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The 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
(French: Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1920), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. In March 1912, during the 13th session of the IOC, Belgium's bid to host the 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
was made by Baron Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee
Belgian Olympic Committee
and of the Royal Belgian Football Association. No fixed host city was proposed at the time. The 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were cancelled due to World War I. The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919
Paris Peace Conference, 1919
affected the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
not only due to new states being created, but also by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
were banned from competing in the Games. Germany
Germany
did not return to Olympic competition until 1928 and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the Winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics). The sailing events were held in Ostend, Belgium, and two in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Contents

1 Host city selection 2 Organization 3 Highlights 4 Sports/Events

4.1 Demonstration sport

5 Venues 6 Participating nations

6.1 Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees

7 Medal count 8 See also 9 Notes 10 External links

Host city selection[edit] In March 1912, during the 13th session of the IOC, the bid on the behalf of Belgium
Belgium
to host the 1920 Summer Olympics.It was made by Baron Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee and of the Royal Belgian Football Association. No fixed host city was proposed at the time.[1] The organising committee was created on 9 August 1913. It had four presidents:

Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee Henri de Baillet-Latour, member of the IOC Robert Osterrieth, president of the Royal Yacht Club of Belgium Charles Cnoops, vice-president of the Belgian Fencing Association

Among the 22 vice-presidents of the committee were people with a military or industrial background, and further people from sports organizations like Paul Havenith, president of the football and athletics club K. Beerschot V.A.C. and Nicolaas Jan Cupérus, president of the Belgian Gymnastics
Gymnastics
Federation.[2] The first action of the committee was to send an official letter to the IOC
IOC
in Paris, confirming Antwerp
Antwerp
as the city for the Belgian Olympic bid. On 13 September 1913, Pierre de Coubertin, president of the IOC, visited the grounds of the future Olympic Stadion in Beerschot. In 1914, a 109-page brochure was created to promote the idea of Antwerp
Antwerp
as a host city for the Olympics: Aurons-nous la VIIème Olympiade à Anvers? (Will we have the 7th Olympiad at Antwerp?). It was sent to all IOC
IOC
members and was used during the 6th Olympic Congress in Paris in 1914, where the candidacies of Amsterdam, Antwerp, Budapest, and Rome were discussed. Despite a slight preference at the time for Budapest, no final choice was made, and the outbreak of World War I
World War I
soon afterwards prevented any further progress.[3] In 1915, Lyon
Lyon
made a bid for the 1920 games, but after some discussion, they agreed to support Antwerp
Antwerp
and postpone their bid until 1924 if Antwerp
Antwerp
was liberated in time to organize the games. The support for Belgium
Belgium
by cousin country France, then the leading country of the IOC, also meant that Amsterdam, and Budapest, in an enemy state, made no chance for the 1920 games against Antwerp. New candidacies from American cities did not have that disadvantage and bids were received from Cleveland, Philadelphia, and Atlanta
Atlanta
(which would eventually host the 1996 Summer Olympics), and Cuba also planned a bid for Havana. But shortly after the armistice in November 1918, the IOC
IOC
decided to give Antwerp
Antwerp
the first choice, if they still wanted to host the 1920 Games. In March 1919, the Belgian Olympic Committee decided to go ahead with the organization, and on 5 April 1919, in a meeting in Lausanne, Antwerp
Antwerp
was officially declared the host city for the games of the VIIth Olympiad.[4] Organization[edit] An executive committee was established on 17 April 1919, with Henri de Baillet-Latour as chairman and Alfred Verdyck, the secretary of the Belgian Union of Football Clubs, as general secretary. Seven commissions were created, to deal with finances, accommodation, press relations, propaganda, schedules, transport, and festivities. Finances and scheduling proved to be the two hardest parts to tackle: the program of events only was published in February 1920, six months before the official start of the Games. Between 23 and 30 April 1920, an ice hockey tournament marked the early start of the Games. Held in the "Palais de Glace" or Ice Palace in Antwerp, it was the first time that ice hockey was an Olympic sport.[5] The first stone of the new Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
at Beerschot was laid on 4 July 1919 by Jan De Vos, mayor of Antwerp, and inaugurated less than a year later on 23 May 1920 with a gymnastics demonstration.[6] The nautical stadium or Stade Nautique d' Antwerp
Antwerp
was built at the end of the Jan Van Rijswijcklaan, using the city ramparts there as a spectator's stand. Other events, like shooting, boxing, and equestrian sports, were held at pre-existing locations in and around Antwerp
Antwerp
and as far away as Ostend.[7] Highlights[edit]

