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The 2002 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XVII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Manchester
Manchester
2002 were held in Manchester, England, from 25 July to 4 August 2002. The 2002 Games were to be hosted in the United Kingdom to coincide with the Golden Jubilee
Golden Jubilee
of Elizabeth II, head of the Commonwealth, and Manchester
Manchester
was selected for the 2002 Games ahead of London.[3] The XVII Commonwealth Games was, prior to the 2012 Summer Olympics, the largest multi-sport event ever to be held in the UK, eclipsing the London
London
1948 Summer Olympics in numbers of teams and athletes participating.[4][5] In terms of sports and events, the 2002 Games were the largest Commonwealth Games in history featuring 281 events across 17 sports. The Games were considered a success for the host city, providing an event to display how Manchester
Manchester
had changed following the 1996 bombing.[6] The Games formed the catalyst for the widespread regeneration and heavy development of Manchester, and bolstered its reputation as a European and global city internationally. Rapid economic development and continued urban regeneration of the now post-industrial Manchester
Manchester
continued after the Games which helped cement its place as one of the principal cultural cities in the United Kingdom.[7] The opening and closing ceremonies, the athletic and the rugby sevens events were held at the City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium, which was purpose built for the Games. Unusually for a large multi-sport event—the second-largest competition by number of countries and athletes participating—the shooting events were held in the National Shooting Centre in Bisley, Surrey, some 200 miles (322 km) from the main focus of the Games in Manchester. Seventy-two nations competed in 14 individual sports and 3 team sports events. Sporting legacy includes the British Cycling
British Cycling
team who inherited the Manchester
Manchester
Velodrome and went on to win eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympics and another eight gold medals at the 2012 Olympics, partly attributed to the availability of the velodrome. Manchester
Manchester
City F.C. inherited the City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium, and as a result, have since found themselves in a desirable investment opportunity in age of foreign football investment. The club was taken over by the Abu Dhabi United Group led by Sheikh Mansour
Sheikh Mansour
in 2008, without the stadium, a takeover would have been far less certain.[8][9] The Games were a formative moment for Manchester
Manchester
and Britain with then-IOC president Jacques Rogge viewing the games as an important litmus test as to whether Britain could host the Summer Olympics.[10][11] The success of the Games quickly encouraged and inspired the future London
London
bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
and Paralympics with London
London
going on to win the bid on 6 July 2005 and the games were successfully staged seven years later.[12]

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Logo 1.2 Mascot 1.3 Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay 1.4 Cultureshock and Festival Live 1.5 Sports 1.6 Venues 1.7 Sponsors

2 Calendar 3 Participating teams 4 Opening ceremony 5 Closing ceremony 6 Aftermath

6.1 Highlights 6.2 Legacy host city and nation 6.3 Final medal table

7 References 8 External links

Background[edit] Logo[edit] The 2002 Commonwealth Games' logo is an image of three figures standing on a podium with their arms uplifted in the jubilation of winning or in celebration, which represents the three core themes of the Games: sport, culture and friendship and the types of medalist in the games: gold, silver and bronze. The figures are captured in three colours which are red, blue and green. The red represents performance, passion and success; the blue symbolises intelligence, confidence and reliability, while the green represents loyalty, balance and generosity. The yellow background behind the figures represents the competitive, powerful and cheerful elements of the Games, while the black games' name letters representing solidarity and strength. The figures in the logo joining hands to resemble the letter 'M', which is the initial for the host city, Manchester
Manchester
and also a crown of the queen to represent the Golden Jubilee
Golden Jubilee
of Elizabeth II's reign as the monarch of The United Kingdom. The logo overall represents a celebration of sharing and friendship and the pride of participating in the Games, cheerful atmosphere, sportsmanship and confidence of Manchester
Manchester
as the games host city.[13] Mascot[edit] The official mascot of the 2002 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
is a cat name Kit. The adoption of the cat as the games mascot is to represent the young, vibrant, friendly, dynamic personality of Manchester
Manchester
as the games host city.[14] Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay[edit]

The Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay passes through Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
before the 2002 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
in Manchester

