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1918
1918
(MCMXVIII ) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar , the 1918th year of the Common Era
Common Era
(CE) and Anno Domini
Anno Domini
(AD) designations, the 918th year of the 2nd millennium
2nd millennium
, the 18th year of the 20th century
20th century
, and the 9th year of the 1910s
1910s
decade. As of the start of 1918, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

CONTENTS

* 1 Events

* 1.1 January * 1.2 February * 1.3 March * 1.4 April * 1.5 May * 1.6 June * 1.7 July * 1.8 August * 1.9 September * 1.10 October * 1.11 November * 1.12 December * 1.13 Date unknown

* 2 Births

* 2.1 January * 2.2 February * 2.3 March * 2.4 April * 2.5 May * 2.6 June * 2.7 July * 2.8 August * 2.9 September * 2.10 October * 2.11 November * 2.12 December * 2.13 Date Unknown

* 3 Deaths

* 3.1 January * 3.2 February * 3.3 March * 3.4 April * 3.5 May * 3.6 June * 3.7 July * 3.8 August * 3.9 September * 3.10 October * 3.11 November * 3.12 December

* 4 Nobel Prizes

* 5 References

* 5.1 Primary sources and year books

EVENTS

Below, events of World War I
World War I
have the "WWI" prefix. February 16 : The Act of Independence of Lithuania
Act of Independence of Lithuania

JANUARY

* January 4 Finland
Finland
officially recognized by the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
. * January 8 Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
delivers his Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points
speech. * January 9 – U.S troops engage Yaqui Indian warriors in the Battle of Bear Valley
Battle of Bear Valley
in Arizona, a minor skirmish and one of the last battles of the American Indian Wars
American Indian Wars
between the United States and Native Americans. * January 12 Finland
Finland
enacts a "Mosaic Confessors" law, granting Finnish Jews civil rights. * January 15 – The keel of HMS Hermes is laid in Britain, the first purpose-designed aircraft carrier to be laid down.

* January 18

* Russian Constituent Assembly
Russian Constituent Assembly
meets. * The Historic Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans of Austrian and Hungarian Soldiers at the Konzerthaus, Vienna
Konzerthaus, Vienna
.

* January 19 Russian Constituent Assembly
Russian Constituent Assembly
proclaims Russian Democratic Federative Republic
Republic
, but is dissolved by Bolshevik government on same day. * January 22 – The Ukrainian People\'s Republic
Republic
declares independence from Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Russia . * January 27 – The Finnish Civil War
Finnish Civil War
begins with the Battle of Kämärä . * January – 1918 flu pandemic
1918 flu pandemic
: "Spanish 'flu" (influenza ) first observed in Haskell County, Kansas
Haskell County, Kansas
.

FEBRUARY

* February 1 – The Cattaro Mutiny sees Austrian sailors in the Gulf of Cattaro (Kotor), led by two Czech Socialists, mutiny. * February 5 – The SS Tuscania is torpedoed off the Irish coast; it is the first ship carrying American troops to Europe to be torpedoed and sunk.

February 23 : Estonian Declaration of Independence
Estonian Declaration of Independence

* February 6 – Women\'s suffrage in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
: Representation of the People Act gives most women over 30 the vote. * February 14 – Russia switches from the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
; the date skips from February 1 to February 14. * February 16 – The Council of Lithuania adopts the Act of Independence of Lithuania , declaring Lithuania's independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
. * February 19 – WWI: Capture of Jericho by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the British occupation of the Jordan Valley . * February 19 -25 – WWI: The Imperial Russian Navy
Imperial Russian Navy
evacuates Tallinn
Tallinn
through thick ice over the Gulf of Finland
Finland
. * February 21 – The last captive Carolina parakeet
Carolina parakeet
(the last breed of parrot native to the eastern United States) dies at the Cincinnati Zoo .

* February 24

* Estonia
Estonia
declares its independence from Russia after seven centuries of foreign rule. German forces capture Tallinn
Tallinn
on the next day. * Armenia
Armenia
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, and Georgia declare their independence from Russia as the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
.

