9th century was a century that began on January 1,
1801 and ended
on December 31, 1900.
9th century was a period of social change.
Slavery was largely
abolished, and the
Second Industrial Revolution
Second Industrial Revolution led to massive
It was marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman
and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of
the British Empire, the Russian Empire, the United States, the German
Empire, the French colonial empire and Meiji Japan, with the British
boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815. After the defeat of the
French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British and
Russian empires expanded greatly, becoming the world's leading powers.
Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. The
British Empire grew rapidly in the first half of the century,
especially with the expansion of vast territories in Canada,
Australia, South Africa and heavily populated India, and in the last
two decades of the century in Africa. By the end of the century, the
British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one quarter
of the world's population. During the post-Napoleonic era, it enforced
what became known as the Pax Britannica, which had ushered in
unprecedented globalization and economic integration on a massive
2.1 Napoleonic Wars
2.2 Latin American independence
2.3 Abolition and the American Civil War
2.4 Decline of the Ottoman Empire
2.5 Taiping Rebellion
2.6 Meiji Restoration
2.8 Other Wars
3 Science and technology
7 Significant people
7.1 Show business and theatre
7.3 Anthropology, archaeology, scholars
7.4 Journalists, missionaries, explorers
7.6 Visual artists, painters, sculptors
7.8 Philosophy and religion
7.9 Politics and the Military
8 See also
9 Supplementary portrait gallery
11 External links
The first electronics appeared in the 19th century, with the
introduction of the electric relay in 1835, the telegraph and its
Morse code protocol in 1837, the first telephone call in 1876, and
the first functional light bulb in 1878.
9th century was an era of rapidly accelerating scientific
discovery and invention, with significant developments in the fields
of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and
metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of
the 20th century. The
Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain
and spread to continental Europe,
North America and Japan. The
Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in
factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty
and gender roles.
Japan embarked on a program of rapid
modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China,
under the Qing Dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War. Advances in
medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention
took place in the 19th century, and were partly responsible for
rapidly accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's
population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200
million to more than 400 million. The introduction of railroads
provided the first major advancement in land transportation for
centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, and
fuelling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe.
Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more
during this century. London became the world's largest city and
capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million
1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining
undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior
Africa and Asia, were explored during this century, and with the
exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate
and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s. Liberalism
became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.
Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma river (in
today's Tanzania and Mozambique), 19th century
Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful
slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and
France stepped up the battle
Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their
enslavement of Europeans. The UK's
Slavery Abolition Act charged the
Royal Navy with ending the global slave trade. The first
colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, who
did so in 1834. America's 13th Amendment following their Civil War
abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished
1888 (see Abolitionism). Similarly, serfdom was abolished in
9th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new
settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North
America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two
continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century.
Chicago in the
United States and
non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd
largest cities in the
United States and
British Empire respectively by
the end of the century. In the 1
9th century approximately 70 million
people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States.
9th century also saw the rapid creation, development and
codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United
States. Association football, rugby union, baseball and many other
sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British
Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many
different parts of the world. Also, ladywear was a very sensitive
topic during this time, where women showing their ankles was viewed to
The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815.
It also marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to
the creation of Serbia, Bulgaria,
Romania as a result
of the second Russo-Turkish War, which in itself followed the great
Map of the world from 1897. The
British Empire (marked in pink) was
the superpower of the 19th century.
Victorian era (UK, British Empire)
Bourbon Restoration, July Monarchy, French Second Republic, Second
French Third Republic
French Third Republic (France)
Belle Époque (Europe)
Meiji period (Japan)
Qing Dynasty (China)
Joseon Dynasty (Korea)
Tanzimat, First Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire)
American Manifest Destiny, The Gilded Age
Main article: Napoleonic Wars
See also: Timeline of the Napoleonic era
Napoleon's retreat from
Russia in 1812. The war swings decisively
against the French Empire
Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts from 1803-1815
pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by
Napoleon I, against a
fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions,
financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from
the unresolved disputes associated with the
French Revolution and its
resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five
conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon; the
Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), Fifth (1809), Sixth
(1813), and the Seventh and final (1815).
Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of the French. In 1805,
Napoleon decisively defeats an Austrian-Russian army at the Battle of
Austerlitz. In 1812, the
French invasion of Russia
French invasion of Russia is a turning point
in the Napoleonic Wars.
Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba. Later that year, he
escaped exile and began the
Hundred Days before finally being defeated
Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo and exiled to St Helena.
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire dissolved as a consequence of the Treaty of
Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna redraws the European map. Reaction and
conservatism dominate all of Europe. The Concert of Europe
attempts to preserve this settlement, but the forces of liberalism and
nationalism make for dramatic changes. It marks the beginning of a Pax
Britannica which lasts until 1914.
Latin American independence
Latin American wars of independence
Latin American wars of independence and Spanish
American wars of independence
Most countries in
Central America and
South America obtained
independence from colonial overlords during the 19th century. In
Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence was a decade-long conflict
that ended in Mexican independence in 1821, and in South America, most
Spanish-speaking countries obtained independence in that same time
frame. Due to the Napoleonic Wars, the royal family of Portugal
relocated to Brazil from 1808-1821, leading to Brazil having a
separate monarch from Portugal.
In 1830, the post-colonial nation of
Greater Colombia dissolved and
the nations of
Colombia (including modern-day Panama), Ecuador, and
Venezuela took its place.
1804: Haiti gains independence from
France and becomes the first black
1838–1840: Civil war in the Federal Republic of
Central America led
to the foundings of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and
Abolition and the American Civil War
Abolitionism and American Civil War
William Wilberforce (1759–1833), politician and philanthropist who
was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade.
