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The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad[1] and commonly known as London
London
2012, was a major international multi-sport event celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games, as governed by the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC). It took place in London
London
and to a lesser extent across the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
from 27 July to 12 August 2012. The first event, the group stage in women's football, began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium
Millennium Stadium
in Cardiff, followed by the opening ceremonies on 27 July.[2][3] 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated.[4] Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe
Sebastian Coe
and then-Mayor of London
London
Ken Livingstone, London
London
was selected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session
117th IOC Session
in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City, Madrid, and Paris.[5] London
London
became the first city to host the modern Olympic Games
Olympic Games
three times,[6][7] having previously done so in 1908 and in 1948.[8][9] The Prime Minister of the presiding country at the time was David Cameron, and the minister with delegated responsibility for the games in London was Jeremy Hunt, at the time serving as Olympics Minister.[citation needed] Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability.[10] The main focus was a new 200-hectare (490-acre) Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London.[11] The Games also made use of venues that already existed before the bid.[12] The Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised particularly highly.[13][14][15] The opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim throughout the world, particular praise from the British public and a minority of widely ranging criticisms from some social media sites.[16][17] During the Games, Michael Phelps
Michael Phelps
became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal.[18] Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every currently eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games.[19] Women's boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors.[20][21][22] These were the final Olympic Games
Olympic Games
under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and host Great Britain. Several world and Olympic records were set at the games. Though there were several controversies, the 2012 games were deemed highly successful with the rising standards of competition amongst nations across the world, packed stadiums and smooth organisation. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics.

Contents

1 Bidding process 2 Development and preparation

2.1 Venues 2.2 Public transport 2.3 International transport 2.4 Cost and financing 2.5 Volunteers 2.6 Ticketing 2.7 Countdown 2.8 Security 2.9 Medals 2.10 Torch relay 2.11 Environmental policy 2.12 Cultural Olympiad 2.13 Opening ceremony 2.14 Closing ceremony

3 The Games

3.1 Participating National Olympic Committees

3.1.1 Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees (by highest to lowest) 3.1.2 National houses

3.2 Sports 3.3 Calendar 3.4 Records 3.5 Medal table

4 Broadcasting 5 Marketing

5.1 Motto 5.2 Logo and graphics 5.3 Mascots 5.4 Chariots of Fire 5.5 Sponsors

6 Controversies 7 Drug testing 8 See also 9 Further reading 10 References

10.1 Book references

11 External links

Bidding process[edit] Main article: Bids for the 2012 Summer Olympics By 15 July 2003, the deadline for interested cities to submit bids to the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC), nine cities had submitted bids to host the 2012 Summer Olympics: Havana, Istanbul, Leipzig, London, Madrid, Moscow, New York City, Paris, and Rio de Janeiro.[23] On 18 May 2004, as a result of a scored technical evaluation, the IOC reduced the number of cities to five: London, Madrid, Moscow, New York and Paris.[24] All five submitted their candidate files by 19 November 2004 and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February and March 2005. The Paris
Paris
bid suffered two setbacks during the IOC inspection visit: a number of strikes and demonstrations coinciding with the visits, and a report that a key member of the bid team, Guy Drut, would face charges over alleged corrupt party political finances.[25]

Lord Coe – the head of London
London
2012

Throughout the process, Paris
Paris
was widely seen as the favourite, particularly as this was its third bid in recent years. London
London
was initially seen as lagging behind Paris
Paris
by a considerable margin. Its position began to improve after the appointment of Lord Coe as the new head of London
London
2012 on 19 May 2004.[26] In late August 2004, reports predicted a tie between London
London
and Paris.[27] On 6 June 2005, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities. They did not contain any scores or rankings, but the report for Paris
Paris
was considered the most positive. London
London
was close behind, having closed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2004. New York and Madrid
Madrid
also received very positive evaluations.[28] On 1 July 2005, when asked who would win, Jacques Rogge said, "I cannot predict it since I don't know how the IOC members will vote. But my gut feeling tells me that it will be very close. Perhaps it will come down to a difference of say ten votes, or maybe less."[29] On 6 July 2005, the final selection was announced at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore. Moscow
Moscow
was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New York and Madrid. The final two contenders were London and Paris. At the end of the fourth round of voting, London
London
won the right to host the 2012 Games with 54 votes to Paris' 50.[30] The celebrations in London
London
were short-lived, being overshadowed by bombings on London's transport system less than 24 hours after the announcement.[31]

2012 host city election – ballot results

City NOC Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4

London  Great Britain 22 27 39 54

Paris  France 21 25 33 50

Madrid  Spain 20 32 31 —

New York City  United States 19 17 — —

Moscow  Russia 15 — — —

Development and preparation[edit] Main article: 2012 Summer Olympic development The London
London
Organising Committee of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
(LOCOG) was created to oversee the staging of the Games after the success of the bid, and held its first board meeting on 3 October 2005.[32] The committee, chaired by Lord Coe, was in charge of implementing and staging the Games, while the Olympic Delivery Authority
Olympic Delivery Authority
(ODA) was in charge of the construction of the venues and infrastructure.[32] The latter was established in April 2006.[33] The Government Olympic Executive (GOE), a unit within the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), was the lead government body for coordinating the London
London
2012 Olympics. It focused on oversight of the Games, cross-programme programme management and the London
London
2012 Olympic Legacy before and after the Games that would benefit London and the United Kingdom. The organisation was also responsible for the supervision of the £9.3 billion of public sector funding.[34] In August 2011, security concerns arose surrounding the hosting of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in London[35] due to the 2011 England riots, with a few countries expressing fear over the safety of the Games,[36] in spite of the International Olympic Committee's assurance that the riots would not affect the Games.[37] The IOC's Coordination Commission for the 2012 Games completed its tenth and final visit to London
London
in March 2012. Its members concluded that " London
London
is ready to host the world this summer".[38] Venues[edit] Main article: Venues of the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
and Paralympics

The Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy
Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy
on the Isle of Portland in Dorset hosted the sailing events

The 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
used a mixture of new venues, existing and historic facilities, and temporary facilities, some of them in well-known locations such as Hyde Park and Horse Guards Parade. After the Games, some of the new facilities will be reused in their Olympic form, while others will be resized or relocated.[39] The majority of venues have been divided into three zones within Greater London: the Olympic Zone, the River Zone and the Central Zone. In addition there are a few venues that, by necessity, are outside the boundaries of Greater London, such as the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy some 125 mi (201 km) southwest of London, which hosted the sailing events. The football tournament was staged at several grounds around the UK.[40] Work began on the Park in December 2006, when a sports hall in Eton Manor
Eton Manor
was pulled down.[41] The athletes' village in Portland was completed in September 2011.[42] In November 2004, the 200-hectare (500-acre) Olympic Park plans were revealed.[43] The plans for the site were approved in September 2004 by Tower Hamlets, Newham, Hackney and Waltham Forest.[44] The redevelopment of the area to build the Olympic Park required compulsory purchase orders of property. The London
London
Development Agency was in dispute with London
London
and Continental Railways about the orders in November 2005. By May 2006, 86% of the land had been bought as businesses fought eviction.[45] Residents who opposed the eviction tried to find ways to stop it by setting up campaigns, but they had to leave as 94% of land was bought and the other 6% bought as a £9 billion regeneration project started.[46]