MARCH

* March 1 – WWI: German submarine U-19 sinks HMS Calgarian off Rathlin Island
Rathlin Island
, Northern Ireland. * March 3 – WWI:the Central Powers
Central Powers
and Bolshevist Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
, ending Russia's involvement in the war.

* March 6

* The Finnish Army Corps of Aviation is founded as a forerunner of the Finnish Air Force
Finnish Air Force
to be established on 4 May 1928
1928
. The blue swastika is adopted as its symbol as a tribute to the Swedish explorer and aviator Eric von Rosen , who donated the first plane. Von Rosen had painted the Viking symbol on the plane as his personal lucky insignia. * The first pilotless drone, the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane developed by Elmer Sperry and Peter Cooper Hewitt
Peter Cooper Hewitt
, is test-flown in Long Island, New York
Long Island, New York
, but development is scrapped in 1925 after its guidance system proves unreliable.

* March 7 – WWI: Finland
Finland
forms an alliance with Germany. * March 8 – WWI: Battle of Tell \'Asur launched by units of the British Army
British Army
's Egyptian Expeditionary Force
Egyptian Expeditionary Force
against Ottoman defences from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, across the Judaean Mountains
Judaean Mountains
to the edge of the Jordan Valley ends on March 12 with the move of much of the front line north into Ottoman territory. * March 12 Moscow
Moscow
becomes the capital of Soviet Russia. * March 19 – The United States Congress
United States Congress
establishes time zones and approves daylight saving time (DST goes into effect on March 31 ). * March 21 July 18 – WWI: Spring Offensive
Spring Offensive
by the German Army along the Western Front fails to make a breakthrough despite large losses on each side, including nearly 20,000 British Army
British Army
dead on the first day, Operation Michael
Operation Michael
. * March 21 – WWI: First Transjordan attack on Amman
First Transjordan attack on Amman
by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force
Egyptian Expeditionary Force
begins with the passage of the Jordan River.

* March 23

* WWI: The giant German cannon, the ' Paris Gun ' (Kaiser Wilhelm Geschütz), begins to shell Paris from 114 km (71 mi) away. * In London at the Wood Green
Wood Green
Empire, Chung Ling Soo
Chung Ling Soo
(William E. Robinson, U.S.-born magician) dies during his trick where he is supposed to "catch" two separate bullets – but one of them perforates his lung. He dies the following morning in a hospital.

* March 25

* The Belarusian People\'s Republic
Republic
declares independence. * Dr. Karl Muck
Karl Muck
, music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra
Boston Symphony Orchestra
, is arrested under the Alien Enemies Act
Alien Enemies Act
and imprisoned for the duration of WWI. * French composer Claude Debussy
Claude Debussy
dies of colorectal cancer in Paris.

* March 26 – Dr. Marie Stopes
Marie Stopes
publishes her influential book Married Love in the U.K. * March 27 – WWI: First Battle of Amman launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force
Egyptian Expeditionary Force
during the First Transjordan attack on Amman, ends with their withdrawal on 31 March back to the Jordan Valley. * March 30 March Days
March Days
: Bolshevik
Bolshevik
and Armenian Revolutionary Federation forces suppress a Muslim revolt in Baku
Baku
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, resulting in up to 30,000 deaths.

APRIL

* April 1 – The Royal Flying Corps
Royal Flying Corps
and the Royal Naval Air Service in Britain are merged to form the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
, the first autonomous Air Force in the world. * April 5 – Sālote succeeds as Queen of Tonga
Tonga
; she will remain on the throne until her death in 1965. * April 9 Union of Bessarabia with Romania : Bessarabia
Bessarabia
votes to become part of the Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Romania
. * April 21 – WWI: Manfred von Richthofen
Manfred von Richthofen
, "The Red Baron", the war's most successful fighter pilot, dies in combat at Morlancourt Ridge near the Somme River.