The 2002 Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay, the continuation of a tradition that started with the 1958 Games, consisted of the relay of an electronic baton, containing a personal message from Elizabeth II across 23 Commonwealth nations. The relay culminated in the arrival of the baton at the City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium, opening the Games. The speech was then removed electronically from the baton, and read by Her Majesty to open the Games.[15] The 2002 Baton itself was designed by a company called IDEO, and was constructed of machined aluminium with the handle plated for conductivity. It weighed 1.69 kg, reached over 710 mm, and was 42.5 mm to 85 mm in diameter. The Queen's message itself was held in an aluminium capsule inserted into the top of the Baton. On either side of the Baton were two sterling silver coins, designed by Mappin and Webb, which celebrated the City of Manchester
Manchester
as host of the XVII Commonwealth Games. The Baton was also equipped with sensors that detected and monitored the Runner's pulse rate. This information was then conveyed to a series of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), via a light behaviour module. The lens then transformed the LEDs into a shaft of bright blue pulsating light which synchronised with each new Runner. The hearts of the Runner and the Baton then beat as one until it was passed on, symbolising the journey of humanity and the essence of life. The Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay passed through over 500 cities, towns and villages across the UK and the Baton was carried by 5,000 individuals, with each Runner carrying the Baton up to 500 yards, however on Saturday 15 June, the baton was snatched from a runners hand in the town of Connah's Quay, Deeside
Deeside
in north Wales. The UK Baton Runners were made up of people from all walks of life including athletes, celebrities and local heroes from all over the country. Around 2500 Jubilee Runners were nominated by the community to carry the Baton, because they made a special contribution to their community or achieved a personal goal against the odds. The judging of the Jubilee Runners was conducted by a panel of judges under the supervision of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award
Duke of Edinburgh's Award
in January 2002. The relay was sponsored by Cadbury Schweppes, a major UK confectionery and soft drinks manufacturer. Cultureshock and Festival Live[edit] See also: Cultureshock at the 2002 Commonwealth Games Cultureshock was the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Cultural Programme which ran alongside the Games themselves. The events ranged from images of the athlete as hero in sculpture and photography (Go! Freeze, which ran at Turton Tower in Bolton) to a Zulu performance at The Lowry. There was an exhibition at the Whitworth Art Gallery
Whitworth Art Gallery
called Tales of Power: West African Textiles, and a performance of the film Monsoon Wedding
Monsoon Wedding
at Clwyd Theatr Cymru. The geographical range was from Cheshire
Cheshire
in the south to Blackburn
Blackburn
and Cumbria
Cumbria
in the north, and included that year the various Melas that take place around the region. Cultureshock also ensured that a wide range of cultural events and acts reached the "man on the street", with the city centre of Manchester
Manchester
filled with bands, performers, and artists of various forms entertaining the thousands of visitors to the Games. It also coincided with the BBC's 2002 Festival Live series of open-air concerts and celebrations around the country, held to celebrate the Queen's Golden Jubilee. Many of the cultural events were covered by the BBC 2002 radio station covering the games. Sports[edit]

Countries that competed

Main article: 2002 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
results There were the maximum of 17 sports included in the schedule for the 2002 Commonwealth Games.

Sport Venue Number of medal events

Aquatics Manchester
Manchester
Aquatics Centre 7001500000000000000♠50

Athletics City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium (Track and field), Salford Quays
Salford Quays
(race walking), City centre: Manchester
Manchester
Town Hall - Stadium (Marathon) 7001480000000000000♠48

Badminton Bolton
Bolton
Arena 7000600000000000000♠6

Boxing Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Forum, Manchester
Manchester
Arena 7001120000000000000♠12

Cycling Manchester
Manchester
Velodrome (track events), Rivington
Rivington
(road races) 7001170000000000000♠17

Gymnastics Manchester
Manchester
Central Convention Complex 7001150000000000000♠15

Hockey Belle Vue Complex 7000200000000000000♠2

Judo Manchester
Manchester
Central Convention Complex 7001140000000000000♠14

Lawn bowls Heaton Park 7000600000000000000♠6

Netball Manchester
Manchester
Arena 7000100000000000000♠1

Rugby Sevens City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium 7000100000000000000♠1

