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The Info List - 19th Century



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The 19TH CENTURY (1 January 1801 – 31 December 1900) was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish , Napoleonic , Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire , the Russian Empire , the United States , the German Empire , the French colonial empire and Meiji Japan , with the British boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars , the British and Russian empires expanded greatly, becoming the world's leading powers. The Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. The British Empire grew rapidly in the first half of the century, especially with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, Australia, South Africa and heavily populated India, and in the last two decades of the century in Africa. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one quarter of the world's population. During the post-Napoleonic era, it enforced what became known as the Pax Britannica , which had ushered into unprecedented globalisation , industrialisation , and economic integration on a massive scale.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview * 2 Eras

* 3 Events

* 3.1 1800s * 3.2 1810s * 3.3 1820s * 3.4 1830s * 3.5 1840s * 3.6 1850s * 3.7 1860s * 3.8 1870s * 3.9 1880s * 3.10 1890s * 3.11 1900

* 4 Significant people

* 4.1 Show business and theatre * 4.2 Athletics * 4.3 Business * 4.4 Famous and infamous personalities * 4.5 Anthropology, archaeology, scholars * 4.6 Journalists, missionaries, explorers * 4.7 Photography * 4.8 Visual artists, painters, sculptors * 4.9 Music * 4.10 Literature * 4.11 Science * 4.12 Philosophy and religion * 4.13 Politics and the Military * 4.14 Last surviving people born in the 1 9th century

* 5 See also * 6 Supplementary portrait gallery * 7 References * 8 External links

OVERVIEW

The first electronics appeared in the 19th century, with the introduction of the electric relay in 1835, the telegraph and its Morse code protocol in 1837, the first telephone call in 1876, and the first functional light bulb in 1878.

The 1 9th century was an era of rapidly accelerating scientific discovery and invention , with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty and gender roles. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration , before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty , in the First Sino-Japanese War . Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating population growth in the western world . Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. The introduction of railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, and fuelling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were explored during this century, and with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s. Liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma river (in today's Tanzania and Mozambique), 1 9th century

Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti , Britain and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UK's Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the global slave trade . The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, who did so in 1834. America's 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888 (see Abolitionism ). Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia .

The 1 9th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. Chicago in the United States and Melbourne in Australia were non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd largest cities in the United States and British Empire respectively by the end of the century. In the 1 9th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America.

The 1 9th century also saw the rapid creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United States. Association football , rugby union , baseball and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world. Also, ladywear was a very sensitive topic during this time, where women showing their ankles was viewed to be scandalous.

It also marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to the creation of Serbia , Bulgaria , Montenegro and Romania as a result of the second Russo-Turkish War , which in itself followed the great Crimean War .

ERAS

Map of the world from 1897. The British Empire (marked in pink) was the superpower of the 19th century.

* Industrial revolution * European Imperialism * British Regency , Victorian era (UK, British Empire ) * Bourbon Restoration , July Monarchy , French Second Republic , Second French Empire , French Third Republic ( France ) * Belle Époque (Europe) * Edo period , Meiji period (Japan) * Qing Dynasty (China) * Joseon Dynasty (Korea) * Tanzimat , First Constitutional Era ( Ottoman Empire ) * Russian Empire * American Manifest Destiny , The Gilded Age

EVENTS

_ Napoleon 's retreat from Russia in 1812. The war swings decisively against the French Empire Stephenson\'s Rocket_ , preserved in the Science Museum, London William Wilberforce (1759–1833), politician and philanthropist who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade .

1800S

See also: Timeline of the Napoleonic era

* 1801 : Giuseppe Piazzi discovers the dwarf planet Ceres . – Italy * 1801 : Thomas Jefferson elected President of the United States by the House of Representatives , following a tie in the Electoral College – United States * 1801 : The Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merge to form the United Kingdom . * 1801 : Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab . * 1801 : Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. * 1801 : Cairo falls to the British. * 1801 : Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia . * 1801 : British defeat French at the Second Battle of Abukir * 1801 1815 : the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War between the United States and the Barbary States of North Africa * 1802 : Treaty of Amiens between France and the United Kingdom ends the War of the Second Coalition . * 1802 : Ludwig van Beethoven performs his _ Moonlight Sonata _ for the first time. * 1803 : William Symington demonstrates his _ Charlotte Dundas _, the "first practical steamboat". * 1803 : The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out France's territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase . This begins the U.S.'s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain, and Native Americans. * 1803 : The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina . * 1803 : War breaks out between Britain and France; this is considered by some to be the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars . * 1803 : First phase of Padri War . (to 1825) * 1804 : Haiti gains independence from France and becomes the first black republic. * 1804 1813 : Russo-Persian War . * 1804 : Austrian Empire founded by Francis I . * 1804 : Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of the French. * 1804 : World population reaches 1 billion. * 1804 : First steam locomotive begins operation. * 1804 : Morphine first isolated. * 1804 1810 : Fulani Jihad in Nigeria . * 1804 1815 : Serbian revolution erupts against the Ottoman rule. Suzerainty of Serbia recognized in 1817. * 1805 : The Battle of Trafalgar eliminates the French and Spanish naval fleets and allows for British dominance of the seas, a major factor for the success of the British Empire later in the century. * 1805 : Napoleon decisively defeats an Austrian-Russian army at the Battle of Austerlitz . * 1805 1848 : Muhammad Ali modernizes Egypt . * 1806 : Holy Roman Empire dissolved as a consequence of the Treaty of Pressburg . * 1806 : Cape Colony becomes part of the British Empire . * 1806 1812 : Russo-Turkish War , Treaty of Bucharest . * 1807 : Britain declares the Slave Trade illegal. * 1807 : Potassium and Sodium are individually isolated by Sir Humphry Davy . * 1808 : Beethoven performs his Fifth Symphony * 1808 1809 : Russia conquers Finland from Sweden in the Finnish War . * 1808 1814 : Spanish guerrillas fight in the Peninsular War . * 1808 : Herman Willem Daendels the Governor-general of the Dutch East Indies (1808–1811) begin the construction of Java Great Post Road . * 1809 : Napoleon strips the Teutonic Knights of their last holdings in Bad Mergentheim .

The discoveries of Michael Faraday formed the foundation of electric motor technology

1810S

_ 1819 : 29 January, Stamford Raffles arrives in Singapore with William Farquhar to establish a trading post for the British East India Company . 8 February, The treaty is signed between Sultan Hussein of Johor, Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Stamford Raffles. Farquhar is installed as the first Resident of the settlement.

* 1810 : The University of Berlin was founded. Among its students and faculty are Hegel , Marx , and Bismarck . The German university reform proves to be so successful that its model is copied around the world (see History of European research universities ). * 1810 : The Grito de Dolores begins the Mexican War of Independence . * 1810 : The trumpet gets valves. * 1810s 1820s : Most of the Latin American colonies free themselves from the Spanish and Portuguese Empires after the Latin American wars of independence . * 1810s 1820s : Punjab War between the Sikh Empire and British Empire . * 1812 : The French invasion of Russia is a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars . * 1812 : British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval is assassinated . * 1812 –1815: War of 1812 between the United States and Britain; ends in a draw, except that Native Americans lose power * 1813 : Jane Austen publishes Pride and Prejudice _ * 1813 1837 : Afghan-Sikh Wars . * 1814 : Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba . * 1814 : Elisha Collier invents the Flintlock Revolver . * 1814 –16: Anglo-Nepalese War between Nepal (Gurkha Empire) and British Empire .

_ The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815.

* 1815 : The Congress of Vienna redraws the European map. Reaction and conservatism dominate all of Europe. The Concert of Europe attempts to preserve this settlement, but the forces of liberalism and nationalism make for dramatic changes. It marks the beginning of a Pax Britannica which lasts until 1914. * 1815 : Napoleon escapes exile and begins the Hundred Days before finally being defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and exiled to St Helena . His defeat brings a conclusion to the Napoleonic Wars * 1815 : April, Mount Tambora in Sumbawa island erupts, becoming the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history , destroying Tambora culture , and killing at least 71,000 people, including its aftermath. The eruption created global climate anomalies known as "volcanic winter ". * 1815 : Jane Austen publishes Emma in December. * 1816 : Year Without a Summer : Unusually cold conditions wreak havoc throughout the Northern Hemisphere, likely influenced by the 1815 explosion of Mount Tambora . * 1816 : Independence of Argentina . * 1816 1828 : Shaka 's Zulu Kingdom becomes the largest in Southern Africa . * 1817 : Principality of Serbia becomes suzerain from the Ottoman Empire . Officially independent in 1867. * 1817 : First Seminole War begins in Florida. * 1817 : Russia commences its conquest of the Caucasus . * 1817 : Princess Charlotte of Wales dies following childbirth. * 1818 : Mary Shelley publishes Frankenstein _. * 1818 : Independence of Chile . * 1819 : John Keats writes his odes of 1819 . * 1819 : Peterloo massacre in England. * 1819 : The modern city of Singapore is established by the British East India Company . * 1819 : Théodore Géricault paints his masterpiece _The Raft of the Medusa _, and exhibits it in the French Salon of 1819 at the Louvre .

