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The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (Russian: И́гры XXII Олимпиа́ды, tr. Igry XXII Olimpiady), was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia. The 1980 Games were the first Olympic Games
Olympic Games
to be staged in Eastern Europe, and remain the only Summer Olympics held there, as well as the first Olympic Games
Olympic Games
to be held in a Slavic language-speaking country. They were also the first Olympic Games
Olympic Games
to be held in a socialist country, and the only Summer Games to be held in such a country until 2008 in Beijing, China. These were the final Olympic Games
Olympic Games
under the IOC
IOC
Presidency of Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin. Eighty nations were represented at the Moscow
Moscow
Games – the smallest number since 1956. Led by the United States
United States
at the insistence of US President Jimmy Carter, 66 countries boycotted the games entirely because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Some athletes from some of the boycotting countries (they are not included in the list of 66 countries that boycotted the games entirely) participated in the games under the Olympic Flag.[3] This prompted the Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics. Elite athletes from the U.S. and USSR
USSR
would not directly compete again until the 1988 Summer Olympics
1988 Summer Olympics
in Seoul.

Contents

1 Host city selection 2 Participation overview and boycott 3 Events, records and drug tests overview 4 Media and broadcasting 5 Spectators and commemoration 6 Budget 7 Cost 8 Opening ceremony 9 Highlights of the different events

9.1 Archery 9.2 Athletics 9.3 Basketball 9.4 Boxing 9.5 Canoeing 9.6 Cycling 9.7 Diving 9.8 Equestrian 9.9 Fencing 9.10 Football 9.11 Gymnastics 9.12 Handball 9.13 Field hockey 9.14 Judo 9.15 Modern Pentathlon 9.16 Rowing 9.17 Sailing 9.18 Shooting 9.19 Swimming 9.20 Volleyball 9.21 Water polo 9.22 Weightlifting 9.23 Wrestling

10 Closing ceremony 11 Venues 12 Medals awarded 13 Calendar 14 Medal count 15 List of participating countries and regions 16 See also 17 References 18 External links 19 Further reading

19.1 Boycott

Host city selection[edit] The only two cities to bid for the 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
were Moscow and Los Angeles. The choice between them was made on 23 October 1974 in the 75th IOC Session
IOC Session
in Vienna, Austria. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
would eventually host the 1984 Summer Olympics.[4]

1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
bidding result

City Country Votes

Moscow  Soviet Union 39

Los Angeles  United States 20

Participation overview and boycott[edit] Main article: 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
boycott

Participating nations

Countries boycotting the 1980 Games are shaded blue

Olympic Village in February 2004

Eighty nations were represented at the Moscow
Moscow
Games – the smallest number since 1956. Six nations made their first Olympic appearance in 1980: Angola, Botswana, Jordan, Laos, Mozambique, and Seychelles. Cyprus made its debut at the Summer Olympics, but had appeared earlier at the 1980 Winter Olympics
1980 Winter Olympics
in Lake Placid, New York. Sri Lanka, Benin and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
competed for the first time under these names (they participated previously as Ceylon, Dahomey and Rhodesia, respectively). Although approximately half of the 24 countries that boycotted the 1976 Summer Olympics
1976 Summer Olympics
(in protest against the IOC
IOC
not expelling New Zealand who sanctioned a rugby tour of apartheid South Africa) participated in the Moscow
Moscow
Games, the 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
were disrupted by another, even larger, boycott led by the United States
United States
in protest at the 1979 Soviet-Afghan War. The Soviet invasion spurred Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
to issue an ultimatum on 20 January 1980, that the US would boycott the Moscow
Moscow
Olympics if Soviet troops did not withdraw from Afghanistan within one month.[5] 65 countries and regions invited did not take part in the 1980 Olympics. Many of these followed the United States' boycott initiative, while others[who?] cited economic reasons for not coming.[5][6] Iran, under Ayatollah Khomeini hostile to both superpowers, boycotted when the Islamic Conference condemned the invasion.[7] Many of the boycotting nations participated instead in the Liberty Bell Classic, also known as the "Olympic Boycott Games", in Philadelphia. However, the nations that did compete had won 71 percent of all medals, and similarly 71 percent of the gold medals, at the 1976 Summer Olympics
1976 Summer Olympics
in Montreal. This was in part because of state-run doping programs that had been developed in the Eastern Bloc countries.[8] As a form of protest against the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, fifteen countries marched in the Opening Ceremony with the Olympic Flag
Olympic Flag
instead of their national flags, and the Olympic Flag and Olympic Hymn
Olympic Hymn
were used at medal ceremonies when athletes from these countries won medals. Competitors from three countries – New Zealand,[9] Portugal, and Spain – competed under the flags of their respective National Olympic Committees. Some of these teams that marched under flags other than their national flags were depleted by boycotts by individual athletes, while some athletes did not participate in the march.[citation needed] The impact of the boycott was mixed. Some events, such as swimming, track and field, boxing, basketball, diving, field hockey and equestrian sports, were hard hit. Athletes from 25 countries won Olympic gold (the same total as in the 1984 Games and one fewer than in the 1976 Games) and competitors from 36 countries became Olympic medalists.[10] Italy won four times more gold medals than they won in Montreal
Montreal
and France multiplied its gold medal tally by three. Romania won more gold medals than it had at any previous Olympics. In terms of total medals, the Moscow
Moscow
Olympics was Ireland's most successful games since Melbourne 1956 (winning 2 medals). The same was true for Great Britain. "Third World" athletes qualified for more events and took more medals than they did at any previous Olympics. Events, records and drug tests overview[edit] There were 203 events – more than at any previous Olympics. 36 World records, 39 European records and 74 Olympic records were set at the games. In total, this was more records than were set at Montreal. New Olympic records were set 241 times over the course of the competitions and world records were beaten 97 times. A 1989 report by a committee of the Australian Senate
Australian Senate
claimed that "there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow
Moscow
Games, certainly not a gold medal winner...who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow
Moscow
Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games".[11] A member of the IOC
IOC
Medical Commission, Manfred Donike, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine. Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official. The results of Donike's unofficial tests later convinced the IOC
IOC
to add his new technique to their testing protocols.[12] The first documented case of "blood doping" occurred at the 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
as a runner was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5000 m and 10,000 m.[13] Media and broadcasting[edit] Major broadcasters of the Games were USSR
USSR
State TV and Radio (1,370 accreditation cards), Eurovision (31 countries, 818 cards) and Intervision (11 countries, 342 cards).[14] TV Asahi
TV Asahi
with 68 cards provided coverage for Japan, while OTI representing Latin America received 59 cards and the Seven Network
Seven Network
provided coverage for Australia (48 cards).[14] NBC, which had intended to be another major broadcaster, canceled its coverage in response to the U.S. boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics, and became a minor broadcaster with 56 accreditation cards,[14] although the network did air highlights and recaps of the games on a regular basis. (ABC aired scenes of the opening ceremony during its Nightline program, and promised highlights each night, but the next night, the show announced that they could not air any highlights as NBC
NBC
still had exclusive broadcast rights in the USA). The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
almost canceled their plans for coverage after Canada took part in the boycott and was represented by nine cards.[14] The television center used 20 television channels, compared to 16 for the Montreal
Montreal
Games, 12 for the Munich
Munich
Games, and seven for the Mexico City Games. During the opening ceremony, Salyut 6
Salyut 6
crew Leonid Popov
Leonid Popov
and Valery Ryumin sent their greetings to the Olympians and wished them happy starts in the live communication between the station and the Central Lenin Stadium. They appeared on the stadium's scoreboard and their voices were translated via loud speakers.[15] Spectators and commemoration[edit]

