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The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(LA), California, United States. This was the second time that LA had hosted the Games, the first being in 1932. California
California
was the home state of the incumbent U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who officially opened the Games. The logo for the 1984 Games, branded "Stars in Motion", featured red, white and blue stars arranged horizontally and struck through with alternating streaks. The official mascot of the Games was Sam the Olympic Eagle. These were the first Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. The 1984 Games were boycotted by a total of fourteen Eastern Bloc countries, including the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and East Germany, in direct response to the American-led boycott of the previous 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow; Romania
Romania
was the only Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
nation that opted to attend the Games. Iran
Iran
and Libya
Libya
also chose to boycott the Games for separate reasons. Despite the field being depleted in certain sports due to the mass boycott, 140 National Olympic Committees took part, which was a record at the time.[2] The 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
are widely considered to be the most financially successful modern Olympics[3] and serve as an example of how to run the model Olympic Games. As a result of low construction costs, coupled with a heavy reliance on private corporate funding, the 1984 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
generated a profit of more than $200 million. On 18 July 2009, a 25th anniversary celebration was held in the main Olympic Stadium. The celebration included a speech by the former president of the LA Olympic Organizing Committee, Peter Ueberroth, and a re-creation of the lighting of the cauldron.

Contents

1 Host selection 2 Torch relay 3 Music 4 Highlights

4.1 Arts Festival 4.2 General 4.3 Track and field 4.4 Other sports

5 Venues

5.1 Los Angeles
Los Angeles
venues 5.2 Southern California
California
venues 5.3 Other venues

6 Cost 7 Medals awarded

7.1 Demonstration sports

8 Calendar 9 Medal count 10 Participating National Olympic Committees 11 Boycotting countries

11.1 Soviet doping plan

12 Success of LA as host city 13 In popular culture 14 Broadcast rights 15 See also 16 Notes 17 External links 18 Further reading

Host selection[edit] After the murder of Israeli athletes by Palestinian terrorists in Munich (1972) and the significant financial debts of Montreal
Montreal
(1976), few cities by the late 1970s were willing to bid for the Summer Games. Only two cities ( Tehran
Tehran
and Los Angeles) made serious bids for the 1984 Summer Games, but before the final selection of a "winning" city in 1978, the bid from Tehran
Tehran
was withdrawn as a result of Iran's policy changes following the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
and a change in the country's ruling system. Hence, the selection process for the 1984 Summer Olympics consisted of a single finalized bid from Los Angeles, which the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) accepted. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
had unsuccessfully bid for the two previous Summer Olympics, for 1976 and 1980. The United States
United States
Olympic Committee (USOC) had submitted at least one bid for every Olympics since 1944, but had not succeeded since the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Olympics in 1932, the previous time only a single bid had been issued for the Summer Olympics. See also: 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
§ Success of LA as host city Torch relay[edit] Main article: 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
torch relay The 1984 Olympic Torch Relay began in New York City
New York City
and ended in Los Angeles, traversing 33 states and the District of Columbia. Unlike later torch relays, the torch was continuously carried by runners on foot. The route covered more than 9,320 mi (15,000 km) and involved 3,636 runners, including 200 from the sponsoring company AT&T. Noted athlete O.J. Simpson
O.J. Simpson
was among the runners, carrying the torch up the California
California
Incline in Santa Monica. Gina Hemphill, granddaughter of Jesse Owens, carried the torch into the Coliseum, completed a lap around the track, then handed it off to the final runner, Rafer Johnson, winner of the decathlon at the 1960 Summer Olympics. With the torch, he touched off the flame which passed through a specially designed flammable Olympic logo, igniting all five rings. The flame then passed up to cauldron atop the peristyle and remained aflame for the duration of the Games.