These Olympics were the first in which the Olympic Oath was voiced, the first in which doves were released to symbolize peace, and the first in which the Olympic Flag
Olympic Flag
was flown. The USA won 41 gold, 27 silver, and 27 bronze medals, the most won by any of the 29 nations attending. Sweden, Great Britain, Finland, and Belgium
Belgium
rounded out the five most successful medal-winning nations. The Games also featured a week of winter sports, with figure skating appearing for the first time since the 1908 Olympics, and ice hockey making its Olympic debut. Nedo Nadi
Nedo Nadi
won 5 gold medals in the fencing events. At the age of 72, Sweden's 100 metre running deer double-shot event champion Oscar Swahn, who had participated in the 1908 and 1912 Games, came in second in the team event to become the oldest Olympic medal winner ever. 23-year-old Paavo Nurmi
Paavo Nurmi
won the 10,000 m and 8000 m cross country races, took another gold in team cross country, and a silver in the 5000 m run. His contributions for Finland
Finland
broke the U.S. dominance record in track and field with 9 medals. Duke Kahanamoku
Duke Kahanamoku
retained the 100 m swimming title he won before the war. In a rather strange moment in Olympic history, the 12-foot dinghy event in sailing took place in two different countries. The final two races in the event were independently held in the Netherlands, on its own accord, supposedly because the only two competitors in the event were Dutch.[8] Sport shooter
Sport shooter
Guilherme Paraense won Brazil's very first gold medal at the Olympic Games. The United States sent a women's swim team for the first time, having refused during the 1912 Games on the grounds that it was "obscene". The six-woman team produced two gold medals.

Sports/Events[edit]

France national football team.

156 events[9] in 29 disciplines, comprising 22 sports, were part of the Olympic program in 1920. The Sailing program was open for a total of 16 sailing classes, but actually only 14 sailing events were contested. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

Aquatics

Diving (5) Swimming (10) Water polo (1)

Archery (10) Athletics (29) Boxing (8) Cycling

Road (2) Track (4)

Equestrian

Dressage (2) Eventing (1) Show jumping (2) Vaulting (2)

Fencing (6) Figure skating
Figure skating
(3) Football (1) (Soccer)

Gymnastics

Artistic (4)

Field hockey (1) Ice hockey
Ice hockey
(1) Modern pentathlon (1) Polo (1) Rowing (5) Rugby

Rugby union (1)

Sailing (14) Shooting (21) Tennis (5) Tug of war (1) Weightlifting (5) Wrestling

Freestyle (5) Greco-Roman (5)

Demonstration sport[edit]

Korfball

Venues[edit] Seventeen sports venues were used in the 1920 Summer Olympics. This marked the first time that the football tournament was spread throughout the country, which has mostly been the case since.[10]

Venue Sports Capacity Ref.

Antwerp Cycling (road) Not listed. [11][12]

Antwerp
Antwerp
Zoo Boxing, Wrestling Not listed. [13][14]

Beerschot Tennis Club Tennis Not listed. [15]

Beverloo Camp Shooting (pistol/rifle) Not listed. [16]

Brussels–Scheldt Maritime Canal Rowing Not listed. [17]

Buiten Y (Amsterdam) Sailing (12 foot dinghy) Not listed. [18]

Gardens of the Egmont Palace
Egmont Palace
(Brussels) Fencing Not listed. [19]

Hoogboom Military Camp Shooting (trap shooting, running target) Not listed. [16]

Jules Ottenstadion
Jules Ottenstadion
(Ghent) Football (Italy-Egypt match). Not listed. [20]

Nachtegalen Park Archery Not listed. [21]

Olympisch Stadion Athletics, Equestrian, Field hockey, Football (final), Gymnastics, Modern pentathlon, Rugby union, Tug of war, Weightlifing 30,000 [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]

Ostend Polo, Sailing Not listed. [31][32]

Palais de Glace d'Anvers Figure skating, Ice hockey Not listed. [33][34]

Stade Joseph Marien
Stade Joseph Marien
(Brussels) Football Not listed. [25]

Stade Nautique d'Antwerp Diving, Swimming, Water polo Not listed. [35][36][37]

Stadion Broodstraat Football Not listed. [25]

Vélodrome d'Anvers Zuremborg Cycling (track) Not listed. [38]

Participating nations[edit]

Participants in the 1920 games, with the nations in blue participating for the first time.

Number of athletes

A total of 29 nations participated in the Antwerp
Antwerp
Games, only one more than in 1912, as Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Ottoman Empire were not invited, having lost World War I. From the newly created European states, only Estonia
Estonia
took part, and Czechoslovakia, succeeding Bohemia
Bohemia
which had sent athletes prior to World War I
World War I
as part of the Austrian Empire. Poland
Poland
was busy with the Polish-Soviet War and therefore was unable to form an Olympic team. Soviet Russia was also not invited as part of its political embargo by the West. Argentina, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Brazil, and Monaco
Monaco
competed as nations at the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
for the first time. New Zealand, which had competed as part of a combined team with Australia in 1908 and 1912, competed on its own for the first time.

