The Info List - 19th Century

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The 1 9th century
9th century
was a century that began on January 1, 1801
and ended on December 31, 1900. The 1 9th century
9th century
was a period of social change. Slavery
was largely abolished, and the Second Industrial Revolution
Second Industrial Revolution
led to massive urbanization. It was marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the Russian Empire, the United States, the German Empire, the French colonial empire and Meiji Japan, with the British boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British and Russian empires expanded greatly, becoming the world's leading powers. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
expanded in central and far eastern Asia. The British Empire
British Empire
grew rapidly in the first half of the century, especially with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, Australia, South Africa and heavily populated India, and in the last two decades of the century in Africa. By the end of the century, the British Empire
British Empire
controlled a fifth of the world's land and one quarter of the world's population. During the post-Napoleonic era, it enforced what became known as the Pax Britannica, which had ushered in unprecedented globalization and economic integration on a massive scale.


1 Overview

1.1 Eras

2 Wars

2.1 Napoleonic Wars 2.2 Latin American independence 2.3 Abolition and the American Civil War 2.4 Decline of the Ottoman Empire 2.5 Taiping Rebellion 2.6 Meiji Restoration 2.7 Colonization 2.8 Other Wars

3 Science and technology

3.1 Medicine 3.2 Inventions

4 Religion 5 Culture

5.1 Literature 5.2 Sports

6 Events

6.1 1801-1850 6.2 1851-1900

7 Significant people

7.1 Show business and theatre 7.2 Business 7.3 Anthropology, archaeology, scholars 7.4 Journalists, missionaries, explorers 7.5 Photography 7.6 Visual artists, painters, sculptors 7.7 Music 7.8 Philosophy and religion 7.9 Politics and the Military

8 See also 9 Supplementary portrait gallery 10 References 11 External links

Overview[edit] The first electronics appeared in the 19th century, with the introduction of the electric relay in 1835, the telegraph and its Morse code
Morse code
protocol in 1837, the first telephone call in 1876,[1] and the first functional light bulb in 1878.[2] The 1 9th century
9th century
was an era of rapidly accelerating scientific discovery and invention, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century.[3] The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America
North America
and Japan.[4] The Victorian era
Victorian era
was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty and gender roles.[5] Japan
embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War. Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million.[6] The introduction of railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, and fuelling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800
to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were explored during this century, and with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s. Liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.[7]

Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma river (in today's Tanzania and Mozambique), 19th century

was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and France
stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UK's Slavery
Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
with ending the global slave trade.[8] The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, who did so in 1834. America's 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888
(see Abolitionism). Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia. The 1 9th century
9th century
was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. Chicago
in the United States
United States
and Melbourne
in Australia
were non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd largest cities in the United States
United States
and British Empire
British Empire
respectively by the end of the century. In the 1 9th century
9th century
approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States.[9] The 1 9th century
9th century
also saw the rapid creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United States. Association football, rugby union, baseball and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world. Also, ladywear was a very sensitive topic during this time, where women showing their ankles was viewed to be scandalous.

The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815.

It also marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to the creation of Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro
and Romania
as a result of the second Russo-Turkish War, which in itself followed the great Crimean War. Eras[edit]

Map of the world from 1897. The British Empire
British Empire
(marked in pink) was the superpower of the 19th century.

Industrial revolution European Imperialism British Regency, Victorian era
Victorian era
(UK, British Empire) Bourbon Restoration, July Monarchy, French Second Republic, Second French Empire, French Third Republic
French Third Republic
(France) Belle Époque
Belle Époque
(Europe) Edo
period, Meiji period
Meiji period
(Japan) Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
(China) Joseon Dynasty
Joseon Dynasty
(Korea) Tanzimat, First Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire) Russian Empire American Manifest Destiny, The Gilded Age

Wars[edit] Napoleonic Wars[edit] Main article: Napoleonic Wars See also: Timeline of the Napoleonic era

Napoleon's retreat from Russia
in 1812. The war swings decisively against the French Empire

The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
were a series of major conflicts from 1803-1815 pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon
I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution
French Revolution
and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon; the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), Fifth (1809), Sixth (1813), and the Seventh and final (1815). In 1804, Napoleon
crowns himself Emperor of the French. In 1805, Napoleon
decisively defeats an Austrian-Russian army at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1812, the French invasion of Russia
French invasion of Russia
is a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. In 1815, Napoleon
abdicates and is exiled to Elba. Later that year, he escaped exile and began the Hundred Days
Hundred Days
before finally being defeated at the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
and exiled to St Helena.

1806: Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
dissolved as a consequence of the Treaty of Pressburg. 1815: The Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
redraws the European map. Reaction and conservatism dominate all of Europe.[10] The Concert of Europe attempts to preserve this settlement, but the forces of liberalism and nationalism make for dramatic changes. It marks the beginning of a Pax Britannica which lasts until 1914.

Latin American independence[edit] Main articles: Latin American wars of independence
Latin American wars of independence
and Spanish American wars of independence Most countries in Central America
Central America
and South America
South America
obtained independence from colonial overlords during the 19th century. In Mexico, the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
was a decade-long conflict that ended in Mexican independence in 1821, and in South America, most Spanish-speaking countries obtained independence in that same time frame. Due to the Napoleonic Wars, the royal family of Portugal relocated to Brazil from 1808-1821, leading to Brazil having a separate monarch from Portugal. In 1830, the post-colonial nation of Greater Colombia
Greater Colombia
dissolved and the nations of Colombia
(including modern-day Panama), Ecuador, and Venezuela
took its place.

1804: Haiti gains independence from France
and becomes the first black republic. 1838–1840: Civil war in the Federal Republic of Central America
Central America
led to the foundings of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.

Abolition and the American Civil War[edit] Main articles: Abolitionism
and American Civil War

William Wilberforce
William Wilberforce
(1759–1833), politician and philanthropist who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade.

The abolitionism movement achieved success in the 19th century. The Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
was abolished in 1808, and by the end of the century, almost every government had banned slavery. The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833
banned slavery throughout the British Empire, and the Lei Áurea
Lei Áurea
abolished slavery in Brazil in 1888. The American Civil War
American Civil War
took place from 1861-1865. Eleven southern states seceded from the United States, largely over concerns related to slavery. In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln issued a preliminary [11] on September 22, 1862 warning that in all states still in rebellion (Confederacy) on January 1, 1863, he would declare their slaves "then, thenceforward, and forever free."[12] The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution,[13] ratified in 1865, officially abolished slavery in the entire country. Five days after Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, Lincoln was assassinated by actor and Confederate sympathiser John Wilkes Booth. Decline of the Ottoman Empire[edit] In 1830, Greece
became the first country to break away from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
after the Greek War of Independence. In 1831, the Great Bosnian uprising against Ottoman rule occurred. In 1817, the Principality of Serbia
became suzerain from the Ottoman Empire, and in 1867, it passed a Constitution
which defined its independence from the Ottoman Empire. In 1876, Bulgarians
instigate the April Uprising against Ottoman rule. Following the Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of Berlin recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, Montenegro
and Romania. Bulgaria
becomes autonomous. Taiping Rebellion[edit]

The extent of Taiping control in 1854
(in red).

The Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
was the bloodiest conflict of the 19th century, leading to the deaths of 20 million people. Its leader, Hong Xiuquan, declared himself the younger brother of Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
and developed a new Chinese religion known as the God Worshipping Society. After proclaiming the establishment of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in 1851, the Taiping army conquered a large part of China, capturing Nanjing
in 1853. In 1864, after the death of Hong Xiuquan, Qing forces recaptured Nanjing
and ended the rebellion.[14] Meiji Restoration[edit] Main article: Meiji Restoration

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During the Edo
period, Japan
largely pursued an isolationist foreign policy. In 1853, United States
United States
Navy Commodore Matthew C. Perry threatened the Japanese capital Edo
with gunships, demanding that they agree to open trade. This led to the opening of trade relations between Japan
and foreign countries, with the policy of Sakoku formally ended in 1854. By 1872, the Japanese government under Emperor Meiji
Emperor Meiji
had eliminated the daimyo system and established a strong central government. Further reforms included the abolishment of the samurai class and rapid industrialization. Colonization[edit] Main articles: Western imperialism in Asia
Western imperialism in Asia
and Scramble for Africa In 1862, French gained its first foothold in Southeast Asia, and in 1863
annexes Cambodia. The Berlin Conference
Berlin Conference
of 1884- 1885
signaled the start of the European "scramble for Africa". In 1885, King Leopold II of Belgium
establishes the Congo Free State
Congo Free State
as a personal fiefdom.

1803: The United States
United States
more than doubles in size when it buys out France's territorial claims in North America
North America
via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U.S.'s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny
Manifest Destiny
which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain, and Native Americans. 1823–1887: The British Empire
British Empire
annexed Burma
(now also called Myanmar) after three Anglo-Burmese Wars. 1867: The United States
United States
purchases Alaska from Russia.

Other Wars[edit]

1816: Shaka
rises to power over the Zulu Kingdom. Zulu expansion was a major factor of the Mfecane
("Crushing") that depopulated large areas of southern Africa

1801–1815: the First Barbary War
First Barbary War
and the Second Barbary War
Second Barbary War
between the United States
United States
and the Barbary States
Barbary States
of North Africa 1804–1810: Fulani Jihad in Nigeria. 1804–1813: Russo-Persian War. 1806–1812: Russo-Turkish War, Treaty of Bucharest. 1808–1809: Russia
conquers Finland from Sweden in the Finnish War. 1810: The Grito de Dolores
Grito de Dolores
begins the Mexican War of Independence. 1810s–1820s: Punjab War
Punjab War
between the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
and British Empire. 1812–1815: War of 1812
between the United States
United States
and Britain; ends in a draw, except that Native Americans lose power 1813–1837: Afghan-Sikh Wars. 1814–16: Anglo-Nepalese War
Anglo-Nepalese War
between Nepal
(Gurkha Empire) and British Empire. 1817: First Seminole War
Seminole War
begins in Florida. 1817: Russia
commences its conquest of the Caucasus. 1820: Revolutions of 1820
in Southern Europe 1825: Java War. (to 1830) 1826–1828: After the final Russo-Persian War, the Persian Empire took back territory lost to Russia
from the previous war. 1828–1832: Black War
Black War
in Tasmania
leads to the near extinction of the Tasmanian aborigines 1830: November Uprising
November Uprising
in Poland
against Russia. 1830: End of the Diponegoro war. The whole area of Yogyakarta and Surakarta Manca nagara Dutch seized. 27 September, Klaten Agreement determines a fixed boundary between Surakarta and Yogyakarta and permanently divide the kingdom of Mataram was signed by Sasradiningrat, Pepatih Dalem Surakarta, and Danurejo, Pepatih Dalem Yogyakarta. Mataram is a de facto and de yure controlled by the Dutch East Indies. 1831: France
invades and occupies Algeria. 1831–1833: Egyptian–Ottoman War. 1846–1848: The Mexican-American War
Mexican-American War
leads to Mexico's cession of much of the modern-day Southwestern United States. 1853–1856: Crimean War
Crimean War
between France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Russia 1861–1865: American Civil War
American Civil War
between the Union and seceding Confederacy.

Dead Confederate soldiers. 30% of all Southern white males 18–40 years of age died in the American Civil War.[15]

1861–1867: French intervention in Mexico
and the creation of the Second Mexican Empire, ruled by Maximilian I of Mexico
and his consort Carlota of Mexico. 1863–1865: Polish uprising against the Russian Empire. 1864–1870: The Paraguayan War
Paraguayan War
ends Paraguayan ambitions for expansion and destroys much of the Paraguayan population. 1866: Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
results in the dissolution of the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation
German Confederation
and the Austrian-Hungarian Dual Monarchy. 1868–1878: Ten Years' War
Ten Years' War
between Cuba
and Spain. 1870–1871: The Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
results in the unifications of Germany
and Italy, the collapse of the Second French Empire
Second French Empire
and the emergence of a New Imperialism. 1879–1880: Little War against Spanish rule in Cuba
leads to rebel defeat. 1879–1883: Chile
battles with Peru
and Bolivia
over Andean territory in the War of the Pacific. 1880–1881: the First Boer War. 1881–1899: The Mahdist War
Mahdist War
in Sudan. 1882: The British invasion and subsequent occupation of Egypt 1894–1895: After the First Sino-Japanese War, China cedes Taiwan
to Japan
and grants Japan
a free hand in Korea. 1895: Taiwan
is ceded to the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
as a result of the First Sino-Japanese war. 1895–1896: Abyssinia defeats Italy in the First Italo–Ethiopian War. 1895–1898: Cuban War for Independence
Cuban War for Independence
results in Cuban independence from Spain. 1898–1900: The Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
in China is suppressed by an Eight-Nation Alliance. 1898–1902: The Thousand Days' War
Thousand Days' War
in Colombia
breaks out between the "Liberales" and "Conservadores", culminating with the loss of Panama in 1903. 1899–1902: Second Boer War
Second Boer War
begins. 1899–1913: Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War