The abolitionism movement achieved success in the 19th century. The
Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade was abolished in 1808, and by the end of the
century, almost every government had banned slavery. The Slavery
Abolition Act of
1833 banned slavery throughout the British Empire,
Lei Áurea abolished slavery in Brazil in 1888.
American Civil War
American Civil War took place from 1861-1865. Eleven southern
states seceded from the United States, largely over concerns related
to slavery. In 1863, President
Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation
Proclamation. Lincoln issued a preliminary  on September 22, 1862
warning that in all states still in rebellion (Confederacy) on January
1, 1863, he would declare their slaves "then, thenceforward, and
forever free." The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution,
ratified in 1865, officially abolished slavery in the entire country.
Five days after
Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse,
Virginia, Lincoln was assassinated by actor and Confederate
sympathiser John Wilkes Booth.
Decline of the Ottoman Empire
Greece became the first country to break away from the
Ottoman Empire after the Greek War of Independence. In 1831, the Great
Bosnian uprising against Ottoman rule occurred. In 1817, the
Serbia became suzerain from the Ottoman Empire, and in
1867, it passed a
Constitution which defined its independence from the
Ottoman Empire. In 1876,
Bulgarians instigate the April Uprising
against Ottoman rule. Following the Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of
Berlin recognized the formal independence of the Principality of
Montenegro and Romania.
Bulgaria becomes autonomous.
The extent of Taiping control in
1854 (in red).
Taiping Rebellion was the bloodiest conflict of the 19th century,
leading to the deaths of 20 million people. Its leader, Hong Xiuquan,
declared himself the younger brother of
Jesus Christ and developed a
new Chinese religion known as the God Worshipping Society. After
proclaiming the establishment of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in 1851,
the Taiping army conquered a large part of China, capturing
1853. In 1864, after the death of Hong Xiuquan, Qing forces recaptured
Nanjing and ended the rebellion.
Main article: Meiji Restoration
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Japan largely pursued an isolationist foreign
policy. In 1853,
United States Navy Commodore Matthew C. Perry
threatened the Japanese capital
Edo with gunships, demanding that they
agree to open trade. This led to the opening of trade relations
Japan and foreign countries, with the policy of Sakoku
formally ended in 1854.
By 1872, the Japanese government under
Emperor Meiji had eliminated
the daimyo system and established a strong central government. Further
reforms included the abolishment of the samurai class and rapid
Western imperialism in Asia
Western imperialism in Asia and Scramble for Africa
In 1862, French gained its first foothold in Southeast Asia, and in
France annexes Cambodia.
Berlin Conference of 1884-
1885 signaled the start of the European
"scramble for Africa". In 1885, King Leopold II of
Congo Free State
Congo Free State as a personal fiefdom.
United States more than doubles in size when it buys out
France's territorial claims in
North America via the Louisiana
Purchase. This begins the U.S.'s westward expansion to the Pacific
referred to as its
Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and
conquering land from Mexico, Britain, and Native Americans.
British Empire annexed
Burma (now also called
Myanmar) after three Anglo-Burmese Wars.
United States purchases Alaska from Russia.
Shaka rises to power over the Zulu Kingdom. Zulu expansion was a
major factor of the
Mfecane ("Crushing") that depopulated large areas
of southern Africa
First Barbary War
First Barbary War and the
Second Barbary War
Second Barbary War between
United States and the
Barbary States of North Africa
1804–1810: Fulani Jihad in Nigeria.
1804–1813: Russo-Persian War.
1806–1812: Russo-Turkish War, Treaty of Bucharest.
Russia conquers Finland from Sweden in the Finnish War.
Grito de Dolores
Grito de Dolores begins the Mexican War of Independence.
Punjab War between the
Sikh Empire and British Empire.
1812–1815: War of
1812 between the
United States and Britain; ends
in a draw, except that Native Americans lose power
1813–1837: Afghan-Sikh Wars.
Anglo-Nepalese War between
Nepal (Gurkha Empire) and
Seminole War begins in Florida.
Russia commences its conquest of the Caucasus.
1820: Revolutions of
1820 in Southern Europe
1825: Java War. (to 1830)
1826–1828: After the final Russo-Persian War, the Persian Empire
took back territory lost to
Russia from the previous war.
Black War in
Tasmania leads to the near extinction of the
November Uprising in
Poland against Russia.
1830: End of the Diponegoro war. The whole area of Yogyakarta and
Surakarta Manca nagara Dutch seized. 27 September, Klaten Agreement
determines a fixed boundary between Surakarta and Yogyakarta and
permanently divide the kingdom of Mataram was signed by
Sasradiningrat, Pepatih Dalem Surakarta, and Danurejo, Pepatih Dalem
Yogyakarta. Mataram is a de facto and de yure controlled by the Dutch
France invades and occupies Algeria.
1831–1833: Egyptian–Ottoman War.
Mexican-American War leads to Mexico's cession of
much of the modern-day Southwestern United States.
Crimean War between France, the United Kingdom, the
Ottoman Empire and Russia
American Civil War
American Civil War between the Union and seceding
Dead Confederate soldiers. 30% of all Southern white males 18–40
years of age died in the American Civil War.
1861–1867: French intervention in
Mexico and the creation of the
Second Mexican Empire, ruled by Maximilian I of
Mexico and his consort
Carlota of Mexico.
1863–1865: Polish uprising against the Russian Empire.
Paraguayan War ends Paraguayan ambitions for
expansion and destroys much of the Paraguayan population.
Austro-Prussian War results in the dissolution of the German
Confederation and the creation of the North
German Confederation and
the Austrian-Hungarian Dual Monarchy.
