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The 1986 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
(Scottish Gaelic: Geamannan a 'Cho-fhlaitheis 1986) were held in Edinburgh, Scotland, between 24 July and 2 August 1986. They were the second Games to be held in Edinburgh.

Contents

1 Organisation 2 Controversies 3 Participating teams 4 Boycott 5 Opening ceremony 6 Venues 7 Medals by country 8 Medals by event

8.1 Aquatics 8.2 Athletics 8.3 Badminton 8.4 Bowls 8.5 Boxing 8.6 Cycling

8.6.1 Track 8.6.2 Road

8.7 Rowing 8.8 Shooting

8.8.1 Pistol 8.8.2 Rifle 8.8.3 Shotgun

8.9 Weightlifting 8.10 Wrestling

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Organisation[edit] Unlike the 1970 Games in Edinburgh, which were popular and successful, the 1986 Games are ill-famed for the wide political boycott connected with them and the resulting financial mismanagement.[1] Controversies[edit] Further controversy arose when it was revealed that through this much-reduced participation and the resultant decline in anticipated broadcasting and sponsorship revenues, the Organising Committee was facing a big financial black hole. The boycott ended any prospect of securing emergency government assistance. Businessman Robert Maxwell stepped in to offer funding, taking over as chairman; but although he promised to invest £2m, his contribution was just £250,000. On a budget of £14m, the Games opened with a deficit of £3m, which later grew to £4.3m, and instead of putting enough money into the event to save it, the new chairman of the Games asked creditors to forgo half the payment due to them to keep the event out of liquidation. The debt was finally paid off in 1989, with the city of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
losing approximately £500,000.[2] Several participants were excluded because they breached the amateurism rules, most notably lawn bowlers Phil Skoglund from New Zealand and Willie Wood from Scotland, both of whom have competed in subsequent games. Participating teams[edit] Due to the boycott only 27 teams from across the Commonwealth were represented at the 1986 Games.

Participating Commonwealth countries and Territories

Participating Commonwealth countries and territories

 Australia  BermudaNote[›]  Botswana  Canada  Cayman Islands  Cook Islands  England  Falkland Islands  Fiji  Gibraltar  Guernsey  Hong Kong  Isle of Man  Jersey  Lesotho  Malawi  Maldives  Malta  New Zealand  Norfolk Island  Northern Ireland   Scotland
Scotland
(host)  Singapore  Swaziland  Vanuatu  Wales  Western Samoa

^ Note:  Bermuda
Bermuda
withdrew from the games to join the boycott after the Opening ceremony.[3]

Debuting Commonwealth countries and territories

 Norfolk Island  Maldives

Boycott[edit]

1986 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
boycotting countries dark red

The majority of Commonwealth nations staged a boycott, meaning that the Games appeared largely to be a whites-only event. Thirty two of the eligible fifty nine countries, largely African, Asian and Caribbean states, stayed away because of the Thatcher government's policy of keeping Britain's sporting links with apartheid South Africa in preference to participating in the general sporting boycott of that country. Consequently, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
1986 witnessed the lowest turnout since Auckland 1950.[4] Bermuda
Bermuda
was a particularly late withdrawal, as its athletes had appeared in the opening ceremony and in the opening day of competition before the Bermuda
Bermuda
Olympic Association decided to formally withdraw.[5]

Commonwealth countries and territories that boycotted the Games

 Antigua and Barbuda[6]  Barbados[6]  Bahamas [6]  Bangladesh[6]  Bermuda  Belize  Cyprus  Dominica[6]  Gambia[6]  Ghana[6]  Guyana[6]  Grenada  India  Jamaica  Solomon Islands  Sri Lanka[6]  St. Vincent and the Grenadines  Sierra Leone[6]  St. Kitts and Nevis[6]  St. Lucia[6]  Kenya[6]  Mauritius  Malaysia[6]  Nigeria[6]  Pakistan  Papua New Guinea[6]  Trinidad and Tobago[6]  Tanzania[6]  Turks and Caicos Islands  Uganda[6]  Zambia[6]  Zimbabwe[6]