* April 23 – WWI:

* Conscription Crisis of 1918
Conscription Crisis of 1918
in Ireland: a general strike is held here against conscription. * Zeebrugge Raid
Zeebrugge Raid
, an attempt by the British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
to seal off the German U-boat
U-boat
base here. * First Ostend Raid , an unsuccessful attempt by the British Royal Navy to seal off the German U-boat
U-boat
base here.

* April 28 – WWI: Gavrilo Princip , assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Austria
, dies in Terezin , Austria-Hungary , after three years in prison. * April 30 – WWI: Second Transjordan attack on Shunet Nimrin and Es Salt launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force
Egyptian Expeditionary Force
ends on 4 May with their withdrawal back to the Jordan Valley.

MAY

* May 1 – German troops enter Don Host Oblast ; they take Rostov on May 8 . * May 2 General Motors acquires the Chevrolet Motor Company of Delaware
Delaware
. * May 7 – British capture of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
. * May 9 – WWI: Second Ostend Raid , a second unsuccessful attempt by the British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
to seal off the German U-boat
U-boat
base here. * May 11 – The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus is officially established. * May 14 – The Three Minute Pause, initiated by the daily firing of the Noon Gun
Noon Gun
on Signal Hill , is instituted by Cape Town
Cape Town
Mayor Sir Harry Hands . It would inspire the introduction of the two-minute silence in November 1919.

* May 15

* End of the Finnish Civil War
Finnish Civil War
. * The United States Post Office Department begins the world's third regular airmail service, between New York City
New York City
, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
.

* May 16 – The Sedition Act of 1918
Sedition Act of 1918
is approved by the U.S. Congress. * May 20 – The small town of Codell, Kansas , is hit for the third year in a row on the same date by a tornado . * May 21 – United States Army Aviation Section separated from Signal Corps and divided into the Division of Military Aeronautics and the Bureau of Aircraft
Aircraft
Production. * May 26 – The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
is abolished. Georgia declares its independence as the Democratic Republic
Republic
of Georgia . * May 27 – The Third Battle of the Aisne
Third Battle of the Aisne
commences. * May 28 Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
declare their independence as the Democratic Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
and the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic
Republic
respectively.

JUNE

June 10 : Austro-Hungarian battleship Szent István sunk by Italian torpedo boats Szent István

* June 1 – WWI: The Battle of Belleau Wood
Battle of Belleau Wood
begins. * June 4 – RMS Kenilworth Castle , one of the Union-Castle Line steamships, collides with her escort destroyer HMS Rival while trying to avoid her other escort, the cruiser HMS Kent . * June 5 – The Afrikaner Broederbond , a confidential cultural organisation, is founded in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
. * June 8 V603 Aquilae , the brightest nova observed since Kepler\'s of 1604
1604
, is discovered. * June 10 – WWI: The Austro-Hungarian dreadnought battleship SMS Szent István is sunk by two Italian MAS motor torpedo boats off the Dalmatian coast.

* June 12

* Grand Duke Michael of Russia is murdered, thereby becoming the first of the Romanovs to be murdered by the Bolsheviks. * WWI: First airplane bombing raid by an American unit in France.

* June 16 – The Declaration to the Seven
Declaration to the Seven
, a British government response to a memorandum issued anonymously by seven Syrian notables, is published. * June 22 – Suspects in the Chicago
Chicago
Restaurant Poisonings are arrested, and more than 100 waiters are taken into custody, for poisoning restaurant customers with a lethal powder called Mickey Finn . * June–August – "Spanish \'flu " becomes pandemic . Over 30 million people die in the following 6 months.