Aerial view of the Olympic Park in April 2012

There were some issues with the original venues not being challenging enough or being financially unviable. Both the Olympic road races and the mountain bike event were initially considered to be too easy, so they were eventually scheduled on new locations.[47][48] The Olympic marathon course, which was set to finish in the Olympic stadium, was moved to The Mall, since closing Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge
was deemed to cause traffic problems in central London.[49] North Greenwich Arena 2
North Greenwich Arena 2
was scrapped in a cost-cutting exercise, Wembley Arena
Wembley Arena
being used for badminton and rhythmic gymnastics events instead.[50][51][52][53] Test events were held throughout 2011 and 2012, either through an existing championship such as 2012 Wimbledon Championships or as a specially created event held under the banner of London
London
Prepares.[54] Team GB House was the British Olympic Association's operational HQ up to and during the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic games. Designed by architects Gebler Tooth on the top floor of an office building in Westfield Stratford City, it combined the team HQ, athletes' "Friends and Family" lounge, Press Centre and VIP lounge. Public transport[edit]

The Olympic Javelin
Olympic Javelin
service ran between St Pancras and Ebbsfleet, via Stratford

London's public transport scored poorly in the IOC's initial evaluation; however, it felt that, if the improvements were delivered in time for the Games, London
London
would cope.[55] Transport for London (TfL) carried out numerous improvements in preparation for 2012, including the expansion of the London
London
Overground's East London
London
Line, upgrades to the Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
and the North London
London
Line, and the introduction of a new "Javelin" high-speed rail service.[56] According to Network Rail, an additional 4,000 train services operated during the Games, and train operators ran longer trains during the day.[57] During the Games, Stratford International station
Stratford International station
was not served by any international services (just as it had not been before the Games),[58] westbound trains did not stop at Hackney Wick railway station,[59] and Pudding Mill Lane DLR station
Pudding Mill Lane DLR station
closed entirely during the Games.[60]

The Emirates Air Line crosses the River Thames
River Thames
between Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks

TfL also built a £25 million cable car across the River Thames, called the Emirates Air Line, to link 2012 Olympics venues.[61] It was inaugurated in June 2012, and crosses the Thames
Thames
between Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks, carrying up to 2,500 passengers an hour, cutting journey times between the O2 arena and the ExCeL exhibition centre and providing a crossing every 30 seconds.[62] The plan was to have 80% of athletes travel less than 20 minutes to their event,[63] and 93% of them within 30 minutes of their event.[64] The Olympic Park would be served by ten separate railway lines with a combined capacity of 240,000 passengers per hour.[65] In addition, LOCOG
LOCOG
planned for 90% of the venues to be served by three or more types of public transport.[64] Two park-and-ride sites off the M25 with a combined capacity of 12,000 cars were 25 minutes away from the Olympic Park. Another park-and-ride site was planned in Ebbsfleet with a capacity for 9,000 cars where spectators could board a 10-minute shuttle train service.[64] To get spectators to Eton Dorney, four park-and-ride schemes were set up.[66]

Olympic rings marked on a street, indicating that the lane was reserved for the use of Olympic athletes and staff.

TfL defined a network of roads leading between venues as the Olympic Route Network; roads connecting between all of the Olympic venues located within London. Many of these roads also contained special "Olympic lanes" marked with the Olympic rings—reserved for the use of Olympic athletes, officials, and other VIPs during the Games. Members of the public driving in an Olympic lane were subject to a fine of £130. Additionally, London
London
buses would not include roads with Olympic lanes on their routes.[67][68][69] The painting of Olympic lane indicators in mid-July led to confusion from commuters, who wrongly believed that the Olympic lane restrictions had already taken effect (they were to take effect on 27 July). The A4 experienced traffic jams due to drivers avoiding the Olympic lane, and likewise on a section of Southampton Row, where the only lanes available in one direction were the Olympic lane and the bus lane.[70] Concerns were expressed at the logistics of spectators travelling to the events outside London. In particular, the sailing events at Portland had no direct motorway connections, and local roads are heavily congested by tourist traffic in the summer.[71] However, a £77 million relief road connecting Weymouth to Dorchester was built and opened in 2011.[72][73] Some £16 million was put aside for the rest of the improvements.[74] TfL created a promotional campaign and website, Get Ahead of the Games, to help provide information related to transport during the Olympics and Paralympics. Through the campaign, TfL also encouraged the use of cycling as a mode of transport during the Games.[75] However, despite this encouragement to use bicycles, members of the public protested that riding bikes on London
London
roads would be more dangerous due to the blocked Olympic lanes, and also protested against a decision to close the Lea Valley towpath during the Olympics and Paralympics due to security concerns.[69] International transport[edit] The 2012 games were a unique operational task and a massive challenge for Heathrow airport.[citation needed] A temporary terminal was created at Heathrow Airport, to be used by 10,100 departing athletes after the games. Up to 35% more bags than normal were expected on 13 August, which was predicted to be the busiest day in the airport's history, according to Nick Cole, head of Olympic and Paralympic planning at Heathrow.[citation needed] Cost and financing[edit] A study from Oxford University found that the sports-related costs of London
London
2012 was USD 15 billion, compared to USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40-44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Cost per athlete was USD 1.4 million.[76] This does not include wider costs for urban and transport infrastructure, which often cost as much or more than the sports-related costs. In 2005 London
London
secured the bid for the 2012 Summer Games with a cost estimate that two years later proved inadequate and was revised upwards with around 100 percent. Then, when it turned out that the final outturn costs were slightly below the revised budget, the organizers falsely, but very publicly, claimed that the London
London
Games had come in under budget. Main media, including the BBC, reported the false claim as true. In fact, London
London
2012 went over budget by 76% in real terms, measured from bid to completion. The costs of mounting the Games were separate from those for building the venues and infrastructure, and redeveloping the land for the Olympic Park. While the Games were privately funded, the venues and Park costs were met largely by public money. According to The Wall Street Journal, the original budget for the Games was increased to about £9.3 billion ($15.28 billion USD) in 2007.[77] The revised figures were announced to the House of Commons on 15 March 2007 by Tessa Jowell. Along with East End regeneration costs, the breakdown was:

Building the venues and infrastructure — £5.3 billion. Elite sport and Paralympic funding — £400 million. Security and policing — £600 million. Regeneration of the Lower Lea Valley — £1.7 billion. Contingency fund — £2.7 billion.