Shooting Bisley Shooting Centre 7001400000000000000♠40

Squash National Squash Centre 7000500000000000000♠5

Table tennis Table Tennis Centre, Sportcity 7000800000000000000♠8

Triathlon Salford Quays 7000200000000000000♠2

Weightlifting Manchester
Manchester
Central Convention Complex 7001460000000000000♠46

Wrestling Manchester
Manchester
Central Convention Complex 7000700000000000000♠7

After experimenting with it on a smaller scale at the 1994 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
and dropping it at the 1998 Games, disabled competitions were held in swimming, athletics, bowls, table tennis and weightlifting (powerlifting). The medals were added to the final tally for each nation. Venues[edit]

The City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium (now the Etihad Stadium) during the Games hosted Athletics and Rugby Sevens events

Manchester
Manchester
Aquatics Centre hosted Diving and Swimming events

Manchester
Manchester
Velodrome hosted the track cycling programme

The Manchester
Manchester
Arena hosted the boxing and netball events

Manchester
Manchester
Central (Grade II*, formerly G-Mex) hosted the gymnastics, judo and wrestling programmes

Bolton
Bolton
Arena hosted badminton

The venues were eclectic ranging from high-tech architecture in the City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium to the 19th-century Grade II* listed Manchester
Manchester
Central hall. The Games' main venue was the City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium (now Etihad Stadium), which hosted all athletics events, the rugby sevens and the opening and closing ceremonies. The stadium was a downscaled version of that proposed during Manchester's bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics. Construction started in January 2000,[16] and was completed shortly before the Games. The cost was approximately £110 million, £77 million of which was provided by Sport England, with the remainder funded by Manchester
Manchester
City Council.[17] For the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
the stadium featured a single lower tier running around three sides of the athletics track, and second tiers to the two sides, with an open-air temporary stand at one end, giving an overall capacity of 41,000.[18] The stadium formed the centrepiece of an area known as Sportcity. Other venues in Sportcity
Sportcity
include the Manchester
Manchester
Velodrome, which hosted cycling, and the £3.5m National Squash Centre, which was built specifically for the Games.[19] Swimming and diving events took place at Manchester
Manchester
Aquatics Centre, another purpose-built venue, and the only one in the United Kingdom with two 50 m pools.[20] The Manchester
Manchester
Arena built in 1994, at the time was the largest arena in Europe and hosted netball and boxing.[21] The shooting events were held at the National Shooting Centre, Bisley (located in Surrey). The NSC saw major redevelopment of all its ranges in order to host the fullbore rifle, smallbore rifle, pistol and clay target events. The Games Village is located on 30 acres of land, which operates as the Fallowfield Campus within the University of Manchester
Manchester
during the games.[22] Sponsors[edit] Numerous companies ranging from international to local, sponsored the 2002 Games.[23][24] International sponsors included Microsoft
Microsoft
and Xerox
Xerox
and also companies with local links to Manchester
Manchester
including Guardian Media Group, PZ Cussons
PZ Cussons
and United Utilities.

Addleshaw Booth & Co Adecco Asda Boddington's Bruntwood

Bupa Cadbury's FirstGroup Guardian Media Group Manchester
Manchester
Airports Group

MG Rover Group Microsoft[25] PZ Cussons United Utilities Virgin Trains Xerox

Calendar[edit]

OC Opening ceremony ● Event competitions 1 Gold medal events CC Closing ceremony

July/August 25 Thu 26 Fri 27 Sat 28 Sun 29 Mon 30 Tue 31 Wed 1 Thu 2 Fri 3 Sat 4 Sun Events

Ceremonies OC

CC N/A

Athletics

2 5 12 9 7 13

48

Diving 2 2 2

6

Swimming

5 5 9 5 11 7 42

Synchronised swimming

1 1

2

Badminton

● ● ● ● 1 ● ● ● ● 5 6

Boxing

● ● ● ● ● ● ●

12

12

Cycling

2 2 2 1 2 3 3 2

17

Gymnastics

1 1 2 10

14

Hockey

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 1 1 2

Judo

4 5 5

14

Lawn bowls

1 1 1

1 4 8

Netball

● ● ● ● ● ●

1 1

Rugby sevens

● ● 1 1

Shooting

5 6 5 6 3 6 4 5

40

Squash

● ● ● ● ● 2 ● ● ● 3 5

Triathlon

2 2

Table tennis

● ● ● ● 2 ● ● ● 2 4 8

Weightlifting

9 9 9 9 10

46

Wrestling

● 4 3 7

Daily medal events 2 6 16 22 26 36 40 33 21 48 31 281

Cumulative total 2 8 24 46 72 108 148 181 202 250 281

July/August 25 Thu 26 Fri 27 Sat 28 Sun 29 Mon 30 Tue 31 Wed 1 Thu 2 Fri 3 Sat 4 Sun Total events

