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The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in London, United Kingdom. After a twelve-year hiatus caused by the outbreak of World War II; these were the first Summer Olympics held since the 1936 Games in Berlin. The 1940 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
had been scheduled for Tokyo, and then for Helsinki; the 1944 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
had been provisionally planned for London. This was the second occasion that London
London
had hosted the Olympic Games, having previously hosted them in 1908, forty years earlier. The Olympics would again return to London
London
64 years later in 2012, making London
London
the first city to have hosted the games three times, and the only such city until Paris
Paris
and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
host their third games in 2024 and 2028, respectively. The 1948 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
were the first of two summer Olympic Games
Olympic Games
held under the IOC presidency of Sigfrid Edström. The event came to be known as the Austerity
Austerity
Games, because of the difficult economic climate and rationing imposed in the aftermath of World War II. No new venues were built for the games (with events taking place mainly at Wembley
Wembley
Stadium and the Empire Pool at Wembley Park), and athletes were housed in existing accommodation at the Wembley
Wembley
area instead of an Olympic Village, as were the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games
Olympic Games
and the subsequent 1952 Games. A record 59 nations were represented by 4,104 athletes, 3,714 men and 390 women, in 19 sport disciplines. Germany
Germany
and Japan
Japan
were not invited to participate in the games, however, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was invited but chose not to send any athletes. The United States team won the most total medals, 84, and the most gold medals, 38. The host nation won 23 medals, three of them gold. One of the star performers at the Games was Dutch sprinter Fanny Blankers-Koen. Dubbed "The Flying Housewife", the thirty-year-old mother of two won four gold medals in athletics. In the decathlon, American Bob Mathias
Bob Mathias
became the youngest male ever to win an Olympic gold medal at the age of seventeen. The most individual medals were won by Veikko Huhtanen
Veikko Huhtanen
of Finland who took three golds, a silver and a bronze in men's gymnastics.

Contents

1 Election as host city 2 Organization 3 Opening ceremony 4 Sports and events

4.1 Athletics 4.2 Arts 4.3 Basketball 4.4 Boxing 4.5 Canoeing 4.6 Cycling 4.7 Diving 4.8 Equestrian 4.9 Fencing 4.10 Field hockey 4.11 Football 4.12 Gymnastics 4.13 Lacrosse 4.14 Modern pentathlon 4.15 Rowing 4.16 Sailing 4.17 Shooting 4.18 Swimming 4.19 Water polo 4.20 Weightlifting 4.21 Wrestling

5 Political defection 6 Filming in colour 7 Venues 8 Participating NOCs

8.1 Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees (by highest to lowest)

9 Medal count 10 See also 11 Notes 12 External links

Election as host city[edit] In June 1939, the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) awarded the 1944 Olympic Summer Games to London, ahead of Rome, Detroit, Budapest, Lausanne, Helsinki, Montreal
Montreal
and Athens.[2] World War II
World War II
stopped the plans and the Games were cancelled so London
London
again stood as a candidate for 1948. Great Britain almost handed the 1948 games to the United States due to post-war financial and rationing problems, but King George VI
George VI
said that this could be the chance to restore Britain from World War II. The official report of the London
London
Olympics shows that there was no case of London
London
being pressed to run the Games against its will. It says:

The Games of 1944 had been allocated to London
London
and so it was that in October 1945, the Chairman of the British Olympic Council, Lord Burghley, went to Stockholm
Stockholm
and saw the president of the International Olympic Committee to discuss the question of London
London
being chosen for this great event. As a result, an investigating committee was set up by the British Olympic Council
British Olympic Council
to work out in some detail the possibility of holding the Games. After several meetings they recommended to the council that the Lord Mayor of London
London
should be invited to apply for the allocation of the Games in 1948.[3]