Volunteers[edit] Unpaid volunteers known as Games Makers performed a variety of tasks before and during the Games.[78] A target of 70,000 volunteers was set as early as 2004.[79] When recruitment took place in 2010, over 240,000 applications were received.[80] Sebastian Coe
Sebastian Coe
said in February 2012, "Our Games Makers will contribute a total of around eight million volunteer hours during the Games and the Games simply wouldn't happen without them".[81] The volunteers wore clothing which included purple and red polo shirts and jackets, beige trousers, grey socks and grey-and-white trainers which they collected from the Uniform Distribution and Accreditation Centre. Volunteers also wore photo accreditation badges which were also worn by officials, athletes, family members and media which gain them access to specific venues and buildings around the site. Ticketing[edit] Organisers estimated that some 8 million tickets would be available for the Olympic Games,[82] and 1.5 million tickets for the Paralympic Games.[82] LOCOG
LOCOG
aimed to raise £375–£400 million in ticket sales. There were also free events such as marathon, triathlon and road cycling,[83] although, for the first time in Olympic history, the sailing events were ticketed.[84] Eventually, more than 7,000,000 tickets were sold.[85] Following IOC rules, people applied for tickets from the NOC of their country of residence. European Union residents were able to apply for tickets in any EU country.[86] In Great Britain, ticket prices ranged from £20 for many events to £2,012 for the most expensive seats at the opening ceremony. Some free tickets were given to military personnel as part of the Tickets For Troops scheme,[87] as well as to survivors and families of those who died during 7 July 2005 London
London
bombings.[88] Initially, people were able to apply for tickets via a website from 15 March until 26 April 2011. There was a huge demand for tickets, with a demand of over three times the number of tickets available. The process was widely criticised as more than 50% of the sessions went to a random ballot,[89] and over half the people who applied got no tickets.[90] On 11 May 2012 a round of nearly one million "second chance" tickets went on sale over a 10-day period between 23 June and 3 July 2011.[91] About 1.7 million tickets were available for football and 600,000 for other sports, including archery, field hockey, football, judo, boxing and volleyball. Although technical difficulties were encountered, ten sports had sold out by 8 am of the first day.[92] Countdown[edit]

The Countdown Clock in Trafalgar Square

During the closing ceremony of the 2008 Olympics, the Olympic Flag
Olympic Flag
was formally handed over from the Mayor of Beijing to the Mayor of London. This was followed by a section highlighting London,[93] One month later, the Olympic and Paralympic flags were raised outside the London City Hall.[94] A countdown clock in Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
was unveiled, 500 days before the Games.[95] The clock broke down the following day,[96] but was later fixed. It is a two-sided clock with the Paralympic countdown on the other side. The countdown to the start of the Olympics began with a ceremony for the lighting of the Olympic flame
Olympic flame
in Olympia, Greece.[97] Security[edit] Main article: Security for the 2012 Summer Olympics See also: Controversies surrounding G4S The security operation was led by the police, with 10,000 officers available, supported by 13,500 members of the armed forces. Naval and air assets, including ships situated in the Thames, Eurofighter
Eurofighter
jets and surface-to-air missiles, were deployed as part of the security operation; the biggest security operation Britain had faced for decades. The cost of security increased from £282 million to £553 million, and the figure of 13,500 armed forces personnel was more than Britain currently had deployed in Afghanistan.[98] The Metropolitan Police and the Royal Marines carried out security exercises in preparation for the Olympics on 19 January 2012, with 50 marine police officers in rigid inflatables and fast response boats, joined by up to 100 military personnel and a Lynx Navy helicopter.[99] The Ministry of Defence distributed leaflets to residents of the Lexington building in Bow, announcing that a missile system was to be stationed on top of the water tower.[100][101] This caused concern to some residents.[100][101] The Ministry said it probably would use Starstreak missiles and that site evaluations had taken place, but that no final decision had taken place.[100][101] Medals[edit]

Medals of London
London
2012 Olympics

Approximately 4,700[102] Olympic and Paralympic medals were produced by the Royal Mint
Royal Mint
at Llantrisant.[103] They were designed by David Watkins (Olympics) and Lin Cheung (Paralympics).[104] 99% of the gold, silver and copper was donated by Rio Tinto from a mine in Salt Lake County, Utah in the U.S.[105] The remaining 1% came from a Mongolian mine.[106] Each medal weighs 375–400 g (13.2–14.1 oz), has a diameter of 85 mm (3.3 in) and is 7 mm (0.28 in) thick, with the sport and discipline engraved on the rim.[107] The obverse, as is traditional, features Nike, the Greek goddess of victory, stepping from the Panathinaiko Stadium
Panathinaiko Stadium
that hosted the first modern Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in 1896, with Parthenon in the background; the reverse features the Games logo, the River Thames
River Thames
and a series of lines representing "the energy of athletes and a sense of pulling together".[108] The medals were transferred to the Tower of London
London
vaults on 2 July 2012 for storage.[107] Each gold medal is made up of 92.5 percent silver and 1.34 percent gold, with the remainder copper. The silver medal (which represents second place) is made up of 92.5 percent silver, with the remainder copper. The bronze medal is made up of 97 percent copper, 2.5 percent zinc and 0.5 percent tin.[109] The value of the materials in the gold medal is about £410 (US $644), the silver about £210 (US $330), and the bronze about £3 (US $4.71) as of 30 July 2012.[110][111] Torch relay[edit] Main article: 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
torch relay

The torch relay in Newport, Isle of Wight

The Olympics torch relay ran from 19 May to 27 July 2012, before the Games. Plans for the relay were developed in 2010–11, with the torch-bearer selection process announced on 18 May 2011.[112] On 18 May 2012 the Olympic flame
Olympic flame
arrived at RNAS Culdrose
RNAS Culdrose
in Cornwall from Greece[113] on flight BA2012, operated by a British Airways Airbus A319
Airbus A319
named "Firefly". On the flight the flame was carried inside 4 miners lamps supplied by Protector Lamp of Eccles, Greater Manchester. The relay lasted 70 days, with 66 evening celebrations and six island visits, and involved some 8,000 people carrying the torch about 8,000 mi (12,875 km), starting from Land's End
Land's End
in Cornwall.[114] The torch had three days outside the United Kingdom when it visited the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
on 2 June, Dublin
Dublin
in Ireland, on 6 June,[115] and both Guernsey
Guernsey
and Jersey
Jersey
on 15 July. The relay focused on National Heritage Sites, locations with sporting significance, key sporting events, schools registered with the Get Set School Network, green spaces and biodiversity, Live Sites (city locations with large screens), and festivals and other events.[116] Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
was the only Region in the whole of the United Kingdom that had the Olympic Torch pass through it twice. A group of young athletes, nominated by retired Olympic athletes, ran the torch around the stadium. These torchbearers were Callum Airlie, Jordan Duckitt, Desiree Henry, Katie Kirk, Cameron MacRitchie, Aidan Reynolds, and Adelle Tracey. Together the torchbearers each lit a petal which spread the fire to the 204 petals of the cauldron, representing the countries that participated in the games.[117] Environmental policy[edit] The Olympic Park was planned to incorporate 45 hectares of wildlife habitat, with a total of 525 bird boxes, and 150 bat boxes. Local waterways and riverbanks were enhanced as part of the process.[118] Renewable energy also features at the Olympics. It was originally planned to provide 20% of the energy for the Olympic Park and Village from renewable technologies; however, this may now be as little as 9%.[119][needs update] Proposals to meet the original target included large-scale on-site wind turbines and hydroelectric generators in the River Thames. These plans were scrapped for safety reasons.[120] The focus has since moved to installing solar panels on some buildings, and providing the opportunity to recover energy from waste. Food packaging at the Olympics is made from compostable materials – like starch and cellulose-based bioplastics – where it cannot be re-used or recycled. This includes fast food wrappers, sandwich boxes and drink cartons. After they have been used, many of these materials would be suitable for anaerobic digestion (AD), allowing them to be made into renewable energy.[121] Buildings like the Water Polo Arena
Water Polo Arena
will be relocated elsewhere. Building Parts like Roofing Covers and membranes of different temporary venues will be recycled via Vinyloop. This allowed organisers to meet the standards of the Olympic Delivery Authority concerning environmental protection. Through this recycling process, the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
PVC Policy is fulfilled. It says that

Where London
London
2012 procures PVC for temporary usage or where permanent usage is not assured, London
London
2012 is required to ensure that there is a take-back scheme that offers a closed loop reuse system or mechanical recycling system for post-consumer waste.