JULY

* July 3 Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
: The Siberian Intervention
Siberian Intervention
is launched by the Allies to extract the Czechoslovak Legion
Czechoslovak Legion
from the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
. * July 4 Mehmed VI
Mehmed VI
succeeds as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
on the death of his half-brother Mehmed V
Mehmed V
(Reşâd, who has reigned since 1909
1909
), himself reigning until the Sultanate is abolished in 1922
1922
. * July 9 Great Train Wreck of 1918
Great Train Wreck of 1918
: in Nashville, Tennessee
Nashville, Tennessee
, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express, killing 101. * July 12 – The Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
battleship Kawachi blows up off Tokuyama, Yamaguchi , western Honshu
Honshu
, Japan, killing at least 621. * July 13 – The National Czechoslovak Committee is established. * July 14 – Release in the United States of the film The Glorious Adventure featuring Mammy Lou who becomes one of the oldest people ever to star in a film, at a claimed age of 114. * July 15 – WWI: Second Battle of the Marne
Second Battle of the Marne
: The battle begins near the River Marne with a German attack.

July 18 : Execution of the Romanov family
Execution of the Romanov family

* July 17 – WWI: RMS Carpathia
RMS Carpathia
(famed for rescuing survivors of the RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic
) is torpedoed and sunk off the east coast of Ireland by Imperial German Navy
Imperial German Navy
submarine U-55 ; 218 of the 223 on board are rescued. * July 17 Execution of the Romanov family
Execution of the Romanov family
: By order of the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Party and carried out by the Cheka
Cheka
, former emperor Nicholas II , his wife Alexandra Feodorovna , their children, Olga , Tatiana , Maria , Anastasia , and Alexei , and retainers are shot at the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg, Russia .

AUGUST

* August 2 North Russia Intervention
North Russia Intervention
: British anti-Bolshevik forces occupy Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk
. * August 8 – WWI: Battle of Amiens : Canadian and Australian troops begin a string of almost continuous victories, the 'Hundred Days Offensive ', with an 8-mile push through the German front lines, taking 12,000 prisoners. German General Erich Ludendorff
Erich Ludendorff
later calls this the "black day of the German Army". * August 10 – Russian Revolution : The British commander in Archangel is told to help the White Russians . * August 16 Battle of Lake Baikal is fought by the Czechoslovak legion against the Red Army
Red Army
. * August 17 Moisei Uritsky
Moisei Uritsky
, the Petrograd head of the Cheka
Cheka
, is assassinated. * August 21 – WWI: The Second Battle of the Somme begins. * August 23 – Creation of the Bessarabian Peasants\' Party . * August 27 Battle of Ambos Nogales : U.S. Army forces skirmish against Mexican Carrancistas and their German advisors at Nogales, Arizona , in the only battle of WWI fought on United States soil.

* August 30

* 20,000 London policemen strike for increased pay and union recognition. * In response to the October Revolution
October Revolution
in Russia, Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
is shot and wounded by Fanny Kaplan
Fanny Kaplan
in Moscow, but survives.

August 30 : Attempted assassination of Lenin
Lenin
, depicted by Vladimir Pchelin

SEPTEMBER

* September – WWI: British armies and their Arab allies roll into Syria
Syria
. * September 5 Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
: The Kazan Operation
Kazan Operation
begins. The event continues for 5 days and solidifies the Red Army's power in Russia over the White Army. * September 14 – WWI: Start of the Balkan front offensive by the Serbian army. * September 15 - Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic
Republic
with support of Ottoman Army of Islam headed by Nuru Pasha freed the city of Baku
Baku
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
from Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
and Dashnaks . * September 15 –18 – WWI: Battle of Dobro Pole in the Vardar Offensive of the Balkans Campaign – Allied Army of the Orient defeats Bulgarian defenders.

* September 19 – WWI:

* The British Army
British Army
's Egyptian Expeditionary Force
Egyptian Expeditionary Force
launches the Battle of Megiddo , incorporating the Battle of Sharon
Battle of Sharon
, and the Battle of Nablus , an attack in the Judaean Mountains
Judaean Mountains
. This day are fought the Battle of Tulkarm , and the Battle of Arara
Battle of Arara
, which breaks the Ottoman front line stretching from the Mediterranean coast to the Judaean Mountains; while the Battle of Tabsor extends into September 20. * Third Transjordan attack
Third Transjordan attack
in the Jordan Valley begins.