Opening ceremony[edit] The theme of the opening ceremony celebrated the "Spirit of Youth" and included 6500 Scottish schoolchildren taking part in a series of large Mass Games-style Gymnastics routines. The theme song "Spirit of Youth" was written by Gerard Kenny. The ceremony began on the esplanade of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Castle from which hundreds of schoolchildren ran down the Royal Mile, through Holyrood Park
Holyrood Park
to Meadowbank Stadium.[7] Venues[edit]

Meadowbank Stadium Royal Commonwealth Pool Strathclyde Park Barry Buddon Balgreen, Bowls

Medals by country[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total

1  England 52 43 49 144

2  Canada 51 34 31 116

3  Australia 40 46 35 121

4  New Zealand 8 16 14 38

5  Wales 6 5 12 23

6  Scotland 3 12 18 33

7  Northern Ireland 2 4 9 15

8  Isle of Man 1 0 0 1

9  Guernsey 0 2 0 2

10  Swaziland 0 1 0 1

11  Hong Kong 0 0 3 3

12  Malawi 0 0 2 2

13  Botswana 0 0 1 1

 Jersey 0 0 1 1

 Singapore 0 0 1 1

Total 163 163 176 502

Medals by event[edit] Aquatics[edit] Main article: Aquatics at the 1986 Commonwealth Games Athletics[edit] Main article: Athletics at the 1986 Commonwealth Games Badminton[edit] Main article: Badminton at the 1986 Commonwealth Games Bowls[edit] Main article: Lawn Bowls
Bowls
at the 1986 Commonwealth Games Boxing[edit] Main article: Boxing at the 1986 Commonwealth Games

Event Gold Silver Bronze

Light Flyweight  Scott Olson (CAN)  Mark Epton (ENG)  Johnston Todd (NIR)  Wilson Docherty (SCO)

Flyweight  John Lyon (ENG)  Leonard Makhanya (SWZ)  Kerry Webber (WAL)  Steve Beaupré (CAN)

Bantamweight  Sean Murphy (ENG)  Roy Nash (NIR)  Glen Brooks (SCO)  John Sollitoe (JER)

Featherweight  Billy Downey (CAN)  Peter English (ENG)  Chris Carleton (NIR)  Johnny Wallace (NZL)

Lightweight  Asif Dar (CAN)  Neil Haddock (WAL)  Lyton Mphande (MAW)  Joe Jacobs (ENG)

Light Welterweight  Howard Grant (CAN)  David Clencie (AUS)  Brendan Lowe (NIR)  Solomon Kondowe (MAW)

Welterweight  Darren Dyer (ENG)  John McAllister (SCO)  John Shaw (CAN)  Damien Denny (NIR)

Light Middleweight  Dan Sherry (CAN)  Rick Finch (AUS)  Glynn Thomas (WAL)  Alex Mullen (SCO)

Middleweight  Rod Douglas (ENG)  Jeff Harding (AUS)  Patrick Tinney (NIR)  George Ferrie (SCO)

Light Heavyweight  Jim Moran (ENG)  Harry Lawson (SCO)  Brent Kosolofski (CAN)

Heavyweight  James Peau (NZL)  Douggie Young (SCO)  Dominic D'Amico (CAN)  Eric Cardouza (ENG)

Super Heavyweight  Lennox Lewis (CAN)  Aneurin Evans (WAL)  James Oyebola (ENG)

Cycling[edit] Track[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze

Men

Time Trial  Martin Vinnicombe (AUS) 00:01:06  Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:01:06  Maxwell Rainsford (AUS) 00:01:07

Sprint  Gary Neiwand (AUS)

 Alex Ongaro (CAN)

 Eddie Alexander (SCO)

Individual Pursuit  Dean Woods (AUS) 00:04:44  Colin Sturgess (ENG) 00:04:51  Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:04:54

Team Pursuit  Australia Glenn Clarke Brett Dutton Bill Hardy Wayne McCarney Dean Woods 00:04:27  New Zealand Gary Anderson Russell Clune Stephen Swart Andrew Whitford 00:04:34  England Chris Boardman Gary Colman Rob Muzio Jon Walshaw Guy Rowland overtaken