The Opening Ceremony at the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Memorial Coliseum

Music[edit] John Williams
John Williams
composed the theme for the Olympiad, "Olympic Fanfare and Theme". This piece won a Grammy for Williams and became one of the most well-known musical themes of the Olympic Games, along with Leo Arnaud's "Bugler's Dream"; the latter is sometimes attached to the beginning of Olympic Fanfare and Theme. Composer Bill Conti
Bill Conti
also wrote a song to inspire the weightlifters called "Power". An album, The Official Music of the XXIII Olympiad— Los Angeles
Los Angeles
1984, featured three of those tracks along with sports themes written for the occasion by popular musical artists including Foreigner, Toto, Loverboy, Herbie Hancock, Quincy Jones, Christopher Cross, Philip Glass and Giorgio Moroder.[4] The Brazilian composer Sérgio Mendes
Sérgio Mendes
also produced a special song for the 1984 Olympic Games, "Olympia," from his 1984 album Confetti. A choir of approximately one thousand voices was assembled of singers in the region. All were volunteers from nearby churches, schools and universities. Etta James
Etta James
performed "When the Saints Go Marching In" at the Opening Ceremony.[5] Vicki McClure along with the International Children's Choir
Choir
of Long Beach sang "Reach Out and Touch". Lionel Richie
Lionel Richie
performed a 9-minute version of his hit single "All Night Long" at the closing ceremonies.[6] Highlights[edit] Arts Festival[edit] The 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
was preceded by the 10-week-long adjunct Los Angeles Olympic Arts Festival, which opened on June 2 and ended on August 12. It provided more than 400 performances by 146 theater, dance and music companies, representing every continent and 18 countries. It was organized by then- CalArts
CalArts
President Robert Fitzpatrick. General[edit]

The opening ceremony featured the arrival of Bill Suitor by means of the Bell Aerosystems
Bell Aerosystems
rocket pack (also known as a Jet Pack). The United States Army Band
United States Army Band
formed the Olympic rings to start the opening ceremony. The United States
United States
has set the record for most gold medals won in a single Summer Olympics (83), beating the previous record set by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
at the 1980 Summer Olympics. As a result of an IOC agreement designating the Republic of China (Taiwan) in the name of Chinese Taipei, the People's Republic of China returned to the summer Olympics for the first time since Helsinki 1952. Military anthem of China was played for both teams during the opening ceremony. Local Los Angeles
Los Angeles
artist Rodolfo Escalera
Rodolfo Escalera
was commissioned to create nine paintings depicting the Summer Games that would later be turned into collectible plates and presented as "The Official Gift of the 1984 Olympics".

Track and field[edit]

Carl Lewis
Carl Lewis
of the United States, making his first of four appearances at the Olympics, equaled the 1936 performance of Jesse Owens
Jesse Owens
by winning four gold medals, in the 100 m, 200 m, 4 × 100 m relay and long jump. Edwin Moses
Edwin Moses
of the United States
United States
won the gold medal in the 400m hurdles 8 years after winning in 1976. Joaquim Cruz
Joaquim Cruz
of Brazil
Brazil
won the 800 meter run with a time of 1:43.00 to set an Olympic record. Nawal El Moutawakel
Nawal El Moutawakel
of Morocco became the first female Olympic champion of a Muslim nation—and the first of her country—in the 400 m hurdles. Carlos Lopes, from Portugal, won the Marathon at the age of 37, with a time of 2:09:21, an Olympic record that stood for 24 years. It was the first gold medal ever for Portugal. Gold medal favorite, World Record holder and the then World Champion, Robert de Castella
Robert de Castella
from Australia, finished in 5th place, 1:48 behind Lopes. A marathon for women was held for the first time at the Olympics (won by Joan Benoit
Joan Benoit
of the U.S.). The event was considered notable because of Swiss runner Gabi Andersen-Schiess, who – suffering from heat exhaustion – stumbled through the last lap, providing dramatic images. Daley Thompson of Great Britain apparently missed a new world record in winning his second consecutive gold medal in the decathlon; the next year his score was retroactively raised to 8847, giving him the record. Sebastian Coe
Sebastian Coe
of Great Britain became the first man to win consecutive gold medals in the 1500m.