Science and technology[edit] The 1 9th century
9th century
saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833
by William Whewell,[16] which soon replaced the older term of (natural) philosopher. Among the most influential ideas of the 1 9th century
9th century
were those of Charles Darwin (alongside the independent researches of Alfred Russel Wallace), who in 1859
published the book The Origin of Species, which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection. Another important landmark in medicine and biology were the successful efforts to prove the germ theory of disease. Following this, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. In chemistry, Dmitri Mendeleev, following the atomic theory of John Dalton, created the first periodic table of elements. In physics, the experiments, theories and discoveries of Michael Faraday, Andre-Marie Ampere, James Clerk Maxwell, and their contemporaries led to the creation of electromagnetism as a new branch of science. Thermodynamics
led to an understanding of heat and the notion of energy was defined. Other highlights include the discoveries unveiling the nature of atomic structure and matter, simultaneously with chemistry – and of new kinds of radiation. In astronomy, the planet Neptune was discovered. In mathematics, the notion of complex numbers finally matured and led to a subsequent analytical theory; they also began the use of hypercomplex numbers. Karl Weierstrass
Karl Weierstrass
and others carried out the arithmetization of analysis for functions of real and complex variables. It also saw rise to new progress in geometry beyond those classical theories of Euclid, after a period of nearly two thousand years. The mathematical science of logic likewise had revolutionary breakthroughs after a similarly long period of stagnation. But the most important step in science at this time were the ideas formulated by the creators of electrical science. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about: Thomas Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb. Nikola Tesla pioneered the induction motor, high frequency transmission of electricity, and remote control. Other new inventions were electrical telegraphy and the telephone.

1807: Potassium
and Sodium
are individually isolated by Sir Humphry Davy. 1831–1836: Charles Darwin's journey on the HMS Beagle. 1859: Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
publishes On the Origin of Species. 1861: James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell
publishes On Physical Lines of Force, formulating the four Maxwell's Equations. 1865: Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel
formulates his laws of inheritance. 1869: Dmitri Mendeleev
Dmitri Mendeleev
created the Periodic table. 1873: Maxwell's A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism
A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism
published. 1877: Asaph Hall
Asaph Hall
discovers the moons of Mars 1896: Henri Becquerel
Henri Becquerel
discovers radioactivity; J. J. Thomson identifies the electron, though not by name.


Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. The disease killed an estimated 25 percent of the adult population of Europe during the 19th century.[17]

1804: Morphine
first isolated. 1842: Anaesthesia
used for the first time. 1855: Cocaine
is isolated by Friedrich Gaedcke. 1885: Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
creates the first successful vaccine against rabies for a young boy who had been bitten 14 times by a rabid dog. 1889: Aspirin


Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
was an American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb.

First motor bus in history: the Benz Omnibus, built in 1895
for the Netphener bus company

1804: First steam locomotive begins operation. 1825: Erie Canal
Erie Canal
opened connecting the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
to the Atlantic Ocean. 1825: First isolation of aluminum. 1825: The Stockton and Darlington Railway, the first public railway in the world, is opened. 1826: Samuel Morey
Samuel Morey
patents the internal combustion engine. 1829: First electric motor built. 1837: Telegraphy
patented. 1841: The word "dinosaur" is coined by Richard Owen 1844: First publicly funded telegraph line in the world—between Baltimore and Washington—sends demonstration message on 24 May, ushering in the age of the telegraph. This message read "What hath God wrought?" (Bible, Numbers 23:23) 1849: The safety pin and the gas mask are invented. 1855: Bessemer process
Bessemer process
enables steel to be mass-produced. 1856: World's first oil refinery in Romania 1858: Invention
of the phonautograph, the first true device for recording sound. 1863: First section of the London Underground
London Underground
opens. 1866: Successful transatlantic telegraph cable follows an earlier attempt in 1858. 1867: Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
invents dynamite. 1869: First Transcontinental Railroad
First Transcontinental Railroad
completed in United States
United States
on 10 May. 1870: Rasmus Malling-Hansen's invention the Hansen Writing Ball becomes the first commercially sold typewriter. 1873: Blue jeans and barbed wire are invented. 1877: Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
invents the phonograph 1878: First commercial telephone exchange in New Haven, Connecticut. 1879: Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
tests his first light bulb. 1881: First electrical power plant and grid in Godalming, Britain. 1884: Sir Hiram Maxim
Sir Hiram Maxim
invents the first self-powered Machine gun. 1885: Singer begins production of the 'Vibrating Shuttle'. which would become the most popular model of sewing machine. 1886: Karl Benz
Karl Benz
sells the first commercial automobile. 1890: The cardboard box is invented. 1892: John Froelich develops and constructs the first gasoline/petrol-powered tractor. 1894: Karl Elsener invents the Swiss Army knife. 1894: First gramophone record. 1895: Wilhelm Röntgen
Wilhelm Röntgen
identifies x-rays.


1830: The Church of Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
of Latter Day Saints is established on 6 April 1830. 1844: Persian Prophet the Báb
announces his revelation on 23 May, founding Bábísm. He announced to the world of the coming of "He whom God shall make manifest". He is considered the forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. 1846–1847: Mormon migration to Utah. 1863: Bahá'u'lláh
declares his station as "He whom God shall make manifest". This date is celebrated in the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
as The Festival of Ridván. 1871–1878: In Germany, Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
attacks the privileges of the Catholic Church in the Kulturkampf
("Culture War") 1879: Mary Baker Eddy
Mary Baker Eddy
founds the Church of Christ, Scientist. 1889: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
establishes the Ahmadiyya
Muslim Community, a reform sect of Islam. 1891: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya
movement, claims to be Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi. 1891: Pope
launches the encyclical Rerum Novarum, the first major catholic document on social justice


The Great Exhibition
The Great Exhibition
in London. Starting during the 18th century, the United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise.

