in the port of Adler. Prepared specifically for the Games, a team of regional specialists and the latest technology provide a qualitatively new level of television production in the region.[46] The fiber-optic channel links Sochi
Sochi
between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana. The 46-kilometre-long (29 mi) channel enables videoconferencing and news reporting from the Olympics.[47] In November 2013, it was reported that the fiber-optic cable that was built by the Federal Communications Agency, Rossvyaz, had no operator. With Rostelecom
Rostelecom
and Megafon
Megafon
both refusing to operate it, the line was transferred to the ownership of the state enterprise Center for Monitoring & Development of Infocommunication Technologies (Russian: Центр МИР ИТ).[48] Russian mobile phone operator Megafon
Megafon
expanded and improved Sochi's telecom infrastructure with over 700 new 2G/3G/4G cell towers. Sochi was the first Games to offer 4G connectivity at a speed of 10 MB/sec. In January 2014, Rostelecom
Rostelecom
reported that it had connected the Olympic media center in Sochi
Sochi
to the Internet and organized channels of communication with the main media center of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in the coastal cluster and press center in Moscow. The media center was built at total cost of 17 million rubles.[49][50] Power infrastructure

Night view of Sochi
Sochi
during the Olympics, taken by Expedition 38 members from the International Space Station

A five-year strategy for increasing the power supply of the Sochi region was presented by Russian energy experts during a seminar on 29 May 2009, held by the Sochi
Sochi
2014 Organizing Committee, and attended by International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) experts and officials from the Russian Ministry of Regional Development, the Russian Ministry of Energy, the State Corporation Olimpstroy and the Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Krai administration.[51] According to the strategy, the capacity of the regional energy network would increase by two and a half times by 2014, guaranteeing a stable power supply during and after the Games. The power demand of Sochi
Sochi
in the end of May 2009 was 424 MW. The power demand of the Olympic infrastructure was expected to be about 340 MW.

Poselkovaya electrical substation became operational in early 2009. Sochi
Sochi
thermal power station reconstructed (expected power output was 160 MW) Laura and Rosa Khutor electrical substations were completed in November 2010 Mzymta electrical substation was completed in March 2011 Krasnopolyanskaya hydroelectric power station was completed in 2010 Adler CHP station design and construction was completed in 2012. Expected power output was 360 MW[52] Bytkha substation, under construction with two transformers 25 MW each, includes dependable microprocessor-based protection

Earlier plans also include building combined cycle (steam and gas) power stations near the cities of Tuapse
Tuapse
and Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk
and construction of a cable-wire powerline, partially on the floor of the Black Sea.[53] Transportation See also: Transport in Russia The transport infrastructure prepared to support the Olympics includes many roads, tunnels, bridges, interchanges, railroads and stations in and around Sochi. Among others, 8 flyovers, 102 bridges, tens of tunnels and a bypass route for heavy trucks — 367 km (228 miles) of roads were paved.[54] The Sochi
Sochi
Light Metro is located between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana connecting the Olympic Park, Sochi
Sochi
International Airport, and the venues in Krasnaya Polyana.[55]

Aerial view of Sochi

The existing 102 km (63-mile), Tuapse-to-Adler railroad was renovated to provide double track throughout, increasing capacity and enabling a reliable regional service to be provided and extending to the airport. In December 2009, Russian Railways
Russian Railways
ordered 38 Siemens Mobility Desiro trains for delivery in 2013 for use during the Olympics, with an option for a further 16 partly built in Russia.[56] Russian Railways
Russian Railways
established a high-speed Moscow-Adler link and a new railroad (more than 60 kilometres or 37 miles long) passing by the territory of Ukraine.[57]

Sochi
Sochi
International Airport

At Sochi
Sochi
International Airport, a new terminal was built along a 3.5 km (2.2-mile) runway extension, overlapping the Mzymta River.[58] Backup airports were built in Gelendzhik, Mineralnye Vody and Krasnodar
Krasnodar
by 2009.[59]

Sochi
Sochi
seaport

At the Port of Sochi, a new offshore terminal 1.5 km (0.93 mi) from the shore allows docking for cruise ships with capacities of 3,000 passengers.[60] The cargo terminal of the seaport would be moved from the centre of Sochi. Roadways were detoured, some going around the construction site and others being cut off.[61]

A "Lastochka" (Siemens Desiro) train, which serves the Tuapse–Sochi route

In May 2009, Russian Railways
Russian Railways
started the construction of tunnel complex No. 1 (the final total is six) on the combined road (automobile and railway) from Adler to Alpica Service Mountain Resort in the Krasnaya Polyana region. The tunnel complex No. 1 is located near Akhshtyr in Adlersky City District, and includes:[62]

Escape tunnel, 2.25 kilometres (1.40 mi), completed in 2010 Road tunnel, 2,153 metres (7,064 ft), completed in 2013 One-track railway tunnel, 2,473 metres (8,114 ft), completed in 2013

Russian Railways
Russian Railways
president Vladimir Yakunin
Vladimir Yakunin
stated the road construction costed more than 200 billion rubles.[63] In addition, Sochi's railway stations were renovated. These are Dagomys, Sochi, Matsesta, Khosta, Lazarevskaya, and Loo railway stations. In Adler, a new railway station was built while the original building was preserved, and in the Olympic park cluster, a new station was built from scratch, the Olympic Park railway station. Another new railway station was built in Estosadok, close to Krasnaya Polyana. Other infrastructure