1820S

_ 1816: Shaka rises to power over the Zulu Kingdom . Zulu expansion was a major factor of the Mfecane ("Crushing") that depopulated large areas of southern Africa

* 1820 : Missouri Compromise . * 1820 : Regency period ends in the United Kingdom. * 1820 : Discovery of Antarctica . * 1820 : Liberia founded by the American Colonization Society for freed American slaves. * 1820 : Dissolution of the Maratha Empire . * 1820 1835 : At least 5000 Mexicans die in Apache raids, and 100 settlements are destroyed. * 1821 : Napoleon Bonaparte dies in exile on the island of Saint Helena . * 1821 : Mexico gains independence from Spain with the Treaty of Córdoba . * 1821 : Peru declares its independence from Spain. * 1821 : Navarino Massacre . * 1821 1830 : Greece becomes the first country to break away from the Ottoman Empire after the Greek War of Independence . * 1822 1823 : First Mexican Empire , as Mexico's first post-independent government, ruled by Emperor Agustín I of Mexico . * 1822 : Prince Pedro of Brazil proclaimed the Brazilian independence on 7 September. On 1 December, he was crowned as Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil . * 1823 1887 : The British Empire annexed Burma (now also called Myanmar) after three Anglo-Burmese Wars . * 1823 : Monroe Doctrine declared by US President James Monroe . * 1824 : Premiere of Beethoven 's Ninth Symphony _. * 1824 : Cadbury is established in Birmingham. * 1825 : Erie Canal opened connecting the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean . * 1825 : First isolation of aluminum . * 1825 : Independence of Bolivia . * 1825 : The Stockton and Darlington Railway , the first public railway in the world, is opened. * 1825 : The Decembrist revolt .

_ Decembrists at the Senate Square .

* 1825 1828 : The Cisplatine War results in the independence of Uruguay . * 1825 : Java War . (to 1830) * 1826 : Samuel Morey patents the internal combustion engine . * 1826 1828 : After the final Russo-Persian War , the Persian Empire took back territory lost to Russia from the previous war. * 1827 : Death of William Blake , Ludwig van Beethoven * 1828 1832 : Black War in Tasmania leads to the near extinction of the Tasmanian aborigines * 1829 : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 's Faust _ premieres. * 1829 : First electric motor built. * 1829 : Sir Robert Peel founds the Metropolitan Police Service , the first modern police force.

1830S

* 1830 : The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints is established on 6 April 1830. * 1830 : Anglo-Russian rivalry over Afghanistan, the Great Game , commences and concludes in 1895. * 1830 : July Revolution in France . * 1830 : The Belgian Revolution in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands led to the creation of Belgium. * 1830 : Greater Colombia dissolved and the nations of Colombia (including modern-day Panama), Ecuador , and Venezuela took its place. * 1830 : November Uprising in Poland against Russia . * 1830 : End of the Diponegoro war . The whole area of Yogyakarta and Surakarta Manca nagara Dutch seized. 27 September, Klaten Agreement determines a fixed boundary between Surakarta and Yogyakarta and permanently divide the kingdom of Mataram was signed by Sasradiningrat, Pepatih Dalem Surakarta, and Danurejo, Pepatih Dalem Yogyakarta. Mataram is a de facto and de yure controlled by the Dutch East Indies. * 1831 : France invades and occupies Algeria . * 1831 : Ioannis Kapodistrias , the First Governor of Greece is murdered at Nauplion . * 1831 : The Belgian constitution is ratified and Leopold I is crowned as first "King of the Belgians". * 1831 : Great Bosnian uprising against Ottoman rule occurs. * 1831 1836 : Charles Darwin 's journey on the HMS Beagle . _ Emigrants leaving Ireland . From 1830 to 1914, almost 5 million Irish people went to the United States alone. * 1831 : November Uprising ends with crushing defeat for Poland in the Battle of Warsaw . * 1831 1833 : Egyptian–Ottoman War . * 1831 : Second phase of Padri War. (to 1838) * 1832 : The British Parliament passes the Great Reform Act . * 1833 : Slavery Abolition Act bans slavery throughout the British Empire . * 1833 1876 : Carlist Wars in Spain . * 1834 : The German Customs Union is formed. * 1834 : Spanish Inquisition officially ends. * 1834 : Britain amends the Poor Law demanding that any paupers requesting assistance must go to a workhouse . * 1834 1859 : Imam Shamil 's rebellion in Russian-occupied Caucasus . * 1835 1836 : The Texas Revolution in Mexico resulted in the short-lived Republic of Texas . * 1836 : Battle of the Alamo ends with defeat for Texan separatists. * 1836 : Battle of San Jacinto leads to the capture of General Santa Anna . * 1836 : Samuel Colt popularizes the revolver and sets up a firearms company to manufacture his invention of the Colt Paterson revolver a six bullets firearm shot one by one without reloading manually. * 1836 1839 : War of the Confederation begins between Chile and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation , ending with Chilean victory. * 1837 : Telegraphy patented. * 1837 : Charles Dickens publishes Oliver Twist _. * 1837 : Death of Alexander Pushkin . * 1837 1838 : Rebellions of 1837 in Canada . * 1837 1901 : Queen Victoria 's reign is considered the apex of the British Empire and is referred to as the Victorian era . * 1838 : By this time, 46,000 Native Americans have been forcibly relocated in the Trail of Tears . * 1838 1840 : Civil war in the Federal Republic of Central America led to the foundings of Guatemala , El Salvador , Honduras , Nicaragua , and Costa Rica . * 1839 : Kingdom of Belgium declared. * 1839 1851 : Uruguayan Civil War . * 1839 1860 : After the First and Second Opium Wars , France, the United Kingdom, the United States and Russia gain many trade and associated concessions from China resulting in the start of the decline of the Qing dynasty . * 1839 1919 : Anglo-Afghan Wars lead to stalemate and the establishment of the Durand line

The Great Exhibition in London. Starting during the 18th century, the United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise. The Charge of the Light Brigade during the Crimean War

1840S

* 1840 : New Zealand is founded, as the Treaty of Waitangi is signed by the Māori and British. * 1840 : Upper and Lower Canada are merged into the Province of Canada. * 1841 : The word "dinosaur " is coined by Richard Owen * 1842 : Treaty of Nanking cedes Hong Kong to the British. * 1842 : Anaesthesia used for the first time. * 1843 : The first wagon train sets out from Missouri. * 1843 : Short stories _ A Christmas Carol _ and _The Tell-Tale Heart _ published. * 1844 : Persian Prophet the Báb announces his revelation on 23 May, founding Bábísm . He announced to the world of the coming of " He whom God shall make manifest ". He is considered the forerunner of Bahá\'u\'lláh , the founder of the Bahá\'í Faith . * 1844 : First publicly funded telegraph line in the world—between Baltimore and Washington—sends demonstration message on 24 May, ushering in the age of the telegraph. This message read "What hath God wrought?" (Bible, Numbers 23:23) * 1844 : Millerite movement awaits the Second Advent of Jesus Christ on 22 October. Christ's non-appearance becomes known as the Great Disappointment . * 1844 : The great auk is rendered extinct. * 1844 : Dominican War of Independence from Haiti . * 1844 : Heinrich Heine coins the term "Lisztomania " in regards to the public's frenzied reaction to the pianist Franz Liszt . * 1845 : Unification of the Kingdom of Tonga under Tāufaʻāhau (King George Tupou I). * 1845 : Lunacy Act 1845 passes through Parliament. * 1845 1846 : First Anglo-Sikh War . * 1845 1872 : The New Zealand Land Wars . * 1845 1849 : The Irish Potato Famine leads to the Irish diaspora . * 1846 1848 : The Mexican-American War leads to Mexico's cession of much of the modern-day Southwestern United States . * 1846 1847 : Mormon migration to Utah . _ Liberal and nationalist pressure led to the European revolutions of 1848 * 1847 : The Brontë sisters publish Jane Eyre _, _Wuthering Heights _ and _ Agnes Grey _. * 1847 1901 : The Caste War of Yucatán . * 1848 1849 : Second Anglo-Sikh War * 1848 : _ The Communist Manifesto _ published. * 1848 : Revolutions of 1848 in Europe. * 1848 : Seneca Falls Convention is the first women\'s rights convention in the United States and leads to the battle for women\'s suffrage . * 1848 1858 : California Gold Rush . * 1848 : William Holman Hunt , John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti found the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood . * 1849 : The first boatloads of gold prospectors arrive in California , giving them the nickname 49ers . * 1849 : Roman Republic 's constitutional law becomes the first to abolish capital punishment . * 1849 : The safety pin and the gas mask are invented. * 1849 : Earliest recorded air raid , as Austria employs 200 balloons to deliver ordnance against Venice .