150-rubles platinum coin (reverse)

The Games attracted five million spectators, an increase of 1.5 million from the Montreal
Montreal
Games. There were 1,245 referees from 78 countries.[citation needed] A series of commemorative coins was released in the USSR
USSR
in 1977–1980 to commemorate the event. It consisted of five platinum coins, six gold coins, 28 silver coins and six copper-nickel coins.[citation needed] Budget[edit] According to the Official Report, submitted to the IOC
IOC
by the NOC of the USSR, total expenditures for the preparations for and staging of the Games were US$1,350,000,000,[16] total revenues being US$231,000,000.[16] Cost[edit] The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Moscow 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
at USD 6.3 billion in 2015 dollars.[17] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Moscow
Moscow
1980 compares with costs of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40-44 billion for Beijing
Beijing
2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion. Opening ceremony[edit] Main article: 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
opening ceremony Highlights of the different events[edit]

1977 USSR
USSR
commemorative stamp issued for the archery event

Archery[edit] Main article: Archery at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Tomi Poikolainen
Tomi Poikolainen
of Finland, who had not finished any of the previous three days' shooting higher than fourth, came from fourth on the last day to win the men's archery competition, scoring 2455 points. He won gold just three points ahead of a Soviet. The women's archery gold was won by Ketevan Losaberidze (USSR) who was also the world, European and Soviet champion. The women's archery silver was won by Natalia Butuzova (USSR). In 1979, she had set nine national records and three world records. The U.S. archery team was one of the strongest ever fielded but due to the boycott the team never had a chance to prove itself. This team held every record and featured 1976 Olympic Champion Darrell O. Pace, who was averaging 100 points more than the winning score in Moscow
Moscow
at the time.

Athletics[edit]