In March 1946 the IOC, through a postal vote, gave the summer Games to London
London
and the winter competition to St Moritz. London
London
was selected ahead of Baltimore, Minneapolis, Lausanne, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia.[4] London, which had previously hosted the 1908 Summer Olympics, became the second city to host the Olympics twice; Paris
Paris
hosted the event in 1900 and 1924. London
London
later became the first city to host the Olympics for a third time when the city hosted the 2012 Summer Olympics. Organization[edit] Lord Burghley, a gold medal winner at the 1928 Olympics, member of the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC), and President of the Amateur Athletics Association was named Chairman of the Organising and Executive Committees.[5] The other members of the committees were: Colonel Evan Hunter, General Secretary of the British Olympic Association, and Chef de mission for Great Britain; Lord Aberdare, the other British member of the IOC; Sir Noel Curtis-Bennett; Alderman H.E. Fern; E.J. Holt; J. Emrys Lloyd, who became the committee's legal advisor; C.B. Cowley of the London
London
Press and Advertising; R.B. Studdert, Managing Director of the Army & Navy Stores; A.E. Porritt, a member of the IOC for New Zealand who resided in London; S.F. Rous, Secretary of The Football Association; and Jack Beresford.[6] Olympic pictograms were introduced for the first time. There were twenty of them—one for each Olympic sport and three separate pictograms for the arts competition, the opening ceremony and the closing ceremony. They were called "Olympic symbols" and intended for use on tickets. The background of each pictogram resembled an escutcheon.[7][8] Olympic pictograms appeared again 16 years later, and were used at all subsequent Summer Olympics. At the time of the Games food, petrol and building were still subject to the rationing imposed during the war in Britain; because of this the 1948 Olympics came to be known as the " Austerity
Austerity
Games".[9] Athletes were given the same increased rations as dockers and miners, 5,467 calories a day instead of the normal 2,600. Building an Olympic Village was deemed too expensive, and athletes were housed in existing accommodation. Male competitors stayed at RAF camps in Uxbridge and West Drayton, and an Army camp in Richmond; female competitors in London
London
colleges.[10] These were the first games to be held following the death of Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the International Olympic Committee, in 1937. They were also the last to include an arts competition, which took place at the Victoria and Albert Museum.[11] Opening ceremony[edit]

The XIV Olympic Games
Olympic Games
opens in London, 1948

The Games opened on 29 July. Army bands began playing at 2 pm for the 85,000 spectators in Wembley
Wembley
Stadium at Wembley
Wembley
Park. The international and national organisers arrived at 2.35 pm and King George VI
George VI
and Queen Elizabeth, with Queen Mary and other members of the Royal Family, at 2.45 pm. Fifteen minutes later the competitors entered the stadium in a procession that took 50 minutes. The last team was that of the United Kingdom. When it had passed the saluting base, Lord Burghley began his welcome:

Your Majesty: The hour has struck. A visionary dream has today become a glorious reality. At the end of the worldwide struggle in 1945, many institutions and associations were found to have withered and only the strongest had survived. How, many wondered, had the great Olympic Movement prospered?

After welcoming the athletes to two weeks of "keen but friendly rivalry", he said London
London
represented a "warm flame of hope for a better understanding in the world which has burned so low."[12] At 4 pm, the time shown on Big Ben
Big Ben
on the London
London
Games symbol, the King declared the Games open, 2,500 pigeons were set free and the Olympic Flag raised to its 35 ft (11 m) flagpole at the end of the stadium. The Royal Horse Artillery
Royal Horse Artillery
sounded a 21-gun salute and the last runner in the Torch Relay ran a lap of the track – created with cinders from the domestic coal fires of Leicester
Leicester
– and climbed the steps to the Olympic cauldron. After saluting the crowd, he turned and lit the flame. After more speeches, Donald Finlay
Donald Finlay
of the British team (given his RAF rank of Wing Commander) took the Olympic Oath on behalf of all competitors. The National Anthem was sung and the massed athletes turned and marched out of the stadium, led by Greece, tailed by Britain. The 580-page official report concluded:

Thus were launched the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
of London, under the most happy auspices. The smooth-running Ceremony, which profoundly moved not only all who saw it but also the millions who were listening-in on the radio throughout the world, and the glorious weather in which it took place, combined to give birth to a spirit which was to permeate the whole of the following two weeks of thrilling and intensive sport.[13]

The opening ceremony and over 60 hours of Games coverage was broadcast live on BBC
BBC
television. The BBC
BBC
paid £1,000 for the broadcasting rights.[14] Sports and events[edit]

A Boy Scout who fainted in the intense heat was the first 'casualty' of the 1948 Olympic Games. The temperature was in the nineties (32°C) as the sun blazed down mercilessly.