1850S

* 1850 : The Little Ice Age ends around this time. * 1850 : Alfred Tennyson is appointed Poet Laureate after the death of William Wordsworth . * 1850 1864 : Taiping Rebellion is the bloodiest conflict of the century, leading to the deaths of 20 million people. * 1851 : The Great Exhibition in London was the world's first international Expo or World Fair . * 1851 : Louis Napoleon assumes power in France in a coup. _ Dead Confederate soldiers. 30% of all Southern white males 18–40 years of age died in the American Civil War . * 1851 1852 : The Platine War ends and the Empire of Brazil has the hegemony over South America. * 1851 1860s : Victorian gold rush in Australia * 1851 : Herman Melville publishes Moby-Dick . * 1852 : Frederick Douglass delivers his speech "The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro" in Rochester, New York . * 1853 : William Wells Brown (1814–1884) wrote first novel published by an African American, Clotel * 1853 : Twelve Years a Slave is a memoir and slave narrative by American Solomon Northup as told to and edited by David Wilson . * 1853 : United States Commodore Matthew C. Perry threatens the Japanese capital Edo with gunships, demanding that they agree to open trade. * 1853 1856 : Crimean War between France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire and Russia * 1854 : Battle of Balaclava and the Charge of the Light Brigade . * 1854 : The Convention of Kanagawa formally ends Japan's policy of isolation . * 1854 : SS Arctic disaster : The steamship SS Arctic collides with the SS Vesta and sinks off the coast of Newfoundland. * 1854 1855 : Siege of Sevastapol ; city falls to French and British forces. * 1855 : Bessemer process enables steel to be mass-produced. * 1855 : Walt Whitman publishes the first edition of Leaves of Grass _. * 1855 : Cocaine is isolated by Friedrich Gaedcke . * 1856 : Rana dynasty of Nepal established by Jung Bahadur Rana . * 1856 : World's first oil refinery in Romania * 1856 : Neanderthal man first identified. Age still unknown. * 1857 : Sir Joseph Whitworth designs the first long-range sniper rifle . * 1857 1858 : Indian Rebellion of 1857 . The British Empire assumes control of India from the East India Company . * 1858 1947 : British Empire in India lasts for 90 years. * 1858 : Invention of the phonautograph , the first true device for recording sound . * 1858 : Construction of Big Ben is completed. * 1859 : Charles Darwin publishes _ On the Origin of Species _. * 1859 1869 : Suez Canal is constructed.

The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal

1860S

_ Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. The disease killed an estimated 25 percent of the adult population of Europe during the 19th century. David Livingstone , Scottish explorer and missionary in Africa

* 1860 : Giuseppe Garibaldi launches the Expedition of the Thousand . * 1860 : The Pony Express started. * 1861 1865 : American Civil War between the Union and seceding Confederacy . * 1861 : Russia abolishes serfdom . * 1861 1867 : French intervention in Mexico and the creation of the Second Mexican Empire , ruled by Maximilian I of Mexico and his consort Carlota of Mexico . * 1861 : Death of Prince Albert . * 1861 : James Clerk Maxwell publishes On Physical Lines of Force _, formulating the four Maxwell\'s Equations . * 1862 : The Pony Express ended. * 1862 : Victor Hugo publishes _ Les Misérables _. * 1862 : French gain first foothold in Southeast Asia . * 1862 1877 : Muslim Rebellion in north-west China. * 1863 : United States President Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation . Lincoln issued a preliminary on September 22, 1862 warning that in all states still in rebellion (Confederacy ) on January 1, 1863, he would declare their slaves "then, thenceforward, and forever free." The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1865, officially abolished slavery in the entire country. * 1863 : Bahá\'u\'lláh declares his station as "He whom God shall make manifest ". This date is celebrated in the Bahá\'í Faith as The Festival of Ridván . * 1863 : Formation of the International Red Cross is followed by the adoption of the First Geneva Convention in 1864. * 1863 : First section of the London Underground opens. * 1863 : France annexes Cambodia . * 1863 : Édouard Manet exhibits his painting _The Luncheon on the Grass _, sparking public outrage. * 1863 : Gordon (slave) Gordon, or "Whipped Peter", was an enslaved African American who escaped from a Louisiana plantation in March 1863 * 1863 1865 : Polish uprising against the Russian Empire . * 1864 : Circassian Genocide .(21 May 1864) * 1864 1866 : The Chincha Islands War was an attempt by Spain to regain its South American colonies. * 1864 1870 : The Paraguayan War ends Paraguayan ambitions for expansion and destroys much of the Paraguayan population. * 1864 : June, The first railway track in Indonesia was laid between Semarang and Tanggung, Central Java by the Dutch colonial government .

* 1865 1877 : Reconstruction in the United States; Slavery is banned in the United States by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution . * 1865 -9 April 1865: Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia (26,765 troops) to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia , effectively ending the American Civil War . * 1865 -14 April 1865: United States President Abraham Lincoln is assassinated by actor and Confederate sympathiser John Wilkes Booth , while attending a performance at Ford\'s Theater , Washington, D.C. . He dies approximately nine hours after being shot on 15 April 1865. * 1865 : Gregor Mendel formulates his laws of inheritance . * 1865 : Lewis Carroll publishes Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland . * 1866 : Successful transatlantic telegraph cable follows an earlier attempt in 1858. * 1866 : Austro-Prussian War results in the dissolution of the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation and the Austrian-Hungarian Dual Monarchy . * 1866 1868 : Famine in Finland . * 1866 1869 : After the Meiji Restoration , Japan embarks on a program of rapid modernization . * 1867 : The United States purchases Alaska from Russia . * 1867 : Canadian Confederation formed. * 1867 : Alfred Nobel invents dynamite . * 1867 : The Principality of Serbia passes a Constitution which defines its independence from the Ottoman Empire . International recognition followed in 1878. * 1867 : The Luxembourg Crisis : diplomatic confrontation between France and Prussia on the status of Luxembourg and the towns fortifications are torn down. * 1868 : The Expatriation Act of 1868 is approved by the U.S. Congress, one of the early blows which would eventually lead to the death of the common law doctrine of perpetual allegiance * 1868 : The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is approved. * 1868 : Cro-Magnon man first identified. * 1868 : Michael Barrett is the last person to be publicly hanged in England. * 1868 1878 : Ten Years\' War between Cuba and Spain . * 1868 : The Batavian Museum (today National Museum of Indonesia ) was officially opened by Dutch East Indies government. * 1869 : Leo Tolstoy publishes _ War and Peace _. * 1869 : First Transcontinental Railroad completed in United States on 10 May. – United States * 1869 : Dmitri Mendeleev created the Periodic table . * 1869 : The Suez Canal opens linking the Mediterranean to the Red Sea .

From 1865– 1870 Paraguay lost more than half of its population in the Paraguayan War against Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. Black Friday, 9 May 1873, Vienna Stock Exchange. The Panic of 1873 and Long Depression followed.