Other sports[edit]

The first gold medal to be awarded at the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Olympics was also the first-ever medal to be won by an athlete from China
China
when Xu Haifeng won the 50 m Pistol
50 m Pistol
event. Archer Neroli Fairhall
Neroli Fairhall
from New Zealand
New Zealand
was the first paraplegic Olympian at any Olympic Games, coming 35th in the Women's individual event. Synchronized swimming
Synchronized swimming
and rhythmic gymnastics debuted in Los Angeles as Olympic events, as did wind surfing. Li Ning
Li Ning
from the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
won 6 medals in gymnastics, 3 gold, 2 silver, and 1 bronze, earning him the nickname "Prince of Gymnasts" in China. Li would later light the Olympic Cauldron at the 2008 Olympics.[7] Steve Redgrave
Steve Redgrave
of Great Britain won his first title in rowing of the record five he would go on to win in five Olympic competitions. Victor Davis of Canada
Canada
set a new world record in winning the gold medal in the 200-meter breaststroke in swimming. Mary Lou Retton
Mary Lou Retton
of the United States
United States
became the first gymnast outside Eastern Europe to win the gymnastics all-around competition. In men's gymnastics, the American team won the Gold Medal. France
France
won the Olympic soccer tournament, defeating Brazil
Brazil
2–0 in the final. Olympic soccer was unexpectedly played before massive crowds throughout America, with several sell-outs at the 100,000+ seat Rose Bowl. This interest eventually led to the US hosting the 1994 FIFA World Cup. The Soviet-led boycott affected weightlifting more than any other sport: 94 of the world's top 100 ranked lifters were absent, as were 29 of the 30 medalists from the recent world championships. All 10 of the defending world champions in the 10 weight categories were absent. Success of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries might be explained by state-run doping programs that had been developed there.[8] Future Dream Team members Michael Jordan, Patrick Ewing, and Chris Mullin were on the team that won the gold medal in basketball. The 1984 US men's Olympic basketball team was coached by Indiana Hoosiers head coach Bobby Knight. Connie Carpenter-Phinney of the United States
United States
became the first woman to win an Olympic cycling event when she won the women's individual road race.

Venues[edit] Main article: Venues of the 1984 Summer Olympics

The Forum hosted the basketball events

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
venues[edit]

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Memorial Coliseum – opening/closing ceremonies, athletics Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Memorial Sports Arena – boxing Dodger Stadium
Dodger Stadium
– baseball Pauley Pavilion, University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
– gymnastics Eagle's Nest Arena, California
California
State University, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
– judo Olympic Swim Stadium, University of Southern California
California
– swimming, diving, synchronized swimming Olympic Village (athlete housing), University of Southern California Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Tennis Center, University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
– tennis Athletes Village, University of California, Los Angeles Albert Gersten Pavilion, Loyola Marymount University, Westchester, California
California
– weightlifting Streets of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
– athletics (marathon)

Southern California
California
venues[edit]

El Dorado Park, Long Beach, California
California
– archery The Forum, Inglewood, California
California
– basketball Lake Casitas, Ventura County, California
California
– canoeing, rowing Olympic Velodrome, California
California
State University, Dominguez Hills, Carson, California
California
– cycling (track) Mission Viejo, Orange County, California
California
– cycling (individual road race) Santa Anita Park, Arcadia, California
California
– equestrian Fairbanks Ranch Country Club, Rancho Santa Fe, California, California – equestrian sports (eventing endurance) Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, California
California
– fencing Rose Bowl, Pasadena, California
California
– soccer (final) Titan Gymnasium, California
California
State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, California
California
– handball Weingart Stadium, East Los Angeles
Los Angeles
College, Monterey Park, California – field hockey Coto de Caza, Orange County, California
California
– modern pentathlon (fencing, riding, running, shooting) Olympic Shooting Range, Prado Recreational Area, Chino, California
California
– shooting Long Beach Arena, Long Beach, California
California
– volleyball Raleigh Runnels Memorial Pool, Pepperdine University, Malibu, California
California
– water polo Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, California
California
– wrestling Long Beach Shoreline Marina, Long Beach, California
California
– sailing Artesia Freeway – cycling (road team time trial) Heritage Park Aquatic Center – modern pentathlon (swimming) Santa Monica College
Santa Monica College
– athletics (marathon start) Santa Monica, California
California
– athletics (marathon)