The 1948 Summer Olympic programme featured 136 events in the following 19 sports and in arts:

Aquatics

Diving (4) Swimming (11) Water polo (1)

Athletics (33) Basketball (1) Boxing (8) Canoeing (9) Cycling

Road (2) Track (4)

Equestrian

Dressage
Dressage
(2) Eventing
Eventing
(2) Show jumping
Show jumping
(2)

Fencing (7) Field hockey (1) Football (1) Gymnastics (9) Modern pentathlon
Modern pentathlon
(1) Rowing (7) Sailing (5) Shooting (4) Weightlifting (6) Wrestling

Freestyle (8) Greco-Roman (8)

These Games also included Lacrosse as a demonstration sport. Athletics[edit] Main article: Athletics at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Start of the 50 km walk

Delfo Cabrera crossing the finish line to take gold in the marathon

Wembley
Wembley
stadium was the venue for 33 athletics events at the Games; 24 for men and nine for women. Of these, four were making their Olympic debut – the men's 10 km walk, and the women's 200 metres, long jump and shot put. A total of 754 athletes from 53 countries participated in athletics.[15] Fanny Blankers-Koen
Fanny Blankers-Koen
of the Netherlands, a 30-year-old mother of three children nicknamed "The Flying Housewife", won four gold medals, in the 100 metres, 200 metres, 80 metre high hurdles, and 4 x 100 metre relay. As world record holder in the long jump and high jump Blankers-Koen may have been able to win further medals but, at this time, female athletes were limited to three individual events.[16] Duncan White
Duncan White
won the first medal of any kind for Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(then Ceylon) when he finished second in the 400 metre hurdles. Arthur Wint
Arthur Wint
became the first Jamaican to win an Olympic gold medal, in the men's 400 metres; he also won silver in the men's 800 metres.[17][18] Alice Coachman
Alice Coachman
became the first woman of color in the world and the first African American woman to win a gold medal in track and field in the history of the modern Olympics with a jump of 1.68 m (5' 6​1⁄4"). She also was the only American woman to win an athletics gold medal during the 1948 Olympics.[19] The marathon saw a dramatic finish with the first man to enter the stadium, Etienne Gailly of Belgium, exhausted and nearly unable to run. While he was struggling, Argentinian athlete Delfo Cabrera and Tom Richards of Great Britain passed him, with Cabrera winning the gold medal and Richards obtaining the silver. Gailly managed to recover enough to cross the line for the bronze.[20] The decathlon was won by 17-year-old Bob Mathias
Bob Mathias
of the United States. He became the youngest ever Olympic gold medallist in athletics and when asked how he would celebrate he replied: "I'll start shaving, I guess."[21][22] Arts[edit] Main article: Art competitions at the 1948 Summer Olympics Categories: sports-related architecture, literature, music, painting, and sculpture. Basketball[edit] Main article: Basketball at the 1948 Summer Olympics Basketball made its second appearance as a medal sport, appearing as an indoor competition for the first time after poor weather disrupted the matches at the 1936 Berlin Games. The event, for men only, was contested by 23 nations split into four pools for the preliminary round; the top two in each pool advanced to the quarterfinals with the other teams entering playoffs for the minor placings. The United States and France reached the final which was won by the Americans 65–21 to claim the gold medal. This was the second of the United States' seven consecutive gold medals in Olympic men's and women's basketball.[23] Brazil defeated Mexico 52–47 to claim bronze.[24] Boxing[edit] Main article: Boxing at the 1948 Summer Olympics Eight different classifications were contested ranging from flyweight, for boxers weighing less than 51 kg, to heavyweight, for boxers over 80 kg. South Africa, Argentina and Hungary each won two gold medals. Canoeing[edit] Main article: Canoeing at the 1948 Summer Olympics Nine events were contested, eight for men and one for women. This marked the first time that a women's canoeing event had been contested in the Olympics. Sweden won four gold medals (two by Gert Fredriksson) and Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