Ten Years' War
Ten Years' War between
Cuba and Spain.
Franco-Prussian War results in the unifications of
Germany and Italy, the collapse of the
Second French Empire
Second French Empire and the
emergence of a New Imperialism.
1879–1880: Little War against Spanish rule in
Cuba leads to rebel
Chile battles with
Bolivia over Andean territory
in the War of the Pacific.
1880–1881: the First Boer War.
Mahdist War in Sudan.
1882: The British invasion and subsequent occupation of Egypt
1894–1895: After the First Sino-Japanese War, China cedes
Japan and grants
Japan a free hand in Korea.
Taiwan is ceded to the
Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan as a result of the First
1895–1896: Abyssinia defeats Italy in the First Italo–Ethiopian
Cuban War for Independence
Cuban War for Independence results in Cuban independence
Boxer Rebellion in China is suppressed by an
Thousand Days' War
Thousand Days' War in
Colombia breaks out between the
"Liberales" and "Conservadores", culminating with the loss of Panama
Second Boer War
Second Boer War begins.
Philippine–American War begins.
Science and technology
9th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term
scientist was coined in
1833 by William Whewell, which soon
replaced the older term of (natural) philosopher. Among the most
influential ideas of the 1
9th century were those of Charles Darwin
(alongside the independent researches of Alfred Russel Wallace), who
1859 published the book The Origin of Species, which introduced the
idea of evolution by natural selection. Another important landmark in
medicine and biology were the successful efforts to prove the germ
theory of disease. Following this,
Louis Pasteur made the first
vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of
chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. In chemistry, Dmitri
Mendeleev, following the atomic theory of John Dalton, created the
first periodic table of elements. In physics, the experiments,
theories and discoveries of Michael Faraday, Andre-Marie Ampere, James
Clerk Maxwell, and their contemporaries led to the creation of
electromagnetism as a new branch of science.
Thermodynamics led to an
understanding of heat and the notion of energy was defined. Other
highlights include the discoveries unveiling the nature of atomic
structure and matter, simultaneously with chemistry – and of new
kinds of radiation. In astronomy, the planet Neptune was discovered.
In mathematics, the notion of complex numbers finally matured and led
to a subsequent analytical theory; they also began the use of
Karl Weierstrass and others carried out the
arithmetization of analysis for functions of real and complex
variables. It also saw rise to new progress in geometry beyond those
classical theories of Euclid, after a period of nearly two thousand
years. The mathematical science of logic likewise had revolutionary
breakthroughs after a similarly long period of stagnation. But the
most important step in science at this time were the ideas formulated
by the creators of electrical science. Their work changed the face of
physics and made possible for new technology to come about: Thomas
Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb. Nikola
Tesla pioneered the induction motor, high frequency transmission of
electricity, and remote control. Other new inventions were electrical
telegraphy and the telephone.
Sodium are individually isolated by Sir Humphry
1831–1836: Charles Darwin's journey on the HMS Beagle.
Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species.
James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell publishes On Physical Lines of Force,
formulating the four Maxwell's Equations.
Gregor Mendel formulates his laws of inheritance.
Dmitri Mendeleev created the Periodic table.
A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism
A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism published.
Asaph Hall discovers the moons of Mars
Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity; J. J. Thomson
identifies the electron, though not by name.
Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. The disease killed an
estimated 25 percent of the adult population of Europe during the 19th
Morphine first isolated.
Anaesthesia used for the first time.
Cocaine is isolated by Friedrich Gaedcke.
Louis Pasteur creates the first successful vaccine against
rabies for a young boy who had been bitten 14 times by a rabid dog.
Thomas Edison was an American inventor, scientist, and businessman who
developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world,
including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a
long-lasting, practical electric light bulb.
First motor bus in history: the Benz Omnibus, built in
1895 for the
Netphener bus company
1804: First steam locomotive begins operation.
Erie Canal opened connecting the
Great Lakes to the Atlantic
1825: First isolation of aluminum.
1825: The Stockton and Darlington Railway, the first public railway in
the world, is opened.
Samuel Morey patents the internal combustion engine.
1829: First electric motor built.
1841: The word "dinosaur" is coined by Richard Owen
1844: First publicly funded telegraph line in the world—between
Baltimore and Washington—sends demonstration message on 24 May,
ushering in the age of the telegraph. This message read "What hath God
wrought?" (Bible, Numbers 23:23)
1849: The safety pin and the gas mask are invented.
Bessemer process enables steel to be mass-produced.
1856: World's first oil refinery in Romania
Invention of the phonautograph, the first true device for
1863: First section of the
London Underground opens.
1866: Successful transatlantic telegraph cable follows an earlier
attempt in 1858.
Alfred Nobel invents dynamite.
First Transcontinental Railroad
First Transcontinental Railroad completed in
United States on 10
1870: Rasmus Malling-Hansen's invention the Hansen Writing Ball
becomes the first commercially sold typewriter.
1873: Blue jeans and barbed wire are invented.
Thomas Edison invents the phonograph
1878: First commercial telephone exchange in New Haven, Connecticut.
Thomas Edison tests his first light bulb.
1881: First electrical power plant and grid in Godalming, Britain.
Sir Hiram Maxim
Sir Hiram Maxim invents the first self-powered Machine gun.
1885: Singer begins production of the 'Vibrating Shuttle'. which would
become the most popular model of sewing machine.
Karl Benz sells the first commercial automobile.
1890: The cardboard box is invented.
John Froelich develops and constructs the first
1894: Karl Elsener invents the Swiss Army knife.