Other venues[edit]

Harvard Stadium, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts – soccer preliminaries Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium, United States
United States
Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland
Annapolis, Maryland
– soccer preliminaries Stanford
Stanford
Stadium, Stanford
Stanford
University, Stanford, California
California
– soccer preliminaries

Cost[edit] The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Los Angeles 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
at USD 719 million in 2015-dollars.[9] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Los Angeles
Los Angeles
1984 compares with costs of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40-44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion. Medals awarded[edit] The 1984 Summer Olympic program featured 221 events in the following 21 sports:

Aquatics

Diving (4) Swimming (29) Synchronized swimming
Synchronized swimming
(2) Water polo (1)

Archery (2) Athletics (41) Basketball (2) Boxing (12)

Canoeing (12) Cycling

Road (3) Track (5)

Equestrian

Dressage (2) Eventing (2) Show jumping (2)

Fencing (8) Field hockey (2) Football (1) Gymnastics

Artistic (14) Rhythmic (1)

Handball (2) Judo (8) Modern pentathlon (2)

Rowing (14) Sailing (7) Shooting (11) Volleyball (2) Weightlifting (10) Wrestling

Freestyle (10) Greco-Roman (10)

Demonstration sports[edit]

Baseball Tennis

Calendar[edit]

All times are in Pacific Daylight Time
Pacific Daylight Time
(UTC-7); the other two cities, Boston
Boston
and Annapolis uses Eastern Daylight Time
Eastern Daylight Time
(UTC-4)

 ●  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  ●  Event finals  ●  Closing ceremony

Date July August

28th Sat 29th Sun 30th Mon 31st Tue 1st Wed 2nd Thu 3rd Fri 4th Sat 5th Sun 6th Mon 7th Tue 8th Wed 9th Thu 10th Fri 11th Sat 12th Sun

Archery

● ●

Athletics

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Basketball

Boxing

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Canoeing

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Cycling

● ● ●

● ● ●

Diving

Equestrian

● ●

● ●

Fencing

● ● ● ●

● ● ●

Field hockey

● ●

Football (soccer)

Gymnastics

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Handball

Judo

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Modern pentathlon

● ●

Rowing

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Sailing

● ● ● ● ● ●

Shooting

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Swimming

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Synchronized swimming

Volleyball

Water polo

Weightlifting

● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ●

Wrestling

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Total gold medals

9 8 13 10 12 16 25 21 10 5 14 11 20 43 3

Ceremonies ●

Date 28th Sat 29th Sun 30th Mon 31st Tue 1st Wed 2nd Thu 3rd Fri 4th Sat 5th Sun 6th Mon 7th Tue 8th Wed 9th Thu 10th Fri 11th Sat 12th Sun

July August

Medal count[edit] Main article: 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
medal table These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1984 Games.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total

1   United States
United States
(host nation) 83 61 30 174

2  Romania 20 16 17 53

3  West Germany 17 19 23 59

4  China 15 8 9 32

5  Italy 14 6 12 32

6  Canada 10 18 16 44

7  Japan 10 8 14 32

8  New Zealand 8 1 2 11

9  Yugoslavia 7 4 7 18

10  South Korea 6 6 7 19

Participating National Olympic Committees[edit]