three. Cycling[edit] Main article: Cycling at the 1948 Summer Olympics Six events were contested – two road bicycle racing events and four track cycling events. No women's cycling events were contested. France won three gold medals and Italy two, while Great Britain captured five medals overall, but none were gold. Diving[edit] Main article: Diving at the 1948 Summer Olympics Four diving events were contested, two for men, and two for women. The events are labelled as 3  metre springboard and 10  metre platform by the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
but appeared on the 1948 Official Report as springboard diving and highboard diving, respectively.[25] All four gold medals, and 10 out of 12 awarded in total, were won by the United States. Victoria Manalo Draves, who won both gold medals in the women's events, and Sammy Lee, who took a gold and a bronze in the men's events, became the first Asian Americans to win gold medals at an Olympic Games.[26] Equestrian[edit] Main article: Equestrian at the 1948 Summer Olympics Six gold medals were awarded in equestrian, individual and team dressage, individual and team eventing and individual and team show jumping. Harry Llewellyn
Harry Llewellyn
and Foxhunter, who would claim a gold medal in Helsinki, won bronze in the team jumping event. Fencing[edit] Main article: Fencing at the 1948 Summer Olympics Seven events were contested, six for men and one for women. Ilona Elek, who had won the women's foil competition in Berlin, was one of only two competitors to successfully defend an Olympic title in London.[11] Elek's sister, Margit, placed sixth in the same event.[27] Edoardo Mangiarotti
Edoardo Mangiarotti
won three medals, two silver and a bronze, having previously won a gold medal in the 1936 Games. Throughout his career the Italian won 13 Olympic fencing medals and 27 world championship medals, both of which remain records.[28][29] Field hockey[edit] Main article: Field hockey at the 1948 Summer Olympics Thirteen nations participated in the field hockey competition. The tournament was ultimately won by India, who defeated Great Britain to claim the country's first gold medal as an independent nation under captain Kishan Lal
Kishan Lal
and Vice-Captain Kunwar Digvijay Singh. Football[edit] Main article: Football at the 1948 Summer Olympics Eighteen teams entered the football competition at these Olympics. Due to the rise of the professional game during the 12 years since the Berlin Olympics the number of talented amateurs for teams to select from was reduced. The gold medal was won by Sweden, who defeated Yugoslavia 3–1 in the final. Denmark defeated hosts Great Britain, managed by Matt Busby
Matt Busby
of Manchester United, 5–3 to win the bronze medal. In the tournament's 18 matches a total of 102 goals were scored; an average 5.66 goals per match. The joint top scorers with seven goals each were Gunnar Nordahl
Gunnar Nordahl
of Sweden and Denmark's John Hansen. Nordahl and Swedish teammates Gunnar Gren
Gunnar Gren
and Nils Liedholm went on to play for A.C. Milan
A.C. Milan
and together were nicknamed Gre-No-Li.[30] Gymnastics[edit] Main article: Gymnastics at the 1948 Summer Olympics Nine events were contested, eight for men, and one for women. In the men's pommel horse, a tie was declared between three competitors, all Finns, and no medals other than gold were awarded in this event. Finland won six gold medals overall, and Switzerland three. Lacrosse[edit] Main article: Lacrosse at the Summer Olympics Lacrosse was an exhibition sport at these Olympics. An English team composed of players from various universities played a U.S. team represented by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
at the Empire Stadium. Modern pentathlon[edit] Main article: Modern pentathlon
Modern pentathlon
at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Gold medalist William Grut
William Grut
of Sweden (foreground) competing in the running component of the modern pentathlon.

