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Year 197 ( CXCVII) was a
common year starting on Saturday A common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a lunisolar calendar, a month) added ...
(link will display the full calendar) of the
Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in , was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on , by edict. It was designed with the aid of Greek mathematics, Greek mathematicians and Ancient Greek astronomy, astronomers such as Sosige ...
. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Magius and Rufinus (or, less frequently, year 950 ''
Ab urbe condita 300px, Antoninianus of Pacatianus, Roman usurper, usurper of Roman emperor Philip the Arab, Philip in 248. It reads ''ROMAE AETERANMIL ESIMOET PRIMO'', 'To eternal Rome, in its one thousand and first year.' ''Ab urbe condita'' ( ...
''). The denomination 197 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the
Anno Domini The terms (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a ...
calendar era A calendar era is the period of time elapsed since one ''epoch'' of a calendar and, if it exists, before the next one. For example, it is the year as per the Gregorian calendar, which numbers its years in the Western Christian era (the Coptic Ort ...
became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


Events


By place


Roman Empire

*
February 19 Events Pre-1600 * 197 – Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus (; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211) was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. He was born in Leptis Magna (present day Al-Khums, Libya) in the Roman province of Afri ...
Battle of Lugdunum The Battle of Lugdunum, also called the Battle of Lyon, was fought on February 19, 197 at Lugdunum (modern Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ; it, Lione, ) is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, third-largest c ...
:
Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), m ...

Emperor
Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus (; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211) was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. He was born in Leptis Magna (present day Al-Khums, Libya) in the Roman province of Africa (Roman province), Africa. As a young man he advanced throu ...
defeats the self-proclaimed emperor
Clodius Albinus Decimus Clodius Albinus (c. 150 – 19 February 197) was a Roman general, senator and usurper A usurper is an illegitimate or controversial claimant to power, often but not always in a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government ...

Clodius Albinus
at
Lugdunum Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (; modern Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ; it, Lione, ) is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located ...
(modern
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ; it, Lione, ) is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about ...

Lyon
). Albinus commits
suicide Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death (1906) Death is the permanent, Irreversible process, irreversible cessation of all biological process, biological functions that sustain a living organism. Brain death is some ...

suicide
;
legionaries A recreation of Roman legionaries wearing the '' lorica segmentata'', 1st–3rd century The Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman p ...
sack the town. * Septimius Severus returns to
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...
and has about 30 of Albinus's supporters in the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
executed. After his victory he declares himself the adopted son of the late
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a Roman emperor The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variet ...

Marcus Aurelius
. * Septimius Severus forms new
naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized a ...
units, manning all the
trireme A trireme (, ; derived from Latin: ''trirēmis'' "with three banks of oars"; 'triērēs'', ''literally "three-rower") was an ancient vessel and a type of galley A galley is a type of ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the w ...

trireme
s in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...

Italy
with heavily armed troops for war in the East. His soldiers embark on an artificial
canal Canals are waterways channels Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path of a narrow body of water. Australia * C ...

canal
between the
Tigris The Tigris, () is the eastern of the two great river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end ...

Tigris
and
Euphrates The Euphrates () is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Tigris–Euphrates river system, Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (the "Land Between the Rivers"). Or ...
. * Legio I, II, and III ''Parthica'' are levied by Septimius Severus for his
Parthia Parthia ( peo, 𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 ''Parθava''; xpr, 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 ''Parθaw''; pal, 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 ''Pahlaw'') is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and official ...

Parthia
n campaign. * The
Roman army The Roman army (Latin language, Latin: ) was the armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic (500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC–395 AD), and it ...

Roman army
marches east to repel a Parthian invasion of
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
; they loot the royal palace at
Ctesiphon Ctesiphon ( ; Middle Persian: 𐭲𐭩𐭮𐭯𐭥𐭭 ''tyspwn'' or ''tysfwn''; fa, تیسفون; grc-gre, Κτησιφῶν, ; syr, ܩܛܝܣܦܘܢThomas A. Carlson et al., “Ctesiphon — ܩܛܝܣܦܘܢ ” in The Syriac Gazetteer last modif ...

Ctesiphon
and capture an enormous number of its inhabitants as
slaves Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person (a slaver), while treated as property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...
. * Septimius Severus reconstitutes the Province of
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
under an equestrian
governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...

governor
commanding two . * Septimius Severus, who had spared the Senate at the beginning of his reign, now excludes it from controlling the
Roman empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Roman Republic, Republican period of ancient Rome. As a polity it included large territorial holdings aro ...

Roman empire
by declaring a military
dictatorship A dictatorship is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature ...
.


Asia

* Battle of Wancheng: Zhang Xiu (warlord), Zhang Xiu launches a surprise attack at Cao Cao. * Yuan Shu declares himself emperor of the short-lived Zhong dynasty. * Sansang of Goguryeo, Sansang becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo.


By topic


Art and Science

* Galen, Galen's major work on medicines, ''Pharmacologia'', is published.


Religion

* A Christianity, Christian council is held in Edessa, Mesopotamia, Edessa.


Births

* Empress Cao (Han dynasty), Cao, Chinese empress of the Han dynasty, Han Dynasty (d. 260) * Deng Ai, Chinese general of the Cao Wei state (d. 264)


Deaths

*
February 19 Events Pre-1600 * 197 – Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus (; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211) was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. He was born in Leptis Magna (present day Al-Khums, Libya) in the Roman province of Afri ...
Clodius Albinus Decimus Clodius Albinus (c. 150 – 19 February 197) was a Roman general, senator and usurper A usurper is an illegitimate or controversial claimant to power, often but not always in a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government ...

Clodius Albinus
, Roman general and usurper * Cao Ang (or Zixiu), eldest son of Cao Cao (b. 177) * Dian Wei, Chinese general serving under Cao Cao * Gaius Julius Erucius Clarus Vibianus, Roman politician * Gogukcheon of Goguryeo, Korean ruler of Goguryeo * Guo Si (or Guo Duo), Chinese general and regent * Li Jue (Han dynasty), Li Jue, Chinese general serving under Dong Zhuo * Liu Chong (Prince Min of Chen), Liu Chong, Chinese nobleman and Prince of Chen Commandery, Chen * Titus Flavius Claudius Sulpicianus, Roman statesman * Yang Feng, Chinese general serving under Li Jue


References

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