Participating nations

Number of athletes

Athletes from 140 nations competed at the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Games. The following countries made their first Olympic appearance in 1984: Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, British Virgin Islands, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Grenada, Mauritania, Mauritius, North Yemen, Oman, Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and the United Arab Emirates. Zaire had competed previously as Congo Kinshasa. The People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
made their first appearance in a Summer Olympics since 1952, while for the first time the Republic of China team participated under the politically made-up name as Chinese Taipei. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
led the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
and other Communist and Socialist countries on a boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics, in retaliation (using "security concerns and chauvinistic sentiments and an anti-Soviet hysteria being whipped up in the United States" as a pretext)[10] for the U.S.-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
in Moscow
Moscow
over the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1979. However, a handful of Socialist countries disregarded the boycott and attended anyway. Among them were Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(which hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics), the People's Republic of China, and Romania. The fact that Romania, a Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
country, opted to compete despite Soviet demands led to a warm reception of the Romanian team by the United States. When the Romanian athletes entered during the opening ceremonies, they received a standing ovation from the spectators, which comprised mostly U.S. citizens. Romania
Romania
won 53 medals, including 20 golds, more than the nation has in any other Olympics. The number of athletes representing that nation is shown in parentheses:

Participating National Olympic Committees

 Algeria (32)  Andorra (2)  Antigua and Barbuda (13)  Argentina (87)  Australia (246)  Austria (102)  Bahamas (22)  Bahrain (10)  Bangladesh (1)  Barbados (16)  Belgium (67)  Belize (11)  Benin (3)  Bermuda (12)  Bhutan (6)  Bolivia (12)  Botswana (7)  Brazil (151)  British Virgin Islands (9)  Burma (1)  Cameroon (49)  Canada (439)  Cayman Islands (8)  Central African Republic (2)  Chad (3)  Chile (57)  China (219)  Colombia (37)  Congo (10)  Costa Rica (28)  Cyprus (10)  Denmark (63)  Djibouti (3)  Dominican Republic (39)  Ecuador (10)  Egypt (114)  El Salvador (10)  Equatorial Guinea (5)  Fiji (15)  Finland (88)  France (243)  Gabon (4)  The Gambia (7)  West Germany (394)  Ghana (23)  Great Britain (338)  Greece (51)  Grenada (7)  Guatemala (24)  Guinea (3)  Guyana (6)  Haiti (4)  Honduras (12)  Hong Kong (48)  Iceland (32)  India (48)  Indonesia (16)  Iraq (24)  Ireland (43)  Israel (31)  Italy (305)  Ivory Coast (12)  Jamaica (45)  Japan (247)  Jordan (12)  Kenya (60)  South Korea (204)  Kuwait (23)  Lebanon (21)  Lesotho (4)  Liberia (9)  Liechtenstein (7)  Luxembourg (5)  Madagascar (4)  Malawi (15)  Malaysia (21)  Mali (4)  Malta (8)  Mauritania (4)  Mauritius (4)  Mexico (99)  Monaco (8)  Morocco (40)  Mozambique (9)  Nepal (11)  Netherlands (127)   Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles (8)  New Zealand (130)  Nicaragua (25)  Niger (3)  Nigeria (33)  Norway (104)  Oman (16)  Pakistan (29)  Panama (8)  Papua New Guinea (7)  Paraguay (14)  Peru (38)  Philippines (20)  Portugal (39)  Puerto Rico (51)  Qatar (27)  Romania (125)  Rwanda (3)  San Marino (19)  Saudi Arabia (40)  Senegal (24)  Seychelles (9)  Sierra Leone (7)  Singapore (5)  Solomon Islands (3)  Somalia (7)  Spain (185)  Sri Lanka (4)  Sudan (5)  Suriname (5)  Swaziland (8)  Sweden (176)  Switzerland (129)  Syria (7)  Chinese Taipei (59)  Tanzania (18)  Thailand (35)  Togo (6)  Tonga (7)  Trinidad and Tobago (16)  Tunisia (23)  Turkey (47)  Uganda (26)  United Arab Emirates (7)  United States (615) (host)  Uruguay (19)  Venezuela (26)  Virgin Islands (33)  Samoa (8)  North Yemen (2)  Yugoslavia (143)  Zaire (8)  Zambia (16)  Zimbabwe (16)

Boycotting countries[edit]

Countries boycotting the 1984 Games are shaded blue

Main article: 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
boycott Fourteen countries took part in the Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Olympic Games:[11]

 Afghanistan  Angola  Bulgaria  Cuba  Czechoslovakia  East Germany  Ethiopia  Hungary  Laos  Mongolia  North Korea  Poland  Soviet Union  Vietnam

Albania, Iran
Iran
and Libya
Libya
also boycotted the games, citing political reasons, but were not a part of the Soviet-led boycott. Albania
Albania
and Iran
Iran
were the only countries to boycott both the 1980 and 1984 events.