1894: First gramophone record.
Wilhelm Röntgen identifies x-rays.
1830: The Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints is established
on 6 April 1830.
1844: Persian Prophet the
Báb announces his revelation on 23 May,
founding Bábísm. He announced to the world of the coming of "He whom
God shall make manifest". He is considered the forerunner of
Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
1846–1847: Mormon migration to Utah.
Bahá'u'lláh declares his station as "He whom God shall make
manifest". This date is celebrated in the
Bahá'í Faith as The
Festival of Ridván.
1871–1878: In Germany,
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck attacks the privileges of
the Catholic Church in the
Kulturkampf ("Culture War")
Mary Baker Eddy
Mary Baker Eddy founds the Church of Christ, Scientist.
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad establishes the
Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, a
reform sect of Islam.
1891: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the
Ahmadiyya movement, claims to
be Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi.
Leo XIII launches the encyclical Rerum Novarum, the first
major catholic document on social justice
The Great Exhibition
The Great Exhibition in London. Starting during the 18th century, the
United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise.
Jane Austen publishes Pride and Prejudice
Mary Shelley publishes Frankenstein.
John Keats writes his odes of 1819.
Théodore Géricault paints his masterpiece The Raft of the
Medusa, and exhibits it in the French Salon of
1819 at the Louvre.
1824: Premiere of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony.
1829: Johann Wolfgang von
Goethe's Faust premieres.
Charles Dickens publishes Oliver Twist.
Brontë sisters publish Jane Eyre,
Wuthering Heights and
Herman Melville publishes Moby-Dick.
Walt Whitman publishes the first edition of Leaves of Grass.
Victor Hugo publishes Les Misérables.
Lewis Carroll publishes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
Leo Tolstoy publishes War and Peace.
1875: Georges Bizet's opera
Carmen premiers in Paris.
1876: Richard Wagner's
Ring Cycle is first performed in its entirety.
1883: Robert Louis Stevenson's
Treasure Island is published.
Mark Twain publishes The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
1886: "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" by Robert Louis
Stevenson is published.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle publishes his first Sherlock Holmes
story, A Study in Scarlet.
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh paints Starry Night.
Moulin Rouge opens in Paris.
Nutcracker Suite premières in St Petersberg.
1894: Rudyard Kipling's
The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book is published
1895: Trial of
Oscar Wilde and premiere of his play The Importance of
Bram Stoker writes Dracula.
L. Frank Baum
L. Frank Baum publishes The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.
Romantic poetry and 1
9th century in literature
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On the literary front the new century opens with romanticism, a
movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century
rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the
Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic
changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators
of the new school in England, while in the continent the German Sturm
und Drang spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain.
French arts had been hampered by the
Napoleonic Wars but subsequently
The Goncourts and
Émile Zola in
Giovanni Verga in Italy
produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist
novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the
new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware
of its ethnic and cultural diversity. On 21 February 1848, Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels published the Communist Manifesto.
There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the
most famous writers included the Russians Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai
Gogol, Leo Tolstoy,
Anton Chekhov and Fyodor Dostoyevsky; the English
Charles Dickens, John Keats,
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Jane Austen;
the Scottish Sir Walter Scott; the Irish Oscar Wilde; the Americans
Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Mark Twain; and the French
Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne,
Alexandre Dumas and
Marquess of Queensberry Rules for boxing are published.
1872: The first recognised international soccer match, between England
and Scotland, is played.
1877: The first test cricket match, between
England and Australia, is
Basketball is invented by James Naismith.
Volleyball is invented.
1896: Olympic Games revived in Athens.
Main article: Timeline of the 19th century
Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain and the
Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland merge to
form the United Kingdom.
William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the "first
1803: The Wahhabis of the
First Saudi State
First Saudi State capture
Mecca and Medina.
Austrian Empire founded by Francis I.
World population reaches 1 billion.
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar eliminates the French and Spanish naval
fleets and allows for British dominance of the seas, a major factor
for the success of the
British Empire later in the century.
1805–1848: Muhammad Ali modernizes Egypt.
1819: 29 January,
Stamford Raffles arrives in
Singapore with William
Farquhar to establish a trading post for the British East India
Company. 8 February, The treaty is signed between Sultan Hussein of
Johor, Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Stamford Raffles. Farquhar is
installed as the first Resident of the settlement.
1810: The University of Berlin was founded. Among its students and
faculty are Hegel, Marx, and Bismarck. The German university reform
proves to be so successful that its model is copied around the world
(see History of European research universities).
Elisha Collier invents the
Mount Tambora in
Sumbawa island erupts, becoming the
largest volcanic eruption in recorded history, destroying Tambora
culture, and killing at least 71,000 people, including its aftermath.
The eruption created global climate anomalies known as "volcanic
Year Without a Summer: Unusually cold conditions wreak havoc
throughout the Northern Hemisphere, likely influenced by the 1815
explosion of Mount Tambora.
Zulu Kingdom becomes the largest in Southern
1819: The modern city of
Singapore is established by the British East
1820: Discovery of Antarctica.
1820: Liberia founded by the
American Colonization Society
American Colonization Society for freed
1820: Dissolution of the Maratha Empire.
1822–1823: First Mexican Empire, as Mexico's first post-independent
government, ruled by Emperor Agustín I of Mexico.
Monroe Doctrine declared by US President James Monroe.
1825: The Decembrist revolt.
Decembrists at the Senate Square.
Sir Robert Peel
Sir Robert Peel founds the Metropolitan Police Service, the
first modern police force.
Emigrants leaving Ireland. From
1830 to 1914, almost 5 million Irish
people went to the
United States alone.