Participating National Olympic Committees

 Argentina (1)  Australia (13)  Belgium (336) (host)  Brazil (19)  Canada (53)  Chile (2)  Czechoslovakia (121)  Denmark (154)  Egypt (22)  Estonia (14)  Finland (63)  France (304)  Great Britain (235)  Greece (57)  India (5)  Italy (174)  Japan (15)  Luxembourg (25)  Monaco (4)  Netherlands (113)  New Zealand (4)  Norway (194)  Portugal (13)  South Africa (39)  Spain (32)  Sweden (260)  Switzerland (77)  United States (288)  Yugoslavia (12)

The   Dominion of Newfoundland
Dominion of Newfoundland
had one competitor, Eric Robertson. But as the dominion had no official Olympic committee, his nationality could not be confirmed and he had to represent Britain.[39]

As the local Olympic Organizing Committee went bankrupt during the Antwerp
Antwerp
1920 Games, no official report of the Games was ever produced. The documents of the Games were archived at the Belgium
Belgium
Olympic Committee headquarters in Brussels.[40] Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees[edit]

IOC Country Athletes

BEL  Belgium 336

FRA  France 304

USA  United States 288

SWE  Sweden 260

GBR  Great Britain 235

NOR  Norway 194

ITA  Italy 174

DEN  Denmark 154

TCH  Czechoslovakia 121

NED  Netherlands 146

SUI  Switzerland 77

FIN  Finland 63

GRE  Greece 57

CAN  Canada 53

RSA  South Africa 39

ESP  Spain 32

LUX  Luxembourg 25

EGY  Egypt 22

BRA  Brazil 19

JPN  Japan 15

EST  Estonia 14

AUS  Australia 13

POR  Portugal 13

YUG  Yugoslavia 12

IND  India 5

MON  Monaco 4

NZL  New Zealand 4

CHI  Chile 2

ARG  Argentina 1

Total 2,626

Medal count[edit]

One of the 154 (identical) gold medals awarded at the Games of the VII Olympiad

Main article: 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
medal table These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1920 Games.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total

1  United States 41 27 27 95

2  Sweden 19 20 25 64

3 Great Britain 15 15 13 43

4  Finland 15 10 9 34

5   Belgium
Belgium
(host nation) 14 11 11 36

6  Norway 13 9 9 31

7  Italy 13 5 5 23

8  France 9 19 13 41

9  Netherlands 4 2 5 11

10  Denmark 3 9 1 13

See also[edit]

Olympics portal

Summer Olympic Games Olympic Games International Olympic Committee List of IOC
IOC
country codes

Notes[edit]

^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. p. 11. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.  ^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. p. 12. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.  ^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. p. 13. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.  ^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. p. 14. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.  ^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. pp. 15–17. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.  ^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. pp. 18–19. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.  ^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. pp. 20–21. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.  ^ " Antwerp
Antwerp
1920". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  ^ The IOC
IOC
site for the 1920 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
gives erroneous figure of 154 events, while the IOC
IOC
database lists 156 ones. ^ "Football at the 1920 Antwerpen Summer Games Olympics at Sports-Reference.com". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved 2018-02-04.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
cycling individual road race". Sports-reference.com. 12 August 1920. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
cycling team road race". Sports-reference.com. 12 August 1920. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
boxing". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
wrestling". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ "profile of Tennis at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ a b "Shooting overview of the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
rowing website". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ Sports-Reference.com 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
sailing mixed 12-foot results.. ^ "profile of the 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
fencing events". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ FIFA.com 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
ITA-EGY results. Archived 1 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. – accessed 6 October 2010. ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
archery profile". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
athletics". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
equestrian". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
men's field hockey". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ a b c " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
football". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
gymnastics". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
modern pentathlon". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
rugby union". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
tug of war". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
weightlifting". Sports-reference.com. 29 August 1920. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
polo". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
sailing". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ "profile of Figure skating
Figure skating
at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ "profile of the men's Ice Hockey at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ "profile of Diving at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ "profile of Swimming at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ "profile of Men's water polo at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ "profile of Cycling at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ Dohey, Larry. "Newfoundlanders and Olympic Connections". Archivalmoments.ca. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.  ^ " Olympic Games
Olympic Games
Official Report 1920" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1920 Summer Olympics.

" Antwerp
Antwerp
1920". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  "Results and Medalists". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  Openingsceremonie[permanent dead link] An article about the opening ceremonies of the 1920 Antwerp
Antwerp
Olympiade in Flemish.

Preceded by Berlin cancelled due to World War I Summer Olympic Games Antwerp VII Olympiad (1920) Succeeded by Paris

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1920 Summer Olympics
in Antwerp, Belgium

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1920 Summer Olympics
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Venues of the 1920 Summer Olympics

Antwerp Antwerp
Antwerp
Zoo Beerschot Tennis Club Beverloo Camp Brussels–Scheldt Maritime Canal Buiten Y (Amsterdam) Gardens of the Egmont Palace
Egmont Palace
(Brussels) Hoogboom Military Camp Jules Ottenstadion
Jules Ottenstadion
(Ghent) Nachtegalen Park Olympisch Stadion Ostend Palais de Glace d'Anvers Stade Joseph Marien
Stade Joseph Marien
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