* September 20 – WWI: The British Army's Desert Mounted Corps launches the

* Battle of Nazareth by 5th Cavalry Division (British Indian Army)
5th Cavalry Division (British Indian Army)
; * Capture of Afulah and Beisan
Capture of Afulah and Beisan
by the 4th Cavalry Division (British Indian Army) ; * Capture of Jenin by the Australian Mounted Division , almost encircling the Yildirim Army Group
Yildirim Army Group
still in the Judaean Mountains.

* September 25 – WWI:

* Battle of Megiddo ends with the Battle of Haifa , Battle of Samakh , and Capture of Tiberias . * Third Transjordan attack
Third Transjordan attack
ends with ANZAC Mounted Division
ANZAC Mounted Division
victory at the Second Battle of Amman
Second Battle of Amman
with the subsequent capture at Ziza of the Ottoman II Corps. The division capturing more than 10,000 Ottoman and German prisoners.

* September 26 – WWI: The Capture of Damascus
Damascus
begins with the Charge at Irbid
Charge at Irbid
by the 4th Cavalry Division. * September 27 – WWI: Battle of Jisr Benat Yakub launched by the Australian Mounted Division continues the advance towards Damascus
Damascus
.

* September 29 – WWI:

* Allied forces break through the Hindenburg Line
Hindenburg Line
. * Bulgaria
Bulgaria
requests an armistice.

* September 30 – WWI:

* Charge at Kaukab by units of the Australian Mounted Division. * Charge at Kiswe
Charge at Kiswe
by 4th Cavalry Division continuing Desert Mounted Corps' advance to Damascus.

OCTOBER

* October 1 – WWI: Desert Mounted Corps Capture of Damascus
Damascus
. * October 2 – WWI: Charge at Khan Ayash
Charge at Khan Ayash
north of Damascus
Damascus
by 3rd Light Horse Brigade .

* October 3

* Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany
Wilhelm II of Germany
appoints Max von Baden
Max von Baden
Chancellor of Germany . * King Ferdinand I of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
abdicates in the wake of the Bulgarian military collapse in WWI. He is succeeded by his son, Boris III . * WWI: Pursuit to Haritan by Desert Mounted Corps begins.

* October 4

* Wilhelm II of Germany
Wilhelm II of Germany
forms a new more liberal government to sue for peace. * The T. A. Gillespie Company Shell Loading Plant explosion
T. A. Gillespie Company Shell Loading Plant explosion
in New Jersey kills 100+ and destroys enough ammunition to supply the Western Front for 6 months.

* October 7 – Polish Regency Council (Poland)
Regency Council (Poland)
declares Polish independence from the German Empire
German Empire
and demands that Germany cedes the Polish provinces of Poznań
Poznań
, Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
and Polish Pommerania . * October 8 –10 – WWI: Second Battle of Cambrai
Cambrai
: British and Canadian troops take Cambrai
Cambrai
from the Germans. * October 8 – WWI: In the Forest of Argonne in France, U.S. Corporal Alvin C. York
Alvin C. York
almost single-handedly kills 25 German soldiers and captures 132. * October 9 – Landgrave Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse
Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse
is elected King of Finland
Finland
. * October 11 – The 7.1 Mw San Fermín earthquake shakes Puerto Rico with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), killing 76–116 people. A destructive tsunami contributes to the damage and loss of life. * October 12
October 12
– Cloquet Fire : The city of Cloquet, Minnesota , and nearby areas are destroyed in a fire, killing 453. * October 18 – The Washington Declaration proclaims the independent Czechoslovak Republic
Republic
. * October 24 – WWI: Battle of Vittorio Veneto
Battle of Vittorio Veneto
opens.

* October 25

* WWI: Aleppo captured by Prince Feisal\'s Sheifial Forces. * The steamer Princess Sophia sinks on Vanderbilt Reef near Juneau, Alaska ; 353 people die in the greatest maritime disaster in the Pacific Northwest.