1830: Anglo-Russian rivalry over Afghanistan, the Great Game,
commences and concludes in 1895.
November Uprising ends with crushing defeat for
Poland in the
Battle of Warsaw.
1832: The British Parliament passes the Great Reform Act.
1834–1859: Imam Shamil's rebellion in Russian-occupied Caucasus.
Texas Revolution in
Mexico resulted in the
short-lived Republic of Texas.
Samuel Colt popularizes the revolver and sets up a firearms
company to manufacture his invention of the
Colt Paterson revolver a
six bullets firearm shot one by one without reloading manually.
1837–1838: Rebellions of
1837 in Canada.
1838: By this time, 46,000 Native Americans have been forcibly
relocated in the Trail of Tears.
1839–1860: After the First and Second Opium Wars, France, the United
United States and
Russia gain many trade and associated
concessions from China resulting in the start of the decline of the
1839–1919: Anglo-Afghan Wars lead to stalemate and the establishment
of the Durand line
Treaty of Nanking
Treaty of Nanking cedes
Hong Kong to the British.
1843: The first wagon train sets out from Missouri.
1845–1849: The Irish Potato Famine leads to the Irish diaspora.
Liberal and nationalist pressure led to the European revolutions of
The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto published.
1848: Revolutions of
1848 in Europe.
Seneca Falls Convention
Seneca Falls Convention is the first women's rights convention
United States and leads to the battle for women's suffrage.
1848–1858: California Gold Rush.
1849: Earliest recorded air raid, as Austria employs 200 balloons to
deliver ordnance against Venice.
Little Ice Age
Little Ice Age ends around this time.
The Great Exhibition
The Great Exhibition in London was the world's first
international Expo or World Fair.
Frederick Douglass delivers his speech "The Meaning of July
Fourth for the Negro" in Rochester, New York.
Joseph Whitworth designs the first long-range sniper rifle.
1857–1858: Indian Rebellion of 1857. The
British Empire assumes
control of India from the East India Company.
1858: Construction of
Big Ben is completed.
Suez Canal is constructed.
The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal
Giuseppe Garibaldi launches the Expedition of the Thousand.
Russia abolishes serfdom.
1862–1877: Muslim Rebellion in north-west China.
1863: Formation of the International Red Cross is followed by the
adoption of the
First Geneva Convention
First Geneva Convention in 1864.
1865–1877: Reconstruction in the United States;
Slavery is banned in
United States by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States
1868: Michael Barrett is the last person to be publicly hanged in
Suez Canal opens linking the Mediterranean to the Red Sea.
A barricade in the
Paris Commune, 18 March 1871. Around 30,000
Parisians were killed, and thousands more were later executed.
Black Friday, 9 May 1873, Vienna Stock Exchange. The Panic of
Long Depression followed.
1870: Official dismantling of the
Cultivation System and beginning of
a 'Liberal Policy' of deregulated exploitation of the Netherlands East
Long Depression in
Western Europe and North America.
1871–1872: Famine in Persia is believed to have caused the death of
Paris Commune briefly rules the French capital.
1872: Yellowstone National Park, the first national park, is created.
1874: The Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres,
Sculpteurs, and Graveurs, better known as the Impressionists, organize
and present their first public group exhibition at the
Paris studio of
the photographer Nadar.
1874: The Home Rule Movement is established in Ireland.
HMS Challenger surveys the deepest point in the Earth's oceans,
the Challenger Deep
Battle of the Little Bighorn
Battle of the Little Bighorn leads to the death of General
Custer and victory for the alliance of Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho
1876–1914: The massive expansion in population, territory, industry
and wealth in the
United States is referred to as the Gilded Age.
Great Railroad Strike
Great Railroad Strike in the
United States may have been the
world's first nationwide labour strike.
1881: Wave of pogroms begins in the Russian Empire.
Jules Ferry laws
Jules Ferry laws are passed in
free, secular education.
Krakatoa volcano explosion, one of the largest in modern
1883: The quagga is rendered extinct.
1886: Construction of the Statue of Liberty;
Coca-Cola is developed.
1888: Founding of the shipping line Koninklijke
Paketvaart-Maatschappij (KPM) that supported the unification and
development of the colonial economy.
Eiffel Tower is inaugurated in Paris.
Studio portrait of Ilustrados in Europe, c. 1890
1890: First use of the electric chair as a method of execution.
World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition was held in
the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New
Fingerprinting is officially adopted for the first time.
New Zealand becomes the first country to enact women's suffrage.
Coremans-de Vriendt law
Coremans-de Vriendt law is passed in Belgium, creating legal
equality for French and Dutch languages.
1894: Lombok War The Dutch looted and destroyed the Cakranegara
palace of Mataram. J. L. A. Brandes, a Dutch philologist
discovered and secured
Nagarakretagama manuscript in Lombok royal
Philippine Revolution ends declaring
Philippines free from
United States gains control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the
Philippines after the Spanish–American War.
Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi of China engineers a coup d'état, marking
the end of the Hundred Days' Reform; the
Guangxu Emperor is arrested.
Exposition Universelle held in Paris, prominently featuring the
growing art trend Art Nouveau.
Eight nations invaded China at the same time and ransacked Forbidden
For later events, see Timeline of the 20th century.