10 Miles (16 Kilometres) Scratch  Wayne McCarney (AUS) 00:19:41  Dean Woods (AUS) 00:19:41  Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:19:41

Road[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze

Men

Road Race  Paul Curran (ENG) 04:08:50  Brian Fowler (NZL) 04:08:50  Jeff Leslie (AUS) 04:08:50

Team Time Trial  England Alan Gornall Deno Davie Keith Reynolds Paul Curran 02:13:16  New Zealand Blair Cox Graeme Miller Gregory Fraine Paul Leitch 02:14:50  Northern Ireland Alastair Irvine Cormac McCann Joseph Barr Martin Quinn 02:16:13

Rowing[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze

Men

Single sculls  England Steve Redgrave 00:07:28  Australia Richard Powell 00:07:33  New Zealand Eric Verdonk 00:07:39

Double sculls  Canada Bruce Ford Pat Walter 00:06:19  Australia Paul Reedy Brenton Terrell 00:06:21  England Carl Smith Allan Whitwell 00:06:34

Coxless pair  England Andy Holmes Steve Redgrave 00:06:40  New Zealand Barrie Mabbott Ian Wright 00:06:43  Scotland Ewan Stuart David Riches 00:06:43

Coxless four  Canada Grant Main Kevin Neufeld Paul Steele Pat Turner 00:06:01  New Zealand Andrew Stevenson Shane O'Brien Neil Gibson Don Symon 00:06:01  England Graham Faultless Richard Ireland Mostyn Field Humphrey Hatton 00:06:06

Coxed four  England Martin Cross Adam Clift Andy Holmes Steve Redgrave Adrian Ellison 00:06:08  New Zealand Nigel Atherfold Chris White Greg Johnston Bruce Holden Andrew Bird 00:06:10  Australia Mark Doyle James Galloway Michael McKay James Tomkins Dale Caterson 00:06:11

Eights  Australia Ion Popa 00:05:44  England 00:05:46  New Zealand Mike Burrell[8] Neil Gibson[9] Barrie Mabbott[10] Shane O'Brien[11] Andrew Stevenson[12] Don Symon[13] Carl Vincent[14] Ian Wright[15] Andy Hay (cox)[16] 00:05:48

Lightweight single sculls  Australia Peter Antonie 00:07:16  Canada Peter Tattersall 00:07:27  England Carl Smith 00:07:27

Lightweight coxless four  England Christopher Bates Peter Haining Neil Staite Stuart Forbes 00:06:26  Australia Simon Cook Brian Digby Merrick Howes Joseph Joyce 00:06:28  Canada Dave Henry Brian Peaker Bob Thomas Ryan Tierney 00:06:36

Women

Single sculls  New Zealand Stephanie Foster 00:07:43  Canada Lisa Wright 00:07:49  England Gillian Bond 00:07:53

Double sculls  New Zealand Stephanie Foster Robin Clarke 00:07:22  Canada Heather Clarke Lisa Robertson 00:07:49  England Diane Prince Claire Parker 00:07:55

Coxless pair  Canada Kathryn Barr Andrea Schreiner 00:07:35  England Pauline Bird Fiona Johnson 00:07:42  Australia Catherine Hall Alison Smith 00:07:53

Coxed four  Canada Tina Clarke Tricia Smith Lesley Thompson Jane Tregunno Jenny Wallinga 00:06:50  Australia Debbie Bassett Susan Chapman-Popa Robyn Grey-Gardner Marilyn Kidd Kaylynn Fry 00:06:54  England Joanne Gough Ann Callaway Kate Holroyd Patricia Reid Alison Norrish 00:07:06

Eights  Australia 00:06:44  England 00:06:46  Canada NTT

Lightweight single sculls  Australia Adair Ferguson 00:07:45  New Zealand Philippa Baker 00:07:46  Canada Heather Hattin 00:07:52

Lightweight coxless four  England Alexa Forbes Gillian Hodges Lin Clark Judith Burne 00:06:55  Australia Deborah Clingeleffer Amanda Cross Virginia Lee Karin Riedel 00:07:00  Canada Anne Drost Marni Hamilton Marlene van der Horst Wendy Wiebe 00:07:01