1813: Jane Austen
Jane Austen
publishes Pride and Prejudice 1818: Mary Shelley
Mary Shelley
publishes Frankenstein. 1819: John Keats
John Keats
writes his odes of 1819. 1819: Théodore Géricault
Théodore Géricault
paints his masterpiece The Raft of the Medusa, and exhibits it in the French Salon of 1819
at the Louvre. 1824: Premiere of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. 1829: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust
Goethe's Faust
premieres. 1837: Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
publishes Oliver Twist. 1847: The Brontë sisters
Brontë sisters
publish Jane Eyre, Wuthering Heights
Wuthering Heights
and Agnes Grey. 1851: Herman Melville
Herman Melville
publishes Moby-Dick. 1855: Walt Whitman
Walt Whitman
publishes the first edition of Leaves of Grass. 1862: Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
publishes Les Misérables. 1865: Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
publishes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. 1869: Leo Tolstoy
Leo Tolstoy
publishes War and Peace. 1875: Georges Bizet's opera Carmen
premiers in Paris. 1876: Richard Wagner's Ring Cycle
Ring Cycle
is first performed in its entirety. 1883: Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island
Treasure Island
is published. 1884: Mark Twain
Mark Twain
publishes The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. 1886: "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" by Robert Louis Stevenson is published. 1887: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
publishes his first Sherlock Holmes story, A Study in Scarlet. 1889: Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
paints Starry Night. 1889: Moulin Rouge
Moulin Rouge
opens in Paris. 1892: Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite
Nutcracker Suite
premières in St Petersberg. 1894: Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book
is published 1895: Trial of Oscar Wilde
Oscar Wilde
and premiere of his play The Importance of Being Earnest. 1897: Bram Stoker
Bram Stoker
writes Dracula. 1900: L. Frank Baum
L. Frank Baum
publishes The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.

Literature[edit] Main articles: Romantic poetry
Romantic poetry
and 1 9th century
9th century
in literature

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On the literary front the new century opens with romanticism, a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German Sturm und Drang spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain. French arts had been hampered by the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism
began. The Goncourts and Émile Zola
Émile Zola
in France
and Giovanni Verga
Giovanni Verga
in Italy produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. On 21 February 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
published the Communist Manifesto. There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the most famous writers included the Russians Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov
Anton Chekhov
and Fyodor Dostoyevsky; the English Charles Dickens, John Keats, Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
and Jane Austen; the Scottish Sir Walter Scott; the Irish Oscar Wilde; the Americans Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Mark Twain; and the French Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne, Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
and Charles Baudelaire. Sports[edit]

1867: The Marquess of Queensberry Rules for boxing are published. 1872: The first recognised international soccer match, between England and Scotland, is played. 1877: The first test cricket match, between England
and Australia, is played. 1891: Basketball
is invented by James Naismith. 1895: Volleyball
is invented. 1896: Olympic Games revived in Athens.

Events[edit] Main article: Timeline of the 19th century 1801-1850[edit]

1801: The Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and the Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
merge to form the United Kingdom. 1803: William Symington
William Symington
demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the "first practical steamboat". 1803: The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State
First Saudi State
capture Mecca
and Medina. 1804: Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
founded by Francis I. 1804: World population
World population
reaches 1 billion. 1805: The Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar
eliminates the French and Spanish naval fleets and allows for British dominance of the seas, a major factor for the success of the British Empire
British Empire
later in the century. 1805–1848: Muhammad Ali modernizes Egypt.

1819: 29 January, Stamford Raffles
Stamford Raffles
arrives in Singapore
with William Farquhar to establish a trading post for the British East India Company. 8 February, The treaty is signed between Sultan Hussein of Johor, Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Stamford Raffles. Farquhar is installed as the first Resident of the settlement.

1810: The University of Berlin was founded. Among its students and faculty are Hegel, Marx, and Bismarck. The German university reform proves to be so successful that its model is copied around the world (see History of European research universities). 1814: Elisha Collier
Elisha Collier
invents the Flintlock
Revolver. 1815: April, Mount Tambora
Mount Tambora
in Sumbawa
island erupts, becoming the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history, destroying Tambora culture, and killing at least 71,000 people, including its aftermath. The eruption created global climate anomalies known as "volcanic winter".[18] 1816: Year
Without a Summer: Unusually cold conditions wreak havoc throughout the Northern Hemisphere, likely influenced by the 1815 explosion of Mount Tambora. 1816–1828: Shaka's Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
becomes the largest in Southern Africa. 1819: The modern city of Singapore
is established by the British East India Company. 1820: Discovery of Antarctica. 1820: Liberia founded by the American Colonization Society
American Colonization Society
for freed American slaves. 1820: Dissolution of the Maratha Empire. 1822–1823: First Mexican Empire, as Mexico's first post-independent government, ruled by Emperor Agustín I of Mexico. 1823: Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
declared by US President James Monroe. 1825: The Decembrist revolt.

at the Senate Square.

1829: Sir Robert Peel
Sir Robert Peel
founds the Metropolitan Police Service, the first modern police force.

Emigrants leaving Ireland. From 1830
to 1914, almost 5 million Irish people went to the United States
United States

1830: Anglo-Russian rivalry over Afghanistan, the Great Game, commences and concludes in 1895. 1831: November Uprising
November Uprising
ends with crushing defeat for Poland
in the Battle of Warsaw. 1832: The British Parliament passes the Great Reform Act. 1834–1859: Imam Shamil's rebellion in Russian-occupied Caucasus. 1835–1836: The Texas Revolution
Texas Revolution
in Mexico
resulted in the short-lived Republic of Texas. 1836: Samuel Colt
Samuel Colt
popularizes the revolver and sets up a firearms company to manufacture his invention of the Colt Paterson
Colt Paterson
revolver a six bullets firearm shot one by one without reloading manually. 1837–1838: Rebellions of 1837
in Canada. 1838: By this time, 46,000 Native Americans have been forcibly relocated in the Trail of Tears. 1839–1860: After the First and Second Opium Wars, France, the United Kingdom, the United States
United States
and Russia
gain many trade and associated concessions from China resulting in the start of the decline of the Qing dynasty. 1839–1919: Anglo-Afghan Wars lead to stalemate and the establishment of the Durand line 1842: Treaty of Nanking
Treaty of Nanking
cedes Hong Kong
Hong Kong
to the British. 1843: The first wagon train sets out from Missouri. 1845–1849: The Irish Potato Famine leads to the Irish diaspora.

Liberal and nationalist pressure led to the European revolutions of 1848

1848: The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
published. 1848: Revolutions of 1848
in Europe. 1848: Seneca Falls Convention
Seneca Falls Convention
is the first women's rights convention in the United States
United States
and leads to the battle for women's suffrage. 1848–1858: California Gold Rush. 1849: Earliest recorded air raid, as Austria employs 200 balloons to deliver ordnance against Venice. 1850: The Little Ice Age
Little Ice Age
ends around this time.


1851: The Great Exhibition
The Great Exhibition
in London was the world's first international Expo or World Fair. 1852: Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
delivers his speech "The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro" in Rochester, New York. 1857: Sir Joseph Whitworth
Joseph Whitworth
designs the first long-range sniper rifle. 1857–1858: Indian Rebellion of 1857. The British Empire
British Empire
assumes control of India from the East India Company. 1858: Construction of Big Ben
Big Ben
is completed. 1859–1869: Suez Canal
Suez Canal
is constructed.