Marathon in front of Saint Basil's Cathedral

Main article: Athletics at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Ethiopian Miruts Yifter
Miruts Yifter
won the 5,000 metres and 10,000 metres athletics double, emulating Lasse Virén's 1972 and 1976 performances. "I have a 90% chance of winning the 1,500 metres" wrote Steve Ovett
Steve Ovett
in an article he did for one of Britain's Sunday papers just before the start of the Olympics. After he won the 800 metres Olympic gold, beating world-record holder Sebastian Coe, Ovett stated that he would not only win the 1,500 metres race, but would beat the world record by as much as four seconds. Ovett had won 45 straight 1,500 metres races since May 1977. In contrast Coe had competed in only eight 1,500 metres races between 1976 and 1980. Coe won the race, holding off Ovett in the final lap. Ovett finished third. Aided by the absence of American opposition, Allan Wells beat Cuban Silvio Leonard to become the first Briton since 1924 to win the Olympic 100 metres race. It was the closest 100 m race at the Olympics in 28 years, ending with a photo finish in which both runners timed at 10.25 seconds.[citation needed] Gerd Wessig
Gerd Wessig
– who had made the East German team only 2 weeks before the Games – easily won the gold medal with a 2.36 metres (7 ft 9 in) high jump. This was 9 cm higher than he had ever jumped before. The 1980 Olympic women's long jump competition produced a surprise when the third string Soviet jumper, Tatiana Kolpakova, bested her compatriots and other competitors by setting a new Olympic record of 7.06 metres (23 ft 2 in). Poland's Władysław Kozakiewicz
Władysław Kozakiewicz
won the pole vault with a jump of 5.78 metres (19 ft 0 in) – only the second pole vaulting world record to be established during an Olympics. The previous time had been at the Antwerp Olympics 1920. In the pole vault competition, despite pleas for silence in three languages, jeers, chants and whistles among the different factions in the crowd supporting French, Soviet and Polish pole vaulters could be heard. Immediately after Kozakiewicz secured his gold medal, he responded to the jeering Soviet crowds with an obscene bent elbow gesture. This gesture is now referred to in Polish as "Kozakiewicz's gesture". In the pole vault an athlete topped the Olympic record by 15 centimetres (6 in), yet finished fourth. Similarly, athletes who broke the Olympic record in men's high jump by 5 centimetres (2 in), the women's long jump by 13 centimetres (5 in), and the women's javelin by 60 centimetres (2 ft), wound up no better than fourth. A total of twelve track and field athletes performed so well that their scores would have won any previous Olympics, yet failed to win a medal at Moscow. In the long jump competition, three women beat 23 feet (7.0 m) for the first time ever in one competition. Waldemar Cierpinski
Waldemar Cierpinski
of the German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
(East Germany) won his second consecutive marathon gold. Bärbel Wöckel, also of the GDR, winner of the 200 metres in Montreal, became the first woman to retain the title. Tatiana Kazankina (USSR) retained the 1,500m title that she had won in Montreal. In the women's pentathlon the Soviet Nadezhda Tkachenko
Nadezhda Tkachenko
scored 5,083 points to become the first athlete to exceed 5,000 points in the event during Olympic competition. Although she won the silver medal in the pentathlon, Olga Rukavishnikova (USSR) held the world record for 0.4 seconds as she finished first in the last event of 800m. That gave her the shortest reign of any world record holder ever. Soviet walker Anatoly Solomin was leading the 20 km walk with one lap to go when he was disqualified. The race was won by a hitherto little known Italian, Maurizio Damilano, in an Olympic record time. For the first time in the history of the Olympics all eight male participants in the long jump final beat the mark of 8 metres (26 ft 3 in). Spain and Bulgaria earned their first ever medals in men's track. Lutz Dombrowski
Lutz Dombrowski
(GDR) won the long jump gold. His was the longest jump recorded at sea level and he became only the second human to jump further than 28 feet (8.5 m). In the triple jump final Viktor Saneyev
Viktor Saneyev
who won gold at Mexico, Munich and Montreal
Montreal
won silver behind his compatriot Jaak Uudmäe. Yuriy Sedykh (USSR) won gold in the hammer throw event. 4 of his 6 throws broke the world record of 80m. No hammer thrower in the world had ever achieved this before. As in Montreal
Montreal
the USSR
USSR
won gold, silver and bronze in this event. Evelin Jahl (GDR) the 1976 Olympic champion won discus gold again. She won with a new Olympic record – 69.96 metres (229 ft 6 in). She had been undefeated since Montreal. Cuba's María Caridad Colón won the women's javelin setting a new Olympic record and beating the favoured Soviet throwers. Sara Simeoni
Sara Simeoni
of Italy won the women's high jump, setting a new Olympic record. She had won a silver in the 1976 Games and would go on to win a silver in the 1984 Games. In track-and-field six world records, eighteen Olympic records and nine best results of the year were registered. In women's track and field events alone either a world or Olympic record was broken in almost every event. Daley Thompson of Great Britain won the gold in the Decathlon. He won gold again at the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Olympics. Soviet Dainis Kula won gold in the men's javelin. He also had the best sum total of throws, showing his consistency. He finished ahead of his teammate Alexander Makarov. IAAF
IAAF
President Adrian Paulen of the Netherlands said "Whereas at the 1976 Games in Montreal
Montreal
the Jury of Appeal had to deal with sixteen protests, the fact remains that in Moscow
Moscow
there were only two. This was the smallest number of protests at any Olympic Games
Olympic Games
since Tokyo 1964".

Basketball[edit] Main article: Basketball at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Basketball was one of the hardest hit sports due to the boycott. Though replacements were found, five men's teams including the defending Olympic Champion United States
United States
withdrew from the competition in addition to the US Women's team. In the Women's competition, the host Soviet Union
Soviet Union
won the competition beating Bulgaria for gold, Yugoslavia won bronze. The Men's competition featured only the second instance of the US Men's Basketball team not winning gold with the first one being in Munich. Yugoslavia took home the gold beating Italy in the final. The hosts, Soviet Union, winners in 1972, won the bronze.

Boxing[edit] Main article: Boxing
Boxing
at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Teófilo Stevenson
Teófilo Stevenson
of Cuba became the first boxer to win three consecutive Olympic titles in heavyweight, and indeed the only boxer to win the same event in three Games. ( László Papp
László Papp
from Hungary was the first boxer to win three titles). In boxing Cuba won six gold, two silvers and two bronzes, a haul only equaled once before in the entire history of the Olympics (by the USA at St. Louis in 1904 when there were hardly any other boxers from other nations present). The USSR
USSR
won one gold medal, the same as Italy, Yugoslavia, East Germany
East Germany
and Bulgaria. The Val Barker Trophy
Val Barker Trophy
is presented by the International Amateur Boxing Association (IABA) to the competitor adjudged to be the best stylist at the Games. The winner was Patrizio Oliva of Italy who won gold at light-welterweight. In his final Oliva defeated Serik Konakbaev (USSR). In 1979 Konakbaev had beaten Oliva in the final of the European Championships. Donald F. Hull, U.S. president of the Amateur International Boxing Federation (IABA) said "I consider the organization of the present boxing tournament to be the best among the last three Olympics".

Canoeing[edit]

All events in canoeing and rowing took place at the Moscow
Moscow
Canoeing and Rowing Basin in Krylatskoye

Main article: Canoeing
Canoeing
at the 1980 Summer Olympics

The prophets of the canoeing world had predicted that the USSR
USSR
would triumph in at least nine of the eleven classes for which there were gold medals to be won at the 1980 Olympic regatta. At Montreal
Montreal
the USSR
USSR
had won six of eleven titles and at Munich
Munich
six out of seven. Uladzimir Parfianovich
Uladzimir Parfianovich
of the USSR
USSR
won three gold medals in canoeing. Sergei Postrekhin (USSR) was favored to win the single canoe 1,000 metres gold but is beaten by Lubomir Lubenov of Bulgaria. In canoeing Australia won its first medal since 1956. Ivan Patzaichin (Romania) won gold medals over a 16-year period,1968–1984. Apart from the boycotted Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Olympics Birgit Fischer
Birgit Fischer
of East Germany won medals in each Olympics from 1980 to 2004. In the 500 metres kayak singles for women she won gold in Moscow, silver in Seoul, gold in Barcelona.