Abraham Lincoln in 1863, 16th President of the United States, presided
during the American Civil War, assassinated in April 1865
Tsar Alexander II, also known as Alexander the Liberator, was the
Emperor of the
Russian Empire from 3 March
1855 until his
assassination in 1881
Otto von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor
Charles Alderton, creator of Dr. Pepper
Alexander II, Emperor of Russia, King of Poland
Clara Barton, nurse, pioneer of the American Red Cross
Sitting Bull, a leader of the Lakota
John Burroughs, Naturalist, conservationist, writer
Benito Juárez, Mexican President
Davy Crockett, King of the wild frontier, folk hero, frontiersman,
soldier and politician
Jefferson Davis, Confederate States President
William Gilbert Grace, English cricketer
Baron Haussmann, civic planner
Franz Joseph I of Austria, Emperor of Austria and brother of Mexican
Chief Joseph, a leader of the Nez Percé
Kamehameha I, founder of the
Kingdom of Hawaii
Kingdom of Hawaii died in May 1819
Ned Kelly, Australian folk hero, and outlaw
Elizabeth Kenny, Australian Nurse and found an Innovative Treatment of
Sándor Körösi Csoma, explorer of the Tibetan culture
United States President
Fitz Hugh Ludlow, writer and explorer
William McKinley, 25th U.S. President
John Muir, Naturalist, writer, preservationist
Florence Nightingale, nursing pioneer
Ranjit Singh, Maharaja of the Sikh Empire
Napoleon I, First Consul and Emperor of the French
Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish political leader
Commodore Perry, U.S. Naval commander, opened the door to Japan
José Rizal, Filipino polymath, physician, nationalist, novelist,
Sacagawea, Important aide to the Lewis and Clark Exploration
Giuseppe Garibaldi, was an Italian general and politician, a central
figure in the Italian Risorgimento
Ignaz Semmelweis, proponent of hygienic practices
Dr. John Snow, the founder of epidemiology
F R Spofforth, Australian cricketer
Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom
King Victor Emmanuel II, first King of Italy
William Wilberforce, Abolitionist, Philanthropist
Hong Xiuquan inspired China's Taiping Rebellion, perhaps the bloodiest
civil war in human history
Karl Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto, promoted change in the labor
system of Europe
Nikola Karev commander and leader of the
Ilinden Uprising in
Henry George, economist and author of Progress and Poverty, one of the
most influential books of the 1
9th century in the United States
Show business and theatre
Sarah Bernhardt, 1877
P. T. Barnum, c. 1860
P. T. Barnum, showman
David Belasco, actor, playwright, theatrical producer
Sarah Bernhardt, actress
Edwin Booth, actor
John Wilkes Booth, actor, assassin of Abraham Lincoln
Dion Boucicault, playwright
Mrs Patrick Campbell, actress
Anton Chekhov, playwright
Buffalo Bill Cody,
Wild West legend, and showman
Baptiste Deburau, Bohemian–French actor and mime.
Sergei Diaghilev, art critic, ballet impresario
Eleonora Duse, actress
Henrik Ibsen, playwright
Edmund Kean, actor
Charles Kean, actor
Olga Knipper, actress
Lillie Langtry, actress, socialite
Frédérick Lemaître, actor
Jenny Lind, opera singer called the Swedish Nightingale
William Macready, actor
Céleste Mogador, dancer
Lola Montez, exotic dancer
Adelaide Neilson, actress
Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, playwright, theatre director,
co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre
Annie Oakley, Wild West, sharp-shooter
Alexander Ostrovsky, playwright
Lillian Russell, singer, actress
George Bernard Shaw, playwright
Mikhail Shchepkin, actor
Constantin Stanislavski, actor, theatre director, co-founder of Moscow
Edward Askew Sothern, actor
Ellen Terry, actress
Maria Yermolova, actress
John D. Rockefeller
Robber baron (industrialist)
Robber baron (industrialist) and business magnate
John Jacob Astor III, Real Estate
Andrew Carnegie, Industrialist, philanthropist
Robert Reed Church, a freedman who became the South's first black
millionaire, real estate
Jay Cooke, Finance
Henry Clay Frick, Industrialist, art collector
Jay Gould, Railroad developer
Meyer Guggenheim Family patriarch, mining
Daniel Guggenheim (copper)
E. H. Harriman, Railroads
Henry O. Havemeyer
Henry O. Havemeyer (sugar), art collector
George Hearst, Gold
James J. Hill
James J. Hill (railroads) – The Empire Builder
Thomas Lipton, Scottish merchant and yachtsman known for
Savva Mamontov, Industrialist, philanthropist
Andrew W. Mellon, Industrialist, philanthropist, art collector
J.P. Morgan, Banker, art collector
George Mortimer Pullman
George Mortimer Pullman (railroads)
Ludvig Nobel, Oil
Charles Pratt Oil, founder of the Pratt Institute
Cecil Rhodes diamonds, mining magnate, founder of
De Beers and
benefactor of the Rhodes Scholarship.
John D. Rockefeller, Oil, Business tycoon, philanthropist
Levi Strauss, clothing manufacturer
Pavel Tretyakov, Businessman, art collector, philanthropist, founder
of Tretyakov Gallery
Cornelius Vanderbilt, Shipping, Railroads
William Chapman Ralston, Businessman, Financier, founder of Bank of
Madam C.J. Walker, African American entrepreneur, philanthropist,
political and social activist. Eulogized as first female self-made
millionaire in America.