1870S

* 1870 : Rasmus Malling-Hansen 's invention the Hansen Writing Ball becomes the first commercially sold typewriter . * 1870 1871 : The Franco-Prussian War results in the unifications of Germany and Italy , the collapse of the Second French Empire and the emergence of a New Imperialism . * 1870 : Official dismantling of the Cultivation System and beginning of a 'Liberal Policy ' of deregulated exploitation of the Netherlands East Indies. * 1870 1890 : Long Depression in Western Europe and North America . * 1871 1878 : In Germany , Otto von Bismarck attacks the privileges of the Catholic Church in the _ Kulturkampf _ ("Culture War") * 1871 1872 : Famine in Persia is believed to have caused the death of 2 million. * 1871 1914 : Second Industrial Revolution * 1871 : Royal Albert Hall opens in London. * 1871 : The Paris Commune briefly rules the French capital. * 1871 : The feudal system is dismantled in Japan. * 1871 : Henry Morton Stanley meets Dr. David Livingstone near Lake Tanganyika . * 1872 : Yellowstone National Park , the first national park , is created. * 1872 : The first recognised international soccer match, between England and Scotland , is played. * 1873 : The Panic of 1873 starts the " Long Depression ". * 1873 : Maxwell's _ A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism _ published. * 1873 : The samurai class is abolished in Japan . * 1873 : Blue jeans and barbed wire are invented. * 1873 : The beginning of the bloody Aceh War for Dutch occupation of the province. * 1874 : The _Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, and Graveurs_, better known as the Impressionists , organize and present their first public group exhibition at the Paris studio of the photographer Nadar . * 1874 : The Home Rule Movement is established in Ireland . * 1874 : The British East India Company is dissolved. * 1874 1875 : First Republic in Spain. * 1875 : _ HMS Challenger _ surveys the deepest point in the Earth's oceans, the Challenger Deep * 1875 1900 : 26 million Indians perish in India due to famine . * 1875 : Georges Bizet 's opera Carmen premiers in Paris. * 1876 : Bulgarians instigate the April Uprising against Ottoman rule. * 1876 : Richard Wagner 's _ Ring Cycle _ is first performed in its entirety. * 1876 : Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India . * 1876 : Battle of the Little Bighorn leads to the death of General Custer and victory for the alliance of Lakota , Cheyenne and Arapaho * 1876 1879 : 13 million Chinese die of famine in northern China. * 1876 1914 : The massive expansion in population, territory, industry and wealth in the United States is referred to as the Gilded Age . * 1877 : Great Railroad Strike in the United States may have been the world's first nationwide labour strike . * 1877 : Crazy Horse surrenders and is later killed * 1877 : Asaph Hall discovers the moons of Mars * 1877 : Thomas Edison invents the phonograph * 1877 1878 : Following the Russo-Turkish War , the Treaty of Berlin recognizes formal independence of the Principality of Serbia , Montenegro and Romania . Bulgaria becomes autonomous. * 1878 : First commercial telephone exchange in New Haven, Connecticut . A barricade in the Paris Commune , 18 March 1871. Around 30,000 Parisians were killed, and thousands more were later executed. * 1879 : Anglo-Zulu War in South Africa. – South Africa * 1879 : Thomas Edison tests his first light bulb . * 1879 1880 : Little War against Spanish rule in Cuba leads to rebel defeat. * 1879 1883 : Chile battles with Peru and Bolivia over Andean territory in the War of the Pacific . * 1879 1884 : Belgium is engulfed in a political crisis, dubbed the First School War , over the role of religion in state education. * 1879 : 21 April, Kartini was born in Jepara , today the date is commemorated as women's emancipation day in Indonesia.

1880S

* 1880 1881 : the First Boer War . * 1881 : Tsar Alexander II is assassinated. * 1881 : Wave of pogroms begins in the Russian Empire. * 1881 : Gunfight at the O.K. Corral . Sitting Bull surrenders. * 1881 : First electrical power plant and grid in Godalming , Britain. * 1881 : President James A. Garfield is assassinated . * 1881 1882 : The Jules Ferry laws are passed in France establishing free, secular education. * 1881 1899 : The Mahdist War in Sudan . * 1882 : The British invasion and subsequent occupation of Egypt * 1883 : Krakatoa volcano explosion, one of the largest in modern history. _ Thomas Edison was an American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph , the motion picture camera , and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb . * 1883 : The quagga is rendered extinct. * 1883 : Robert Louis Stevenson 's Treasure Island _ is published. * 1884 : Siege of Khartoum . * 1884 : Germany gains control of Cameroon . * 1884 : Mark Twain publishes _ The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn _. * 1884 : Sir Hiram Maxim invents the first self-powered Machine gun . * 1884 1885 : The Berlin Conference signals the start of the European "scramble for Africa ". Attending nations also agree to ban trade in slaves . * 1884 1885 : The Sino-French War led to the formation of French Indochina . * 1885 : Louis Pasteur creates the first successful vaccine against rabies for a young boy who had been bitten 14 times by a rabid dog. * 1885 : King Leopold II of Belgium establishes the Congo Free State as a personal fiefdom. * 1885 : Britain establishes a protectorate over Bechuanaland (modern Botswana ). * 1885 : Singer begins production of the 'Vibrating Shuttle '. which would become the most popular model of sewing machine . * 1885 : Rock Springs massacre : White miners rioted, killing at least 28 Chinese immigrant miners . * 1886 : " The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde " by Robert Louis Stevenson is published. * 1886 : Burma is presented to Queen Victoria as a birthday gift. * 1886 : Karl Benz sells the first commercial automobile . * 1886 : Construction of the Statue of Liberty ; Coca-Cola is developed. * 1887 : The British Empire takes over Balochistan . * 1887 : Sir Arthur Conan Doyle publishes his first Sherlock Holmes story, _ A Study in Scarlet _. * 1888 : Louis Le Prince records the _ Roundhay Garden Scene _, the earliest surviving film . * 1888 : Jack the Ripper murders occur in Whitechapel , London . * 1888 : Slavery banned in Brazil . * 1888 : Founding of the shipping line _Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij _ (KPM) that supported the unification and development of the colonial economy. * 1889 : The Mayerling Incident : Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and Baroness Mary Vetsera are found dead in an apparent murder-suicide. * 1889 : Eiffel Tower is inaugurated in Paris . * 1889 : Mirza Ghulam Ahmad establishes the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community , a reform sect of Islam. * 1889 : End of the Brazilian Empire and the beginning of the Brazilian Republic . * 1889 : Vincent van Gogh paints _ Starry Night _. * 1889 : Aspirin patented. * 1889 : Moulin Rouge opens in Paris.

_ First bus in history: a Benz truck modified by Netphener company (1895) Miners and prospectors ascend the Chilkoot Trail during the Klondike Gold Rush Studio portrait of Ilustrados _ in Europe, c. 1890

1890S

* 1890 : The Wounded Knee Massacre in South Dakota was the last battle in the American Indian Wars . This event represents the end of the American Old West . * 1890 : Italy annexes Eritrea . * 1890 : First use of the electric chair as a method of execution. * 1890 : Independence of Luxembourg . * 1890 : Death of Vincent van Gogh . * 1890 : The cardboard box is invented. * 1891 : Mirza Ghulam Ahmad , founder of the Ahmadiyya movement, claims to be Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi . * 1891 : 1891 Chilean Civil War . * 1891 : Wrigley Company is founded in Illinois. * 1891 : Pope Leo XIII launches the encyclical Rerum Novarum , the first major catholic document on social justice * 1892 : Basketball is invented. * 1892 : The World\'s Columbian Exposition was held in Chicago celebrating the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus 's arrival in the New World . * 1892 : Fingerprinting is officially adopted for the first time. * 1892 : Tchaikovsky 's _ Nutcracker Suite _ premières in St Petersberg . * 1892 : John Froelich develops and constructs the first gasoline/petrol-powered tractor . * 1893 : US forces overthrow the government of Hawaii . * 1893 : The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation is formed. * 1893 : New Zealand becomes the first country to enact women\'s suffrage . * 1893 : The Coremans-de Vriendt law is passed in Belgium , creating legal equality for French and Dutch languages . * 1894 : First commercial film release by Jean Aimé Le Roy . * 1894 : First gramophone record . * 1894 : Karl Elsener invents the Swiss Army knife . * 1894 : France and the Russian Empire form a military alliance. * 1894 1895 : After the First Sino-Japanese War , China cedes Taiwan to Japan and grants Japan a free hand in Korea. * 1894 1906 : Dreyfuss Affair in France . * 1894 : Lombok War The Dutch looted and destroyed the Cakranegara palace of Mataram . J. L. A. Brandes, a Dutch philologist discovered and secured Nagarakretagama manuscript in Lombok royal library. * 1895 : Taiwan is ceded to the Empire of Japan as a result of the First Sino-Japanese war . * 1895 : Volleyball is invented. * 1895 : Trial of Oscar Wilde and premiere of his play _The Importance of Being Earnest _. * 1895 : French troops capture Antananarivo in Madagascar . * 1895 : Wilhelm Röntgen identifies x-rays . * 1895 1896 : Abyssinia defeats Italy in the First Italo–Ethiopian War . * 1895 1898 : Cuban War for Independence results in Cuban independence from Spain . * 1896 : Olympic Games revived in Athens . * 1896 : Philippine Revolution ends declaring Philippines free from Spanish rule. * 1896 : Ethiopia defeated Italy at the Battle of Adwa . * 1896 : Klondike Gold Rush in Canada. * 1896 : Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity ; J. J. Thomson identifies the electron , though not by name. * 1897 : Gojong , or Emperor Gwangmu , proclaims the short-lived Korean Empire : lasts until 1910. * 1897 : Benin Expedition of 1897 loots and burns Benin . * 1897 : Greco-Turkish War . * 1897 : Bram Stoker writes Dracula . * 1898 : The United States gains control of Cuba , Puerto Rico , and the Philippines after the Spanish–American War . * 1898 : Empress Dowager Cixi of China engineers a coup d'état, marking the end of the Hundred Days\' Reform ; the Guangxu Emperor is arrested. * 1898 : H. G. Wells publishes _ The War of the Worlds _ * 1898 : Empress Elisabeth of Austria is assassinated by anarchist Luigi Lucheni . * 1898 1900 : The Boxer Rebellion in China is suppressed by an Eight-Nation Alliance . * 1898 1902 : The Thousand Days\' War in Colombia breaks out between the "Liberales " and "Conservadores ", culminating with the loss of Panama in 1903. * 1898 : General van Heutz becomes chief of staff of Aceh campaign. Wilhelmina becomes queen of the Netherlands. * 1899 1902 : Second Boer War begins. * 1899 1913 : Philippine–American War begins. * 1899 1900 : Indian famine kills over 1 million people.