Cycling[edit]

Olympic Velodrome in Krylatskoye

Main article: Cycling at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Lothar Thoms of East Germany
East Germany
won the 1,000-metre individual pursuit cycling gold, breaking the world record by nearly four seconds. The surprise winner of the bronze in that race was Jamaica's David Weller who also broke the sixteen-year-old world record. In the 4,000-metre team pursuit qualifying heats new world indoor records were set eight times. In the 4,000-metre individual pursuit the Olympic flag was flown for all three medal winning positions – Switzerland gold, France silver, Denmark bronze. Robert Dill-Bundi became the first Olympic champion in the history of Swiss cycling. The 189-kilometer individual road race gold was won by Sergei Sukhoruchenkov (USSR). British team manager Peter Crinnon called it "The greatest exhibition of power riding ever". Sukhoruchenkov is voted best racer in the world by the International Amateur Cycling Federation. In this race only a photo-finish can tell the next two finishers apart, giving the silver medal to the Polish cyclist and the bronze to a Soviet cyclist. The cycling team road race is won by the Soviet team as they had done in Munich
Munich
and Montreal. In cycling world records were toppled 21 times.

Diving[edit] Main article: Diving at the 1980 Summer Olympics

As Aleksandr Portnov waited to do a 2 and ½ reverse somersault in the springboard final, cheers broke out in three adjoining swimming pool during the closing stages of Salnikov's world record breaking 1,500m swim. The diver delayed his start until the noise had subsided but, as he took his first steps along the board, even greater cheers broke out as Salnikov touched in under 15 minutes. Under the rules Portnov, having started, could not stop before take-off. He crashed badly. On protest to the Swedish referee G.Olander he was allowed to repeat the dive and went ahead again of Mexico's Carlos Girón. Later protests by Mexico against the re-dive and by East Germany
East Germany
that their Falk Hoffmann wanted to re-dive after allegedly being disturbed by photographic flashlights were both turned down by the International Amateur Swimming Federation (FINA). FINA President Javier Ostas of Mexico stated that the decision taken by the Swedish referee was the "correct one. FINA assessed all the Olympic diving events and considers the judging to have been objective". Portnov remained the winner with Giron taking silver and Cagnotto of Italy bronze. Martina Jaschke (East Germany) was fourth after the preliminary high dives, behind two Soviets and a Mexican, but came back to win gold on the second day of competition. Irina Kalinina (USSR) won gold in the springboard final. As a result of her ten dives in the preliminaries she amassed a unique number of points: 478.86. In the previous four years no diver had scored so many. In this final the Mexican judge A. Marsikal allowed Karin Guthke (East Germany) to re-take a dive. Guthke then won bronze ahead of the Soviet Zhanna Tsirulnikova.

Equestrian[edit] Main article: Equestrian at the 1980 Summer Olympics

In the individual show jumping event Poland's Jan Kowalczyk
Jan Kowalczyk
and the USSR's Nikolai Korolkov each had 8 faults, but Kowalczyk won gold as his horse completed the course the quicker. So Poland won the last of the 203 gold medals contested. Austrian horsewoman Elisabeth Theurer, despite the decision of the federation of equestrian sports of her country not to participate in the Olympics, was flown to Moscow
Moscow
by former racing driver Niki Lauda. Theurer won the gold medal in the dressage competition. The oldest medalist at the Moscow
Moscow
Olympics was Petre Rosca (Romania) in the dressage at 57 years 283 days.

Fencing[edit] Main article: Fencing at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Soviet foil fencers, who had taken possession of all the World and Olympic titles, were not among the six challengers in the finals. The Soviet five-time world champion Alexander Romankov
Alexander Romankov
won a bronze. France took four gold medals in fencing, an Olympic record in the post World War II era. In the team sabre fencing final, for the fifth Olympics in a row, Italy and the USSR
USSR
met. The USSR
USSR
won as they did in Tokyo, Mexico and Montreal. In the men's foil final the USSR
USSR
and France record eight wins each but the Frenchmen made more hits and this won them the gold.

Football[edit] Main article: Football at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Pins released by the USSR
USSR
for the football event of the Olympics (with a British 50 pence coin for size comparison)

The USSR
USSR
were favorites to win gold in football but won bronze instead. Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
won the gold medal beating German Democratic Republic (East Germany) 1:0 in the final. After many years in the doldrums, Olympic football had a revival in 1980 when the matches attracted nearly 2 million spectators. Football was held in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev
Kiev
Ukraine, Minsk
Minsk
Belarus, at the time Ukraine and Belarus were Soviet republics.

Gymnastics[edit] Main article: Gymnastics at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Soviet gymnast Alexander Dityatin won a medal in each of the eight gymnastics events, including three titles. He was the first athlete to win eight medals at an Olympics. He scored several 10s, the first perfect scores in men's gymnastics since the 1924 Paris Olympics. Nikolai Andrianov
Nikolai Andrianov
who had won gold on floor at both Munich
Munich
and Montreal
Montreal
was pipped this time by Roland Bruckner of East Germany. Andrianov retained the vault title he had won in Montreal. Zoltán Magyar
Zoltán Magyar
(Hungary) retained the Olympic title on pommel horse that he had won in Montreal. He was also 3 times World champion and 3 times European champion on this piece of apparatus. In women's gymnastics the USSR
USSR
won one medal in the All-Around competition. In each Olympics before this they had won minimally two and in Rome 1960 had won all three. In the Friendship Games
Friendship Games
at Olomouc and at Seoul
Seoul
1988 they would again win two. In the Team Competition they won the gold medal for the eighth time, continuing the "gold" series started in 1952. In the women's gymnastics event finals, a Romanian gymnast medals on each piece of apparatus for the first time:

Balance Beam – Nadia Comăneci
Nadia Comăneci
(gold) Floor – Nadia Comăneci
Nadia Comăneci
(gold) Uneven Bar – Emilia Eberle
Emilia Eberle
(silver) & Melita Ruhn
Melita Ruhn
(bronze) Vault – Melita Ruhn
Melita Ruhn
(bronze)

In women's gymnastics there was a judging scandal when the Romanian head judge refused to post the score of her fellow Romanian Nadia Comăneci. This score gave Comăneci a silver medal behind Yelena Davydova of the USSR, but the Romanian judge, Mili Simionescu, tried to persuade the other judges to increase Comaneci's score so that she would win gold. After the Olympics, Simionescu was severely criticized by the International Gymnastics Federation. Before the Los Angeles Olympics, the United States
United States
gymnastics federation proposed a change in the rules so that a head judge cannot interfere and meddle in the scoring of competitors.