The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal

1860: Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
launches the Expedition of the Thousand. 1861: Russia
abolishes serfdom. 1862–1877: Muslim Rebellion in north-west China. 1863: Formation of the International Red Cross is followed by the adoption of the First Geneva Convention
First Geneva Convention
in 1864. 1865–1877: Reconstruction in the United States; Slavery
is banned in the United States
United States
by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. 1868: Michael Barrett is the last person to be publicly hanged in England. 1869: The Suez Canal
Suez Canal
opens linking the Mediterranean to the Red Sea.

A barricade in the Paris
Commune, 18 March 1871. Around 30,000 Parisians were killed, and thousands more were later executed.

Black Friday, 9 May 1873, Vienna Stock Exchange. The Panic of 1873
and Long Depression
Long Depression

1870: Official dismantling of the Cultivation System
Cultivation System
and beginning of a 'Liberal Policy' of deregulated exploitation of the Netherlands East Indies.[19] 1870–1890: Long Depression
Long Depression
in Western Europe
Western Europe
and North America. 1871–1872: Famine in Persia is believed to have caused the death of 2 million. 1871: The Paris Commune
Paris Commune
briefly rules the French capital. 1872: Yellowstone National Park, the first national park, is created. 1874: The Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, and Graveurs, better known as the Impressionists, organize and present their first public group exhibition at the Paris
studio of the photographer Nadar. 1874: The Home Rule Movement is established in Ireland. 1875: HMS Challenger surveys the deepest point in the Earth's oceans, the Challenger Deep 1876: Battle of the Little Bighorn
Battle of the Little Bighorn
leads to the death of General Custer and victory for the alliance of Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho 1876–1914: The massive expansion in population, territory, industry and wealth in the United States
United States
is referred to as the Gilded Age. 1877: Great Railroad Strike
Great Railroad Strike
in the United States
United States
may have been the world's first nationwide labour strike. 1881: Wave of pogroms begins in the Russian Empire. 1881–1882: The Jules Ferry laws
Jules Ferry laws
are passed in France
establishing free, secular education. 1883: Krakatoa
volcano explosion, one of the largest in modern history. 1883: The quagga is rendered extinct. 1886: Construction of the Statue of Liberty; Coca-Cola
is developed. 1888: Founding of the shipping line Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij (KPM) that supported the unification and development of the colonial economy.[19] 1889: Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
is inaugurated in Paris.

Studio portrait of Ilustrados in Europe, c. 1890

1890: First use of the electric chair as a method of execution. 1892: The World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition
was held in Chicago
celebrating the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World. 1892: Fingerprinting
is officially adopted for the first time. 1893: New Zealand
New Zealand
becomes the first country to enact women's suffrage. 1893: The Coremans-de Vriendt law
Coremans-de Vriendt law
is passed in Belgium, creating legal equality for French and Dutch languages. 1894: Lombok War[19] The Dutch looted and destroyed the Cakranegara palace of Mataram.[20] J. L. A. Brandes, a Dutch philologist discovered and secured Nagarakretagama
manuscript in Lombok royal library. 1896: Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
ends declaring Philippines
free from Spanish rule. 1898: The United States
United States
gains control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines
after the Spanish–American War. 1898: Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
of China engineers a coup d'état, marking the end of the Hundred Days' Reform; the Guangxu Emperor
Guangxu Emperor
is arrested. Exposition Universelle held in Paris, prominently featuring the growing art trend Art Nouveau. Eight nations invaded China at the same time and ransacked Forbidden City.

For later events, see Timeline of the 20th century. Significant people[edit]

Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
in 1863, 16th President of the United States, presided during the American Civil War, assassinated in April 1865

Alexander II, also known as Alexander the Liberator, was the Emperor of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
from 3 March 1855
until his assassination in 1881

Otto von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor

Charles Alderton, creator of Dr. Pepper Alexander II, Emperor of Russia, King of Poland Clara Barton, nurse, pioneer of the American Red Cross Sitting Bull, a leader of the Lakota John Burroughs, Naturalist, conservationist, writer Benito Juárez, Mexican President Davy Crockett, King of the wild frontier, folk hero, frontiersman, soldier and politician Jefferson Davis, Confederate States President William Gilbert Grace, English cricketer Baron Haussmann, civic planner Franz Joseph I of Austria, Emperor of Austria and brother of Mexican Emperor Chief Joseph, a leader of the Nez Percé Kamehameha I, founder of the Kingdom of Hawaii
Kingdom of Hawaii
died in May 1819 Ned Kelly, Australian folk hero, and outlaw Elizabeth Kenny, Australian Nurse and found an Innovative Treatment of Polio Sándor Körösi Csoma, explorer of the Tibetan culture Abraham Lincoln, United States
United States
President Fitz Hugh Ludlow, writer and explorer William McKinley, 25th U.S. President John Muir, Naturalist, writer, preservationist Florence Nightingale, nursing pioneer Ranjit Singh, Maharaja of the Sikh Empire Napoleon
I, First Consul and Emperor of the French Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish political leader Commodore Perry, U.S. Naval commander, opened the door to Japan José Rizal, Filipino polymath, physician, nationalist, novelist, poet, liberator Sacagawea, Important aide to the Lewis and Clark Exploration Giuseppe Garibaldi, was an Italian general and politician, a central figure in the Italian Risorgimento Ignaz Semmelweis, proponent of hygienic practices Dr. John Snow, the founder of epidemiology F R Spofforth, Australian cricketer Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom King Victor Emmanuel II, first King of Italy William Wilberforce, Abolitionist, Philanthropist Hong Xiuquan
Hong Xiuquan
inspired China's Taiping Rebellion, perhaps the bloodiest civil war in human history Karl Marx
Karl Marx
wrote The Communist Manifesto, promoted change in the labor system of Europe Nikola Karev
Nikola Karev
commander and leader of the Ilinden Uprising
Ilinden Uprising
in Ottoman-Macedonia. Henry George, economist and author of Progress and Poverty, one of the most influential books of the 1 9th century
9th century
in the United States

Show business and theatre[edit]