Sochi
Sochi
at night from space[64]

Funds were spent on the construction of hotels for 10,300 guests.[65] The first of the Olympic hotels, Zvezdny (Stellar), was rebuilt anew.[66] Significant funds were spent on the construction of an advanced sewage treatment system in Sochi, designed by Olimpstroy. The system meets BREF standards and employs top available technologies for environment protection, including tertiary treatment with microfiltration.[67] Six post offices were opened at competition venues, two of them in the main media centre in Olympic Park and in the mountain village of Estosadok. In addition to standard services, customers had access to unique services including two new products, Fotomarka and Retropismo. Fotomarka presents an opportunity to get a stylized sheet of eight souvenir stamps with one's own photos, using the services of a photographer in the office. Retropismo service allows a customer to write with their own stylus or pen on antique paper with further letters, winding string and wax seal affixing. All the new sites and post offices in Sochi
Sochi
were opened during the Olympics until late night 7 days a week, and employees were trained to speak English.[68] The Games Torch relay Main article: 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
torch relay

Play media

Torch relay in Moscow

On 29 September 2013, the Olympic torch was lit in Ancient Olympia, beginning a seven-day journey across Greece and on to Russia, then the torch relay started at Moscow
Moscow
on 7 October 2013 before passing 83 Russian cities and arriving at Sochi
Sochi
on the day of the opening ceremony, 7 February 2014.[69] It is the longest torch relay in Olympic history, a 60,000-kilometre (40,000 miles) route that passes through all regions of the country, from Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
in the west to Chukotka in the east. The Olympic torch reached the North Pole
North Pole
for first time via a nuclear-powered icebreaker (50 Let Pobedy). The torch was also passed for the first time in space, though not lit for the duration of the flight for safety reasons, on flight Soyuz TMA-11M
Soyuz TMA-11M
to the International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS). The spacecraft itself was adorned with Olympic-themed livery including the Games' emblem. Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov
Oleg Kotov
and Sergey Ryazansky
Sergey Ryazansky
waved the torch on a spacewalk outside ISS. The torch returned to Earth five days later on board Soyuz TMA-09M.[70][71] The torch also reached Europe's highest mountain, Mount Elbrus, and Siberia's Lake Baikal.[72] Opening ceremony Main articles: 2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony
2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony
and 2014 Winter Olympics Parade of Nations

Fireworks over Fisht Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
following the lighting of the Olympic Cauldron.

The Olympic Rings at Sochi
Sochi
Olympic Park

The opening ceremony of the 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
was held on 7 February 2014 at Fisht Olympic Stadium, an indoor arena built specifically for the ceremonies. The ceremony featured scenes based around aspects of Russian history and arts, including ballet, classical music, the Russian Revolution, and the age of the Soviet Union. The opening scene of the ceremony featured a notable technical error, where one of five snowflakes, which were to expand to form the Olympic rings, malfunctioned and did not expand (a mishap mocked by the organizers at the closing ceremony where one of the roundrelay dance groups symbolizing the Olympic rings
Olympic rings
"failed" to expand). The torch was taken into the stadium by Maria Sharapova, who then passed it to Yelena Isinbayeva
Yelena Isinbayeva
who, in turn, passed it to wrestler Aleksandr Karelin. Karelin then passed the torch to gymnast Alina Kabaeva. Figure skater Irina Rodnina took the torch and was met by former ice hockey goalkeeper Vladislav Tretiak, who exited the stadium to jointly light the Olympic cauldron located near the centre of Olympic Park.[73][74] Participating National Olympic Committees A record 88 nations qualified to compete,[75] which beat the previous record of 82 set at the previous Winter Olympics in Vancouver. The number of athletes who qualified per country is listed in the table below (number of athletes shown in parentheses). Seven nations made their Winter Olympics debut: Dominica, Malta, Paraguay, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, and Zimbabwe.[76] Kristina Krone qualified to compete in her second consecutive games for Puerto Rico, but the island's Olympic Committee once again chose not to send her to compete.[77] Similarly, South Africa decided not to send alpine skier Sive Speelman to Sochi.[78] Algeria also did not enter its only qualified athlete, Mehdi-Selim Khelifi.[79] India's athletes originally competed as Independent Olympic Participants and marched under the Olympic flag
Olympic flag
during the opening ceremony, as India
India
was originally suspended in December 2012 over the election process of the Indian Olympic Association.[80] On 11 February, the Indian Olympic Association
Indian Olympic Association
was reinstated and India's athletes were allowed the option to compete under their own flag from that time onward.[81] Although Shiva Keshavan competed as an Independent athlete and is recorded as such, he was permitted to walk under the flag of India
India
at the Closing Ceremony.