Handball[edit]

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
handball men's team celebrating their victory over Yugoslavia. RIAN
RIAN
photo.

Main article: Handball at the 1980 Summer Olympics

In the men's event East Germany
East Germany
beat the USSR
USSR
23–22 in the handball final to take their first medal of any sort. In the women's tournament USSR
USSR
won all its matches and retain the Olympic handball title. Yugoslavia and East Germany
East Germany
gain silver and bronze medal respectively.

Field hockey[edit] Main articles: Field hockey at the 1980 Summer Olympics and Zimbabwe women's national field hockey team at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Women's field hockey was an Olympic sport for the first time. Six countries competed: Austria, India, Poland, Czechoslovakia, USSR, and Zimbabwe. The gold medal was won by the team of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
ahead of the firm favorites of the USSR
USSR
who won bronze. Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
did not learn it would get a place in the tournament until 35 days before the Games began and chose its team only the weekend before the opening ceremony. None of their players had prior playing experience on an artificial surface. They had not trained at all together before the tournament and warmed up by playing some friendly matches with different Soviet club teams. India won a record eighth title in men's field hockey.

Judo[edit] Main article: Judo at the 1980 Summer Olympics

In Japan's absence, the USSR
USSR
was expected to improve its showing in judo but wound up with five medals, the same as Montreal, despite the fact that there were two more weight categories. Fifteen countries shared the medals in judo, more than the record twelve countries in Munich
Munich
and Montreal.

Modern Pentathlon[edit] Main article: Modern Pentathlon at the 1980 Summer Olympics

In the men's Pentathlon Anatoly Starostin (USSR) became the youngest ever Olympic champion in this sport. 26 competitors scored over 5,000 points. In Munich
Munich
12 topped this mark and in Montreal
Montreal
21. It was the first time ever at either a world championship or an Olympics that as many as eight teams topped the 15,000-point level. In the modern pentathlon George Horvath (Sweden) recorded a perfect score in the pistol shoot. It had been achieved only once before, at the 1936 Olympics.

Rowing[edit] Main article: Rowing at the 1980 Summer Olympics

East Germany
East Germany
dominated rowing, winning eleven of the fourteen titles. The East German men won seven out of eight events, foiled from achieving a clean sweep by Pertti Karppinen
Pertti Karppinen
of Finland (who defended his Olympic title from Montreal). East German women won four of their six events. The Soviets had been expected to win most of these titles considering their success at Munich
Munich
and Montreal. The East German women's eights team win gold despite only having been selected three months before the Olympics began. In the rowing eights with coxswain the British team win silver just 0.74 seconds behind East Germany. The Britons had never rowed together before the Olympic trials and had only ten weeks to prepare for Moscow. The stroke, Richard Stanhope, had never stroked on an eight-man shell before and in the final their steering broke.

Sailing[edit] Main article: Sailing at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Sailing event was held in Tallinn, Estonia which was at the time one of the Soviet republics. Soviet sailor Valentyn Mankin
Valentyn Mankin
won a gold medal in "Star" class. He won Olympic champion titles in "Finn" and "Tempest" classes before, and as of 2007[update] remains the only sailor in Olympic history to win gold medals in three different classes. Finland (gold) won its first gold Olympic yachting medal and Ireland (silver) won its first ever Olympic yachting medal. The USSR
USSR
had its worst Olympic regatta since Mexico City 1968. In 1980, the medals were awarded to yachtsmen from twelve countries, the widest medal distribution in the sport at an Olympics.

Shooting[edit] Main article: Shooting at the 1980 Summer Olympics

The three-day skeet shooting marathon was won by Hans Kjeld Rasmussen of Denmark, the second Olympic gold for Danish shooters since the 1900 Paris Games. In the smallbore rifle, prone event, Hungarian Károly Varga captured the gold and equalled the world record despite having broken his shooting hand just prior to the competition.

Swimming[edit] Main article: Swimming at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Rica Reinisch
Rica Reinisch
with her gold medal in 200 m

Vladimir Salnikov
Vladimir Salnikov
(USSR) won three gold medals in swimming. He became the first man in history to break the 15-minute barrier in the 1500 metre freestyle, swimming's equivalent of breaking the four-minute mile. He missed the 1984 Games because of the boycott but won gold again in this event at Seoul
Seoul
1988. Salnikov also won gold in the 4 × 200 m relay and the 400m freestyle. In the 400m freestyle he set a new Olympic record which was just eleven-hundredths of a second outside his own world record. In the Montreal
Montreal
final of the 400m freestyle the seventh and eighth place finalists finished in over four minutes. In Moscow
Moscow
sixteen swimmers finished in under four minutes and eight of them did not make the final. Duncan Goodhew of Great Britain won the 100 metres breaststroke, beating Miskarov, a strongly favoured Soviet, into second place by half a second. Sweden's Bengt Baron, participating in his first major international competition, won gold in the 100 meter backstroke ahead of two Soviets. In the men's 4 × 100 metres medley relay each of the eight teams taking part in the final broke its country's national record. The first Australian gold since 1972 came in the 4 × 100 men's medley relay.[18] The Australians had been expecting to win silver behind the hot favourites from the USSR
USSR
but with Neil Brooks
Neil Brooks
swimming the final leg, the Australians swam the second-fastest time in history. East German women dominated the swimming events, winning nine of eleven individual titles, both the relays and setting 6 world records. They also won all three medals in six different races. In total they won 26 of the available 35 medals. As it was revealed later, their results were aided by the state-sponsored doping system. Barbara Krause
Barbara Krause
(East Germany) became the first woman to go under 55 seconds for the 100 m freestyle. Backstroker Rica Reinisch
Rica Reinisch
(East Germany) was 20th in the world rankings for 100m in 1979 and not in the top 100 for the 200 m. At the Olympics she broke the world records in both distances winning golds. In the 100m butterfly Caren Metschuk (East Germany) beats her more experienced teammate Andrea Pollack
Andrea Pollack
to win gold. Petra Schneider
Petra Schneider
(East Germany) shaved three seconds off the world record in the 400m medley. As in Montreal
Montreal
the Soviet women made a clean sweep of the medals in the 200m breaststroke. The title in this event was won by Lina Kačiušytė. Yulia Bogdanova (USSR), the 1978 world champion in the 100m breaststroke, did not qualify for the Olympic final in that event; the title in this event was won by Ute Geweniger. The Soviet women swimmers in the 4 × 100 metres freestyle relay were disqualified. Michelle Ford (Australia) won the 800m freestyle more than four seconds ahead of her East German rivals. In swimming 230 national, 22 Olympic and ten World records were set. Poland won its first ever swimming medal. The youngest male gold medallist of these Olympics was Hungarian backstroke swimmer Sándor Wladár, 17 years and 1 week old.