Only one modern pentathlon event was contested, the five component sports– riding, fencing, shooting, swimming, and running- being held over six days. Scoring was by point-for-place system across the five phases with the winner being the athlete with the lowest combined ranking. The sport's international federation, the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne was founded during the Games, on 3 August 1948. Sweden won two medals in the event; William Grut
William Grut
won the gold, with a final points total of 16, and Gösta Gärdin
Gösta Gärdin
took bronze. American George Moore won the silver medal.[31] Rowing[edit] Main article: Rowing at the 1948 Summer Olympics Seven rowing events were contested, all open to men only. Great Britain and the United States each claimed two gold medals. The events were held on the same course as the Henley Royal Regatta. Sailing[edit] Main article: Sailing at the 1948 Summer Olympics The sailing events at the Games took place in Torquay, in the southwest of Great Britain.[32] Five events were contested, with the United States winning four total medals.[33] One of host nation Great Britain's three gold medals at the Games came in the Swallow class from Stewart Morris and David Bond. In the Firefly class Danish sailor Paul Elvstrøm
Paul Elvstrøm
won gold the despite the Danish Olympic Committee having misgivings about sending him to compete as the 18-year-old could speak no English. This was the first of four consecutive Olympics with a gold medal for Elvstrøm.[32] Shooting[edit] Main article: Shooting at the 1948 Summer Olympics Four events were contested, all open to both men and women, although all medals were won by men. In the 50 metre rifle, prone position, only two points separated the top three competitors. Károly Takács had been a member of the Hungary's world champion pistol shooting team in 1938 when a grenade shattered his right hand – his pistol hand. Takács taught himself to shoot with his left hand and, 10 years after his injury, he won an Olympic gold medal in the rapid-fire pistol event.[1] Swimming[edit] Main article: Swimming at the 1948 Summer Olympics Eleven events were contested, six for men and five for women. The United States won eight gold medals, including all six men's events, and 15 medals in total. Water polo[edit] Main article: Water polo at the 1948 Summer Olympics Eighteen nations fielded a team in these games, which were ultimately won by Italy, who were undefeated throughout. The tournament was conducted in a mult-tier bracket, with the best four teams from the group stages participating in a final round-robin bracket. Silver was claimed by Hungary, and bronze by the Netherlands. Weightlifting[edit] Main article: Weightlifting at the 1948 Summer Olympics Six events were contested, all for men only. These games marked the addition of the bantamweight class to the Olympic programme, the first change to the programme since 1920. The United States won four gold medals, and eight overall; the remaining two gold medals were claimed by Egypt.[34] Rodney Wilkes
Rodney Wilkes
won the first medal for Trinidad and Tobago in an Olympic games, winning silver in the featherweight division; the featherweight gold medal was won by Egyptian Mahmoud Fayad, with a new Olympic and World record of 332.5 kg.[35][36] Wrestling[edit] Main article: Wrestling at the 1948 Summer Olympics Sixteen wrestling events were held, eight Greco-Roman and eight freestyle. All were open to men only. Both categories were dominated by two nations. Turkey was the most successful nation with six gold medals followed by Sweden receiving 5 gold medals. These two teams claimed 24 total medals, in other words half of the total medals given. Political defection[edit] London
London
was the first Olympics to have a political defection. Marie Provazníková, the 57-year-old Czechoslovakian President of the International Gymnastics Federation, refused to return home, citing "lack of freedom" after the Czech coup in February led to the country's inclusion in the Soviet Bloc.[37][38] Filming in colour[edit] For the Olympics, the Technicolor
Technicolor
Corporation devised a bipack colour filming process – dubbed "Technichrome" – whereby hundreds of hours of film documented the events in colour, without having to use expensive and heavy Technicolor
Technicolor
cameras.[39] Venues[edit]