Shooting[edit] Pistol[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze

Men/Open

Free Pistol  Greg Yelavich (NZL) 551  Phil Adams (AUS)  Ho Kar Fai (HKG) 549

Free Pistol – Pairs  Canada Tom Guinn Claude Beaulieu 1099  England Paul Leatherdale Richard Wang 1090  Australia Phil Adams Bengt Sandström 1085

Centre-Fire Pistol  Bob Northover (ENG) 583  Phil Adams (AUS) 582  Rod Hack (AUS) 580

Centre-Fire Pistol – Pairs  Australia Phil Adams Rod Hack 1165  England Bob Northover Michael Cutler 1157  New Zealand Rex Hamilton Barry O'Neale 1153

Rapid-Fire Pistol  Pat Murray (AUS) 591  Adrian Breton (GGY) 588  Mark Howkins (CAN) 585

Rapid-Fire Pistol – Pairs  England Brian Girling Terry Turner 1169  Australia Pat Murray Jack Mast 1152  Canada Mark Howkins André Chevrefils 1150

Air Pistol  Greg Yelavich (NZL) 575  Tom Guinn (CAN) 574  Gilbert U (HKG) 574

Air Pistol – Pairs  England Paul Leatherdale Ian Reid 1143  Australia Phil Adams Bruce Favell 1143  New Zealand Greg Yelavich Barrie Wickens 1140

Rifle[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze

Men/Open

Small Bore Rifle, Prone  Alan Smith (AUS) 599  Alister Allan (SCO) 598  Gale Stewart (CAN)  John Knowles (SCO) 597

Small Bore Rifle, Prone – Pairs  Canada Michael Ashcroft Gale Stewart 1175  Australia Donald Brook Alan Smith 1171  Wales Terry Wakefield Colin Harris 1165

Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions  Malcolm Cooper (ENG) 1170  Alister Allan (SCO) 1167  Jean-François Sénécal (CAN) 1150

Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions – Pairs  England Malcolm Cooper Sarah Cooper 2278  Canada Jean-François Sénécal Michael Dion 2276  Scotland Alister Allan Bill MacNeill 2241

Full Bore Rifle  Stan Golinski (AUS) 396  Alain Marion (CAN) 396  John Bloomfield (ENG) 395

Full Bore Rifle – Pairs  Canada Bill Baldwin Alain Marion 583  Australia James Corbett Stan Golinski 583  Northern Ireland David Calvert Martin Millar 582

Air Rifle  Guy Lorion (CAN) 588  Sharon Bowes (CAN) 583  Malcolm Cooper (ENG) 582

Air Rifle – Pairs  Canada Guy Lorion Sharon Bowes 1167  Australia Wolfgang Jobst Anton Wurfel 1151  England Malcolm Cooper Robert Smith 1146

Shotgun[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze

Men/Open

Trap  Ian Peel (ENG) 195  Peter Boden (ENG) 192  Roland Phillips (WAL) 192

Trap – Pairs  England Peter Boden Ian Peel 185  Northern Ireland Tom Hewitt Eamon Furphy 183  Australia Terry Rumbel Domingo Diaz 183

Skeet  Nigel Kelly (IOM) 196  Joe Neville (ENG)  Brian Gabriel (CAN) 195

Skeet – Pairs  England Joe Neville Ken Harman 195  Canada Brian Gabriel Don Kwasyncia 193  New Zealand John Woolley Jeff Farrell 189

Weightlifting[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze

Men

Flyweight – Overall  Greg Hayman (AUS) 212.5  Charlie Revolta (SCO) 185  Alan Ogilvie (SCO) 177.5

Bantamweight – Overall  Nick Voukelatos (AUS) 245  Clayton Chelley (NZL) 217.5  Teo Yong Joo (SIN) 215

Featherweight – Overall  Ray Williams (WAL) 252.5  David Lowenstein (AUS) 250  Jeffrey Brice (WAL) 235