Volleyball[edit] Main article: Volleyball at the 1980 Summer Olympics

The prominent nation in both volleyball competitions was the USSR; only once had their teams failed to reach the final. The Soviet men and women had lost only six games between them in the five Olympics since volleyball was incorporated into the list of Olympic sports
Olympic sports
at Tokyo 1964.

Water polo[edit] Main article: Water polo at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Hungary won a bronze medal in water polo. This continued their run of always winning a medal in this event since 1928.

Weightlifting[edit] Main article: Weightlifting at the 1980 Summer Olympics

The standard of weightlifting was the highest in the history of the Olympics. There were eighteen senior world records, two junior world records, more than 100 Olympic records and 108 national records set. The oldest of weightlifting's Olympic records – the snatch in the lightweight class set in 1964 – was bettered thirteen times. 56 kg: Daniel Núñez (Cuba) won gold ahead of the favourite Yurik Sarkisian (USSR). 60 kg: Viktor Mazin
Viktor Mazin
(USSR), holder of all the world records in this class, was the expected winner with a new Olympic record total. But if only Marek Sewelyn (Poland) had succeeded with his last jerk, he would have scored a surprise win. After fixing the 162.5 kg bar overhead, he let it fall while making a faulty recovery. 90 kg: After the 1976 Olympic champion and undisputed favourite, David Rigert
David Rigert
(USSR) failed to register a snatch, Peter Baczako (Hungary) became the surprise winner. Yurik Vardanyan
Yurik Vardanyan
(USSR) became the first middleweight to total more than 400 kg. In the super heavyweight class Vasily Alexeyev
Vasily Alexeyev
(USSR) Olympic champion at Munich
Munich
and Montreal, eight-time world champion and who in his career set 80 world records, failed to make a single lift. The new category in weightlifting – up to 100 kg – was won by Ota Zaremba of Czechoslovakia.

Wrestling[edit] Main article: Wrestling at the 1980 Summer Olympics

In Greco-Roman wrestling Ferenc Kocsis
Ferenc Kocsis
of Hungary was declared the winner of the 163 pound class when the Olympic and Soviet defending champion Anatoly Bykov was disqualified for passivity. 1980 witnessed the first ever "Graeco" to win a Greco-Roman title at an Olympics; Greece's Stilianos Migiakis took the gold in the featherweight division. In the 106 pound freestyle wrestling final Italy's Claudio Pollio put Soviet grappler and twice world champion Sergei Kornilaev to the mat to take an unexpected gold on point standings. None of the experts rated the Bulgarian welterweight freestyle wrestler Valentin Raitchev. He had no experience of international competition but won gold. The Soviet national head coach said that Nikolai Balboshin – the reigning Olympic champion from Montreal
Montreal
– was unbeatable in his heavyweight division. However Balboshin failed to win a medal.

Closing ceremony[edit] Main article: 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
closing ceremony Because of the U.S. boycott, changes were made to the traditional elements of the closing ceremony that represent the handover to the host city of the next Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Among them, the flag of the city of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
instead of the United States
United States
flag was raised, and the Olympic Anthem
Olympic Anthem
instead of the national anthem of the United States
United States
was played. There was also no "Antwerp Ceremony", where the ceremonial Olympic flag was transferred from the Mayor of Moscow to the Mayor of Los Angeles; instead the flag was kept by the Moscow city authorities until 1984. Furthermore, there was no next host city presentation. Both the opening and closing ceremonies were shown in Yuri Ozerov's 1981 film Oh, Sport – You Are the World! (Russian: О спорт, ты – мир!). Venues[edit] Main article: Venues of the 1980 Summer Olympics

Central Lenin Stadium area

Grand Arena² – opening/closing ceremonies, athletics, football (final), equestrian (jumping individual) Minor Arena² – volleyball Swimming Pool² – water polo Sports Palace² – gymnastics, judo Druzhba Multipurpose Arena¹ – volleyball Streets of Moscow
Moscow
– Athletics (20 & 50 km walk, marathon)

Olympiysky Sports Complex

Indoor Stadium¹ – basketball (final), boxing Swimming Pool¹ – swimming, diving, modern pentathlon (swimming), water polo (final)

CSKA (Central Sports Club of the Army) Sports Complex

CSKA Athletics Fieldhouse, Central Sports Club of the Army¹ – wrestling CSKA Football Fieldhouse, Central Sports Club of the Army¹ – fencing, modern pentathlon (fencing) CSKA Palace of Sports¹ – basketball