Anthropology, archaeology, scholars
Heinrich Schliemann, Archaeologist
Franz Boas one of the pioneers of modern anthropology
Churchill Babington, Archaeology
Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier, Archaeology
Franz Boas, Anthropology
Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, Archaeology
Louis Agassiz Fuertes, Ornithology
George Bird Grinnell, Anthropology
Joseph LeConte, Scholar, preservationist
Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai, Anthropology
Clinton Hart Merriam, Zoology
Lewis H. Morgan, Anthropology
Jules Etienne Joseph Quicherat, Archaeology
Robert Ridgway, Ornithology
Edward Burnett Tylor, Anthropology
Karl Verner, Linguist
Journalists, missionaries, explorers
Roald Amundsen, explorer
Samuel Baker, explorer
Thomas Baines, artist, explorer
Heinrich Barth, explorer
Henry Walter Bates, naturalist, explorer
Faddey Bellingshausen, explorer
Jim Bridger, explorer
Richard Francis Burton, explorer
William Clark, explorer
The Lewis and Clark Expedition, exploration
Frederick Samuel Dellenbaugh, explorer
Percy Fawcett, adventurer, explorer, proto-Indiana Jones
Vladimir Gilyarovsky, journalist
Horace Greeley, journalist
Peter Jones (missionary), Canadian Methodist minister, and go-between
for Christians and his fellow
Mississaugas and other Indian tribes.
Adoniram Judson, missionary
Sir John Kirk, explorer, physician, companion of David Livingston
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, botanist, explorer, friend of Charles Darwin
Sir William Jackson Hooker, botanist, explorer, father of Sir Joseph
Otto von Kotzebue, explorer
Pyotr Kozlov, explorer
Mikhail Lazarev, fleet commander, explorer
Meriwether Lewis, explorer
David Livingstone, missionary
Stepan Makarov, explorer, oceanographer
Thomas Nast, journalist, caricaturist and editorial cartoonist
Robert Peary, explorer
Marcelo H. del Pilar, writer, journalist, editor of La Solidaridad.
Nikolai Przhevalsky, explorer
Frederick Selous, explorer
Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, explorer, geographer
John Hanning Speke, explorer
Henry M. Stanley, journalist, explorer
John McDouall Stuart, explorer
John L. O'Sullivan, journalist who coined Manifest Destiny
Chokan Valikhanov, explorer ethnographer, historian
Carter G. Woodson,
African-American historian, author, journalist and
the founder of the Association for the Study of African American Life
Ferdinand von Wrangel, explorer
One of the first photographs, produced in
1826 by Nicéphore Niépce
Nadar, Self-portrait, c. 1860
See also: History of photography, List of photojournalists,
Photojournalism, and Daguerreotype
Ottomar Anschütz, chronophotographer
Mathew Brady, documented the American Civil War
Edward S. Curtis, documented the
American West notably Native
Louis Daguerre, inventor of daguerreotype process of photography,
Thomas Eakins, pioneer motion photographer
George Eastman, inventor of roll film
Hércules Florence, pioneer inventor of photography
Auguste and Louis Lumière, pioneer film-makers, inventors
Étienne-Jules Marey, pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer
Eadweard Muybridge, pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer
Nadar a.k.a. Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, portrait photographer
Nicéphore Niépce, pioneer inventor of photography
Louis Le Prince, motion picture inventor and pioneer film-maker
Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, chemist and photographer
William Fox Talbot, inventor of the negative / positive photographic
Visual artists, painters, sculptors
Main articles: History of painting, Western painting, and Ukiyo-e
Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808, 1814
Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830
Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise, 1872, gave the name to
Paul Cézanne, Self-portrait, 1880–1881
Vincent van Gogh, Self-portrait, 1889
The Realism and
Romanticism of the early 1
9th century gave way to
Impressionism and Post-
Impressionism in the later half of the century,
Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. In the United
Hudson River School
Hudson River School was prominent. 19th-century painters
Frederic Edwin Church
Caspar David Friedrich
Vincent van Gogh
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
Albert Pinkham Ryder
John Singer Sargent
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Joseph Mallord William Turner
James Abbott McNeill Whistler
Main articles: List of Romantic-era composers, Romantic music, and
Ludwig van Beethoven
Niccolò Paganini, c.1819
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Frédéric Chopin, 1838.
Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary
form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of
the music from the 1
9th century was referred to as being in the
Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as
Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Pyotr Ilyich
Tchaikovsky and Richard Wagner. The list includes:
Ludwig van Beethoven
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Philosophy and religion
9th century was host to a variety of religious and philosophical
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the
Ahmadiyya Islamic movement in India.
Bahá'u'lláh founded the
Bahá'í Faith in Persia
Mikhail Bakunin, anarchist
William Booth, social reformer, founder of the Salvation Army
Auguste Comte, philosopher
Mary Baker Eddy, religious leader, founder of Christian Science
Friedrich Engels, political philosopher
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, philosopher
Allan Kardec, systematizer of the Spiritist Doctrine
Søren Kierkegaard, philosopher
Peter Kropotkin, anarchist
Karl Marx, political philosopher
Pierre Joseph Proudhon, Mutualist anarchist
John Stuart Mill, philosopher
Krste Petkov Misirkov, philosopher and historian
William Morris, social reformer
Friedrich Nietzsche, philosopher
Nikolai (Nicholas) of Japan, religious leader, introduced Eastern
Orthodoxy into Japan
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Hindu mystic
Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, founder of French
Arthur Schopenhauer, philosopher
Joseph Smith, Jr.