Participating teams[edit] There were 72 participating countries, territories and Commonwealth regions at the 2002 Commonwealth Games. The 2002 event marked the last time Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
has participated to date; Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
formally withdrew from the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
the following year.[26]

Participating Commonwealth Countries & Territories

 Anguilla  Antigua and Barbuda  Australia  Bahamas  Bangladesh  Barbados  Belize  Bermuda  Botswana  British Virgin Islands  Brunei  Cameroon  Canada  Cayman Islands  Cook Islands  Cyprus  Dominica   England
England
(host)  Falkland Islands  Fiji  Gambia  Ghana  Gibraltar  Grenada  Guernsey  Guyana  India  Isle of Man  Jamaica  Jersey  Kenya  Kiribati  Lesotho  Malawi  Malaysia  Maldives  Malta  Mauritius  Montserrat  Mozambique  Namibia  Nauru  New Zealand  Nigeria  Niue  Norfolk Island  Northern Ireland  Pakistan  Papua New Guinea  Saint Helena  Saint Kitts and Nevis  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Samoa  Scotland  Seychelles  Sierra Leone  Singapore  Solomon Islands  South Africa  Sri Lanka  Swaziland  Tanzania  Tonga  Trinidad and Tobago  Turks and Caicos Islands  Tuvalu  Uganda  Vanuatu  Wales  Zambia  Zimbabwe

Opening ceremony[edit] The Project & Artistic Director for the Opening Ceremony was David Zolkwer. Five-time Olympic champion Sir Steve Redgrave
Steve Redgrave
opened the two-and-a-quarter-hour opening ceremony by banging a large drum, which initiated a co-ordinated dance and fireworks act. The champion rower was joined on the stage by sporting stars including yachtswoman Ellen MacArthur, heptathlete Denise Lewis, long-distance runner Moses Kiptanui, swimmer Susie O'Neill and sprinter Donovan Bailey. The Grenadier Guards
Grenadier Guards
shared the arena with pop band S Club
S Club
and Salford-born opera singer Russell Watson
Russell Watson
sang the Games' theme, "Faith of the Heart", while the arrival of HM The Queen was greeted with a flypast by the Red Arrows. England
England
football captain David Beckham helped chaperone Queen's Baton final runner Kirsty Howard, assisting the terminally ill six-year-old to hand the baton to The Queen. A 4,000-strong cast took part in the £12m spectacular, which in theme and tone consisted of a mix of "pomp and pop", combining the ceremonial aspects of the Games with a party-style atmosphere, based on Manchester's reputation as the party city of "Madchester". The ceremony was voiced by broadcaster Anthony Davis. The traditional athletes' parade was led by previous hosts Malaysia, and England
England
brought up the rear before The Queen as the Head of the Commonwealth, declared the Games open: "All of us participating in this ceremony tonight, whether athletes or spectators, or those watching on television around the world, can share in the ideals of this unique association of nations," "We can all draw inspiration from what the Commonwealth stands for, our diversity as a source of strength, our tradition of tolerance ... our focus on young people, for they are our future." Closing ceremony[edit] The Project & Artistic Director for the Closing Ceremony was David Zolkwer. The Queen ended 11 days of competition at a rain-drenched closing ceremony in the City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium. She declared the Games closed in front of a 38,000 sell-out crowd gathered in the stadium. She also called on the athletes to assemble again in four years in Melbourne
Melbourne
and to continue displaying the "friendship" they had shown in Manchester. The ceremony, attended by Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Tony Blair
Tony Blair
and several other dignitaries, took place in pouring rain and like the opening ceremony, mixed "pomp with pop". Australian Ian Thorpe, the star of the Games with his six swimming golds, carried his national flag into the arena, along with athletes from each of the other competing countries. Around 40,000 balloons were released into the rainy Manchester
Manchester
sky as the ceremony concluded with a spectacular fireworks display. Closing ceremony highlights included:[27]