 Albania  Iran  Libya

Soviet doping plan[edit] Documents obtained in 2016 revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the program, along with suggestions for further enhancements. The communication, directed to the Soviet Union's head of track and field, was prepared by Dr. Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was also one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping program prior to the 2016 Summer Olympics.[12] Filmmaker and director of 2017 movie Icarus Bryan Fogel has said that stricter doping controls might have been the main reason of the Soviet boycott.[13] Success of LA as host city[edit]

Newspaper vending machine announcing the 1984 Olympics.

Following the news of the massive financial losses of the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, the only two cities to express a serious interest in hosting the 1984 Games were Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and New York. Given that only one city per country is allowed to bid for any one Games, the USOC vote for the American bid city was effectively the deciding vote for the 1984 Olympics host city. In this case, the Los Angeles bid received 55 votes compared with New York's 39 votes – this is the closest that the city of New York has ever come to being selected to host the Olympic Games, coming closer in 1984 than they did in their 2012 bid (when they lost to London).[14] The low level of interest among potential host cities for the 1984 Games had been viewed as a major threat to the future of the Olympic Games. However, after the financial success of the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Games, cities began to line up to be hosts again. The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and Montreal
Montreal
Games are seen as examples of what to do and what not to do when organizing the Olympics, and serve as abject lessons to prospective host cities. Ambitious construction projects for the two previous Summer Olympics, Montreal
Montreal
1976 and Moscow
Moscow
1980, had burdened organizers with substantial debts as expenses greatly exceded revenues. Consequently, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
enforced strict controls on their expenditure and rather than constructing new venues with overly ambitious designs, they chose instead to utilise existing venues and facilities wherever possible. The main example of this was the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Memorial Coliseum, which was also the Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
for the 1932 Summer Olympics.[15] The only two new venues constructed specifically for the LA Games were secured with the backing of corporate sponsors: the Olympic Velodrome was largely funded by the 7-Eleven
7-Eleven
corporation and the Olympic Swim Stadium by McDonald's. As the only bidding city, the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
OCOG was able to extract a number of concessions from the IOC. Not only was it agreed that the city could make use of existing venues, but also that it would not be held responsible for any cost overruns. The latter concession was necessitated by a charter amendment resoundingly passed by LA voters barring the use of taxpayers' money for the Games without reimbursement, largely the work of City Councilman and Games critic Bob Ronka.[16] In addition to corporate support, the Olympic committee also made use of the burgeoning prices being paid for exclusive television rights. Starting with the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Games, these contracts would be a significant source of revenue. Adjusted for inflation, the Los Angeles Games received twice the amount received by the 1980 Moscow
Moscow
Summer Olympics and four times that of the 1976 Montreal
Montreal
Summer Olympics.[17] Due to these contracts being signed well in advance of the Games, Los Angeles found itself in an easier planning position because most of its revenue was already assured before the Games.[18] Following the success of the 1984 Games, the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
OCOG, led by Peter Ueberroth, used some of the profits to create the LA84 Foundation to promote youth sports in Southern California, educate coaches and maintain a sports library. In popular culture[edit]