"The majority of temporary facilities created for the Olympic Games including the Aquatic centre temporary stands, basketball arena, Water Polo Arena, and the shooting facilities at the Royal Artillery Barracks, are essentially big tents. Basically PVC stretched over lightweight steel frame. This design solution makes them efficient to install, reduces the need for any significant foundations and are, of course, reusable. We were challenged by the public around the use of PVC; but we considered it to be the right material for certain functions. We therefore challenged the PVC supply chain to have certain environmental performance criteria in place, including a take back and recycle scheme" says Kirsten Henson, Materials Manager for the London
London
2012 Olympic Park.[122] London
London
2012 are the first Olympic Games
Olympic Games
whose guidelines include the recycling of PVC.[123] Cultural Olympiad[edit] Main article: 2012 Cultural Olympiad

Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge
illuminated with the Olympic Rings during the week leading up to the Opening Ceremony

The Olympic Charter, the set of rules and guidelines for the organization of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
and for governing the Olympic Movement, states that

LOCOG
LOCOG
shall organise a programme of cultural events which must cover at least the entire period during which the Olympic Village is open.[124]

The Cultural Olympiad comprises many programmes, with over 500 events spread over four years across the whole of the United Kingdom, and culminating in the London
London
2012 Festival.[125][126] Opening ceremony[edit] Main articles: 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony
2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony
and 2012 Summer Olympics Parade of Nations

Fireworks at the opening ceremony

The opening ceremony officially began at 9:00 pm British Summer Time (UTC+1) on 27 July in the Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
and was called "Isles of Wonder".[127] Oscar-winning director Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
was its artistic director, with music direction by Rick Smith of Underworld.[128] The Games were officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II, accompanied by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[129] It was the second Games the Queen had opened personally, the first being in 1976 in Montreal. The ceremony included a short comic film starring Daniel Craig
Daniel Craig
as secret agent James Bond
James Bond
and the Queen as herself,[130] and another starring Rowan Atkinson
Rowan Atkinson
as Mr. Bean. Live musical performers included Frank Turner, Dame Evelyn Glennie, Mike Oldfield, the London
London
Symphony Orchestra, Dizzee Rascal, Arctic Monkeys, and Sir Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
who performed "Hey Jude" as the closing act.[131][132] The ceremony transmitted live on BBC
BBC
One attracted a peak viewing audience of over 27 million in the UK (about half of the population).[133] Closing ceremony[edit] Main articles: 2012 Summer Olympics closing ceremony
2012 Summer Olympics closing ceremony
and 2012 Summer Olympics closing ceremony flag bearers The closing ceremony was held on 12 August. It featured a flashback fiesta to British music with The Who
The Who
closing the performance. The ceremony also included a handover of the Olympic flag by Boris Johnson, Mayor of London, to Eduardo Paes, Mayor of Rio de Janeiro, the host city of the 2016 Summer Olympics.[134] The Games[edit] Participating National Olympic Committees[edit]

Participating countries

Team sizes

Around 10,700 athletes from 205 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) took part,[4] (79 countries acquired at least one medal: gold, silver or bronze)[135] surpassing the 1948 Summer Olympics
1948 Summer Olympics
in London
London
and the 2002 Commonwealth Games
2002 Commonwealth Games
in Manchester
Manchester
as the largest multi-sport event ever to be held in the United Kingdom.[136] Three athletes from the Netherlands Antilles Olympic Committee, which the IOC Executive Committee had ceased to recognise at the IOC session of July 2011, and one athlete from South Sudan, which had no recognized NOC, participated independently under the Olympic flag.[137]

  300+

  100-299

  30-99

  10-29

  4-9

  1-3

Participating National Olympic Committees

 Afghanistan (6)  Albania (12)  Algeria (42)  American Samoa (5)  Andorra (6)  Angola (34)  Antigua and Barbuda (5)  Argentina (137)  Armenia (25)  Aruba (4)  Australia (410)  Austria (70)  Azerbaijan (53)  Bahamas (24)  Bahrain (12)  Bangladesh (5)  Barbados (6)  Belarus (165)  Belgium (115)  Belize (3)  Benin (5)  Bermuda (8)  Bhutan (2)  Bolivia (6)  Bosnia and Herzegovina (6)  Botswana (4)  Brazil (258)  British Virgin Islands (2)  Brunei (3)  Bulgaria (63)  Burkina Faso (5)  Burundi (6)  Cambodia (6)  Cameroon (33)  Canada (277)  Cape Verde (3)  Cayman Islands (5)  Central African Republic (6)  Chad (3)  Chile (35)  China (396)  Colombia (104)  Comoros (3)  Congo (7)  Democratic Republic of the Congo (4)  Cook Islands (8)  Costa Rica (11)  Croatia (108)  Cuba (110)  Cyprus (13)  Czech Republic (133)  Denmark (113)  Djibouti (6)  Dominica (2)  Dominican Republic (35)  Ecuador (36)  Egypt (113)  El Salvador (10)  Equatorial Guinea (2)  Eritrea (12)  Estonia (33)  Ethiopia (35)  Fiji (9)  Finland (55)  France (330)  Gabon (24)  The Gambia (2)  Georgia (35)  Germany (392)  Ghana (9)  Great Britain (541) (host)  Greece (104)  Grenada (10)  Guam (8)  Guatemala (19)  Guinea (4)  Guinea-Bissau (4)  Guyana (6)  Haiti (5)  Honduras (27)  Hong Kong (42)  Hungary (157)  Iceland (27)  Independent Olympic Athletes (4)  India (83)  Indonesia (22)  Iran (53)  Iraq (8)  Ireland (66)  Israel (37)[138]  Italy (285)  Ivory Coast (10)  Jamaica (50)  Japan (293)  Jordan (9)  Kazakhstan (114)  Kenya (47)  Kiribati (3)  North Korea (51)  South Korea (248)  Kuwait (11)[139]  Kyrgyzstan (14)  Laos (3)  Latvia (46)  Lebanon (10)  Lesotho (4)  Liberia (4)  Libya (5)  Liechtenstein (3)  Lithuania (62)  Luxembourg (9)  Macedonia (4)  Madagascar (7)  Malawi (3)  Malaysia (30)  Maldives (5)  Mali (6)  Malta (5)  Marshall Islands (4)  Mauritania (2)  Mauritius (11)  Mexico (102)  Federated States of Micronesia (6)  Moldova (22)  Monaco (6)  Mongolia (29)  Montenegro (33)  Morocco (67)  Mozambique (6)  Myanmar (6)  Namibia (9)  Nauru (2)  Nepal (5)  Netherlands (175)  New Zealand (184)  Nicaragua (6)  Niger (6)  Nigeria (55)  Norway (64)  Oman (4)  Pakistan (21)  Palau (5)  Palestine (5)  Panama (7)  Papua New Guinea (8)  Paraguay (8)  Peru (16)  Philippines (11)  Poland (218)  Portugal (77)  Puerto Rico (25)  Qatar (12)  Romania (103)  Russia (436)  Rwanda (7)  Saint Kitts and Nevis (7)  Saint Lucia (4)  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (3)  Samoa (8)  San Marino (4)  São Tomé and Príncipe (2)  Saudi Arabia (19)  Senegal (31)  Serbia (116)  Seychelles (6)  Sierra Leone (2)  Singapore (23)  Slovakia (47)  Slovenia (65)  Solomon Islands (4)  Somalia (2)  South Africa (125)  Spain (282)  Sri Lanka (7)  Sudan (6)  Suriname (5)  Swaziland (3)  Sweden (134)  Switzerland (102)  Syria (10)  Chinese Taipei (44)  Tajikistan (16)  Tanzania (7)  Thailand (37)  East Timor (2)  Togo (6)  Tonga (3)  Trinidad and Tobago (30)  Tunisia (83)  Turkey (114)  Turkmenistan (10)  Tuvalu (3)  Uganda (16)  Ukraine (237)  United Arab Emirates (26)  United States (530)  Uruguay (29)  Uzbekistan (54)  Vanuatu (5)  Venezuela (70)  Vietnam (18)  Virgin Islands (7)  Yemen (4)  Zambia (7)  Zimbabwe (7)