Poster promoting the 1948 Olympics

Main article: Venues of the 1948 Summer Olympics No new venues were built for the Games. A cinder track was laid inside Wembley
Wembley
Stadium and all other venues were adapted.[9] For the first time at the Olympics swimming events were held undercover, at the 8000 capacity Empire Pool. As the pool was longer than the standard Olympic length of 50 metres a platform was constructed across the pool which both shortened it and housed officials.[1] In 2010 one of the last remaining venues from the Games, the Herne Hill Velodrome
Herne Hill Velodrome
where cycling events were staged, was saved when a new 15-year lease was agreed meaning that repairs could take place. Campaigners and users of the track had feared that it would be forced to close as it was in desperate need of refurbishment.[40]

Wembley
Wembley
Empire Exhibition Grounds

Empire Stadium – opening and closing ceremonies, athletics, equestrian (jumping), football finals, field hockey finals Empire Pool – boxing, diving, swimming, water polo Palace of Engineering – fencing

Other venues

Empress Hall, Earl's Court – boxing preliminaries, wrestling, weightlifting, gymnastics Harringay
Harringay
Arena, Harringay
Harringay
– basketball & wrestling Royal Regatta Course, Henley-on-Thames
Henley-on-Thames
– canoeing, rowing Herne Hill
Herne Hill
Velodrome, Herne Hill
Herne Hill
– track cycling Windsor Great Park
Windsor Great Park
– cycling road race Central Stadium, Military Headquarters, Aldershot
Aldershot
– equestrian (jumping), modern pentathlon (riding, fencing, swimming) Tweseldown Racecourse
Tweseldown Racecourse
– equestrian (dressage, eventing) Arsenal Stadium, Highbury
Highbury
– football preliminaries Selhurst Park
Selhurst Park
– football preliminaries Craven Cottage, Fulham
Fulham
– football preliminaries Ilford
Ilford
– football preliminaries Griffin Park, Brentford
Brentford
– football preliminaries Champion Hill, Dulwich
Dulwich
– football preliminaries Green Pond Road Stadium, Walthamstow
Walthamstow
– football preliminaries White Hart Lane, Tottenham
Tottenham
– football preliminaries Lyons' Sports Club, Sudbury – field hockey preliminaries Guinness Sports Club, Park Royal
Park Royal
– field hockey preliminaries Polytechnic Sports Ground, Chiswick
Chiswick
– field hockey preliminaries National Rifle Association Ranges, Bisley – shooting, modern pentathlon (shooting) Finchley
Finchley
Lido, Finchley
Finchley
– water polo preliminaries English Channel, Torbay
Torbay
– yachting Fratton Park, Portsmouth
Portsmouth
– football preliminaries Goldstone Ground, Brighton
Brighton
– football preliminaries Royal Military Academy – modern pentathlon (running)

Participating NOCs[edit]

Participants

Number of athletes per country

A total of 59 nations sent athletes. Fourteen made their first official appearance: British Guiana
British Guiana
(now Guyana), Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon
Ceylon
(now Sri Lanka), Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Korea, Lebanon, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela.[41] It was the first time that the Philippines, India and Pakistan competed as independent nations at the Olympic Games. Germany
Germany
and Japan, both under Allied military occupations, were not allowed to send athletes to the games. German forced labour was used for the construction of the facilities.[42] Italy, although originally an Axis power, defected to the Allies in 1943 following Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
being deposed, and was allowed to send athletes. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was invited but they chose not to send any athletes.[43] The number in parentheses indicates the number of participants that each country contributed.

Participating National Olympic Committees

 Afghanistan (25)  Argentina (199)  Australia (75)  Austria (144)  Belgium (152)  Bermuda (12)  Brazil (70)  Burma (4)  Canada (118)  Ceylon (7)  Chile (54)  Republic of China (31)  Colombia (6)  Cuba (53)  Czechoslovakia (87)  Denmark (162)  Egypt (85)  Finland (129)  France (316)  Great Britain (398) (host)  Greece (61)  Guyana (4)  Hungary (129)  Iceland (20)  India (79)  Iran (36)  Iraq (11)  Ireland (73)  Italy (213)  Jamaica (13)  South Korea (46)  Lebanon (8)  Liechtenstein (2)  Luxembourg (45)  Malta (1)  Mexico (88)  Monaco (4)  Netherlands (149)  New Zealand (7)  Norway (81)  Pakistan (35)  Panama (1)  Peru (41)  Philippines (26)  Poland (37)  Portugal (48)  Puerto Rico (9)  Singapore (1)  South Africa (35)  Spain (65)  Sweden (181)  Switzerland (181)  Syria (1)  Trinidad and Tobago (5)  Turkey (58)  United States (300)  Uruguay (61)  Venezuela (1)  Yugoslavia (90)

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees (by highest to lowest)[edit]