  The participating countries at the Winter Olympics 2014   Debuting countries at the Winter Olympics

Participating National Olympic Committees (number of qualifying athletes)

 Albania (2)  Andorra (6)  Argentina (7)  Armenia (4)  Australia (61)  Austria (130)  Azerbaijan (4)  Belarus (26)  Belgium (7)  Bermuda (1)  Bosnia and Herzegovina (5)  Brazil (13)  British Virgin Islands (1)  Bulgaria (18)  Canada (222)  Cayman Islands (1)  Chile (6)  China (66)  Chinese Taipei (3)  Croatia (11)  Cyprus (2)  Czech Republic (85)  Denmark (12)  Dominica (2)  East Timor (1)  Estonia (24)  Finland (103)  France (105)  Georgia (4)  Germany (153)  Great Britain (56)  Greece (7)  Hong Kong (1)  Hungary (16)  Iceland (5)  India (3)  Iran (5)  Ireland (5)  Israel (5)  Italy (113)  Jamaica (2)  Japan (113)  Kazakhstan (52)  Kyrgyzstan (1)  Latvia (58)  Lebanon (2)  Liechtenstein (4)  Lithuania (9)  Luxembourg (1)  Macedonia (3)  Malta (1)  Mexico (1)  Moldova (4)  Monaco (5)  Mongolia (2)  Montenegro (2)  Morocco (2)  Nepal (1)  Netherlands (41)  New Zealand (15)  Norway (134)  Pakistan (1)  Paraguay (1)  Peru (3)  Philippines (1)  Poland (59)  Portugal (2)  Romania (24)  Russia (232) (host nation)  San Marino (2)  Serbia (8)  Slovakia (62)  Slovenia (66)  South Korea (71)  Spain (20)  Sweden (106)  Switzerland (168)  Tajikistan (1)  Thailand (2)  Togo (2)  Tonga (1)  Turkey (6)  Ukraine (43)  United States (230)  Uzbekistan (3)  Venezuela (1)  Virgin Islands (1)  Zimbabwe (1)

NOCs that participated in 2010, but not in 2014. NOCs that participated in 2014, but not in 2010.

 Algeria  Colombia  Ethiopia  Ghana  North Korea  Senegal  South Africa

 British Virgin Islands  Dominica  East Timor  Luxembourg  Malta  Paraguay  Philippines  Thailand  Togo  Tonga  Venezuela  Virgin Islands  Zimbabwe

National houses During the Games some countries had a national house, a meeting place for supporters, athletes and other followers.[82] Houses can be either free for visitors to access or they can have limited access by invitation only.[83]

Nation Location Name Website

 Austria Mountain Cluster Austria
Austria
Tirol House

 Canada[84] Coastal Cluster (Next to Fisht Olympic Stadium) Canada House

 China[85] Zhemchuzhina hotel China House

 Czech Republic[86] Adler Czech House

 France[87] Gornaya Karusel (Mountain Cluster) Club France Official website

 Germany[88] Estosadok, Krasnaya Polyana (Mountain Cluster) German House Official website

 Italy[89] Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster) Italy House Official website

 Japan[83] Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster) Japan House

 Latvia[90] Radisson Hotel Latvian House

 Netherlands[91] Azimut Hotel Resort (near Coastal Cluster) Holland Heineken House Official website

 Russia[83] Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster) NOC Hospitality Houses of Russia

 Slovakia[92] Sochi
Sochi
railway station Slovak Point

 South Korea[93] Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster) Korea House

 Switzerland[83] Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster) House of Switzerland Official website

 United States[94] Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster) USA House Official website

Sports 98 events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports were included in the 2014 Winter Olympics. The three skating sports disciplines are figure skating, speed skating, and short track speed skating. There were six skiing sport disciplines—alpine, cross-country skiing, freestyle, Nordic combined, ski jumping and snowboarding. The two bobsleigh sports disciplines are bobsleigh and skeleton. The other four sports are biathlon, curling, ice hockey, and luge. A total of twelve new events are contested to make it the largest Winter Olympics to date.[95][96] Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each sports discipline.

Alpine skiing
Alpine skiing
(10) (details) Biathlon
Biathlon
(11) (details) Bobsleigh
Bobsleigh
(3) (details) Cross-country skiing
Cross-country skiing
(12) (details) Curling
Curling
(2) (details) Figure skating
Figure skating
(5) (details) Freestyle skiing
Freestyle skiing
(10) (details) Ice hockey
Ice hockey
(2) (details) Luge
Luge
(4) (details) Nordic combined
Nordic combined
(3) (details) Short track speed skating
Short track speed skating
(8) (details) Skeleton (2) (details) Ski jumping
Ski jumping
(4) (details) Snowboarding
Snowboarding
(10) (details) Speed skating
Speed skating
(12) (details)

Postage stamps of Pridnestrovie, Sochi
Sochi
Olympic Games
Olympic Games
(2014)

On 6 April 2011, the IOC
IOC
accepted a number of events that were submitted by their respective sports federations to be considered for inclusion into the official program of these Olympic Games.[97] The events include:

Figure skating
Figure skating
team event Women's ski jumping Mixed relay biathlon Ski half-pipe Team relay luge

On 4 July 2011 the IOC
IOC
announced that three events would be added to the program.[98] These events were officially declared by Olympic Committee President Jacques Rogge
Jacques Rogge
on 5 July 2011.[96]

Ski slopestyle Snowboard slopestyle Snowboard parallel special slalom

Team alpine skiing was presented as a candidate for inclusion in the Olympic program but the Executive board of the IOC
IOC
rejected this proposal. The International Ski Federation
International Ski Federation
persisted with the nomination and this was considered.[99] There were reports of bandy possibly being added to the sports program,[100][101][102] but the IOC rejected this request. Subsequently, the international governing body, Federation of International Bandy, decided that Irkutsk
Irkutsk
and Shelekhov in Russia
Russia
would host the 2014 Bandy
Bandy
World Championship just before the Olympics. On 28 November 2006, the Executive Board of the IOC
IOC
decided not to include the following sports in the review process of the program.[103]