1900

* Hawaii becomes an official U.S. territory . * Galveston Hurricane in Texas kills 8000 people. * L. Frank Baum publishes The Wonderful Wizard of Oz . * King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated. * Exposition Universelle held in Paris, prominently featuring the growing art trend Art Nouveau . * Eight nations invaded China at the same time and ransacked Forbidden City .

For later events, see Timeline of the 20th century .

SIGNIFICANT PEOPLE

_ Abraham Lincoln in 1863, 16th President of the United States, presided during the American Civil War , assassinated in April 1865 Tsar Alexander II , also known as Alexander the Liberator, was the Emperor of the Russian Empire from 3 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881 Otto von Bismarck , the Iron Chancellor

* Alexander II , Emperor of Russia, King of Poland * Clara Barton , nurse, pioneer of the American Red Cross * Sitting Bull , a leader of the Lakota * John Burroughs , Naturalist, conservationist, writer * Benito Juárez , Mexican President * Davy Crockett , King of the wild frontier_, folk hero , frontiersman , soldier and politician * Jefferson Davis , Confederate States President * William Gilbert Grace , English cricketer * Baron Haussmann , civic planner * Franz Joseph I of Austria , Emperor of Austria and brother of Mexican Emperor * Chief Joseph , a leader of the Nez Percé * Kamehameha I , founder of the Kingdom of Hawaii died in May 1819 * Ned Kelly , Australian folk hero, and outlaw * Elizabeth Kenny , Australian Nurse and found an Innovative Treatment of Polio * Sándor Körösi Csoma , explorer of the Tibetan culture * Abraham Lincoln , United States President * Fitz Hugh Ludlow , writer and explorer * John Muir , Naturalist, writer, preservationist * Florence Nightingale , nursing pioneer * Ranjit Singh , Maharaja of the Sikh Empire * Napoleon I , First Consul and Emperor of the French * Charles Stewart Parnell , Irish political leader * Commodore Perry , U.S. Naval commander, opened the door to Japan * José Rizal , Filipino polymath, physician, nationalist, novelist, poet, liberator * Sacagawea , Important aide to the Lewis and Clark Exploration * Giuseppe Garibaldi , was an Italian general and politician, a central figure in the Italian Risorgimento * Ignaz Semmelweis , proponent of hygienic practices * Dr. John Snow , the founder of epidemiology * F R Spofforth , Australian cricketer * Queen Victoria , Queen of the United Kingdom * King Victor Emmanuel II , first King of Italy * William Wilberforce , Abolitionist, Philanthropist * Hong Xiuquan inspired China's Taiping Rebellion , perhaps the bloodiest civil war in human history * Karl Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto, promoted change in the labor system of Europe * Nikola Karev commander and leader of the Ilinden Uprising in Ottoman-Macedonia. * Henry George , economist and author of Progress and Poverty , one of the most influential books of the 1 9th century in the United States

SHOW BUSINESS AND THEATRE

_ Sarah Bernhardt , 1877 Konstantin Stanislavski P. T. Barnum , c. 1860

* P. T. Barnum , showman * David Belasco , actor, playwright, theatrical producer * Sarah Bernhardt , actress * Edwin Booth , actor * Dion Boucicault , playwright * Mrs Patrick Campbell , actress * Anton Chekhov , playwright * Buffalo Bill Cody , Wild West legend, and showman * Baptiste Deburau , Bohemian –French actor and mime . * Sergei Diaghilev , art critic, ballet impresario * Eleonora Duse , actress * Henrik Ibsen , playwright * Edmund Kean , actor * Charles Kean , actor * Olga Knipper , actress * Lillie Langtry , actress, socialite * Frédérick Lemaître , actor * Jenny Lind , opera singer called the Swedish Nightingale_ * William Macready , actor * Céleste Mogador , dancer * Lola Montez , exotic dancer * Adelaide Neilson , actress * Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko , playwright, theatre director, co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre * Annie Oakley , Wild West , sharp-shooter * Alexander Ostrovsky , playwright * Lillian Russell , singer, actress * George Bernard Shaw , playwright * Mikhail Shchepkin , actor * Constantin Stanislavski , actor, theatre director, co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre * Edward Askew Sothern , actor * Ellen Terry , actress * Maria Yermolova , actress

ATHLETICS

Main articles: Baseball Hall of Fame , Major League Baseball , List of bare-knuckle boxers , List of heavyweight boxing champions , and Olympic Games John L Sullivan in his prime, c. 1882.

* Cap Anson , baseball player * Gentleman Jim Corbett , heavyweight boxer * Big Ed Delahanty , baseball player * Bob Fitzsimmons , heavyweight boxer * Pud Galvin , baseball player * Dr William Gilbert \'WG\' Grace , cricketer * Peter Jackson , heavyweight boxer * James J. Jeffries , heavyweight boxer * Ivan Poddubny , wrestler * Old Hoss Radbourn , baseball player * Tom Sharkey , heavyweight boxer * John L. Sullivan , heavyweight boxer * John Montgomery Ward , baseball player * Evangelis Zappas , Founder of the International Modern Olympic Games

BUSINESS

_ J. P. Morgan Andrew Carnegie John D. Rockefeller Main articles: Robber baron (industrialist) and business magnate

* John Jacob Astor III , Real Estate * Andrew Carnegie , Industrialist, philanthropist * Robert Reed Church , a freedman who became the South's first black millionaire, real estate * Jay Cooke , Finance * Henry Clay Frick , Industrialist, art collector * Jay Gould , Railroad developer * Meyer Guggenheim Family patriarch, mining * Daniel Guggenheim (copper) * E. H. Harriman , Railroads * Henry O. Havemeyer (sugar), art collector * George Hearst , Gold * James J. Hill (railroads) – The Empire Builder_ * Savva Mamontov , Industrialist, philanthropist * Andrew W. Mellon , Industrialist, philanthropist, art collector * J.P. Morgan , Banker, art collector * George Mortimer Pullman (railroads) * Ludvig Nobel , Oil * Charles Pratt Oil, founder of the Pratt Institute * Cecil Rhodes diamonds, mining magnate, founder of De Beers and benefactor of the Rhodes Scholarship . * John D. Rockefeller , Oil, Business tycoon, philanthropist * Levi Strauss , clothing manufacturer * Pavel Tretyakov , Businessman, art collector, philanthropist, founder of Tretyakov Gallery * Cornelius Vanderbilt , Shipping, Railroads * William Chapman Ralston , Businessman, Financier, founder of Bank of California . * Madam C.J. Walker , African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, political and social activist. Eulogized as first female self-made millionaire in America.

