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The 1st King's Dragoon Guards was a cavalry regiment in the British Army. The regiment was raised by Sir John Lanier in 1685 as the 2nd Queen's Regiment of Horse, named in honour of Queen Mary, consort of King James II. It was renamed the 2nd King's Own Regiment of Horse in 1714 in honour of George I. The regiment attained the title 1st King's Dragoon Guards in 1751. The regiment served as horse cavalry until 1937 when it was mechanised with light tanks. The regiment became part of the Royal Armoured Corps in 1939. After service in the First World War and the Second World War, the regiment amalgamated with the 2nd Dragoon Guards (Queen's Bays) in 1959 to form the 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 The Habsburg connection 1.3 First World War 1.4 Third Anglo-Afghan War 1.5 Second World War 1.6 Post-war

2 Battle honours 3 Notable members of the regiment 4 Colonels-in-Chief 5 Regimental colonels 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit] The regiment was raised by Sir John Lanier in 1685 as Lanier's Regiment of Horse or the 2nd Queen's Regiment of Horse, named in honour of Queen Mary, consort of King James II, as part of the response to the Monmouth Rebellion.[1] The regiment saw action at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 and the Battle of Aughrim in July 1691 during the Williamite War in Ireland.[1] It also fought at the Battle of Blenheim in August 1704, the Battle of Ramillies in May 1706, the Battle of Oudenarde in July 1708 and the Battle of Malplaquet in September 1709 during the War of the Spanish Succession.[1] The regiment was renamed the 2nd King's Own Regiment of Horse in 1714 in honour of George I.[1] It saw action again at the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743 during the War of the Austrian Succession.[1] The regiment was renamed the 1st King's Dragoon Guards in 1751.[1] The regiment made a desperate charge which saved the army at the Battle of Corbach in July 1760 and then made another famous charge at the Battle of Warburg later that month during the Seven Years' War.[1] The regiment charged again with devastating effect at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815 during the Napoleonic Wars.[1] The regiment took part in the response to the Indian Rebellion in 1857 as well as the Battle of Taku Forts in August 1860 and the capture of Peking during the Second Opium War. A detachment of the regiment was responsible for the capture of King Cetshwayo at the Battle of Ulundi in July 1879 during the Anglo-Zulu War and the regiment saw action again at the Battle of Laing's Nek in January 1881 during the First Boer War.[1] The Habsburg connection[edit]

Franz Josef I in the uniform of a Colonel of the 1st Dragoon Guards

In March 1896 Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria became Colonel-in-Chief of the regiment. At the same time the double-headed Austrian eagle became the cap-badge of the regiment, and it adopted Radetzky March as its regimental march. On the occasion of his Diamond Jubilee on 2 December 1908, the Emperor instituted the Inhaber-Jubiläums-Medaille für Ausländer (Commander's Jubilee Medal for Foreigners) to celebrate his 60 years on the throne. Some of the 40 golden, 635 silver and 2000 bronze medals were awarded to officers and private soldiers in the regiment.[2] The ceremonial helmet with the badge of the 1st King's Dragoon Guards which was given to Emperor Franz Joseph I on his appointment as colonel-in-chief is now on display at the Museum of Military History, Vienna. The regiment was employed chasing the elusive General Christiaan de Wet in spring 1901 during the Second Boer War.[3] First World War[edit]

A very distant view of the King's Dragoon Guards charging across open country in France in July 1915