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees (by highest to lowest)[edit]

IOC Country Athletes

GBR  Great Britain 541

USA  United States 530

RUS  Russia 436

AUS  Australia 410

CHN  China 390

GER  Germany 392

FRA  France 330

JPN  Japan 293

ITA  Italy 284

ESP  Spain 278

CAN  Canada 277

BRA  Brazil 258

KOR  South Korea 245

UKR  Ukraine 237

POL  Poland 218

NZL  New Zealand 184

NED  Netherlands 175

BLR  Belarus 165

HUN  Hungary 157

ARG  Argentina 137

SWE  Sweden 134

CZE  Czech Republic 133

RSA  South Africa 125

BEL  Belgium 115

SRB  Serbia 115

KAZ  Kazakhstan 114

TUR  Turkey 114

DEN  Denmark 113

EGY  Egypt 113

CUB  Cuba 110

CRO  Croatia 108

COL  Colombia 104

GRE  Greece 103

ROU  Romania 103

MEX  Mexico 102

SUI  Switzerland 102

IND  India 83

TUN  Tunisia 83

POR  Portugal 77

AUT  Austria 70

VEN  Venezuela 70

MAR  Morocco 67

IRL  Ireland 66

SLO  Slovenia 65

NOR  Norway 64

BUL  Bulgaria 63

LTU  Lithuania 62

FIN  Finland 55

NGR  Nigeria 55

UZB  Uzbekistan 54

AZE  Azerbaijan 53

IRI  Iran 53

PRK  North Korea 51

JAM  Jamaica 50

KEN  Kenya 47

SVK  Slovakia 47

LAT  Latvia 46

TPE  Chinese Taipei 44

ALG  Algeria 42

HKG  Hong Kong 42

ISR  Israel 37

THA  Thailand 37

ECU  Ecuador 36

CHI  Chile 35

DOM  Dominican Republic 35

ETH  Ethiopia 35

GEO  Georgia 35

ANG  Angola 34

CMR  Cameroon 33

EST  Estonia 33

MNE  Montenegro 33

SEN  Senegal 31

MAS  Malaysia 30

TRI  Trinidad and Tobago 30

MGL  Mongolia 29

URU  Uruguay 29

HON  Honduras 27

ISL  Iceland 27

UAE  United Arab Emirates 26

ARM  Armenia 25

PUR  Puerto Rico 25

BAH  Bahamas 24

GAB  Gabon 24

SIN  Singapore 23

INA  Indonesia 22

MDA  Moldova 22

PAK  Pakistan 21

GUA  Guatemala 19

KSA  Saudi Arabia 19

VIE  Vietnam 18

PER  Peru 16

TJK  Tajikistan 16

UGA  Uganda 16

KGZ  Kyrgyzstan 14

CYP  Cyprus 13

ALB  Albania 12

BRN  Bahrain 12

ERI  Eritrea 12

QAT  Qatar 12

CRC  Costa Rica 11

KUW  Kuwait 11

MRI  Mauritius 11

PHI  Philippines 11

CIV  Ivory Coast 10

ESA  El Salvador 10

GRN  Grenada 10

LIB  Lebanon 10

SYR  Syria 10

TKM  Turkmenistan 10

FIJ  Fiji 9

GHA  Ghana 9

JOR  Jordan 9

LUX  Luxembourg 9

NAM  Namibia 9

BER  Bermuda 8

COK  Cook Islands 8

GUM  Guam 8

IRQ  Iraq 8

PAR  Paraguay 8

PNG  Papua New Guinea 8

SAM  Samoa 8

CGO  Congo 7

ISV  Virgin Islands 7

MAD  Madagascar 7

PAN  Panama 7

RWA  Rwanda 7

SKN  Saint Kitts and Nevis 7

SRI  Sri Lanka 7

TAN  Tanzania 7

ZAM  Zambia 7

ZIM  Zimbabwe 7

AFG  Afghanistan 6

AND  Andorra 6

BAR  Barbados 6

BDI  Burundi 6

BIH  Bosnia and Herzegovina 6

BOL  Bolivia 6

CAF  Central African Republic 6

CAM  Cambodia 6

DJI  Djibouti 6

FSM  Federated States of Micronesia 6

GUY  Guyana 6

MLI  Mali 6

MON  Monaco 6

MOZ  Mozambique 6

MYA  Myanmar 6

NCA  Nicaragua 6

NIG  Niger 6

SEY  Seychelles 6

SUD  Sudan 6

TOG  Togo 6

ANT  Antigua and Barbuda 5

ASA  American Samoa 5

BAN  Bangladesh 5

BEN  Benin 5

BUR  Burkina Faso 5

CAY  Cayman Islands 5

HAI  Haiti 5

LBA  Libya 5

MDV  Maldives 5

MLT  Malta 5

NEP  Nepal 5

PLE  Palestine 5

PLW  Palau 5

SUR  Suriname 5

VAN  Vanuatu 5

ARU  Aruba 4

BOT  Botswana 4

COD  Democratic Republic of the Congo 4

GBS  Guinea-Bissau 4

GUI  Guinea 4

IOA  Independent Olympic Athletes 4

LBR  Liberia 4

LCA  Saint Lucia 4

LES  Lesotho 4

MHL  Marshall Islands 4

MKD  Macedonia 4

OMA  Oman 4

SMR  San Marino 4

SOL  Solomon Islands 4

YEM  Yemen 4

BIZ  Belize 3

BRU  Brunei 3

CHA  Chad 3

COM  Comoros 3

CPV  Cape Verde 3

KIR  Kiribati 3

LAO  Laos 3

LIE  Liechtenstein 3

MAW  Malawi 3

SWZ  Swaziland 3

TGA  Tonga 3

TUV  Tuvalu 3

VIN  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3

BHU  Bhutan 2

DMA  Dominica 2

GAM  The Gambia 2

GEQ  Equatorial Guinea 2

IVB  British Virgin Islands 2

MTN  Mauritania 2

NRU  Nauru 2

SLE  Sierra Leone 2

SOM  Somalia 2

STP  São Tomé and Príncipe 2

TLS  East Timor 2

Total 10,768

National houses[edit]

The Holland Heineken House, the Dutch home in Alexandra Palace.