Sarah Bernhardt, 1877

Konstantin Stanislavski

P. T. Barnum, c. 1860

P. T. Barnum, showman David Belasco, actor, playwright, theatrical producer Sarah Bernhardt, actress Edwin Booth, actor John Wilkes Booth, actor, assassin of Abraham Lincoln Dion Boucicault, playwright Mrs Patrick Campbell, actress Anton Chekhov, playwright Buffalo Bill Cody, Wild West
Wild West
legend, and showman Baptiste Deburau, Bohemian–French actor and mime. Sergei Diaghilev, art critic, ballet impresario Eleonora Duse, actress Henrik Ibsen, playwright Edmund Kean, actor Charles Kean, actor Olga Knipper, actress Lillie Langtry, actress, socialite Frédérick Lemaître, actor Jenny Lind, opera singer called the Swedish Nightingale William Macready, actor Céleste Mogador, dancer Lola Montez, exotic dancer Adelaide Neilson, actress Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, playwright, theatre director, co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre Annie Oakley, Wild West, sharp-shooter Alexander Ostrovsky, playwright Lillian Russell, singer, actress George Bernard Shaw, playwright Mikhail Shchepkin, actor Constantin Stanislavski, actor, theatre director, co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre Edward Askew Sothern, actor Ellen Terry, actress Maria Yermolova, actress


Andrew Carnegie

John D. Rockefeller

Main articles: Robber baron (industrialist)
Robber baron (industrialist)
and business magnate

John Jacob Astor III, Real Estate Andrew Carnegie, Industrialist, philanthropist Robert Reed Church, a freedman who became the South's first black millionaire, real estate Jay Cooke, Finance Henry Clay
Henry Clay
Frick, Industrialist, art collector Jay Gould, Railroad developer Meyer Guggenheim
Meyer Guggenheim
Family patriarch, mining Daniel Guggenheim
Daniel Guggenheim
(copper) E. H. Harriman, Railroads Henry O. Havemeyer
Henry O. Havemeyer
(sugar), art collector George Hearst, Gold James J. Hill
James J. Hill
(railroads) – The Empire Builder Thomas Lipton, Scottish merchant and yachtsman known for Lipton
tea Savva Mamontov, Industrialist, philanthropist Andrew W. Mellon, Industrialist, philanthropist, art collector J.P. Morgan, Banker, art collector George Mortimer Pullman
George Mortimer Pullman
(railroads) Ludvig Nobel, Oil Charles Pratt
Charles Pratt
Oil, founder of the Pratt Institute Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
diamonds, mining magnate, founder of De Beers
De Beers
and benefactor of the Rhodes Scholarship. John D. Rockefeller, Oil, Business tycoon, philanthropist Levi Strauss, clothing manufacturer Pavel Tretyakov, Businessman, art collector, philanthropist, founder of Tretyakov Gallery Cornelius Vanderbilt, Shipping, Railroads William Chapman Ralston, Businessman, Financier, founder of Bank of California. Madam C.J. Walker, African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, political and social activist. Eulogized as first female self-made millionaire in America.

Anthropology, archaeology, scholars[edit]

Heinrich Schliemann, Archaeologist

Franz Boas
Franz Boas
one of the pioneers of modern anthropology

Churchill Babington, Archaeology Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier, Archaeology Franz Boas, Anthropology Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, Archaeology Louis Agassiz Fuertes, Ornithology George Bird Grinnell, Anthropology Joseph LeConte, Scholar, preservationist Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai, Anthropology Clinton Hart Merriam, Zoology Lewis H. Morgan, Anthropology Jules Etienne Joseph Quicherat, Archaeology Robert Ridgway, Ornithology Edward Burnett Tylor, Anthropology Karl Verner, Linguist

Journalists, missionaries, explorers[edit]

Roald Amundsen

Roald Amundsen, explorer Samuel Baker, explorer Thomas Baines, artist, explorer Heinrich Barth, explorer Henry Walter Bates, naturalist, explorer Faddey Bellingshausen, explorer Jim Bridger, explorer Richard Francis Burton, explorer William Clark, explorer The Lewis and Clark Expedition, exploration Frederick Samuel Dellenbaugh, explorer Percy Fawcett, adventurer, explorer, proto-Indiana Jones Vladimir Gilyarovsky, journalist Horace Greeley, journalist Peter Jones (missionary), Canadian Methodist minister, and go-between for Christians and his fellow Mississaugas
and other Indian tribes. Adoniram Judson, missionary Sir John Kirk, explorer, physician, companion of David Livingston Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, botanist, explorer, friend of Charles Darwin Sir William Jackson Hooker, botanist, explorer, father of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker Otto von Kotzebue, explorer Pyotr Kozlov, explorer Mikhail Lazarev, fleet commander, explorer Meriwether Lewis, explorer David Livingstone, missionary Stepan Makarov, explorer, oceanographer Thomas Nast, journalist, caricaturist and editorial cartoonist Robert Peary, explorer Marcelo H. del Pilar, writer, journalist, editor of La Solidaridad. Nikolai Przhevalsky, explorer Frederick Selous, explorer Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, explorer, geographer John Hanning Speke, explorer Henry M. Stanley, journalist, explorer John McDouall Stuart, explorer John L. O'Sullivan, journalist who coined Manifest Destiny Chokan Valikhanov, explorer ethnographer, historian Carter G. Woodson, African-American
historian, author, journalist and the founder of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History. Ferdinand von Wrangel, explorer


One of the first photographs, produced in 1826
by Nicéphore Niépce

Nadar, Self-portrait, c. 1860

See also: History of photography, List of photojournalists, Photojournalism, and Daguerreotype

Ottomar Anschütz, chronophotographer Mathew Brady, documented the American Civil War Edward S. Curtis, documented the American West
American West
notably Native Americans Louis Daguerre, inventor of daguerreotype process of photography, chemist Thomas Eakins, pioneer motion photographer George Eastman, inventor of roll film Hércules Florence, pioneer inventor of photography Auguste and Louis Lumière, pioneer film-makers, inventors Étienne-Jules Marey, pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer Eadweard Muybridge, pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer Nadar a.k.a. Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, portrait photographer Nicéphore Niépce, pioneer inventor of photography Louis Le Prince, motion picture inventor and pioneer film-maker Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, chemist and photographer William Fox Talbot, inventor of the negative / positive photographic process.