Venues in metropolitan Moscow

Dynamo Central Stadium, Grand Arena² – football preliminaries Dynamo Central Stadium, Minor Arena² – field hockey Young Pioneers Stadium² – field hockey (final) Dynamo Palace of Sports¹, Khimki-Khovrino – handball Trade Unions' Equestrian Complex¹ – equestrian, modern pentathlon (riding, running) Izmailovo Sports Palace¹ – weightlifting Sokolniki Sports Palace² – handball (final) Dynamo Shooting Range², Mytishchi – shooting, modern pentathlon (shooting)

Krylatskoye Sports Complex

Krylatskoye Sports Complex Canoeing
Canoeing
and Rowing Basin², Krylatskoye – canoeing, rowing Krylatskoye Sports Complex Velodrome¹, Krylatskoye – cycling (track) Krylatskoye Sports Complex Cycling Circuit – cycling (individual road race) Krylatskoye Sports Complex Archery Field¹, Krylatskoye – archery

Venues outside Moscow

Moscow- Minsk
Minsk
Highway – cycling (road team time trial) Kirov Stadium², Leningrad, Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
– football preliminaries Dinamo Stadium², Minsk, Byelorussian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
– football preliminaries Republican Stadium², Kiev, Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
– football preliminaries Olympic Regatta in Tallinn¹, Tallinn, Estonian SSR
Estonian SSR
– sailing

¹ New facilities constructed in preparation for the Olympic Games. ² Existing facilities modified or refurbished in preparation for the Olympic Games. Medals awarded[edit] The 1980 Summer Olympic programme featured 203 events in the following 21 sports:

Aquatics

Diving (4) Swimming (26) Water polo (1)

Archery (2) Athletics (38) Basketball (2) Boxing
Boxing
(11)

Canoeing
Canoeing
(11) Cycling

Road (2) Track (4)

Equestrian

Dressage (2) Eventing (2) Show jumping (2)

Fencing (8) Football (1) Gymnastics (14) Handball (2) Field hockey
Field hockey
(2) Judo (8) Modern pentathlon (2) Rowing (14)

Sailing (6) Shooting (7) Volleyball (2) Weightlifting (10) Wrestling

Freestyle (10) Greco-Roman (10)

Calendar[edit]

All times are in Moscow
Moscow
Time (UTC+3)

 ●  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  ●  Event finals  ●  Closing ceremony

Date July August

19th Sat 20th Sun 21st Mon 22nd Tue 23rd Wed 24th Thu 25th Fri 26th Sat 27th Sun 28th Mon 29th Tue 30th Wed 31st Thu 1st Fri 2nd Sat 3rd Sun

Archery

● ●

Athletics

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Basketball

● ●

Boxing

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Canoeing

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Cycling

● ●

Diving

Equestrian

● ●

● ●

Fencing

● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Field hockey

Football (soccer)

Gymnastics

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Handball

● ●

Judo

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Modern pentathlon

● ●

Rowing

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Sailing

● ● ● ● ● ●

Shooting

● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Swimming

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Volleyball

Water polo

Weightlifting

● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ●

Wrestling

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Total gold medals

5 7 10 12 19 15 22 22 10 16 14 11 19 20 1

Ceremonies ●

Date 19th Sat 20th Sun 21st Mon 22nd Tue 23rd Wed 24th Thu 25th Fri 26th Sat 27th Sun 28th Mon 29th Tue 30th Wed 31st Thu 1st Fri 2nd Sat 3rd Sun

July August

Medal count[edit] Main article: 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
medal table This is a list of all nations that won medals at the 1980 Games.

A "bronze" medal – actually tombac – from the 1980 Summer Olympics

To sort this table by nation, total medal count, or any other column, click on the icon next to the column title.   *   Host nation (Soviet Union)

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total

1  Soviet Union (URS)* 80 69 46 195

2  East Germany (GDR) 47 37 42 126

3  Bulgaria (BUL) 8 16 17 41

4  Cuba (CUB) 8 7 5 20

5  Italy (ITA) 8 3 4 15

6  Hungary (HUN) 7 10 15 32

7  Romania (ROU) 6 6 13 25

8  France (FRA) 6 5 3 14

9  Great Britain (GBR) 5 7 9 21

10  Poland (POL) 3 14 15 32

11  Sweden (SWE) 3 3 6 12

12  Finland (FIN) 3 1 4 8

13  Czechoslovakia (TCH) 2 3 9 14

14  Yugoslavia (YUG) 2 3 4 9

15  Australia (AUS) 2 2 5 9

16  Denmark (DEN) 2 1 2 5

17  Brazil (BRA) 2 0 2 4

 Ethiopia (ETH) 2 0 2 4

19  Switzerland (SUI) 2 0 0 2

20  Spain (ESP) 1 3 2 6

21  Austria (AUT) 1 2 1 4

22  Greece (GRE) 1 0 2 3

23  Belgium (BEL) 1 0 0 1

 India (IND) 1 0 0 1

 Zimbabwe (ZIM) 1 0 0 1

26  North Korea (PRK) 0 3 2 5

27  Mongolia (MGL) 0 2 2 4

28  Tanzania (TAN) 0 2 0 2

29  Mexico (MEX) 0 1 3 4

30  Netherlands (NED) 0 1 2 3

31  Ireland (IRL) 0 1 1 2

32  Uganda (UGA) 0 1 0 1

 Venezuela (VEN) 0 1 0 1

34  Jamaica (JAM) 0 0 3 3

35  Guyana (GUY) 0 0 1 1

 Lebanon (LIB) 0 0 1 1

Total (36 NOCs) 204 204 223 631

List of participating countries and regions[edit] In the following list, the number in parentheses indicates the number of athletes from each nation that competed in Moscow. Nations in italics competed under the Olympic flag (or, in the cases of New Zealand, Portugal and Spain, under the flags of their respective National Olympic Committees):