Children covering themselves with red, blue and white paint to portray a giant British flag before unveiling a giant portrait of The Queen as a Golden Jubilee
Golden Jubilee
gift. The athletes bringing their national flags into the stadium South African swimmer Natalie du Toit
Natalie du Toit
being honoured as the outstanding athlete of the Games.[28] The symbolic handover of the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Ceremonial Flag to Melbourne, host city for the 2006 Games. A spectacular presentation with over 1,700 lanterns, which ended with the message 'Seek Peace' lit up in vast letters on the floor of the arena. Coronation Street
Coronation Street
stars Steve Arnold and Tracy Shaw (who played characters Ashley and Maxine Peacock) arriving in one of 40 Morris Minors which became the centre of a song-and-dance showpiece. Hip-hop DJ Grandmaster Flash
Grandmaster Flash
encouraging the massed ranks to "make some noise" as athletes and volunteers poured into the arena to music from the likes of Will Young, Dave Stewart, Heather Small, Jimmy Cliff and Toploader. Australian singer Vanessa Amorosi
Vanessa Amorosi
sang her signature tune, Shine and a song about the city of Melbourne, "I'll always be a Melbourne
Melbourne
girl" just as it began to pour with rain.

Aftermath[edit] Highlights[edit]

Australian Ian Thorpe
Ian Thorpe
set a world record in the 400-metre freestyle swimming.[29] English swimmer Zoë Baker set a world record in the 50-metre breaststroke.[30] English track athlete Paula Radcliffe
Paula Radcliffe
won her first major gold medal in the 5,000 metres,[31] to record a time of 14:31.42, over 20 seconds ahead of silver medallist Edith Masai of Kenya
Kenya
and 1 minute 21 seconds faster than the inaugural running of the event four years earlier. In the final of the 100 m for men (athletics), the two English favourites ( Dwain Chambers
Dwain Chambers
& Mark Lewis-Francis) both pulled up with injuries. The race was won by Kim Collins
Kim Collins
of Saint Kitts and Nevis, winning the country's first Commonwealth title. Simon Whitfield
Simon Whitfield
of Canada, the 2000 Olympic champion and the 2008 Olympic silver medallist, won gold in the triathlon. On the last day of track competition, England
England
won gold in both the men's 4×100 and 4×400 relays by tiny margins, recording the same time (38.62) as the Jamaican quartet in sprint relay and holding off a fast finishing Welsh team by 1/100th of a second in the longer race, with a winning time of 3:00.40. The women's 4×400 relay was won by Australia after the favoured Jamaican team dropped the baton. In winning the triple jump England's Jonathan Edwards simultaneously held the World, Olympic, European and Commonwealth championships and the World record. He would lose the European title a week later in Munich. Another world record was set in the 4000-metre team pursuit at the track cycling by the Australian team. Scot Chris Hoy
Chris Hoy
took the individual time trial and 19-year-old Nicole Cooke
Nicole Cooke
of Wales
Wales
won the women's cycling road race. South African swimmer Natalie du Toit
Natalie du Toit
created history. As well as winning her events in the newly included disabled swimming event, the 18-year-old, missing the lower section of her left leg, made the final of the 800-metre able-bodied freestyle event in one of a small number of disabled sporting events integrated into the games. In gymnastics England's Beth Tweddle
Beth Tweddle
and Kanukai Jackson took gold in the asymmetric bars and all around events respectively. Herodotos Giorgallas also won the first gymnastics gold ever for Cyprus
Cyprus
when tying with Scotland's Steve Frew.