The regiment, which had been was stationed at Lucknow in India at the start of the war, landed at Marseille as part of the 8th (Lucknow) Cavalry Brigade in the 1st Indian Cavalry Division in November 1914 for service on the Western Front.[4] The regiment saw action at the Battle of Festubert in May 1915, the Second Battle of Ypres also in May 1915 and the Battle of Morval in September 1916[5] but returned to India in October 1917.[4] Third Anglo-Afghan War[edit] The regiment remained in garrison at Meerut until October 1918 when it exchanged stations with 21st (Empress of India's) Lancers and moved to Risalpur. On 2 May 1919 Afghan troops seized control of wells on the Indian side of the border. The Afghan Amir Amanullah was warned to withdraw, but his answer was to send more troops to reinforce those at the wells and to move other Afghan units to various points on the frontier. The regiment was mobilised on 6 May and formed part of the British Indian Army's 1st (Risalpur) Cavalry Brigade. It served throughout the Third Anglo-Afghan War and saw action at the Khyber Pass. At Dakka – a village in Afghan territory, north west of the Khyber Pass[6] – on 16 May, the regiment made one of the last recorded charge by a British horsed cavalry regiment as it was already apparent the old world would be giving way to mechanisation.[7] Second World War[edit] The regiment took part in all the major battles of the North African Campaign including the Relief of Tobruk in November 1941.[8] The regiment, then serving as the armoured car reconnaissance regiment of Lieutenant General Richard McCreery's X Corps, landed at Salerno during the Allied invasion of Italy in September 1943 against concentrated enemy opposition and were the first Allied unit into the city of Naples in early October 1943.[8] The Welsh writer Norman Lewis, in his celebrated account of life in Naples claimed that the King's Dragoon Guards was the first British unit to reach Naples in 1943, and that many of its officers immediately went on a looting spree, cutting paintings from their frames in the prince's palace.[9] The regiment later took part in the Battle for Monte la Difensa in December 1943 and the advance to the Gothic Line in late 1944.[8] Post-war[edit] The regiment was posted to Palestine in September 1945 and to Libya in January 1947 before being deployed on home duties at Omagh, Northern Ireland in February 1948.[10] The regiment moved to Adams Barracks in Rahlstedt in November 1951 and to Mcleod Barracks in Neumünster in April 1953.[10] In 1956 the regiment was sent on active service in Malaya during the Emergency: during this time the regiment took part in counter-insurgency operations in both mounted operations (armoured cars) and on foot in the dense jungles operating from a base at Johor Bahru.[10] The regiment merged with the Queen's Bays (2nd Dragoon Guards) in 1959 to form the 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards.[10] Battle honours[edit] The regiment's battle honours were as follows:[11]

Early wars: Blenheim, Ramillies, Oudenarde, Malplaquet, Dettingen, Warburg, Beaumont, Waterloo, Sevastopol, Taku Forts, Pekin 1860, South Africa 1879, South Africa 1901-02 The Great War: Somme 1916, Morval, France and Flanders 1914-17 Between the Wars: Afghanistan 1919 The Second World War: Beda Fomm, Defence of Tobruk, Tobruk 1941, Tobruk Sortie, Relief of Tobruk, Gazala, Bir Hacheim, Defence of Alamein Line, Alam el Halfa, El Agheila, Advance on Tripoli, Tebaga Gap, Point 201 (Roman Wall), El Hamma, Akarit, Tunis, North Africa 1941-43, Capture of Naples, Scafati Bridge, Monte Camino, Garigliano Crossing, Capture of Perugia, Arezzo, Gothic Line, Italy 1943-44, Athens, Greece 1944-45

Notable members of the regiment[edit]

William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham - future Prime Minister, was an officer in the regiment (1731–36) until after arriving in Parliament. Banastre Tarleton - cavalry officer during the American Revolution Alfred Hutton - author, antiquarian and swordsman Francis Younghusband - soldier, explorer, spiritualist Sir David Dundas - Colonel, 1813–1820 John Doogan - a private who received the Victoria Cross, First Boer War 28 January 1881 Laing's Nek, South Africa James Lockhart Little - Rider who won the 1848 Grand National steeplechase

Colonels-in-Chief[edit] Colonels-in-Chief were as follows:[11]

1896–1914: HIM Franz Josef I, Emperor of Austria & King of Hungary

Regimental colonels[edit] Regimental colonels were as follows:[11]

The Queen's Regiment of Horse

1685–1692: Lt-Gen. Sir John Lanier (killed at the Battle of Steenkerque) 1692–1717: Gen. Hon. Henry Lumley