During the Games some countries and continents had a national house. These temporary meeting places for supporters, athletes and other followers were located throughout London.[140]

Nation Location Name

Africa Kensington Gardens

Austria Trinity House

Belgium Inner Temple

Brazil Somerset House

Czech Republic Business Design Centre
Business Design Centre
in Islington

Denmark St Katherine Docks

France Old Billingsgate Club France

Germany Museum of London
London
Docklands

Ireland The Big Chill House

Italy Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
Conference Centre

Japan London
London
County Hall

Jamaica The O2

Kenya East Thames
Thames
in Stratford

Korea Royal Thames
Thames
Yacht Club

Monaco Haymarket

Netherlands Alexandra Palace Holland Heineken House

New Zealand Granary Square, Kings Cross Kiwi House

Nigeria Theatre Royal Stratford East

Russia Perks Field, Kensington Palace

Slovakia 80 Haymarket

South Africa Queen Elizabeth Hall

South Pacific St Katharine Docks

Switzerland Glazier's Hall

Trinidad & Tobago Tricycle Theatre

Source[140] Sports[edit] The 2012 Summer Olympic programme featured 26 sports encompassing 39 disciplines and 302 events. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

2012 Summer Olympic Sports Programme

Aquatics

Diving (8) Swimming (34) Synchronized swimming (2) Water polo (2)

Archery (4) Athletics (47) Badminton (5) Basketball (2) Boxing (13)

Canoeing

Sprint (12) Slalom (4)

Cycling (competitors)

BMX (2) Mountain biking (2) Road (4) Track (10)

Equestrian

Dressage (2) Eventing (2) Jumping (2)

Fencing (10) Field hockey (2) Football (2) Gymnastics

Artistic (14) Rhythmic (2) Trampoline (2)

Handball (2) Judo (14) Modern pentathlon (2) Rowing (14) Sailing (10)

Shooting (15) Table tennis (4) Taekwondo (8) Tennis (5) Triathlon (2) Volleyball

Volleyball (2) Beach volleyball (2)

Weightlifting (15) Wrestling

Freestyle (11) Greco-Roman (7)

Women's boxing was included in the programme for the first time, and 36 women competed in three weight classes. There was a special dispensation for the shooting events, which would otherwise have been illegal under UK gun law.[141][142] In tennis, mixed doubles returned to the Olympic programme for the first time since 1924.[143] London's bid featured the same 28 sports that had been included in other recent Summer Olympics, but the IOC voted to drop baseball and softball from the 2012 Games two days after it had selected London
London
as the host city. There was an appeal, but the IOC voted to uphold the decision, and the two sports were last scheduled for the 2008 Olympics.[144] The IOC then voted on whether or not to replace them. They considered karate, squash, golf, roller sports and rugby sevens. Karate
Karate
and squash were the two final nominees, but neither received enough votes to reach the required two-thirds majority.[144] Although formal demonstration sports were eliminated after the 1992 Summer Olympics,[145] special tournaments for non- Olympic sports
Olympic sports
can be run during the Games, such as the Wushu tournament at the 2008 Summer Olympics.[146] There were attempts to run Twenty20 cricket[146] and netball[147] tournaments alongside the 2012 Games, but neither campaign was successful. Calendar[edit]

All times are in British Summer Time
British Summer Time
(UTC+1)

See also: Chronological summary of the 2012 Summer Olympics The final official schedule was released on 15 February 2011.[148]

OC Opening ceremony ● Event competitions 1 Gold medal events CC Closing ceremony

July/August 25th Wed 26th Thu 27th Fri 28th Sat 29th Sun 30th Mon 31st Tue 1st Wed 2nd Thu 3rd Fri 4th Sat 5th Sun 6th Mon 7th Tue 8th Wed 9th Thu 10th Fri 11th Sat 12th Sun Events

Ceremonies

OC

CC N/A

Archery

● 1 1 ● ● ● 1 1

4

Athletics

2 6 6 5 4 4 5 6 8 1 47

Badminton

● ● ● ● ● ● 1 2 2

5

Basketball

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 1 1 2

Boxing

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 3 ● 5 5 13

Canoeing Slalom

● ● 1 1 2

16

Sprint

● ● 4 4 ● 4

Cycling Road cycling

1 1

2

18

Track cycling

2 2 1 1 1 3

BMX

● ● 2

Mountain biking

1 1

Diving

1 1 1 1

● ● 1 ● 1 ● 1 ● 1

8

Equestrian

● ● ● 2

● ● ● ● 1 1 1 1

6

Fencing

1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1

10

Field hockey

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 1 1

2

Football ● ●

● ●

● ●

● ●

● ●

1 ● 1

2

Gymnastics Artistic

● ● 1 1 1 1

3 3 4

18

Rhythmic

● ● 1 1

Trampolining

1 1

Handball

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 1 1 2

Judo

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

14

Modern pentathlon

1 1 2

Rowing

● ● ● ● 3 3 4 4

14

Sailing

● ● ● ● ● ● ● 2 2 2 1

2 1

10

Shooting

2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2

15

Swimming

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

1 1

34

Synchronized swimming

● ● 1

● 1

2

Table tennis

● ● ● ● 1 1 ● ● ● ● 1 1

4

Taekwondo

2 2 2 2

8

Tennis

● ● ● ● ● ● ● 2 3

5

Triathlon

1

1

2

Volleyball Beach volleyball

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 1 1

4

Indoor volleyball

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 1 1

Water polo

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 1 ●

1 2

Weightlifting

1 2 2 2 2

2 1 1 1 1

15

Wrestling

2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 18

Daily medal events

12 14 12 15 20 18 22 25 23 18 21 16 22 17 32 15 302

Cumulative total

12 26 38 53 73 91 113 138 161 179 200 216 238 255 287 302

July/August 25th Wed 26th Thu 27th Fri 28th Sat 29th Sun 30th Mon 31st Tue 1st Wed 2nd Thu 3rd Fri 4th Sat 5th Sun 6th Mon 7th Tue 8th Wed 9th Thu 10th Fri 11th Sat 12th Sun Total events

Records[edit] Main article: World and Olympic records set at the 2012 Summer Olympics

Mo Farah
Mo Farah
with Usain Bolt.