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McDonald's
McDonald's
ran a promotion titled, "When the U.S. Wins, You Win" where customers scratched off a ticket with the name of an Olympic event on it, and if the U.S. won that event then they would be given a free menu item: a Big Mac
Big Mac
for a gold medal, an order of french fries for a silver medal, and a Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
for a bronze medal. The promotion became more popular than expected due to the Soviet boycott which led to the U.S. winning far more Olympic medals than expected.[19] This promotion was parodied in The Simpsons
The Simpsons
episode "Lisa's First Word", where Krusty Burger runs a similar offer. The promotion was intended to be rigged so that prizes would only be offered in events dominated by the Eastern Bloc, but the Soviet-led boycott causes Krusty to personally lose $44 million. He vehemently promises "to spit in every fiftieth burger," to which Homer retorts "I like those odds!" Chief Wiggum
Chief Wiggum
also exclaims that he could kiss Carl Lewis, who won four gold medals at the Games. On NCIS, Tim McGee has an obsession with jet packs, stemming from having attended the 1984 Olympic ceremony as a child and having Bill Suitor fly over his head in his jet pack.[20] This storyline is based on the real experience of executive producer and writer Jesse Stern.[21] Pop punk band Bowling for Soup
Bowling for Soup
references the games in the song "I Can't Stand LA". During a section showing appreciation for the city, the song states, "thank you for hair metal and the '84 Olympics." Jilly Cooper's novel Riders has a storyline set at the show jumping event in the 1984 LA Olympics. Broadcast rights[edit] The 1984 Games were covered by the following broadcasters:

 Australia: Network Ten  Brazil: Rede Globo, Rede Manchete, SBT, Rede Record
Rede Record
and Rede Bandeirantes  Ireland: RTÉ  United Kingdom: BBC  China: CCTV  United States: KABC-7 (ABC)  Sri Lanka: Rupavahini (SLRC)  Netherlands: NPO  Sweden: SVT  Norway: NRK  Canada: CBC  Japan: NHK  Hong Kong: ATV and TVB  Macau: TDM  Portugal: RTP  Spain: TVE  Taiwan: TTV, CTV and CTS  South Korea: KBS and MBC  Mexico: Televisa  West Germany: ARD and ZDF  France: TF1  Thailand: National Television Thailand  India: Doordarshan  Turkey: TRT  New Zealand: TVNZ  Indonesia: TVRI Jakarta  Malaysia: Sistem Televisyen Malaysia
Malaysia
Berhad TV3, a member of New Straits Times Press (live direct television broadcast transmission)  Singapore: Sistem Televisyen Malaysia
Malaysia
Berhad TV3, a member of New Straits Times Press (live direct television broadcast transmission)  Philippines: GMA Radio-Television Arts and Radio Philippines Network  Venezuela: Venevision  Brunei: Sistem Televisyen Malaysia
Malaysia
Berhad TV3, a member of New Straits Times Press (live direct television broadcast transmission)  Italy: RAI  Chile: TVN, UC-TV  Argentina: Argentina
Argentina
Televisora Color, Canal 13, Canal 11  Paraguay: Paraguay
Paraguay
Televisora Color, Canal 4, Canal 9 Cerro Corá  Uruguay: SODRE Canal 14, Monte Carlo TV, Channel 10, Teledoce.  Romania: TVR

See also[edit]

1980s portal United States
United States
portal Los Angeles
Los Angeles
portal

Olympics portal

1984 Summer Paralympics 1984 Winter Paralympics 1984 Winter Olympics Olympic Games
Olympic Games
celebrated in the United States

1904 Summer Olympics
1904 Summer Olympics
– St. Louis 1932 Summer Olympics
1932 Summer Olympics
– Los Angeles 1932 Winter Olympics
1932 Winter Olympics
– Lake Placid 1960 Winter Olympics
1960 Winter Olympics
– Squaw Valley 1980 Winter Olympics
1980 Winter Olympics
– Lake Placid 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
– Los Angeles 1996 Summer Olympics
1996 Summer Olympics
– Atlanta 2002 Winter Olympics
2002 Winter Olympics
– Salt Lake City

Olympic Games
Olympic Games
with significant boycotts

1976 Summer Olympics
1976 Summer Olympics
Montreal
Montreal
– African boycott 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
Moscow
Moscow
– United States-led boycott 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
– Soviet-led boycott

Summer Olympic Games Olympic Games International Olympic Committee List of IOC country codes Use of performance-enhancing drugs in the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
— 1984 Los Angeles

People

Bob Ronka, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
City Council member, 1977–81, skeptical of hosting the Olympics.