Number of athletes sent per nation

Participating National Olympic Committees

 Afghanistan (11)  Algeria (59)  Andorra (2)  Angola (13)  Australia (126)  Austria (89)  Belgium (61)  Benin (17)  Botswana (7)  Brazil (109)  Bulgaria (295)  Burma (2)  Cameroon (26)  Colombia (23)  Congo (23)  Costa Rica (30)  Cuba (216)  Cyprus (14)  Czechoslovakia (216)  Denmark (63)  Dominican Republic (6)  Ecuador (11)  Ethiopia (41)  Finland (124)  France (125)  East Germany (362)  Great Britain (231)  Greece (42)  Guatemala (10)  Guinea (9)  Guyana (8)  Hungary (279)  Iceland (9)  India (74)  Iraq (44)  Ireland (48)  Italy (163)  Jamaica (18)  Jordan (4)  North Korea (50)  Kuwait (58)  Laos (20)  Liberia (7)Note[›]  Lebanon (17)  Lesotho (5)  Libya (32)  Luxembourg (3)  Madagascar (11)  Mali (7)  Malta (8)  Mexico (45)  Mongolia (43)  Mozambique (14)  Nepal (11)  Netherlands (86)  New Zealand (4)  Nicaragua (5)  Nigeria (44)  Peru (30)  Poland (320)  Portugal (11)  Puerto Rico (3)  Romania (243)  San Marino (17)  Senegal (32)  Seychelles (11)  Sierra Leone (14)  Spain (159)  Sri Lanka (4)  Sweden (148)  Switzerland (84)  Syria (69)  Tanzania (41)  Trinidad and Tobago (9)  Uganda (13)  Soviet Union (506) (host)  Venezuela (38)  Vietnam (30)  Yugoslavia (162)  Zambia (40)  Zimbabwe (46)

^ Note:  Liberia with seven athletes, withdrew after marching in the Opening Ceremony and took part in the boycott.

See also[edit]

1980s portal Russia
Russia
portal Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal Moscow
Moscow
portal

Olympics portal

1980 Summer Paralympics 1980 Winter Paralympics 1980 Winter Olympics Olympic Games
Olympic Games
with significant boycotts

1976 Summer Olympics
1976 Summer Olympics
Montreal
Montreal
– African boycott 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
Moscow
Moscow
– United States-led boycott 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
– Soviet-led boycott

Summer Olympic Games Olympic Games International Olympic Committee List of IOC
IOC
country codes Use of performance-enhancing drugs in the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
– 1980 Moscow

References[edit]

^ a b c d e 1980 Moskva Summer Games. sports-reference.com ^ a b " Moscow
Moscow
1980". Olympic.org. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 8 August 2010.  ^ Cousineau, Phil (2003). The Olympic Odyssey: Rekindling the True Spirit of the Great Games. Quest Books. p. 162. ISBN 0835608336.  ^ " IOC
IOC
Vote History". Aldaver.com. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  ^ a b "The Olympic Boycott, 1980". state.gov. U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 4 February 2010. Retrieved 7 December 2015.  ^ "Partial Boycott – New IOC
IOC
President". Keesing's Record of World Events. 26: 30599. December 1980.  ^ Freedman, Robert O.; Moscow
Moscow
and the Middle East: Soviet Policy since the Invasion of Afghanistan, p. 78 ISBN 0-521-35976-7 ^ "The Soviet Doping Plan: Document Reveals Illicit Approach to '84 Olympics". nytimes.com. August 13, 2016. Retrieved November 13, 2017.  ^ "New Zealand Olympic Committee". Olympic.org.nz. Archived from the original on 2 May 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2010.  ^ Kubatko, Justin. "1980 Moskava Summer Games". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 20 August 2010.  ^ "Doping violations at the Olympics". economist.com. Retrieved 7 June 2017.  ^ Wilson, Wayne (Ph.D.); Derse, Ed (2001). Doping in Élite Sport: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Movement. Human Kinetics. pp. 77–. ISBN 978-0-7360-0329-2. Retrieved 19 July 2012.  ^ Sytkowski, Arthur J. (May 2006). Erythropoietin: Blood, Brain and Beyond. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 187–. ISBN 978-3-527-60543-9. Retrieved 19 July 2012.  ^ a b c d 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
Official Report from the Organizing Committee Archived 22 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine., vol. 2, p. 379 ^ (in Russian) История >> Москва-1980. olymp2004.rambler.ru ^ a b "Official Report of the XXII Olympiad Moscow
Moscow
1980" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. 1981. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9–13. SSRN 2804554 .  ^ "Norman May on australianscreen online". Retrieved 3 March 2011. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1980 Summer Olympics.

" Moscow
Moscow
1980". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  "Results and Medalists". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  Official Report from the Organizing Committee (3 volumes) (in Russian) Theme songs of the 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
– lyrics and links to MP3 files Moscow
Moscow
Life: A retrospective of the 1980 Moscow
Moscow
Olympics

Further reading[edit]

John Goodbody, The Illustrated History of Gymnastics, 1982, ISBN 0-09-143350-9. Bill Henry, An Approved History of the Olympic Games, ISBN 0-88284-243-9. The Olympic Games, 1984, Lord Killanin and John Rodda, ISBN 0-00-218062-6. Stan Greenberg, Whitakers Olympic Almanack, 2004 ISBN 0-7136-6724-9. Olympics 1984, produced by Philips International B.V. Chronicle of the Olympics, ISBN 0-7894-2312-X. Peter Arnold, The Olympic Games, ISBN 0-603-03068-8 Official British Olympic Association Report of the 1980 Games, published 1981, ISSN 0143-4799

Boycott[edit]

Corthorn, Paul (2013). "The Cold War and British debates over the boycott of the 1980 Moscow
Moscow
Olympics". Cold War History. 13 (1): 43–66. doi:10.1080/14682745.2012.727799.  Evelyn Mertin, The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
of 1980 and 1984: Explaining Boycotts to their Own People. In: S. Wagg/D. Andrews (Eds.) East plays West. Sport and the Cold War, 2007, Oxon: Routledge, pp. 235–252, ISBN 978-0-415-35927-6.

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