Legacy host city and nation[edit] In terms of infrastructure, the Games were the catalyst for the widespread redevelopment of the east of the city, an area which had remained derelict since the departure of heavy industry some decades before. The 2002 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
set a new benchmark for hosting the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
and for cities wishing to bid for them with a heavy emphasis on legacy.[32][33] The venue and financial policy of the 2002 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
has influenced future sporting events, including the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
in London
London
and 2014 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
in Glasgow. The cost of hosting the 2002 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
was estimated at approximately £300 million.[34] Prior to the games, a £100 million was required to fill a financial black hole and the government agreed to provide the funding required,[35] despite some believing that £300 million was too much.[36] In comparison to other sporting events, the 2002 games were marked by financial discipline. The cost of the 2010 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
were estimated at $4.1 billion,[37] the London
London
2012 Summer Olympics are estimated to cost £9 billion, while the 2014 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
could cost as much as £500 million.[38] Sporting legacy included the City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium which was turned over to Manchester
Manchester
City Football Club, to replace the ageing Maine Road. It is possible that this provided an incentive which led to the eventual 2008 take over by the Abu Dhabi United group led by Sheikh Mansour. Consequently, they have seen a considerable upturn in their success, with a series of transfers which has increased the profile of Manchester
Manchester
further, as Manchester
Manchester
City have become title challengers. Indeed, journalists have stated Mansour would not had bought the City had the club not had the 50,000 stadium. The Manchester
Manchester
Velodrome was built in 1994 in preparation for an Olympic bid, but subsequently hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games. Since opening in 1994, it has been cited as a catalyst for Britain's successes in track cycling since 2002.[39][40] At the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, the Great British cycling claimed 8 of the 18 gold medals on offer, including 14 of the 54 medals available altogether. This unprecedented achievement was partly attributed the availability of a velodrome. Local communities benefited from facilities built for the game such as the Manchester
Manchester
Aquatics Centre, the Northern Regional Tennis Centre and the National Squash Centre. There were comprehensive upgrades of Belle Vue and Moss Side
Moss Side
leisure centres serve their local communities. Olympic president Jacques Rogge said the Games had gone a long way to restoring Britain's credibility in terms of hosting big sporting events.[41] It has since been said that the success of the games was a major factor in reassuring the UK's sporting authorities and the government that the country could successfully stage major successful international sporting events and that, without them, London's successful bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
would not have come about.[42][43] Public houses and restaurants in Manchester
Manchester
reported a threefold increase in takings during the Games, and local tourism board Marketing Manchester
Manchester
estimate some 300,000 more visitors will come to the city each year as a result of its increased profile.[27] It is estimated that by 2008 £600m has been invested in the region as a result of the Games and that about 20,000 jobs had been created.[44] Final medal table[edit]   *   Host nation (England)

2002 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
medal table

Rank CGA Gold Silver Bronze Total

1  Australia (AUS) 82 62 63 207

2  England (ENG)* 54 51 60 165

3  Canada (CAN) 31 41 44 116

4  India (IND) 30 22 17 69

5  New Zealand (NZL) 11 13 21 45

6  South Africa (RSA) 9 20 17 46

7  Cameroon (CMR) 9 1 2 12

8  Malaysia (MAS) 7 9 18 34

9  Wales (WAL) 6 13 12 31

10  Scotland (SCO) 6 8 16 30

11  Nigeria (NGR) 5 3 11 19

12  Kenya (KEN) 4 8 4 16

13  Jamaica (JAM) 4 6 7 17

14  Singapore (SIN) 4 2 7 13

15  Bahamas (BAH) 4 0 4 8

16  Nauru (NRU) 2 5 8 15

17  Northern Ireland (NIR) 2 2 1 5

18  Cyprus (CYP) 2 1 1 4

19  Pakistan (PAK) 1 3 4 8

20  Fiji (FIJ) 1 1 1 3

20  Zambia (ZAM) 1 1 1 3

22  Zimbabwe (ZIM) 1 1 0 2

23  Namibia (NAM) 1 0 4 5

24  Tanzania (TAN) 1 0 1 2

25  Bangladesh (BAN) 1 0 0 1

25  Guyana (GUY) 1 0 0 1

25  Mozambique (MOZ) 1 0 0 1

25  Saint Kitts and Nevis (SKN) 1 0 0 1

29  Botswana (BOT) 0 2 1 3

30  Uganda (UGA) 0 2 0 2

31  Samoa (SAM) 0 1 2 3

32  Trinidad and Tobago (TRI) 0 1 0 1

33  Barbados (BAR) 0 0 1 1

33  Cayman Islands (CAY) 0 0 1 1

33  Ghana (GHA) 0 0 1 1

33  Lesotho (LES) 0 0 1 1

33  Malta (MLT) 0 0 1 1

33  Mauritius (MRI) 0 0 1 1

33  Saint Lucia (LCA) 0 0 1 1

Total (39 CGAs) 282 279 334 895

References[edit]