The King's Own Regiment of Horse - (1714)

1717–1721: Col. Richard Ingram, 5th Viscount of Irvine 1721–1733: F.M. Sir Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham 1733–1742: Lt-Gen. Henry Herbert, 9th Earl of Pembroke 1743–1752: Gen. Sir Philip Honywood, KB

1st (The King's) Dragoon Guards - (1751)

1752–1763: Lt-Gen. Humphrey Bland 1763–1779: Gen. John Mostyn 1779–1796: F.M. Sir George Howard, KB 1796–1810: Gen. Sir William Augustus Pitt, KB 1810–1813: Gen. Francis Augustus Eliott, 2nd Baron Heathfield 1813–1820: Gen. Sir David Dundas, GCB 1820–1821: Gen. Francis Edward Gwyn 1821–1827: Gen. William Cartwright 1827–1840: Gen. Sir Henry Fane, GCB 1840–1851: Gen. Hon. Sir William Lumley, GCB 1851–1859: Gen. Charles Murray Cathcart, 2nd Earl Cathcart, GCB (Lord Greenock) 1859–1868: Gen. Sir Thomas William Brotherton, GCB 1868–1872: Gen. Sir James Jackson, GCB, KH 1872–1886: Gen. Henry Aitchison Hankey 1886–1908: Lt-Gen. Sir James Robert Steadman Sayer, KCB 1908–1926: Maj-Gen. William Vesey Brownlow, CB

1st King's Dragoon Guards - (1921)

1926–1940: Lt-Gen. Sir Charles James Briggs, KCB, KCMG 1940–1945: Brig-Gen. Alexander Gore Arkwright Hore-Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie, VC, GCMG, CB, DSO & Bar, KStJ 1945–1953: Brig. Sidney Howes, DSO, MC 1953–1959: Brig. John Gerard Edward Tiarks

See also[edit]

British cavalry during the First World War

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i "1685 to 1899 - A Short History of 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards". Regimental Museum of the 1st The Queen’s Dragoon Guards (The Welsh Horse). Retrieved 26 July 2016.  ^ Stolzer & Steeb, p. 274 ^ "1st (King's) Dragoon Guards". Anglo-Boer War. Retrieved 26 July 2016.  ^ a b "The Dragoon Guards". The Long, Long Trail. Retrieved 26 July 2016.  ^ "1899 to 1938 - A Short History of 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards". Regimental Museum of the 1st The Queen’s Dragoon Guards (The Welsh Horse). Retrieved 26 July 2016.  ^ "Afghanistan". Regimental Museum of the 1st The Queen’s Dragoon Guards (The Welsh Horse). Retrieved 26 July 2016.  ^ "1899 to 1938 - A Short History of 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards". Regimental Museum of the 1st The Queen’s Dragoon Guards (The Welsh Horse). Retrieved 26 July 2016.  ^ a b c "1938 to 1959 - A Short History of 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards". Regimental Museum of the 1st The Queen’s Dragoon Guards (The Welsh Horse). Retrieved 26 July 2016.  ^ Lewis, p.31 ^ a b c d "1st King's Dragoon Guards". British Army units 1945 on. Retrieved 26 July 2016.  ^ a b c "1st King's Dragoon Guards". Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 10 January 2006. Retrieved 26 July 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

Sources[edit]

Lewis, Norman (2005). Naples '44: A World War II Diary of Occupied Italy. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0786714384.  Stolzer, Johann; Steeb, Christian (1996). Österreichs Orden vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt Graz. ISBN 3-201-01649-7. 