Ski mountaineering[104] Ski-orienteering[105] Winter triathlon[103]

Closing ceremony Main article: 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
closing ceremony The closing ceremony was held on 23 February 2014 between 20:14 MSK (UTC+4) and 22:25 MSK (UTC+4) at the Fisht Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
in Sochi.[106] The ceremony was dedicated to Russian culture featuring world-renowned Russian stars like conductor and violinist Yuri Bashmet, conductor Valery Gergiev, pianist Denis Matsuev, singer Hibla Gerzmava and violinist Tatiana Samouil. These artists were joined by performers from the Bolshoi and Mariinsky theaters. Medals Main article: List of 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
medal winners Sochi's medal design was unveiled in May 2013. The design is intended to resemble Sochi's landscape, with a semi-translucent section containing a "patchwork quilt" of diamonds representing mountains; the diamonds themselves contain designs that reflect Russia's regions.[107] Those who won gold medals on 15 February received special medals with fragments of the Chelyabinsk meteor, marking the one-year anniversary of the event where pieces of the cosmic body fell into the Chebarkul Lake in the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
in central Russia.[108] Medal table Main article: 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
medal table The top ten listed NOCs by number of gold medals are listed below. The host nation, Russia, is highlighted. To sort this table by nation, total medal count, or any other column, click on the icon next to the column title.      Host nation (Russia)

Rank NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total

1  Russia (RUS) 11 9 9 29

2  Norway (NOR) 11 5 10 26

3  Canada (CAN) 10 10 5 25

4  United States (USA) 9 7 12 28

5  Netherlands (NED) 8 7 9 24

6  Germany (GER) 8 6 5 19

7  Switzerland (SUI) 6 3 2 11

8  Belarus (BLR) 5 0 1 6

9  Austria (AUT) 4 8 5 17

10  France (FRA) 4 4 7 15

11–26 Remaining NOCs 21 36 34 91

Total (26 NOCs) 97 95 99 291

Podium Sweeps

Date Sport Event NOC Gold Silver Bronze

8 February Speed skating Men's 5000 metres  Netherlands Sven Kramer Jan Blokhuijsen Jorrit Bergsma

10 February Speed skating Men's 500 metres  Netherlands Michel Mulder Jan Smeekens Ronald Mulder

13 February Freestyle skiing Men's slopestyle  United States Joss Christensen Gus Kenworthy Nick Goepper

16 February Speed skating Women's 1500 metres  Netherlands Jorien ter Mors Ireen Wüst Lotte van Beek

18 February Speed skating Men's 10000 metres  Netherlands Jorrit Bergsma Sven Kramer Bob de Jong

20 February Freestyle skiing Men's ski cross  France Jean-Frédéric Chapuis Arnaud Bovolenta Jonathan Midol

22 February Cross-country skiing Women's 30 kilometre freestyle  Norway Marit Bjørgen Therese Johaug Kristin Størmer Steira

23 February Cross-country skiing Men's 50 kilometre freestyle  Russia Alexander Legkov[a] Maxim Vylegzhanin[a] Ilia Chernousov

a Legkov and Vylegzhanin were initially disqualified by the IOC
IOC
for doping offences in November 2017, and their 2014 Olympic medals were stripped (gold and silver respectively). However, their results were restored on 1 February 2018 following a successful appeal. Calendar Main article: Chronological summary of the 2014 Winter Olympics In the following calendar each blue box represents one or more event competition(s), such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent medal-awarding finals for a sport with in each box the number of finals that were contested on that day.[109]

All dates are MSK (UTC+4)

OC Opening ceremony ● Event competitions 1 Event finals EG Exhibition gala CC Closing ceremony

February 6th Thu 7th Fri 8th Sat 9th Sun 10th Mon 11th Tue 12th Wed 13th Thu 14th Fri 15th Sat 16th Sun 17th Mon 18th Tue 19th Wed 20th Thu 21st Fri 22nd Sat 23rd Sun Events

Ceremonies

OC

CC

Alpine skiing

1 1

1

1 1 1

1 1

1 1

10

Biathlon

1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1

1 1

11

Bobsleigh

● 1 ● 1

● 1 3

Cross-country skiing

1 1

2

1 1 1 1

2

1 1 12

Curling

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 1 1

2

Figure skating ●

● 1

● 1 ● 1

● 1

● 1

EG

5

Freestyle skiing ●

1

1 1

1 1

1 1

2 1

10

Ice hockey

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 1 ● ● 1 2

Luge

● 1 ● 1 1 1

4

Nordic combined

1

1

1

3

Short track speed skating

1

1

2

1

3

8

Skeleton

● 1 1

2

Ski jumping

● 1

1

● 1

1

4

Snowboarding ●

1 1

1 1

1

1 2

2

10

Speed skating

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1

● 2

12

Daily medal events

5 8 5 8 6 6 6 7 4 5 7 8 6 7 7 3 98

Cumulative total

5 13 18 26 32 38 44 51 55 60 67 75 81 88 95 98

February 6th Thu 7th Fri 8th Sat 9th Sun 10th Mon 11th Tue 12th Wed 13th Thu 14th Fri 15th Sat 16th Sun 17th Mon 18th Tue 19th Wed 20th Thu 21st Fri 22nd Sat 23rd Sun Total events