FAMOUS AND INFAMOUS PERSONALITIES

_ Jesse and Frank James , 1872 Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill Cody , Montreal, Quebec, 1885 Geronimo , 1887, prominent leader of the Chiricahua Apache

* William Bonney a.k.a. Henry McCarty a.k.a. Billy the Kid , Wild West , outlaw * John Wilkes Booth , the assassin of president Abraham Lincoln * Samuel Mudd , conspirator with John Wilkes Booth in the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln * James Bowie , Soldier, Texan who died at the Alamo , invented the Bowie knife * Jim Bridger , Wild West , mountain man * John Brown , a fanatical American abolitionist who led an armed insurrection at Harpers Ferry, Virginia , in 1859. * Kit Carson , Wild West , frontiersman * Cochise , Chiricahua Apache leader * George Armstrong Custer , soldier, whose last stand was in the Wild West * Wyatt Earp , Wild West , lawman * Pat Garrett , Wild West , lawman * Charles J. Guiteau , assassin * Jack The Ripper , serial killer whose identity remains unknown. * H.H. Holmes , first documented American serial killer . * Geronimo , Chiricahua Apache leader * Wild Bill Hickok , Legendary Wild West , lawman * Doc Holliday , Legendary Wild West, gambler, gunfighter * Crazy Horse , War leader of the Lakota * Ignacy Hryniewiecki , assassin of Tsar Alexander II of Russia * Frances Clayton , impostor who disguised herself as a man named Jack Williams in order to fight for Union forces during the American Civil War * Frank James , Wild West , outlaw, older brother of Jesse * Jesse James , Legendary Wild West, outlaw * Gregor MacGregor , soldier, adventurer, confidence trickster * Gaetano Bresci , assassin of Umberto I of Italy * Emma Goldman , anarchist, helped Alexander Berkman plan the attempted assassination of Henry Clay Frick * Calamity Jane , Frontierswoman * Bat Masterson , Wild West , lawman, gambler, newspaperman * Solomon Northrup , A free-born African American from New York, he was the son of a freed slave and free woman of color. A farmer and professional violinist, a landowner, American abolitionist and the primary author of the memoir Twelve Years a Slave. * Annie Oakley American sharpshooter in Buffalo Bill\'s Wild West Show _ * Allan Pinkerton , spy, founded the Pinkerton Agency , first detective agency in the United States * William Poole a.k.a. _Bill the Butcher_, member of the New York City gang, the Bowery Boys , a bare-knuckle boxer , and a leader of the Know Nothing political movement. * Lewis Powell , attempted assassin of secretary of state William H. Seward and accomplice of John Wilkes Booth * Belle Starr Legendary Wild West , female outlaw * Nat Turner , led a slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia during August 1831.

ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHAEOLOGY, SCHOLARS

Heinrich Schliemann , Archaeologist Franz Boas one of the pioneers of modern anthropology

* Churchill Babington , Archaeology * Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier , Archaeology * Franz Boas , Anthropology * Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg , Archaeology * Louis Agassiz Fuertes , Ornithology * George Bird Grinnell , Anthropology * Joseph LeConte , Scholar, preservationist * Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai , Anthropology * Clinton Hart Merriam , Zoology * Lewis H. Morgan , Anthropology * Jules Etienne Joseph Quicherat , Archaeology * Robert Ridgway , Ornithology * Edward Burnett Tylor , Anthropology * Karl Verner , Linguist

JOURNALISTS, MISSIONARIES, EXPLORERS

_ Roald Amundsen

* Roald Amundsen , explorer * Samuel Baker , explorer * Thomas Baines , artist, explorer * Heinrich Barth , explorer * Henry Walter Bates , naturalist, explorer * Faddey Bellingshausen , explorer * Jim Bridger , explorer * Richard Francis Burton , explorer * The Lewis and Clark Expedition , exploration * Frederick Samuel Dellenbaugh , explorer * Percy Fawcett , adventurer, explorer, proto- Indiana Jones * Vladimir Gilyarovsky , journalist * Horace Greeley , journalist * Peter Jones (missionary) , Canadian Methodist minister, and go-between for Christians and his fellow Mississaugas and other Indian tribes. * Adoniram Judson , missionary * Sir John Kirk , explorer, physician, companion of David Livingston * Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker , botanist, explorer, friend of Charles Darwin * Sir William Jackson Hooker , botanist, explorer, father of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker * Otto von Kotzebue , explorer * Pyotr Kozlov , explorer * Mikhail Lazarev , fleet commander, explorer * Meriwether Lewis , explorer * David Livingstone , missionary * Stepan Makarov , explorer, oceanographer * Thomas Nast , journalist, caricaturist and editorial cartoonist * Robert Peary , explorer * Marcelo H. del Pilar , writer, journalist, editor of La Solidaridad _. * Nikolai Przhevalsky , explorer * Frederick Selous , explorer * Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky , explorer, geographer * John Hanning Speke , explorer * Henry M. Stanley , journalist, explorer * John McDouall Stuart , explorer * John L. O\'Sullivan , journalist who coined _ Manifest Destiny _ * Chokan Valikhanov , explorer ethnographer, historian * Carter G. Woodson , African-American historian, author, journalist and the founder of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History . * Ferdinand von Wrangel , explorer

PHOTOGRAPHY

One of the first photographs, produced in 1826 by Nicéphore Niépce Nadar , Self-portrait, c. 1860 See also: History of photography , List of photojournalists , Photojournalism , and Daguerreotype

* Ottomar Anschütz , chronophotographer * Mathew Brady , documented the American Civil War * Edward S. Curtis , documented the American West notably Native Americans * Louis Daguerre , inventor of daguerreotype process of photography, chemist * Thomas Eakins , pioneer motion photographer * George Eastman , inventor of roll film * Hércules Florence , pioneer inventor of photography * Auguste and Louis Lumière , pioneer film-makers, inventors * Étienne-Jules Marey , pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer * Eadweard Muybridge , pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer * Nadar a.k.a. Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, portrait photographer * Nicéphore Niépce , pioneer inventor of photography * Louis Le Prince , motion picture inventor and pioneer film-maker * Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky , chemist and photographer * William Fox Talbot , inventor of the negative / positive photographic process.

VISUAL ARTISTS, PAINTERS, SCULPTORS

Main articles: History of painting , Western painting , and Ukiyo-e _ Eugène Delacroix , Liberty Leading the People _ (1830, Louvre) _ Claude Monet 's Impression, Sunrise , 1872, gave the name to Impressionism Ilya Repin , Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks _, 1880–1891, State Russian Museum Paul Cézanne , Self-portrait , 1880– 1881 Vincent van Gogh , Self-portrait, 1889

The Realism and Romanticism of the early 1 9th century gave way to Impressionism and Post- Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. In the United States the Hudson River School was prominent. 19th-century painters included:

* Ivan Aivazovsky * Léon Bakst * Albert Bierstadt * William Blake * Arnold Bocklin * Rosa Bonheur * William Burges * Mary Cassatt * Camille Claudel * Paul Cézanne * Frederic Edwin Church * Thomas Cole * Jan Matejko * John Constable * Camille Corot * Gustave Courbet * Honoré Daumier * Edgar Degas * Eugène Delacroix * Thomas Eakins * Caspar David Friedrich * Paul Gauguin * Théodore Géricault * Vincent van Gogh * Francisco Goya * Ando Hiroshige * Hokusai * Winslow Homer * Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres * Isaac Levitan * Édouard Manet * Claude Monet * Gustave Moreau * Berthe Morisot * Edvard Munch * Mikhail Nesterov * Camille Pissarro * Augustus Pugin * Pierre-Auguste Renoir * Ilya Repin * Auguste Rodin * Albert Pinkham Ryder * John Singer Sargent * Valentin Serov * Georges Seurat * Ivan Shishkin * Vasily Surikov * James Tissot * Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec * Joseph Mallord William Turner * Viktor Vasnetsov * Eugene Viollet-le-Duc * Mikhail Vrubel * James Abbott McNeill Whistler * Tsukioka Yoshitoshi

MUSIC

Main articles: List of Romantic-era composers , Romantic music , and Romanticism _ Ludwig van Beethoven Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres , Niccolò Paganini _, (c.1819), charcoal drawing _ Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Chopin _, by Delacroix , 1838. Scott Joplin

Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the 1 9th century was referred to as being in the Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven , Franz Liszt , Frédéric Chopin , Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Richard Wagner . The list includes:

* Mily Balakirev * Ludwig van Beethoven * Hector Berlioz * Georges Bizet * Alexander Borodin * Johannes Brahms * Anton Bruckner * Frédéric Chopin * Claude Debussy * Antonín Dvořák * Mikhail Glinka * Edvard Grieg * Scott Joplin * Franz Liszt * Gustav Mahler * Felix Mendelssohn * Modest Mussorgsky * Jacques Offenbach * Niccolò Paganini * Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov * Gioachino Rossini * Anton Rubinstein * Camille Saint-Saëns * Antonio Salieri * Franz Schubert * Robert Schumann * Alexander Scriabin * Arthur Sullivan * Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky * Giuseppe Verdi * Richard Wagner

LITERATURE

Main articles: Romantic poetry and 19th century in literature Jane Austen Edgar Allan Poe Charles Dickens Arthur Rimbaud c. 1872 Fyodor Dostoyevsky , 1879 Mark Twain , 1894 Leo Tolstoy , 1897 Ralph Waldo Emerson Émile Zola , c. 1900 Anton Chekhov

On the literary front the new century opens with romanticism , a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway . William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German _ Sturm und Drang _ spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain.