Visual artists, painters, sculptors[edit] Main articles: History of painting, Western painting, and Ukiyo-e

Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808, 1814

Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830

Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise, 1872, gave the name to Impressionism

Paul Cézanne, Self-portrait, 1880–1881

Vincent van Gogh, Self-portrait, 1889

The Realism and Romanticism
of the early 1 9th century
9th century
gave way to Impressionism
and Post- Impressionism
in the later half of the century, with Paris
being the dominant art capital of the world. In the United States the Hudson River School
Hudson River School
was prominent. 19th-century painters included:

Ivan Aivazovsky Léon Bakst Albert Bierstadt William Blake Arnold Bocklin Rosa Bonheur William Burges Mary Cassatt Camille Claudel Paul Cézanne Frederic Edwin Church Thomas Cole Jan Matejko John Constable Camille Corot Gustave Courbet Honoré Daumier Edgar Degas Eugène Delacroix Thomas Eakins Caspar David Friedrich Paul Gauguin Théodore Géricault Vincent van Gogh Francisco Goya Ando Hiroshige Hokusai Winslow Homer Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Isaac Levitan Édouard Manet Claude Monet Gustave Moreau Berthe Morisot Edvard Munch Mikhail Nesterov Camille Pissarro Augustus Pugin Pierre-Auguste Renoir Ilya Repin Auguste Rodin Albert Pinkham Ryder John Singer Sargent Valentin Serov Georges Seurat Ivan Shishkin Vasily Surikov James Tissot Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Joseph Mallord William Turner Viktor Vasnetsov Eugene Viollet-le-Duc Mikhail Vrubel James Abbott McNeill Whistler Tsukioka Yoshitoshi

Music[edit] Main articles: List of Romantic-era composers, Romantic music, and Romanticism

Ludwig van Beethoven

Niccolò Paganini, c.1819

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Frédéric Chopin, 1838.

Scott Joplin

Sonata form
Sonata form
matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the 1 9th century
9th century
was referred to as being in the Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
and Richard Wagner. The list includes:

Mily Balakirev Ludwig van Beethoven Hector Berlioz Georges Bizet Alexander Borodin Johannes Brahms Anton Bruckner Frédéric Chopin Claude Debussy Antonín Dvořák Mikhail Glinka Edvard Grieg Scott Joplin Alexandre Levy Franz Liszt Gustav Mahler Felix Mendelssohn Modest Mussorgsky Jacques Offenbach Niccolò Paganini Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov Gioachino Rossini Anton Rubinstein Camille Saint-Saëns Antonio Salieri Franz Schubert Robert Schumann Alexander Scriabin Arthur Sullivan Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Giuseppe Verdi Richard Wagner

Philosophy and religion[edit]

Karl Marx

Friedrich Nietzsche

The 1 9th century
9th century
was host to a variety of religious and philosophical thinkers, including:

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
founded the Ahmadiyya
Islamic movement in India. Bahá'u'lláh
founded the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
in Persia Mikhail Bakunin, anarchist William Booth, social reformer, founder of the Salvation Army Auguste Comte, philosopher Mary Baker Eddy, religious leader, founder of Christian Science Friedrich Engels, political philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, philosopher Allan Kardec, systematizer of the Spiritist Doctrine Søren Kierkegaard, philosopher Peter Kropotkin, anarchist Karl Marx, political philosopher Pierre Joseph Proudhon, Mutualist anarchist John Stuart Mill, philosopher Krste Petkov Misirkov, philosopher and historian William Morris, social reformer Friedrich Nietzsche, philosopher Nikolai (Nicholas) of Japan, religious leader, introduced Eastern Orthodoxy into Japan Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Hindu mystic Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, founder of French socialism Arthur Schopenhauer, philosopher Joseph Smith, Jr.
Joseph Smith, Jr.
and Brigham Young, founders of Mormonism Vladimir Solovyov, philosopher Herbert Spencer, "The Great philosopher" Charles Spurgeon, Baptist preacher and writer Leo Tolstoy, anarchist Ayya Vaikundar, initiator of the belief system of Ayyavazhi Ellen White
Ellen White
religious author and co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church St. Therese of Lisieux, French discalced Carmelite nun

Politics and the Military[edit]

The last shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, c. 1867

Sojourner Truth, 1870

The allies: Sultan of the Ottoman Empire; Abdulmecid I, Queen of United Kingdom, Victoria and President of France, Napoleon

John Quincy Adams, U.S. congressman, lawyer, and president Alexander I of Russia Alexander III of Russia Susan B. Anthony, U.S. women's rights advocate Pyotr Bagration, Russian general Otto von Bismarck, German chancellor Napoleon
Bonaparte, French general, first consul and emperor William Wells Brown, American abolitionist, novelist, playwright, and historian John C. Calhoun, U.S. senator Henry Clay, U.S. statesman, "The Great Compromiser" Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America Louis-Nicolas Davout, French general Benjamin Disraeli, novelist and politician Frederick Douglass, U.S. abolitionist spokesman Ferdinand VII of Spain Joseph Fouché, French politician John C. Frémont, Explorer, Governor of California Giuseppe Garibaldi, unifier of Italy and Piedmontese soldier Alexander Gorchakov, Russian Chancellor Isabella II of Spain Gojong of Joseon, Korean emperor William Lloyd Garrison, U.S. abolitionist leader William Ewart Gladstone, British prime minister Ulysses S. Grant, U.S. general and president Theodor Herzl, founder of modern political Zionism Andrew Jackson, U.S. general and president Thomas Jefferson, American statesman, philosopher, and president John Mitchell, Jr., American businessman, newspaper editor, activist, and politician Ioannis Kapodistrias, Russian and Greek statesman Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian governor; leader of the war of independence Mikhail Kutuzov, Russian general Robert E. Lee, Confederate general Libertadores, Latin American liberators Abraham Lincoln, U.S. president; led the nation during the American Civil War Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada, first Prime Minister of Canada Klemens von Metternich, Austrian Chancellor Joachim Murat, King of Naples and French general Mutsuhito, Japanese emperor Napoleon
III Michel Ney, French general Nicholas I of Russia Pedro II of Brazil Józef Poniatowski, Polish general Cecil Rhodes John Ross Robertson, newspaper publisher and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt, Explorer, Naturalist, future President of The United States William Tecumseh Sherman, Union general during the American Civil War Dred Scott, enslaved African American man Fulwar Skipwith, the first and only president of the short lived Republic of West Florida Mikhail Skobelev, Russian general Leland Stanford, Governor of California, U.S. Senator, entrepreneur István Széchenyi, aristocrat, leader of the Hungarian reform movement Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, French politician Harriet Tubman, African-American
abolitionist, humanitarian, played a part in the Underground Railroad Sojourner Truth, was an African-American
abolitionist and women's rights activist William M. Tweed, a.k.a. Boss Tweed, influential New York City politician, head of Tammany Hall Abdülmecid I, 31st Sultan and 110th Caliph of Islam
Caliph of Islam
of the Ottoman Empire Queen Victoria, British monarch Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, British General and prime minister Hong Xiuquan, revolutionary, self-proclaimed Son of God Victoria Woodhull, American politician, suffragette, abolitionist Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the last Japanese shōgun Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor, Johore Sultan

See also[edit]

Timeline of modern history 1 9th century
9th century
in film 1 9th century
9th century
in games 19th-century philosophy Capitalism in the nineteenth century France
in the nineteenth century International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) List of wars 1800–1899 Mid-nineteenth-century Spain Nineteenth-century theatre Russian history, 1855–1892 Slavery
in the United States Timeline of 19th-century Muslim history Timeline of historic inventions#19th century Victorian Era