Security Measures Security during both the Olympics and Paralympics were handled by over 40,000 law enforcement officials, including police and the Russian Armed Forces.[110][111] A Presidential Decree signed by President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
took effect on 7 January, requiring that any protests and demonstrations in Sochi
Sochi
and the surrounding area through 21 March (the end of the Paralympics) be approved by the Federal Security Service.[112] For the duration of the decree, travel restrictions were also in effect in and around Sochi: "controlled" zones, dubbed the "ring of steel" by the media, covered the Coastal and Mountain clusters which encompass all of the Games' venues and infrastructure, including transport hubs such as railway stations. To enter controlled areas, visitors were required to pass through security checkpoints with x-ray machines, metal detectors and explosive material scanners.[113] Several areas were designated as "forbidden", including Sochi
Sochi
National Park and the border with Abkhazia.[112][114] An unmanned aerial vehicle squadron, along with S-400 and Pantsir-S1
Pantsir-S1
air defense rockets were used to protect Olympic airspace. Four gunboats were also deployed on the Black Sea
Black Sea
to protect the coastline.[115] A number of security organizations and forces began stationing in and around Sochi
Sochi
in January 2014; Russia's Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM) was stationed in Sochi
Sochi
for the Games beginning on 7 January 2014.[116][117] A group of 10,000 Internal Troops of the Ministry of Interior also provided security services during the Games.[118] In mid-January, 1,500 Siberian Regional Command troops were stationed in a military town near Krasnaya Polyana.[119] A group of 400 cossacks in traditional uniforms were also present to accompany police patrols.[120][121] The 58th Army unit of the Russian Armed Forces, were defending the Georgia- Russia
Russia
border.[122] The United States also supplied Navy ships and other assets for security purposes.[123] All communication and Internet traffic by Sochi
Sochi
residents was captured and filtered through deep packet inspection systems at all mobile networks using the SORM system.[124][125] Former professional speed skater and current deputy of the Russian State Duma
State Duma
Svetlana Zhurova
Svetlana Zhurova
has stated that the 2014 Sochi
Sochi
Olympics were Vladimir Putin's personal project to showcase Russia
Russia
to the world.[126] Incidents and threats Organizers received several threats prior to the Games. In a July 2013 video release, Chechen Islamist commander Dokka Umarov
Dokka Umarov
called for attacks on the Games, stating that the Games were being staged "on the bones of many, many Muslims killed ...and buried on our lands extending to the Red Sea."[127] Threats were received from the group Vilayat Dagestan, which had claimed responsibility for the Volgograd bombings
Volgograd bombings
under the demands of Umarov, and a number of National Olympic Committees had also received threats via e-mail, threatening that terrorists would kidnap or "blow up" athletes during the Games. However, while the IOC
IOC
did state that the letters "[contained] no threat and appears to be a random message from a member of the public", the U.S. ski and snowboarding teams hired a private security agency to provide additional protection during the Games.[122][128][129] Media Broadcasting rights Main article: List of 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
broadcasters In most regions, broadcast rights to the 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
were packaged together with broadcast rights for the 2016 Summer Olympics, but some broadcasters obtained rights to further games as well. Domestic broadcast rights were sold by Sportfive
Sportfive
to a consortium of three Russian broadcasters; Channel One, VGTRK, and NTV Plus.[130] In the United States, the 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
were the first in a new, US$4.38 billion contract with NBCUniversal, extending its broadcast rights to the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
through 2020.[131] In Canada, after losing the 2010 and 2012 Games to Bell Media
Bell Media
and Rogers Media, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
re-gained broadcast rights to the Olympics for the first time since 2008, gaining rights to the 2014 and 2016 Games. Bell and Rogers sub-licensed pay-TV rights for their TSN, Sportsnet
Sportsnet
and Réseau des sports networks, as well as TVA Group's TVA Sports.[132][133][134][135] In Australia, after all three major commercial networks pulled out of bidding on rights to both the 2014 and 2016 Games due to cost concerns, the IOC
IOC
awarded broadcast rights to just the 2014 Winter Olympics to Network Ten
Network Ten
for A$20 million.[136][137][138] Filming Several broadcasters used the Games to trial the emerging ultra high definition television (UHDTV) standard. Both NTV Plus
NTV Plus
and Comcast filmed portions of the Games in 4K resolution; Comcast
Comcast
offered its content through smart TV apps, while NTV+ held public and cinema viewings of the content. NHK
NHK
filmed portions of the Games in 8K resolution for public viewing. Olympic sponsor Panasonic
Panasonic
filmed the opening ceremony in 4K.[139][140][141][142] Concerns and controversies Main article: Concerns and controversies at the 2014 Winter Olympics A variety of concerns over the Games, or Russia's hosting of the Games, had been expressed by various entities. Concerns were shown over Russia's policies surrounding the LGBT
LGBT
community, including the government's denial of a proposed Pride House
Pride House
for the Games on moral grounds, and a federal law passed in June 2013 which criminalized the distribution of "propaganda of non-traditional sexual relationships" among minors.[143][144][145][146][147] Severe cost overruns made the 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
the most expensive Olympics in history; with Russian politician Boris Nemtsov
Boris Nemtsov
citing allegations of corruption among government officials,[148] and Allison Stewart of the Saïd Business School at Oxford citing tight relationships between the government and construction firms.[149]

Turkish Circassians
Circassians
commemorate the banishment of the Circassians
Circassians
from Russia
Russia
in Taksim, İstanbul