IOC Country Athletes

GBR  Great Britain 398

FRA  France 316

USA  United States 300

ITA  Italy 213

ARG  Argentina 199

SWE  Sweden 181

SUI  Switzerland 181

DEN  Denmark 162

BEL  Belgium 150

NED  Netherlands 149

AUT  Austria 144

FIN  Finland 129

HUN  Hungary 129

CAN  Canada 118

YUG  Yugoslavia 90

MEX  Mexico 88

TCH  Czechoslovakia 87

EGY  Egypt 85

NOR  Norway 81

IND  India 79

AUS  Australia 75

IRL  Ireland 72

BRA  Brazil 70

ESP  Spain 65

GRE  Greece 61

URU  Uruguay 61

TUR  Turkey 58

CHI  Chile 54

CUB  Cuba 53

POR  Portugal 48

KOR  South Korea 46

LUX  Luxembourg 45

PER  Peru 41

POL  Poland 37

IRI  Iran 36

PAK  Pakistan 35

RSA  South Africa 35

ROC  Republic of China 31

PHI  Philippines 26

AFG  Afghanistan 25

ISL  Iceland 20

JAM  Jamaica 13

BER  Bermuda 12

IRQ  Iraq 11

PUR  Puerto Rico 9

LIB  Lebanon 8

CEY  Ceylon 7

NZL  New Zealand 7

COL  Colombia 6

BIR  Burma 5

TRI  Trinidad and Tobago 5

GUY  Guyana 4

MON  Monaco 4

LIE  Liechtenstein 2

MLT  Malta 1

PAN  Panama 1

SGP  Singapore 1

SYR  Syria 1

VEN  Venezuela 1

Total 4,104

Medal count[edit] Main article: 1948 Summer Olympics
1948 Summer Olympics
medal table Further information: Olympic medal
Olympic medal
table These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1948 Summer Games, ranked by number of gold medals won. The host nation was 12th, with 23 medals, including three golds.[44]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total

1  United States 38 27 19 84

2  Sweden 16 11 17 44

3  France 10 6 13 29

4  Hungary 10 5 12 27

5  Italy 8 11 8 27

6  Finland 8 7 5 20

7  Turkey 6 4 2 12

8  Czechoslovakia 6 2 3 11

9  Switzerland 5 10 5 20

10  Denmark 5 7 8 20

12  Great Britain (host nation) 3 14 6 23

See also[edit]

Art competitions at the 1948 Summer Olympics

Olympics portal

1948 Winter Olympics

Summer Olympic Games Olympic Games International Olympic Committee List of IOC country codes 1908 Summer Olympics
1908 Summer Olympics
and 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
- which were also held in London.

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f g " London
London
1948". olympic.org. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ "Past Olympic Host City Election Results". gamesbids.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2010.  ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London
London
1948(1951), pp. 17 ^ " Olympic Games
Olympic Games
Fonds" (PDF). International Olympic Committee Historical Archives. 6 November 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2010.  ^ "David George Burghley – lord of the hurdles (photos attached)". The official website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London
London
1948(1951), pp. 18 ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London
London
1948(1951), pp. 131, 135 ^ Two sample tickets from 1948 Summer Olympics
1948 Summer Olympics
at the Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games ^ a b "British Olympic Movement". British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010.  ^ Mike Rowbotham (7 July 2005). "1948 Olympics: 'We had much more fun and a greater sense of achievement than modern athletes do'". The Independent. Retrieved 26 April 2010.  ^ a b " London
London
1948". British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.  ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London
London
1948(1951), pp. 221 ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London
London
1948(1951), pp. 225 ^ "Landmarks in the history of the media and the Olympics" (PDF). The British Library. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ "Athletics at the 1948 London
London
Summer Games". sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ "1948 London
London
Summer Games". sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ Chris Dhambarage (4 February 2010). "Sports striving for greater heights after Independence". Daily News. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ Donald McRae (1 April 2010). "Cradle of champions where Jamaican sprinters earn their spurs". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ " Alice Coachman
Alice Coachman
– First African American Gold Medallist". olympics30.com. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ Martin, David E.; Roger W. H. Gynn (2000). The Olympic marathon. Human Kinetics. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-88011-969-6.  ^ "Former congressman Bob Mathias
Bob Mathias
dies at 75". USA Today. Associated Press. 3 September 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2010.  ^ Martin Weil (3 September 2006). "Bob Mathias; Congressman, Twice Olympic Champion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 April 2010.  ^ "Basketball Men's Basketball Medalists". sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ "Basketball at the 1948 London
London
Summer Games: Men's Basketball Final Round". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London
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1948(1951), pp. 637 ^ Melody Merin (30 May 2008). "Asian Americans First Won Olympic Gold 60 Years Ago". america.gov. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ "Ilona Elek". The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ "Portraits: The Great "Edoardo Mangiarotti"". schermaonline.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ "Edoardo Mangiarotti". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ "London, 1948". FIFA. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ "Modern Pentathlon at the 1948 London
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London
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Summer Games: Men's Featherweight". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 29 April 2010.  ^ Alan Hubbard (17 February 2008). " London
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Sport. 18 October 2005. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ "Medal Table". British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 18 September 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1948 Summer Olympics.

" London
London
1948". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  "Results and Medalists". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London
London
1948 (1951). The Official Report of the Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London
London
1948 (PDF). Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 May 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  Exploring 20th century London
London
– 1948 Olympics Objects and photographs from the collections of the Museum of London, London Transport Museum, Jewish Museum and Museum of Croydon.

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