French arts had been hampered by the Napoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began.

The Goncourts and Émile Zola in France and Giovanni Verga in Italy produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. On 21 February 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published the Communist Manifesto.

There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the most famous writers included the Russians Alexander Pushkin , Nikolai Gogol , Leo Tolstoy , Anton Chekhov and Fyodor Dostoyevsky ; the English Charles Dickens , John Keats , Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Jane Austen ; the Scottish Sir Walter Scott ; the Irish Oscar Wilde ; the Americans Edgar Allan Poe , Ralph Waldo Emerson , and Mark Twain ; and the French Victor Hugo , Honoré de Balzac , Jules Verne , Alexandre Dumas and Charles Baudelaire . Some other important writers of note included:

* Leopoldo Alas * Louisa May Alcott * Hans Christian Andersen * Machado de Assis * Jane Austen * Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda * Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer * Elizabeth Barrett Browning * Anne Brontë * Charlotte Brontë * Emily Brontë * Georg Büchner * Ivan Bunin * Lord Byron * Lewis Carroll * Rosalía de Castro * François-René de Chateaubriand * Anton Chekhov * Kate Chopin * Samuel Taylor Coleridge * James Fenimore Cooper * Stephen Crane * Eduard Douwes Dekker * Emily Dickinson * Charles Dickens * Arthur Conan Doyle * Alexandre Dumas, père (1802–1870) * Paul Dunbar * José Maria Eça de Queirós * José Echegaray * George Eliot * Ralph Waldo Emerson * Gustave Flaubert * Margaret Fuller * Elizabeth Gaskell * Johann Wolfgang von Goethe * Nikolai Gogol * Manuel González Prada * Juana Manuela Gorriti * Brothers Grimm * Henry Rider Haggard * Ida Gräfin Hahn-Hahn (1805–1880) * Thomas Hardy * Francis Bret Harte * Nathaniel Hawthorne * Friedrich Hölderlin * Heinrich Heine * Victor Hugo * Henrik Ibsen * Washington Irving * Henry James * John Keats * Rudyard Kipling * Caroline Kirkland * Jules Laforgue * Giacomo Leopardi * Mikhail Lermontov * Stéphane Mallarmé * Alessandro Manzoni * José Martí * Clorinda Matto de Turner * Herman Melville * Friedrich Nietzsche * José María de Pereda * Benito Pérez Galdós * Marcel Proust * Aleksandr Pushkin * Fritz Reuter (1810–1874) * Arthur Rimbaud * John Ruskin * George Sand (Amandine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin) * Mary Shelley * Percy Shelley * Stendhal (Marie-Henri Beyle) * Robert Louis Stevenson * Bram Stoker * Harriet Beecher Stowe * Alfred, Lord Tennyson * Henry David Thoreau * Leo Tolstoy * Ivan Turgenev * Mark Twain * Juan Valera y Alcalá-Galiano * Paul Verlaine * Jules Verne * Lew Wallace * H. G. Wells * Walt Whitman * Oscar Wilde * William Wordsworth * Émile Zola * José Zorrilla

SCIENCE

Main article: Science in the 1 9th century Charles Darwin Dmitri Mendeleev Nadar , Louis Pasteur , 1878 Mme. Marie Curie , c. 1898

The 1 9th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term SCIENTIST was coined in 1833 by William Whewell , which soon replaced the older term of (NATURAL) PHILOSOPHER. Among the most influential ideas of the 1 9th century were those of Charles Darwin (alongside the independent researches of Alfred Russel Wallace ), who in 1859 published the book _ The Origin of Species _, which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection . Another important landmark in medicine and biology were the successful efforts to prove the germ theory of disease . Following this, Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies , and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals . In chemistry, Dmitri Mendeleev , following the atomic theory of John Dalton , created the first periodic table of elements . In physics, the experiments, theories and discoveries of Michael Faraday , Andre-Marie Ampere , James Clerk Maxwell , and their contemporaries led to the creation of electromagnetism as a new branch of science. Thermodynamics led to an understanding of heat and the notion of energy was defined. Other highlights include the discoveries unveiling the nature of atomic structure and matter, simultaneously with chemistry – and of new kinds of radiation. In astronomy, the planet Neptune was discovered. In mathematics, the notion of complex numbers finally matured and led to a subsequent analytical theory; they also began the use of hypercomplex numbers . Karl Weierstrass and others carried out the arithmetization of analysis for functions of real and complex variables . It also saw rise to new progress in geometry beyond those classical theories of Euclid, after a period of nearly two thousand years. The mathematical science of logic likewise had revolutionary breakthroughs after a similarly long period of stagnation. But the most important step in science at this time were the ideas formulated by the creators of electrical science. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about: Thomas Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb . Nikola Tesla pioneered the induction motor , high frequency transmission of electricity, and remote control. Other new inventions were electrical telegraphy and the telephone.

The list of important 19th-century scientists includes:

* Amedeo Avogadro , physicist * Johann Jakob Balmer , mathematician, physicist * Henri Becquerel , physicist * Alexander Graham Bell , inventor * Ludwig Boltzmann , physicist * János Bolyai , mathematician * Louis Braille , inventor of braille * Robert Bunsen , chemist * Marie Curie , physicist, chemist * Pierre Curie , physicist * Gottlieb Daimler , engineer, industrial designer and industrialist * Charles Darwin , biologist * Christian Doppler , physicist, mathematician * Thomas Edison , inventor * Michael Faraday , scientist * Léon Foucault , physicist * Gottlob Frege , mathematician, logician and philosopher * Sigmund Freud , the father of psychoanalysis * Carl Friedrich Gauss , mathematician, physicist, astronomer * Francis Galton , English Victorian polymath * Josiah Willard Gibbs , physicist * Ernst Haeckel , biologist * William Rowan Hamilton , physicist and mathematician * Oliver Heaviside , electrical engineer, physical mathematician * Heinrich Hertz , physicist * Alexander von Humboldt , naturalist, explorer * Robert Koch , physician, bacteriologist * Justus von Liebig , chemist * Nikolai Lobachevsky , mathematician * James Clerk Maxwell , physicist * Wilhelm Maybach , car-engine and automobile designer and industrialist * Ilya Mechnikov , biologist * Gregor Mendel , biologist * Dmitri Mendeleev , chemist * Samuel Morey , inventor * Alfred Nobel , chemist, engineer, inventor * Louis Pasteur , microbiologist and chemist * Ivan Pavlov , physiologist * Santiago Ramón y Cajal , biologist * Franz Reuleaux mechanical engineer * Bernhard Riemann , mathematician * William Emerson Ritter , biologist * Vladimir Shukhov , inventor * Nikola Tesla , inventor * William Thomson , Lord Kelvin, physicist * Thomas Young , English polymath .

PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION

Karl Marx Friedrich Nietzsche

The 1 9th century was host to a variety of religious and philosophical thinkers, including:

* Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the Ahmadiyya Islamic movement in India. * Bahá\'u\'lláh founded the Bahá\'í Faith in Persia * Mikhail Bakunin , anarchist * William Booth , social reformer, founder of the Salvation Army * Auguste Comte , philosopher * Mary Baker Eddy , religious leader, founder of Christian Science * Friedrich Engels , political philosopher * Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , philosopher * Allan Kardec , systematizer of the Spiritist Doctrine * Søren Kierkegaard , philosopher * Peter Kropotkin , anarchist * Karl Marx , political philosopher * Pierre Joseph Proudhon , Mutualist anarchist * John Stuart Mill , philosopher * Krste Petkov Misirkov , philosopher and historian * William Morris , social reformer * Friedrich Nietzsche , philosopher * Nikolai (Nicholas) of Japan , religious leader, introduced Eastern Orthodoxy into Japan * Ramakrishna Paramahamsa , Hindu mystic * Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon , founder of French socialism * Arthur Schopenhauer , philosopher * Joseph Smith, Jr. and Brigham Young , founders of Mormonism * Vladimir Solovyov , philosopher * Herbert Spencer , "The Great philosopher" * Charles Spurgeon , Baptist preacher and writer * Leo Tolstoy , anarchist * Ayya Vaikundar , initiator of the belief system of Ayyavazhi * Ellen White religious author and co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church * St. Therese of Lisieux , French discalced Carmelite nun

POLITICS AND THE MILITARY

_ The last Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu , c. 1867 Sojourner Truth , 1870 The allies: Sultan of the Ottoman Empire ; Abdulmecid I , Queen of United Kingdom , Victoria and President of France , Napoleon III .

* John Quincy Adams , U.S. congressman, lawyer, and president * Alexander I of Russia * Alexander III of Russia * Susan B. Anthony , U.S. women's rights advocate * Pyotr Bagration , Russian general * Otto von Bismarck , German chancellor * Napoleon Bonaparte , French general, first consul and emperor * William Wells Brown , American abolitionist, novelist, playwright, and historian * John C. Calhoun , U.S. senator * Henry Clay , U.S. statesman, "The Great Compromiser" * Jefferson Davis , President of the Confederate States of America * Louis-Nicolas Davout , French general * Benjamin Disraeli , novelist and politician * Frederick Douglass , U.S. abolitionist spokesman * Ferdinand VII of Spain * Joseph Fouché , French politician * John C. Frémont , Explorer, Governor of California * Giuseppe Garibaldi , unifier of Italy and Piedmontese soldier * Alexander Gorchakov , Russian Chancellor * Isabella II of Spain * Gojong of Joseon , Korean emperor * William Lloyd Garrison , U.S. abolitionist leader * William Ewart Gladstone , British prime minister * Ulysses S. Grant , U.S. general and president * Theodor Herzl , founder of modern political Zionism * Andrew Jackson , U.S. general and president * Thomas Jefferson , American statesman, philosopher, and president * John Mitchell, Jr. , American businessman, newspaper editor, activist, and politician * Ioannis Kapodistrias , Russian and Greek statesman * Lajos Kossuth , Hungarian governor; leader of the war of independence * Mikhail Kutuzov , Russian general * Robert E. Lee , Confederate general * Libertadores , Latin American liberators * Abraham Lincoln , U.S. president; led the nation during the American Civil War * Sir John A. Macdonald , Canada, first Prime Minister of Canada * Klemens von Metternich , Austrian Chancellor * Joachim Murat , King of Naples and French general * Mutsuhito , Japanese emperor * Napoleon III * Michel Ney , French general * Nicholas I of Russia * Pedro II of Brazil * Józef Poniatowski , Polish general * Cecil Rhodes * Theodore Roosevelt , Explorer, Naturalist, future President of The United States * William Tecumseh Sherman , Union general during the American Civil War * Dred Scott , enslaved African American man * Fulwar Skipwith , the first and only president of the short lived Republic of West Florida * Mikhail Skobelev , Russian general * Leland Stanford , Governor of California, U.S. Senator, entrepreneur * István Széchenyi , aristocrat, leader of the Hungarian reform movement * Charles Maurice de Talleyrand , French politician * Harriet Tubman , African-American abolitionist, humanitarian , played a part in the Underground Railroad * Sojourner Truth , was an African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist * William M. Tweed , a.k.a. Boss Tweed_, influential New York City politician, head of Tammany Hall * Abdülmecid I , 31st Sultan and 110th Caliph of Islam of the Ottoman Empire * Queen Victoria , British monarch * Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington , British General and prime minister * Hong Xiuquan , revolutionary, self-proclaimed Son of God * Victoria Woodhull , American politician, suffragette, abolitionist * Tokugawa Yoshinobu , the last Japanese Shogun * Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor , Johore Sultan

LAST SURVIVING PEOPLE BORN IN THE 19TH CENTURY

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Among the people whose ages are verified by the Gerontology Research Group , as of the death of Emma Morano on 15 April 2017 there are two people (both female) still alive who were born in the 1 9th century . These people are Violet Brown from Jamaica and Nabi Tajima from Japan (both born 1900). The last known living man born in the 19th century was Japan's Jiroemon Kimura (born 1897) who died on 12 June 2013, aged 116 years and 54 days.

SEE ALSO

* Timeline of modern history * 19th century in film * 19th century in games * 19th-century philosophy * Capitalism in the nineteenth century * France in the nineteenth century * International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) * List of wars 1800– 1899 * Mid-nineteenth-century Spain * Nineteenth-century theatre * Russian history, 1855– 1892 * Slavery in the United States * Timeline of 19th-century Muslim history * Timeline of historic inventions#19th century * Victorian Era

SUPPLEMENTARY PORTRAIT GALLERY

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Mikhail Bakunin *

William Bonney aka Henry McCarty aka Billy the Kid , c. late 1870s

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Deputies Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp in Dodge City , 1876 *

Mathew Brady , Self-portrait, c. 1875 *

Henry David Thoreau , August 1861. *

Alfred, Lord Tennyson *

Thomas Nast , c. 1860–1875, photo by Mathew Brady or Levin Handy

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Mirza Ghulam Ahmad *

Søren Kierkegaard *

Solomon Northup *

Dred Scott *

Madame CJ Walker

REFERENCES

* ^ "The First Telephone Call". * ^ "Dec. 18, 1878: Let There Be Light — Electric Light". _WIRED_. 18 December 2009. * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica\'s Great Inventions. _Encyclopædia Britannica_. * ^ "The United States and the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century". Americanhistory.about.com. 2012-09-18. Retrieved 2012-10-31.

* ^ Laura Del Col, West Virginia University, The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth- Century England * ^ " Modernization – Population Change". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Archived from the original on April 6, 2009. * ^ Liberalism in the 19th century. _Encyclopædia Britannica._ * ^ Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore. _BBC._ * ^ The Atlantic: Can the US afford immigration?. _Migration News_. December 1996. * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Herman Willem Daendels Access date 29 March 2009 * ^ Frederick Artz, _Reaction and Revolution, 1814–1832_ (1934) * ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". _Progress in Physical Geography_. 27 (2): 230–259. doi :10.1191/0309133303pp379ra . * ^ Spring Hermann (1997) "_Geronimo: Apache freedom fighter_". Enslow Publishers. p.26 ISBN 0-89490-864-2 * ^ "_Killing ground: photographs of the Civil War and the changing American landscape_". John Huddleston (2002). Johns Hopkins University Press . ISBN 0-8018-6773-8 * ^ "Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009. * ^ proclamation * ^ McPherson, J. M. (2014). Emancipation Proclamation and Thirteenth Amendment. In E. Foner, & J. A. Garraty (Eds.), _The Reader's companion to American history_. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved from http://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/rcah/emancipation_proclamation_and_thirteenth_amendment/0 * ^ 13th Amendment * ^ Hamdani, Sylviana (3 February 2010). "Taking a Train Trip Down Memory Lane in Indonesia". _ Jakarta Globe _. Archived from the original on 7 October 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Vickers (2005), page xii * ^ Wahyu Ernawati: "Chapter 8: The Lombok Treasure", in _Colonial collections Revisited_: Pieter ter Keurs (editor) Vol. 152, CNWS publications. Issue 36 of _Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde_, Leiden. CNWS Publications, 2007. ISBN 978-90-5789-152-6 . 296 pages. pp. 186–203 * ^ "William Whewell". Stanford University. Retrieved 2008-03-03. * ^ "World\'s oldest person Emma Morano dies at 117". _BBC News_. 2017-04-15. Retrieved 2017-04-15.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Media related to 1 9th century at Wikimedia Commons

* v * t * e

Romanticism

COUNTRIES

* Denmark * England (literature) * France (literature) * Germany * Norway * Poland * Russia (literature) * Scotland

MOVEMENTS

* Bohemianism * Counter-Enlightenment * Dark romanticism * Düsseldorf

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