Some Circassian organizations objected to the Games being held on land their ancestors held until 1864,[150][151] when most of them were vanquished at the end of the Russian-Circassian War
Russian-Circassian War
(1763–1864), in what they consider to be ethnic cleansing or genocide.[152][153] The use of Krasnaya Polyana ("Red Hill" or "Red Glade") as an event site was considered sensitive, as it was named for a group of Circassians who were defeated in a bloody battle with Russians while attempting to return home over it in 1864.[154][155] Some Circassian groups demanded that the Games be cancelled or moved unless Russia
Russia
apologized for their actions.[156] Other groups did not outright object to the Games, but suggested that symbols of Circassian history and culture be incorporated into the Games, as Australia, the United States and Canada did for their indigenous cultures in 2000, 2002, and 2010 respectively.[157] U.S. broadcaster NBC
NBC
largely avoided broadcasting material critical of Russia, although several segments deemed "overly friendly to Russia" were harshly criticized by some conservatives.[158] However, following the closing ceremony, commentators evaluated the Games to have been successful overall.[159][160] Russian doping scandal

This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings. (December 2017)

Main articles: Doping in Russia, McLaren Report, and Russia
Russia
at the 2014 Winter Olympics In December 2014, German public broadcaster ARD aired a documentary which made wide-ranging allegations that Russia
Russia
organized a state-run doping program which supplied their athletes with performance-enhancing drugs.[161] In November 2015, Russia's track and field team was indefinitely suspended by the IAAF.[162] In May 2016, The New York Times
The New York Times
published allegations by the former director of Russia's anti-doping laboratory, Dr. Grigory Rodchenkov, that a conspiracy of corrupt anti-doping officials, FSB intelligence agents, and compliant Russian athletes used banned substances to gain an unfair advantage during the Games.[163][164] Rodchenkov stated that the FSB tampered with over 100 urine samples as part of a cover-up, and that at least fifteen of the Russian medals won at Sochi
Sochi
were the result of doping.[163][164][165][166] According to the second part of the McLaren Report released in December 2016, the lab director Grigory Rodchenkov
Grigory Rodchenkov
tampered with urine samples at the Olympics and provided cocktails of performance-enhancing drugs and members of the FSB broke into sample bottles holding urine. In addition, a deputy sports minister for years ordered cover-ups of top athletes’ use of banned substances.[167][168] Russian government continued to deny any involvement of the state and Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
particularly blamed the U.S. for 'orchestrating' a doping scandal.[169] The IOC
IOC
announced that it would investigate 28 Russian athletes. La Gazzetta dello Sport reported the names of 17 athletes, of whom 15 are among the 28 under investigation (the number rose to 46 in December 2017).[170][171][172] Three ladies artistic skaters were named as being under investigation. They are Adelina Sotnikova, the singles gold medalist, as well as pairs skaters Tatiana Volosozhar
Tatiana Volosozhar
and Ksenia Stolbova. Volosozhar and Stolbova won gold and silver medals, respectively, in pairs skating. Both also won gold medals in the team event, which also puts the other eight team medalists at risk of losing their golds.[173] In November 2017 the proceeding against Sotnikova was dropped.[174] Six cross-country skiers were provisionally suspended from competition on the basis of the McLaren Report: Evgeniy Belov, Alexander Legkov, Alexey Petukhov, Maxim Vylegzhanin, Yulia Ivanova and Evgenia Shapovalova. Legkov won a gold and silver medals, and Vylegzhanin won three silver medals.[175] The IOC
IOC
disqualified all six from Sochi, imposed lifetime bans and, in the process, stripped Legkov's and Vylegzhanin's of the medals they had won in four events (three individual medals and one team medal).[176] On 1 February 2018, the Court of Arbitration for Sport
Court of Arbitration for Sport
upheld five out of six appeals (except for Ivanova whose appeal was overturned), and their Sochi
Sochi
results and medals were restored, and the bans nullified.[177] Nikita Kryukov, Alexander Bessmertnykh and Natalya Matveyeva were disqualified on 22 December 2017.[178] These decisions were also overturned by the CAS on 1 February 2018.[179] The IOC
IOC
intends to appeal these decisions.[180] Following the CAS decision, International Ski Federation
International Ski Federation