Notes[edit]

^ "Games of the XXIII Olympiad". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on August 30, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2008.  ^ "NO BOYCOTT BLUES". olympic.org. Retrieved 2017-01-06.  ^ Abrahamson, Alan (July 25, 2004). "LA the Best Site, Bid Group Insists; Olympics: Despite USOC rejection". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved August 17, 2008.  ^ "Various – The Official Music Of The XXIIIrd Olympiad – Los Angeles 1984 (LP) at Discogs". Archived from the original on September 12, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2009.  ^ Los Angeles
Los Angeles
1984 Olympic Opening Ceremony Complete [Go to time stamp 29:40 for Etta James' performance. A previously cited Associated Press story (in which James was credited for singing the national anthem) was an AP reporting error. The national anthem was performed by a choir, and James appeared to perform 'When The Saints Go Marching In' later in the ceremony.]. YouTube. September 6, 2014.  ^ Malone, MacKenzie (July 19, 2012). "Tuning into the Games, Watching the Olympics is the next best thing to playing". Times Union. Retrieved April 4, 2014.  ^ Reuters – Li Ning, "Prince of Gymnasts" and businessman – Aug 8, 2008 ^ "The Soviet Doping Plan: Document Reveals Illicit Approach to '84 Olympics". nytimes.com. August 13, 2016. Retrieved November 13, 2017.  ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9–13. SSRN 2804554 .  ^ Burns, John F. (May 9, 1984). "Protests are Issue: Russians Charge 'Gross Flouting' of the Ideals of the Competition". New York Times.  ^ "1984 Olympics". infoplease.com.  ^ "The Soviet Doping Plan: Document Reveals Illicit Approach to '84 Olympics". nytimes.com. Retrieved June 6, 2017.  ^ " Bryan Fogel talks 1984 Summer Olympics boycott
1984 Summer Olympics boycott
on The Jim Rome Podcast". jimrome.com. Retrieved November 23, 2017.  ^ No Olympics No Problem by Andrew H. Levin. April 27, 2007. page 27. Accessed July 24, 2009. Archived July 26, 2009. ^ "Let Boston
Boston
2024 pay for the Olympics - The Boston
Boston
Globe". Retrieved July 28, 2015.  ^ Mariel Garza (July 30, 2015). "Opinion: Some credit for the little-known figure behind L.A.'s 1984 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
deal". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Shoval, Noam. "A New Phase in the Competition For The Olympic Gold: The London and New York Bids For The 2012 Games." Journal of Urban Affairs 24.5 (2002): 583–99. ^ No Olympics No Problem by Andrew H. Levin. April 27, 2007. page 13. Accessed July 24, 2009. Archived July 26, 2009. ^ Hollie, Pamela G. (August 10, 1984). "Advertising; Big Mac's Olympic Giveaway". The New York Times. Retrieved April 20, 2010.  ^ "Ignition". NCIS: Naval Criminal Investigative Service. Season 7. Episode 11. January 5, 2010. 43 minutes in. CBS.  ^ Stern, Jesse. The Future is Now: NCIS meets the jet pack (NCIS: The Seventh Season (Disc 3 special features)). CBS Studios. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1984 Summer Olympics.

" Los Angeles
Los Angeles
1984". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  "Results and Medalists". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  Olympic Review 1984 – Official results Official Report Vol. 1 Official Report Vol. 2 Video of President Reagan declaring games open, and torch-lighting by Rafer Johnson
Rafer Johnson
on YouTube

Further reading[edit]

Whitakers Olympic Almanack. 2004. ISBN 0-7136-6724-9.  Henry, Bill. An Approved History of the Olympic Games. ISBN 0-88284-243-9.  Andranovich, Greg; Burbank, Matthew J.; Charles H. Heying (2001). "Olympic cities: lessons learned from Mega-Event Politics". Journal of Urban Affairs. 23–2. 

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