External links[edit]

Regimental museum

v t e

1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards

Predecessors

1st generation

1st King's Dragoon Guards (1685–1959) 2nd Dragoon Guards (Queen's Bays) (1685–1959)

Victoria Cross

John Doogan Charles Anderson Robert Blair Thomas Monaghan Nevill Smyth

See also

Dragoon Dragoon Guards Cavalry regiments of the British Army Armoured regiment Royal Armoured Corps 7th Infantry Brigade

v t e

British cavalry regiments of World War I

Household Cavalry

1st Life Guards 2nd Life Guards Royal Horse Guards Household Cavalry Composite Regiment

Dragoon Guards

1st (King's) Dragoon Guards 2nd Dragoon Guards (Queen's Bays) 3rd (Prince of Wales's) Dragoon Guards 4th (Royal Irish) Dragoon Guards 5th (Princess Charlotte of Wales's) Dragoon Guards 6th Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers) 7th (Princess Royal's) Dragoon Guards

Dragoons

1st (Royal) Dragoons 2nd Dragoons (Royal Scots Greys) 6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons

Hussars

3rd (King's Own) Hussars 4th (Queen's Own) Hussars 7th (Queen's Own) Hussars 8th (King's Royal Irish) Hussars 10th (Prince of Wales's Own Royal) Hussars 11th (Prince Albert's Own) Hussars 13th Hussars 14th (King's) Hussars 15th (The King's) Hussars 18th (Queen Mary's Own) Royal Hussars 19th (Queen Alexandra's Own Royal) Hussars 20th Hussars

Lancers

9th (Queen's Royal) Lancers 12th (Prince of Wales's Royal) Lancers 16th (The Queen's) Lancers 17th (Duke of Cambridge's Own) Lancers 5th (Royal Irish) Lancers 21st (Empress of India's) Lancers

Special Reserve

North Irish Horse South Irish Horse King Edward's Horse (The King's Own Overseas Dominion Regiment)

Yeomanry

Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry (Prince of Wales's Own Royal Regiment) Warwickshire Yeomanry Yorkshire Hussars (Alexandra, Princess of Wales's Own) Nottinghamshire Yeomanry (Sherwood Rangers) Staffordshire Yeomanry (Queen's Own Royal Regiment) Shropshire Yeomanry Ayrshire (Earl of Carrick's Own) Yeomanry Cheshire Yeomanry (Earl of Chester's) Queen's Own Yorkshire Dragoons Leicestershire Yeomanry (Prince Albert's Own) North Somerset Yeomanry Duke of Lancaster's Own Yeomanry Lanarkshire Yeomanry Northumberland Hussars Nottinghamshire Yeomanry (South Nottinghamshire Hussars) Denbighshire Hussars Westmorland and Cumberland Yeomanry Pembroke Yeomanry (Castlemartin) Royal East Kent Yeomanry (The Duke of Connaught's Own) Hampshire Yeomanry Royal Buckinghamshire Hussars Derbyshire Yeomanry Queen's Own Dorset Yeomanry Royal Gloucestershire Hussars Hertfordshire Yeomanry Berkshire Yeomanry 1st County of London Yeomanry (Middlesex, Duke of Cambridge's Hussars) Royal 1st Devon Yeomanry Suffolk Yeomanry (The Duke of York's Own Loyal Suffolk Hussars) Royal North Devon Yeomanry Queen's Own Worcestershire Hussars Queen's Own West Kent Yeomanry West Somerset Yeomanry Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars Montgomeryshire Yeomanry Lothians and Border Horse Lanarkshire Yeomanry (Queen's Own Royal Glasgow and Lower Ward of Lanarkshire) Lancashire Hussars Yeomanry Surrey Yeomanry (Queen Mary's Regiment) Fife and Forfar Yeomanry Norfolk Yeomanry (The King's Own Royal Regiment) Sussex Yeomanry Glamorganshire Yeomanry Welsh Horse Yeomanry Lincolnshire Yeomanry City of London Yeomanry (Rough Riders) 2nd County of London Yeomanry (Westminster Dragoons) 3rd County of London Yeomanry (Sharpshooters) Bedfordshire Yeomanry Essex Yeomanry Northamptonshire Yeomanry East Riding of Yorkshire Yeomanry Lovat Scouts Scottish Horse

Reserve

1st Life Guards 2nd Life Guards Royal Horse Guards 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 1

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