Lightweight – Overall  Dean Willey (ENG) 315  Ron Laycock (AUS) 307.5  Langis Côté (CAN) 290

Middleweight – Overall  Bill Stellios (AUS) 302.5  Louis Payer (CAN) 300  Neil Taylor (WAL) 270

Light Heavyweight – Overall  Dave Morgan (WAL) 350  Robert Kabbas (AUS) 325  Peter May (ENG) 317.5

Middle Heavyweight – Overall  Keith Boxell (ENG) 350  David Mercer (ENG) 342.5  Guy Greavette (CAN) 340

Sub Heavyweight – Overall  Denis Garon (CAN) 360  Duncan Dawkins (ENG) 332.5  Andrew Saxton (ENG) 327.5

Heavyweight – Overall  Kevin Roy (CAN) 375  Gino Frantangelo (AUS) 372.5  Andrew Davies (WAL) 370

Super Heavyweight – Overall  Dean Lukin (AUS) 392.5  David Bolduc (CAN) 347.5  Charles Garzarella (AUS) 342.5

Wrestling[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze

Men

Light Flyweight  Ron Moncur (CAN)  Duncan Burns (ENG)  David Connelly (SCO)

Flyweight  Chris Woodcroft (CAN)  James McAlary (AUS)  Nigel Donohue (ENG)

Bantamweight  Mitch Ostberg (CAN)  Steve Reinsfield (NZL)  Brian Aspen (ENG)

Featherweight  Paul Hughes (CAN)  Dan Cumming (AUS)  Stephen Bell (NZL)

Lightweight  Dave McKay (CAN)  Zsigmund Kelevitz (AUS)  Stephen Cooper (ENG)

Welterweight  Gary Holmes (CAN)  George Marsh (AUS)  Fitzlloyd Walker (ENG)

Middleweight  Chris Rinke (CAN)  Wally Koenig (AUS)  Anthony Bell (ENG)

Light Heavyweight  Noel Loban (ENG)  Doug Cox (CAN)  Graeme English (SCO)

Heavyweight  Clark Davis (CAN)  Robert Algie (NZL)  David Kilpin (ENG)

Super Heavyweight  Wayne Brightwell (CAN)  Albert Patrick (SCO)  Keith Peache (ENG)

See also[edit]

1970 Commonwealth Games, held in Edinburgh 2014 Commonwealth Games, held in Glasgow.

References[edit]

^ "The forgotten story of … Robert Maxwell's 1986 Commonwealth Games Sport theguardian.com". theguardian.com. Retrieved 2014-07-28.  ^ "Glasgow makes final call for 2014 Games - Athletics - Scotsman.com". News.scotsman.com. 9 May 2007. Retrieved 2012-08-09.  ^ Fraser, Graham (2014-04-25). Glasgow 2014: The Bermuda
Bermuda
boycott of 1986 that still hurts. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2015-08-19. ^ "Scottish independence referendum will increase interest in Glasgow 2014, it is claimed Glasgow 2014". insidethegames.biz. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-09.  ^ Fraser, Graham (2014-04-25). Glasgow 2014: The Bermuda
Bermuda
boycott of 1986 that still hurts. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2014-11-02. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "8 More Nations Join Boycott of Commonwealth Games; Total Now 23". Los Angeles Times.  ^ "Power From Within - Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
1986 Opening Ceremony - YouTube". youtube.com. Retrieved 2014-07-28.  ^ "Mike Burrell". New Zealand
New Zealand
Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016.  ^ "Neil Gibson". New Zealand
New Zealand
Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016.  ^ "Barrie Mabbott". New Zealand
New Zealand
Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016.  ^ "Shane O'Brien". New Zealand
New Zealand
Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016.  ^ "Andrew Stevenson". New Zealand
New Zealand
Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016.  ^ "Don Symon". New Zealand
New Zealand
Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016.  ^ "Carl Vincent". New Zealand
New Zealand
Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016.  ^ "Ian Wright". New Zealand
New Zealand
Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016.  ^ "Andrew Hay". New Zealand
New Zealand
Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 

External links[edit]

Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Official Site 1986 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
- Australian Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Association official website Video of the Opening Ceremony

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