The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
featured 32 world records in eight sports. The largest number of records were set in swimming, with eight. China, Great Britain and the United States
United States
set the most records, with five each. Medal table[edit] Main article: 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
medal table Further information: List of 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
medal winners A total of 85 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) won medals, 54 of those countries winning at least one gold medal. Bahrain,[149] Botswana,[150] Cyprus,[151] Gabon,[152] Grenada (a gold medal),[153] Guatemala,[154] and Montenegro[155] won their first ever Olympic medals. The United States
United States
finished at the top of the table winning 46 gold medals and winning 103 medals overall. China finished second with 38 gold medals and 88 medals overall. Hosts Great Britain came in third place winning 29 gold medals and 65 medals overall in their best performance since London
London
hosted its first Summer Olympic Games
Olympic Games
back in 1908 pushing Russia
Russia
into fourth place who won 20 gold medals although they won 69 medals (4 more than Great Britain) overall.

2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
medal table[156]

Rank NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total

1  United States (USA)‡ 46 28 29 103

2  China (CHN)‡ 38 31 22 91

3  Great Britain (GBR)* 29 17 19 65

4  Russia (RUS)‡ 20 19 30 69

5  South Korea (KOR)‡ 13 9 8 30

6  Germany (GER)‡ 11 20 13 44

7  France (FRA)‡ 11 11 13 35

8  Australia (AUS)‡ 8 15 12 35

9  Italy (ITA) 8 9 11 28

10  Hungary (HUN)‡ 8 4 6 18

11–85 Remaining NOCs 110 140 190 440

Total (85 NOCs) 302 303 353 958

Key

  *   Host nation (Great Britain)   ‡   See subpage: Changes in medal standings Broadcasting[edit] Main article: List of 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
broadcasters

The International Broadcast Centre in June 2011

The host broadcaster was Olympic Broadcasting Services
Olympic Broadcasting Services
(OBS), an agency of the IOC. The OBS used its own cameras, and crews subcontracted from other Olympic broadcasters, to cover the events. The base video and audio were sold to other broadcasters, who added their own commentary and presentation. The official recording format of the 2012 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
used Panasonic's digital technologies. The official video was produced and distributed from the International Broadcast Centre in 1080/50i High-Definition (HD) format. Panasonic
Panasonic
announced that DVCPRO HD would be the official recording format. OBS London
London
used P2 HD shoulder-mount camcorders.[157] The IOC's wanted television coverage to reach as broad a worldwide audience as possible, and London
London
2012 was covered by several national and regional broadcasters. In the UK, the BBC
BBC
carried the Olympics and Channel 4
Channel 4
the Paralympics. The BBC
BBC
aimed to broadcast all 5,000 hours of the Games.[158] BBC
BBC
Parliament's Freeview channel was suspended, BBC
BBC
Three's on-air time was extended so that it could show Olympic events in the daytime, and 24 additional BBC
BBC
Olympics channels were available via cable, satellite and the internet in the UK. The US television rights, owned by NBC, accounted for over half the rights revenue for the IOC.[book 1] Thousands of Americans, however, accessed the BBC's omnibus coverage using proxy servers or VPNs.[159] Despite high viewership, many viewers were disappointed with NBC's coverage.[160][161] The operations of broadcasters granted rights to the Games were hosted in the dedicated International Broadcast Centre inside the security cordon of the Olympic Park. YouTube planned to stream the Games in 64 territories in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa where there were no official broadcasters.[162] In Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
a dispute occurred between Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Rupavahini Corporation (SLRC) and MBC Networks (MTV/MBC) as to who was the official broadcaster of the Games. This problem was caused as Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union
Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union
(ABU) had offered the official broadcasting rights to both networks, as both of the networks were ABU members. So SLRC filed a case against MBC Networks for broadcasting rights at the Colombo Magistrate's Court. Considering the case, the court issued a special court order preventing MBC Networks' Olympic broadcast and stated that SLRC should be the sole broadcaster.[163] However, when the Games started, both networks broadcast most of the events simultaneously. Another dispute had previously occurred between Carlton Sports Network (CSN) and SLRC, but the Sports Minister, Mahindananda Aluthgamage, had stated that SLRC had the exclusive rights.[164] Marketing[edit] Main article: 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
marketing "Survival" by Muse was announced as the official song of the Olympics,[165] to be played by international broadcasters reporting on the Games.[166] In August 2009, the Royal Mail
Royal Mail
commissioned artists and illustrators to design 30 stamps, which were released in batches of 10 between 2009 and 2011.[167] The last ones were released on 22 July 2011.[168] Two £5 coins designed by Saiman Miah have been made to commemorate the Olympics.[169] As with other Olympics since 1952, the Royal Mint
Royal Mint
will strike a set of commemorative one-kilogram gold and silver coins.[170] Motto[edit] The official motto for the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
is "Inspire a generation". It was chosen to highlight the organiser's commitment to inspire the world including younger generations to get involved in sporting events through its games' legacy.[171][172] Logo and graphics[edit] There have been two London
London
2012 logos: one created by Kino Design for the bidding process and a second as the brand for the Games themselves. The former was a ribbon with blue, yellow, black, green and red stripes winding through the text "LONDON 2012", making the shape of the River Thames
River Thames
in East London. The latter, designed by Wolff Olins, was published on 4 June 2007. It is a representation of the number 2012, with the Olympic Rings embedded within the zero.[173]

The Paralympics logo (far left) and the different official colour combinations for the Wolff Olins
Wolff Olins
main logo design

Public reaction to the main logo in a June 2007 BBC
BBC
poll was largely negative; more than 80% of votes gave it the lowest possible rating.[174] Several newspapers ran their own logo competitions, displaying alternative submissions from their readers,[175] and several writers from news agencies criticised the logo.[175][176] A segment of animated footage released at the same time as the logo was reported to trigger seizures in a small number of people with photosensitive epilepsy, and a short segment was removed from the London
London
2012 website in response.[177] It was suggested that the logo resembled the cartoon character Lisa Simpson
Lisa Simpson
performing fellatio on her brother Bart Simpson.[178][179][180][181][182][183][184] In February 2011, Iran
Iran
threatened to boycott the Olympics, complaining that the logo appeared to spell out the word "Zion". However, this boycott did not occur.[185] The official London
London
2012 Olympic typeface was called Headline 2012 and also suffered some criticism. Journalist Simon Garfield made it number 1 in the list of the "8 Worst Fonts in the World" in his 2010 book Just My Type, commenting that "the uncool font is based on jaggedness and crudeness", although he conceded that it was "a brilliant piece of corporate branding".[186][187] The magazine Wired pointed out that the typeface was intended for "awareness, impact and memorability as a headline typeface" rather than elegance or readability in long sections of text.[188] Mascots[edit] Main article: Wenlock and Mandeville

The Olympic Mascots, Mandeville (left) and Wenlock (right)