Joseph Smith, Jr. and Brigham Young, founders of Mormonism
Vladimir Solovyov, philosopher
Herbert Spencer, "The Great philosopher"
Charles Spurgeon, Baptist preacher and writer
Leo Tolstoy, anarchist
Ayya Vaikundar, initiator of the belief system of Ayyavazhi
Ellen White religious author and co-founder of the Seventh-day
St. Therese of Lisieux, French discalced Carmelite nun
Politics and the Military
The last shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, c. 1867
Sojourner Truth, 1870
The allies: Sultan of the Ottoman Empire; Abdulmecid I, Queen of
United Kingdom, Victoria and President of France,
John Quincy Adams, U.S. congressman, lawyer, and president
Alexander I of Russia
Alexander III of Russia
Susan B. Anthony, U.S. women's rights advocate
Pyotr Bagration, Russian general
Otto von Bismarck, German chancellor
Napoleon Bonaparte, French general, first consul and emperor
William Wells Brown, American abolitionist, novelist, playwright, and
John C. Calhoun, U.S. senator
Henry Clay, U.S. statesman, "The Great Compromiser"
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America
Louis-Nicolas Davout, French general
Benjamin Disraeli, novelist and politician
Frederick Douglass, U.S. abolitionist spokesman
Ferdinand VII of Spain
Joseph Fouché, French politician
John C. Frémont, Explorer, Governor of California
Giuseppe Garibaldi, unifier of Italy and Piedmontese soldier
Alexander Gorchakov, Russian Chancellor
Isabella II of Spain
Gojong of Joseon, Korean emperor
William Lloyd Garrison, U.S. abolitionist leader
William Ewart Gladstone, British prime minister
Ulysses S. Grant, U.S. general and president
Theodor Herzl, founder of modern political Zionism
Andrew Jackson, U.S. general and president
Thomas Jefferson, American statesman, philosopher, and president
John Mitchell, Jr., American businessman, newspaper editor, activist,
Ioannis Kapodistrias, Russian and Greek statesman
Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian governor; leader of the war of independence
Mikhail Kutuzov, Russian general
Robert E. Lee, Confederate general
Libertadores, Latin American liberators
Abraham Lincoln, U.S. president; led the nation during the American
Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada, first Prime Minister of Canada
Klemens von Metternich, Austrian Chancellor
Joachim Murat, King of Naples and French general
Mutsuhito, Japanese emperor
Michel Ney, French general
Nicholas I of Russia
Pedro II of Brazil
Józef Poniatowski, Polish general
John Ross Robertson, newspaper publisher and philanthropist
Theodore Roosevelt, Explorer, Naturalist, future President of The
William Tecumseh Sherman, Union general during the American Civil War
Dred Scott, enslaved African American man
Fulwar Skipwith, the first and only president of the short lived
Republic of West Florida
Mikhail Skobelev, Russian general
Leland Stanford, Governor of California, U.S. Senator, entrepreneur
István Széchenyi, aristocrat, leader of the Hungarian reform
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, French politician
African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, played a
part in the Underground Railroad
Sojourner Truth, was an
African-American abolitionist and women's
William M. Tweed, a.k.a. Boss Tweed, influential New York City
politician, head of Tammany Hall
Abdülmecid I, 31st Sultan and 110th
Caliph of Islam
Caliph of Islam of the Ottoman
Queen Victoria, British monarch
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, British General and prime
Hong Xiuquan, revolutionary, self-proclaimed Son of God
Victoria Woodhull, American politician, suffragette, abolitionist
Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the last Japanese shōgun
Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor, Johore Sultan
Timeline of modern history
9th century in film
9th century in games
Capitalism in the nineteenth century
France in the nineteenth century
International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)
List of wars 1800–1899
Russian history, 1855–1892
Slavery in the United States
Timeline of 19th-century Muslim history
Timeline of historic inventions#19th century
Supplementary portrait gallery
William Bonney aka
Henry McCarty aka Billy the Kid, c. late 1870s
Bat Masterson and
Wyatt Earp in Dodge City, 1876
Mathew Brady, Self-portrait, c. 1875
Henry David Thoreau, August 1861.
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Thomas Nast, c. 1860–1875, photo by
Mathew Brady or Levin Handy
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Madame CJ Walker
^ "The First Telephone Call".
^ "Dec. 18, 1878: Let There Be Light — Electric Light". WIRED. 18
^ Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions. Encyclopædia
United States and the
Industrial Revolution in the 19th
Century". Americanhistory.about.com. 2012-09-18. Retrieved
^ Laura Del Col, West Virginia University, The Life of the Industrial
Worker in Nineteenth-
^ "Modernization – Population Change". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Archived from the original on April 6, 2009.
Liberalism in the 19th century. Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore. BBC.
^ The Atlantic: Can the US afford immigration?. Migration News.
^ Frederick Artz, Reaction and Revolution, 1814–
^ McPherson, J. M. (2014).
Emancipation Proclamation and Thirteenth
Amendment. In E. Foner, & J. A. Garraty (Eds.), The Reader's
companion to American history. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved
^ 13th Amendment
^ Reilly, Thomas H. (2004). The Taiping heavenly kingdom rebellion and
the blasphemy of empire (1. ed. ed.). Seattle: University of
Washington Press. ISBN 0295801921. CS1 maint: Extra text
^ "Killing ground: photographs of the Civil War and the changing
American landscape". John Huddleston (2002). Johns Hopkins University
Press. ISBN 0-8018-6773-8
^ "William Whewell". Stanford University. Retrieved 2008-03-03.
^ "Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009.
^ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human
consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano
(Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography. 27 (2): 230–259.
^ a b c Vickers (2005), page xii
^ Wahyu Ernawati: "Chapter 8: The Lombok Treasure", in Colonial
collections Revisited: Pieter ter Keurs (editor) Vol. 152, CNWS
publications. Issue 36 of Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor
Volkenkunde, Leiden. CNWS Publications, 2007.
ISBN 978-90-5789-152-6. 296 pages. pp. 186–203
Media related to 1
9th century at Wikimedia Commons
Gothic Revival (architecture)
Hudson River School
Romanticism in science
Opium and Romanticism
A. v. Arnim
B. v. Arnim
P. B. Shelley
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