has also lifted the provisional suspensions for all these skiers (except for Ivanova).[181] The International Biathlon
Biathlon
Union provisionally suspended two biathletes who were in the Sochi
Sochi
games: Olga Vilukhina
Olga Vilukhina
and Yana Romanova, according to La Gazzetta dello Sport. Vilukhina won silver in sprint, and both women were on a relay team that won the silver medal. They both retired after the 2014/2015 season.[182] They were disqualified and stripped of their medals on 27 November 2017.[183] The International Bobsleigh
Bobsleigh
and Skeleton Federation suspended four Russian skeleton sliders. They were Alexander Tretyakov, Elena Nikitina, Maria Orlova and Olga Potylitsina. Tretyakov won a gold medal, and Nikitina won a bronze.[184][185] On 22 November 2017, the IOC
IOC
stripped these medals and imposed lifetime Olympic bans on all four.[186] All the four bans were nullified and the Sochi
Sochi
medals returned to Tretyakov and Nikitina on 1 Feb 2018, when Court of Arbitration for Sport overturned the IOC
IOC
decision.[187][179] Seven Russian female ice hockey players were to have hearings before the Oswald Commission on 22 November 2017. The identities of the seven players have not been revealed. Two of the seven are accused of submitting samples showing readings that were physically impossible to be held by a woman. The Russian women's ice hockey team finished sixth at Sochi
Sochi
2014.[188] On 12 December 2017, six players were disqualified.[189] Tatiana Burina and Anna Shukina were also disqualified ten days later.[190] Disqualifications for Burina, Shukina and three other players were nullified by the Court of Arbitration for Sport on 1 Feb 2018.[187][179] On 24 November 2017, the IOC
IOC
imposed life bans on bobsledder Alexandr Zubkov and speed skater Olga Fatkulina
Olga Fatkulina
who won a combined 3 medals (2 gold, 1 silver).[191] All their results were disqualified. Three athletes who didn't win medals were sanctioned on 29 November 2017.[192] Olga Zaitseva
Olga Zaitseva
who won silver in biathlon was banned on 1 December 2017. Two other athletes were also disqualified on that day.[193] On 18 December 2017, the IOC
IOC
imposed a life ban on bobsledder Alexey Voyevoda
Alexey Voyevoda
who had already been stripped of two gold medals.[194] Speed skaters Ivan Skobrev
Ivan Skobrev
and Artyom Kuznetsov, lugers Albert Demchenko
Albert Demchenko
and Tatiana Ivanova, bobsledders Liudmila Udobkina and Maxim Belugin were disqualified on 22 December 2017, bringing the total to 43. Demchenko and Tatiana Ivanova
Tatiana Ivanova
were also stripped of their silver medals.[195] On Feb 1, 2018, the Court of Arbitration for Sport nullified disqualifications for Olga Fatkulina, Ivan Skobrev, Artyom Kuznetsov, Albert Demchenko, Tatiana Ivanova, Liudmila Udobkina and 22 others and returned them their Sochi
Sochi
medals.[187][179] On 5 December 2017, the IOC
IOC
voted to suspend the Russian Olympic Committee, thus banning it from sending athletes under the Russian flag to the 2018 Winter Olympics. Russian athletes with a clean record and a history of consistent drug testing will be allowed to participate independently under the Olympic flag
Olympic flag
as Olympic Athletes from Russia
Russia
(OAR).[196][197]] As of January 2018, the IOC
IOC
had sanctioned 43 Russian athletes from the 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
and banned them from competing in the 2018 edition and all other future Olympic Games
Olympic Games
as part of the Oswald Commission. All but one of these athletes appealed against their bans to the Court of Arbitration for Sport. On February 1, 2018, the Court of Arbitration for Sport
Court of Arbitration for Sport
found that the evidence provided by IOC
IOC
against 28 Russian athletes was insufficient and overturned the IOC
IOC
sanctions meaning that their Sochi
Sochi
medals and results are reinstated and disqualifications are nullified. For other 11 athletes CAS decided that there was sufficient evidence to uphold their Sochi
Sochi
sanctions, but reduced their lifetime bans only to the 2018 Games. Three Russian athletes are still waiting for their hearing which will be conducted after the 2018 Games.[187][179] The IOC
IOC
said in a statement that “the result of the CAS decision does not mean that athletes from the group of 28 will be invited to the Games. Not being sanctioned does not automatically confer the privilege of an invitation” and that “this [case] may have a serious impact on the future fight against doping”. The IOC
IOC
found it important to note that CAS Secretary General "insisted that the CAS decision does not mean that these 28 athletes are innocent” and that they would consider an appeal against the courts decision. [198] See also