The official mascots for the 2012 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games were unveiled on 19 May 2010.[189] Wenlock and Mandeville
Wenlock and Mandeville
are animations depicting two drops of steel from a steelworks in Bolton.[189] They are named after Much Wenlock, a town in Shropshire that holds a forerunner of the current Olympic Games, and Stoke Mandeville, a village in Buckinghamshire where a forerunner of the Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
was first held.[189] The writer Michael Morpurgo wrote the story concept for the mascots, and an animation was produced.[190] Two stories have been created about the mascots: Out Of A Rainbow and Adventures On A Rainbow.[191] Creative Review magazine liked the mascots,[192] but elsewhere their design was greeted with some disdain. One columnist jested that they were the product of a "drunken one-night stand between a Teletubby and a Dalek".[193] Others have compared them to Izzy, the much disparaged mascot of the 1996 Atlanta Summer Olympics.[194] Still others have likened them to Kang and Kodos
Kang and Kodos
from The Simpsons.[195] However, the mascots' creators claim that young people find the duo appealing.[196] Chariots of Fire[edit] The 1981 Best Picture Oscar–winning film Chariots of Fire, which tells the story of two British athletes in the 1924 Olympics, was a recurring theme in promotions for the 2012 Olympics.[197] A digitally re-mastered version of Chariots of Fire
Chariots of Fire
was released on 13 July 2012 and screened in over 100 UK cinemas as part of the celebrations,[198] and a 2012 stage adaptation ran in London
London
theatres from 9 May 2012 to 5 January 2013.[199] The film's theme tune was performed during the Opening Ceremony by the London
London
Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Simon Rattle. The performance was accompanied by a comedic skit by Rowan Atkinson, which included the opening beach-running footage from the film.[200] A new orchestration of the film's theme tune was played during each medal presentation of the Games.[201] Sponsors[edit] Main article: 2012 Summer Olympics marketing
2012 Summer Olympics marketing
§ Sponsors

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2012)

LOCOG
LOCOG
and the IOC agreed sponsorship deals with several companies, each assigned to one of four categories; worldwide, tier one, tier two and tier three.[202] The worldwide partners are: Acer, Atos, Coca-Cola, Dow, General Electric, McDonald's, Omega SA, Panasonic, Procter & Gamble, Samsung
Samsung
and Visa.[202] The companies provided £1.4 billion of funding altogether, allocated evenly between the IOC and LOCOG.[203] Controversies[edit] Main article: Controversies at the 2012 Summer Olympics During the lead-up to the Games, there were controversies over sponsorship,[204] the athletes' use of social media, and several political issues. After a complicated lottery process, thousands of people failed to secure seats for the events they wanted, but a large number of empty seats were observed throughout the games, even at some of the most popular events. There was speculation that this was due to a failure of corporate sponsors to make use of tickets they had received.[85] During the Games, eight competitors in the badminton women's doubles were disqualified for "not using best efforts", when they tried to lose matches in the group stage to obtain more favourable fixtures in the knockout rounds.[205][206] A number of results in boxing, gymnastics and judo were overturned by officials after initial decisions were appealed against.[207][208][209] Ye Shiwen faced doping allegations after her gold medal in the women's 400m Individual Medley as she came from being behind the world record in the final 50m to beating it by 1.02 seconds. Furthermore, her last 50m was swum 0.17 seconds quicker than the men's winner, Ryan Lochte. All charges have since been dropped and cleared for the athlete.[210] Drug testing[edit] Main article: Use of performance-enhancing drugs in the Olympic Games § 2012 London It was announced before the Summer Games that half of all the competitors would be tested for drugs, with 150 scientists set to take 6,000 samples between the start of the Games and the end of the Paralympic Games.[211] Every competitor who won a medal was also tested. The Olympic laboratory tested up to 400 samples every day for more than 240 prohibited substances.[211] As of late 2017, 29 medals are stripped due to doping violations. Russia
Russia
is a leading country with 13 medals rescinded. See also[edit]

2012 Olympic hunger summit 2012 Summer Paralympics 2012 Winter Youth Olympics Twenty Twelve, a comedy mockumentary featuring a fictional London Olympics committee

The two previous times the Games were held in London:

1908 Summer Olympics 1948 Summer Olympics

Further reading[edit]

Jaworska, Sylvia; Hunt, Sally (2017). "Differentiations and intersections: a corpus-assisted discourse study of gender representations in the British press before, during and after the London
London
Olympics 2012". Gender and Language. Equinox. 11 (3): 336–364. doi:10.1558/genl.28858. 

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2012 Mascots". Mylondon2012.com. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.  ^ "Wenlock & Mandeville: London's Olympic mascots". Creative Review blog. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012.  ^ "Behold the One-Eyed Compromise Monster". Globe and Mail. Toronto. 21 May 2010.  ^ Rhone, Nedra (21 May 2010). "Atlanta's Olympic mascot meets its ugly match". Journal & Constitution. Atlanta GA. Retrieved 16 May 2012.  ^ Alpert, Emily (26 July 2012). " London
London
Olympics: Making sport of mascots Wenlock, Mandeville". Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
blog.  ^ "Interview: London
London
2012 Olympic mascots' creator discusses their design". Digital Arts. Retrieved 16 May 2012.  ^ " London
London
Fireworks 2012 – New Year Live – BBC
BBC
One". Youtube.com. 1 January 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.  ^ " Chariots of Fire
Chariots of Fire
Returns to UK Cinemas Ahead of the Olympics". British Film Institute. 23 March 2012. Archived 28 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ng, David. " Chariots of Fire
Chariots of Fire
is West End-bound, Coinciding with Olympics". Los Angeles Times. 18 April 2012. ^ "Mr. Bean's 'Chariots Of Fire' Skit At 2012 London
London
Olympics Opening Ceremony". International Business Times. Retrieved 29 July 2012.  ^ "Olympic Song - Chariots of Fire
Chariots of Fire
by Vangelis".  ^ a b " Olympic Games
Olympic Games
partners The people delivering the Games". London
London
2012. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2011.  ^ Rogers, Simon (19 July 2012). " London
London
2012 Olympic sponsors list: who are they and what have they paid?". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 July 2012.  ^ Carman, Tim (18 July 2012). " McDonald's
McDonald's
Olympian achievement in London: A French fry monopoly and largest fast-food restaurant". The Washington Post.  ^ "All eight women disqualified for throwing badminton matches". NBC Olympics. 1 August 2012. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2012.  ^ "Olympics badminton: Eight women disqualified from doubles". BBC Sport. 1 August 2012.  ^ "Olympic boxing officials punished for controversial rulings". NBC Olympics. 13 August 2011. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.  ^ John, Emma (30 July 2012). "Olympics: Kristian Thomas keeps cool as Team GB grab gymnastics bronze". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  ^ "Farcical scenes in Japan-Korea judo quarter final". AFP. 29 July 2012.  ^ " London
London
2012 Olympics: Chinese swimmer Ye Shiwen cleared of doping by WADA, says Olympic chief". 31 July 2012.  ^ a b " London
London
2012: All medallists to be drugs tested at Olympics". BBC
BBC
News. 15 July 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012. 

Book references[edit]

^ Rosner, Scott; Shropshire, Kenneth L. (2010). The Business of Sports. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett. p. 453. ISBN 9780763780784. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2012 Summer Olympics.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for London
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Wikinews has related news:

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to host 2012 Olympic Games Olympics organisers insist London
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win in 2012 ballot was fair

Official

" London
London
2012". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  "Results and Medalists". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  "Official website". Archived from the original on 28 March 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Archived Official Website, part of the UK Government Web Archive

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London
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