^ "Spirit of Friendship Festival". Manchester
Manchester
2002 Ltd. Summer 2002. Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2008.  ^ The four Home Nations
Home Nations
of the United Kingdom — England, Scotland, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
— send separate teams to the Commonwealth Games, as do the three Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
— Jersey, the Isle of Man and Guernsey
Guernsey
— and 9 of the 14 British Overseas Territories. The Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue, non-sovereign territories in free association with New Zealand, and Norfolk Island, an external territory of Australia, also compete separately. There are thus 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, but 72 competing teams at the Commonwealth Games. ^ Rowbottom, Mike (3 February 1994). "Commonwealth Games: Manchester celebrates capital conquest: London
London
loses out to Olympic rival in fight for the right to present England's bid". The Independent. Retrieved 20 July 2012.  ^ Hubbard, Alan (12 December 1999). "City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium: The Wembley rescuers". The Independent. Retrieved 12 July 2012.  ^ Cook, I. R. and Ward, K. (2011) Trans-urban networks of learning, mega-events and policy tourism: The case of Manchester's Commonwealth and Olympic Games projects, Urban Studies 48 (12), 2519–2535 ^ Schaffer, David (23 July 2002). "Golden future for Games city". BBC News. Retrieved 9 June 2012.  ^ "Manchester's boom shows what can be achieved when councils work together". The Guardian. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 2014-07-27.  ^ Hayward, Paul (11 November 2010). " Sheikh Mansour
Sheikh Mansour
needs his money to be spent on flair not caution". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 September 2011.  ^ Conn, David (8 October 2008). "Abu Dhabi empire building reaches east Manchester". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 September 2011.  ^ "Rogge rules out joint Olympic bid". BBC News. 3 August 2002. Retrieved 2014-07-23.  ^ "Rogge rules out joint Olympic bid". BBC News. 23 July 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-23.  ^ "Can Britain stage the Olympics?". BBC News. 5 August 2002. Retrieved 9 June 2012.  ^ "2002 Games logo".  ^ "Mascot".  ^ Southport & Mersey Reporter Speeches from the Closing of the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
2002. ^ "City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium". Centre for Accessible Environments. Archived from the original on 19 July 2006. Retrieved 22 July 2006.  ^ "City of Manchester
Manchester
Stadium". Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Legacy. Archived from the original on 3 January 2007. Retrieved 27 August 2006.  ^ Taylor, David (16 May 2002). "a question of sport". The Architects Journal. Retrieved 11 June 2012.  ^ "National Squash Centre". BBC. Retrieved 2 May 2008.  ^ "Venue Guide: Manchester
Manchester
Aquatics Centre". BBC. Retrieved 2 May 2008.  ^ "Venue Guide: Manchester
Manchester
Evening News Arena". BBC Sport. 23 July 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-23.  ^ "Athletes Village".  ^ " Manchester
Manchester
2002 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Official Sponsors". BBC Sport. Retrieved 25 July 2012.  ^ " Manchester
Manchester
2002 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Official Partners". BBC News. Retrieved 25 July 2012.  ^ Day, Julia (2 April 2001). " Microsoft
Microsoft
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Games". The Guardian. 24 July 2002. Retrieved 2014-07-27.  ^ "Glasgow 2014: What will the legacy of the Commonwealth Games
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External links[edit]

Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Official Site Official Manchester
Manchester
2002 – 17th Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Website General BBC site BBC Sports 2002 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Unofficial site The Empire Strikes Back – 2002 Australian radio programme (with transcript) on the history and future of the "friendly games". Trans-urban networks of learning, mega-events and policy tourism: The case of Manchester's Commonwealth and Olympic Games projects An account of how Manchester
Manchester
officials learnt from other host cities in order to bid for and host for the Games.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2002 Commonwealth Games.

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