Supplementary portrait gallery[edit]

Mikhail Bakunin

William Bonney
William Bonney
aka Henry McCarty
Henry McCarty
aka Billy the Kid, c. late 1870s

Deputies Bat Masterson
Bat Masterson
and Wyatt Earp
Wyatt Earp
in Dodge City, 1876

Mathew Brady, Self-portrait, c. 1875

Henry David Thoreau, August 1861.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson

Thomas Nast, c. 1860–1875, photo by Mathew Brady
Mathew Brady
or Levin Handy

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad

Søren Kierkegaard

Solomon Northup

Dred Scott

Madame CJ Walker


^ "The First Telephone Call".  ^ "Dec. 18, 1878: Let There Be Light — Electric Light". WIRED. 18 December 2009.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions. Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ "The United States
United States
and the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in the 19th Century". Americanhistory.about.com. 2012-09-18. Retrieved 2012-10-31.  ^ Laura Del Col, West Virginia University, The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth- Century
England ^ "Modernization – Population Change". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on April 6, 2009.  ^ Liberalism
in the 19th century. Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore. BBC. ^ The Atlantic: Can the US afford immigration?. Migration News. December 1996. ^ Frederick Artz, Reaction and Revolution, 1814– 1832
(1934) ^ proclamation ^ McPherson, J. M. (2014). Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation
and Thirteenth Amendment. In E. Foner, & J. A. Garraty (Eds.), The Reader's companion to American history. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved from http://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/rcah/emancipation_proclamation_and_thirteenth_amendment/0 ^ 13th Amendment ^ Reilly, Thomas H. (2004). The Taiping heavenly kingdom rebellion and the blasphemy of empire (1. ed. ed.). Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0295801921. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ "Killing ground: photographs of the Civil War and the changing American landscape". John Huddleston (2002). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6773-8 ^ "William Whewell". Stanford University. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  ^ "Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009.  ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography. 27 (2): 230–259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra.  ^ a b c Vickers (2005), page xii ^ Wahyu Ernawati: "Chapter 8: The Lombok Treasure", in Colonial collections Revisited: Pieter ter Keurs (editor) Vol. 152, CNWS publications. Issue 36 of Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden. CNWS Publications, 2007. ISBN 978-90-5789-152-6. 296 pages. pp. 186–203

External links[edit]

Media related to 1 9th century
9th century
at Wikimedia Commons

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Bohemianism Counter-Enlightenment Dark romanticism Düsseldorf School Gesamtkunstwerk Gothic fiction Gothic Revival (architecture) Hudson River School Indianism Nazarene movement Ossian Romantic hero Romanticism
in science Romantic nationalism Opium and Romanticism Transcendentalism Ultra-Romanticism Wallenrodism


Abovian Alencar Alfieri Andersen A. v. Arnim B. v. Arnim Azevedo Baratashvili Baratynsky Barbauld (Aikin) Batyushkov Baudelaire Beer Bertrand Blake Botev Brentano Bryant Burns Byron Castelo Branco Castilho Cazotte Chateaubriand Chavchavadze Clare Coleridge Cooper De Quincey Dias Dumas Eichendorff Emerson Eminescu Espronceda Fouqué Foscolo Garrett Gautier Goethe Grimm Brothers Gutzkow Hauff Hawthorne Heine Heliade Herculano Hoffmann Hölderlin Hugo Ilić Irving Jakšić Jean Paul Karamzin Keats Kleist Krasiński Lamartine Larra Leopardi Lermontov Lowell Macedonski Mácha Magalhães Malczewski Manzoni Maturin Mérimée Mickiewicz Musset Nalbandian Nerval Nodier Norwid Novalis Oehlenschläger Orbeliani Poe Polidori Potocki Prešeren Pushkin Raffi Schiller Schwab Scott Seward M. Shelley P. B. Shelley Shevchenko Słowacki De Staël Stendhal Tieck Tyutchev Uhland Vörösmarty Vyazemsky Wordsworth Zhukovsky Zorrilla


Adam Alkan Auber Beethoven Bellini Bennett Berlioz Bertin Berwald Brahms Bruckner Cherubini Chopin Dargomyzhsky Félicien David Ferdinand David Donizetti Fauré Field Franck Franz Glinka Gomis Halévy Kalkbrenner Liszt Loewe Marschner Masarnau Méhul Fanny Mendelssohn Felix Mendelssohn Méreaux Meyerbeer Moniuszko Moscheles Mussorgsky Niedermeyer Onslow Paganini Prudent Reicha Rimsky-Korsakov Rossini Rubinstein Schubert Clara Schumann Robert Schumann Smetana Sor Spohr Spontini Thalberg Verdi Voříšek Wagner Weber

Theologians and philosophers

Chaadayev Coleridge Feuerbach Fichte Goethe Hegel Khomyakov Müller Ritschl Rousseau Schiller A. Schlegel F. Schlegel Schopenhauer Schleiermacher Tieck Wackenroder

Visual artists

Aivazovsky Bierstadt Blake Bonington Bryullov Chassériau Church Constable Cole Corot Dahl David d'Angers Delacroix Friedrich Fuseli Géricault Girodet Głowacki Goya Gude Hayez Janmot Jones Kiprensky Koch Lampi Leutze Loutherbourg Maison Martin Michałowski Palmer Porto-Alegre Préault Révoil Richard Rude Runge Saleh Scheffer Stattler Stroj Tidemand Tropinin Turner Veit Ward Wiertz

 « Age of Enlightenment Realism » 

Millennia Centuries Decades Years

v t e

Decades and years

19th century 17th century ← 18th century ← ↔ → 20th century → 21st century

1790s 1790 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799

1800s 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809

1810s 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819

1820s 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829

1830s 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839

1840s 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849

1850s 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859

1860s 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869

1870s 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879

1880s 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889

1890s 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899

1900s 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909

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Centuries and millennia

Millennium Century


4th 40th 39th 38th 37th 36th 35th 34th 33rd 32nd 31st

3rd 30th 29th 28th 27th 26th 25th 24th 23rd 22nd 21st

2nd 20th 19th 18th 17th 16th 15th 14th 13th 12th 11th

1st 10th 9th 8th 7th 6th 5th 4th 3rd 2nd 1st


1st 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th

2nd 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th

3rd 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th

v t e

History of the 19th century



1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s


Christianity Literature Philosophy Science Theatre


State leaders Earthquakes Lunar eclipses Solar eclipses