Olympics portal

2014 Winter Paralympics 2014 Summer Youth Olympics Winter Olympic Games Olympic Games International Olympic Committee List of IOC
IOC
country codes

Notes and references

^ " Sochi
Sochi
2014 Reveals its Slogan". Sochi
Sochi
2014 Olympic and Paralympic Games Organizing Committee. 25 September 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2012.  ^ a b "News". sochi2014.com. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "Vladislav Tretyak and Irina Rodnina lit the Olympic flame at the Fisht Stadium in Sochi". Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.  ^ Ruiz, Rebecca R. (9 December 2016). "Russia's Doping Program Laid Bare by Extensive Evidence in Report". The New York Times.  ^ Ostlere, Lawrence (9 December 2016). "McLaren report: more than 1,000 Russian athletes involved in doping conspiracy". The Guardian.  ^ Ellingworth, James (13 December 2016). "Emails show how Russian officials covered up mass doping". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 14 December 2016.  ^ Ruiz, Rebecca; Panja, Tariq. " Russia
Russia
Banned from Winter Olympics by I.O.C." The New York Times. Retrieved 5 December 2017.  ^ Hobson, Will (5 December 2017). " Russia
Russia
banned from 2018 Olympics for widespread doping program". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 5 December 2017.  ^ " Sochi
Sochi
Elected as Host City of XXII Olympic Winter Games, International Olympic Committee". Olympic.org. 4 July 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2014.  ^ Oliphant, Roland (30 October 2013). "Sochi: chaos behind the scenes of world's most expensive Winter Olympics". Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 5 February 2014.  ^ Owen Gibson (9 October 2013). " Sochi
Sochi
2014: the costliest Olympics yet but where has all the money gone?". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 February 2014.  ^ The Waste and Corruption of Vladimir Putin's 2014 Winter Olympics, businessweek, 2 January 2014 ^ Kuzmin, Vladimir (24 May 2012). "Назначенцы-2012" [Appointees 2012]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta
Rossiyskaya Gazeta
(in Russian). The Kremlin in Moscow. Retrieved 4 March 2016.  ^ Dawisha, Karen (2014). Putin's Kleptocracy: Who Owns Russia?. Simon & Schuster. pp. 87, 377. ISBN 978-1-4767-9519-5.  ^ Sukhov, Oleg (28 March 2014). "From Olympics to Crimea, Putin Loyalist Kozak Entrusted with Kremlin Mega-Projects". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 4 March 2016.  ^ a b c d Golubchikov, Oleg (31 January 2017). "From a sports mega-event to a regional mega-project: the Sochi
Sochi
winter Olympics and the return of geography in state development priorities". International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics. 0 (0): 1–19. doi:10.1080/19406940.2016.1272620. ISSN 1940-6940.  ^ Vancouver Olympics: Embarrassed Russia
Russia
looks to 2014 Sochi
Sochi
Olympics The Christian Science Monitor, 1 March 2010 ^ "Rio Golf Course; Women's World Cup; IOC
IOC
Nominee for Japan? – No Smoking in Sochi". Archived from the original on 26 November 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2012.  Around the Rings, 14 July 2011 ^ "Sochi's mixed feelings over Olympics". BBC News. 26 November 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2014.  ^ Russian Deputy PM leads Sochi
Sochi
delegation to inspect Munich Olympic Park Inside the Games, 22 May 2010 ^ Madler, Mark (24 February 2014). "WET Design Runs Rings Around Rivals". San Fernando Business Journal. Los Angeles, California: California
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Business Journals. Retrieved 26 February 2014.  ^ "California-based WET makes the waters dance at Sochi". Gizmag. Retrieved 26 February 2013.  ^ Посмотрели свысока Yugopolis, 16 July 2013 ^ " Sochi
Sochi
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IOC
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Russia
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Sochi
Olympic Stadium". The Moscow
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Russia
2018 preparations suffer setback as Sochi
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Olympic Stadium completion date pushed back". InsideTheGames.biz. Retrieved 19 July 2016.  ^ a b "Behind Sochi's Futuristic Logo". The New Yorker. Retrieved 4 February 2014.  ^ " Sochi
Sochi
releases Olympic slogan that is neither hot, nor cool". USA Today. 25 September 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "'Hot.Cool.Yours.' Decoding Russia's Sochi
Sochi
Olympic slogan". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "Russian public to vote for Sochi
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2014 mascot". InsideTheGames.biz. Retrieved 5 February 2014.  ^ " Sochi
Sochi
2014 chooses three mascots for Olympics as Father Christmas withdraws in row over property rights". InsideTheGames.biz. Retrieved 5 February 2014.  ^ a b "Mock mascot loses Olympic race, wins bloggers' hearts". Russia Today. Retrieved 5 February 2014.  ^ "Mock mascot Zoich
Zoich
masterminded by Sochi
Sochi
2014 organizers". Russia Today. Retrieved 5 February 2014.  ^ "Mario & Sonic at the Sochi
Sochi
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Nintendo
Exclusive Revealed". Anime News Network.  ^ " Sochi
Sochi
2014 Olympic Winter Games". Olympicvideogames.com. Retrieved 12 February 2014.  ^ "The Sochi
Sochi
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Russia
prepares for Olympic Games
Olympic Games
2014 faster than scheduled[dead link] ITAR-TASS, 27 June 2009 ^ IOC
IOC
Head Praises Sochi
Sochi
2014 Archived 28 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. GamesBids.com, 24 November 2011 ^ Bing Ads (23 April 2013). " Avaya
Avaya
Official supplyer of network equipment". Slideshare.net. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.  ^ "US firm Avaya
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Sochi
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Sochi
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Mayak Radio, 28 March 2008 (in Russian) Archived 15 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "'МИР ИТ' приютил олимпийскую ВОЛС". comnews.ru. Retrieved 17 November 2013.  ^ ""Ростелеком" обеспечил телекоммуникационными услугами олимпийский медиацентр в Сочи". TASS-TELECOM. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.  ^ "Olympics' press center and Mountain Cluster's media center open in Sochi". ITAR-TASS. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.  ^ Games 2014 Will Double Sochi
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Sochi
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Sochi
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Olympics report card: So how good were Putin's Games?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 25 February 2014.  ^ Grohmann, Karolos (23 February 2014). "'Excellent' Sochi
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Sochi
Doping Case Lies With Tamper-Proof Bottle". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 May 2016.  ^ Gibson, Owen (1 June 2016). "New doping report will influence decision on Russia's place at Olympics". The Guardian.  ^ "Russian athletics: IAAF
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Sochi
2014. Sospetti sulla Sotnikova: Kostner d'argento?". La Gazzetta dello Sport. Milan, Italy. 30 December 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2017.  ^ "Media reported about the possible deprivation of the figure skater Sotnikova gold Sochi
Sochi
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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2014 Winter Olympics.

Wikinews has news related to: 2014 Winter Olympics

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sochi
Sochi
2014 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

" Sochi
Sochi
2014". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  "Results and Medalists". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  "Official website". Archived from the original on 1 August 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2015. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) (in Russian) (in English) (in French) Olympstroy State Corporation (in Russian) (in English) - responsible for Sochi
Sochi
Olympics construction and development Sochi
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2014 links on Open Directory Project
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