* October 26 – WWI: Units of Desert Mounted Corps Charge at Haritan last conflict with Ottoman forces in WWI.

* October 28

* Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
declares its independence from Austria-Hungary . * A new Polish government is declared in Western Galicia (Eastern Europe) .

* October 29 Wilhelmshaven mutiny of the German High Seas Fleet .

* October 30

* The Martin Declaration is published, including Slovakia
Slovakia
in the formation of the Czecho-Slovak state. * The Armistice of Mudros
Armistice of Mudros
ends conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I
World War I
and grants independence to the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
.

* October 31
October 31
– The Hungarian government terminates the personal union with Austria, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian Empire .

NOVEMBER

* November 1

* Polish–Ukrainian War
Polish–Ukrainian War
inaugurated by proclamation of the West Ukrainian People\'s Republic
Republic
in Galicia with a capital at Lwów . * Serbian forces recapture Belgrade. * Malbone Street Wreck : The worst rapid transit accident in world history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, New York City, with at least 93 dead.

* November 3

* WWI: Austria-Hungary enters an armistice with the Allies at the Villa Giusti in Padua
Padua
. * Poland
Poland
declares its independence from Russia. * German Revolution : Sailors in the German fleet at Kiel
Kiel
mutiny and throughout northern Germany soldiers and workers begin to establish revolutionary councils on the Russian soviet model.

* November 4 – The Armistice
Armistice
of Villa Giusti ends warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front during World War I. * November 6 – A new Polish government is proclaimed in Lublin
Lublin
. * November 7 – King Ludwig of Bavaria
Bavaria
flees his country. * November 8 – The German army withdraws its support of the Kaiser. The German Armistice
Armistice
delegation arrives at Compiègne Forest in France.

November 9 : Proclamation of German Republic
Republic
by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin
Berlin
on the Reichstag balcony

* November 9

* Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany
Wilhelm II of Germany
abdicates and chooses to live in exile in the Netherlands. * Proclamation of German Republic
Republic
by Philipp Scheidemann
Philipp Scheidemann
in Berlin on the Reichstag balcony. * Provisional National Council Minister-President Kurt Eisner declares Bavaria
Bavaria
to be a republic. * British battleship HMS Britannia is sunk by a German submarine off Trafalgar with the loss of around fifty lives, the last major naval engagement of WWI.

November 11 : Signatories to the Armistice
Armistice
with Germany (Compiègne) , ending WWI, pose outside Marshal Foch's railway carriage November 11: Front page of The New York Times
The New York Times
on Armistice Day
Armistice Day

* November 11

* End of WWI and Armistice with Germany (Compiègne)
Armistice with Germany (Compiègne)
: Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies between 5:12 AM and 5:20 AM in Marshal Foch 's railroad car in Compiègne Forest
Compiègne Forest
in France. It becomes official on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month. * Poland
Poland
regains independence after 123 years of partitions . Józef Piłsudski is appointed Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
. * Emperor Charles I of Austria
Charles I of Austria
gives up his absolute power but does not abdicate.

* November 12 Austria
Austria
becomes a republic .

* November 13

* Allied Occupation of Constantinople
Occupation of Constantinople
. * Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden
Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden
, relinquishes all governing duties.

* November 14

* German East African troops are informed of the armistice on 11 November. * The provisional government of Baden proclaims the Freie Volksrepublik Baden ("Free Peoples' Republic
Republic
of Baden "). * Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
becomes a republic . * Józef Piłsudski
Józef Piłsudski
is appointed head of state of Poland
Poland
.

* November 16 – The Hungarian Democratic Republic
Republic
is declared, marking Hungary
Hungary
's independence from Austria
Austria
. * November 18 – Latvia declares its independence from Russia. * November 20 – U-boats start to rendezvous off Harwich
Harwich
to begin the surrender of the High Seas Fleet
High Seas Fleet
to the British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
; in the following week the German warships are escorted to internment in Scapa Flow
Scapa Flow
. * November 21 – Start of 3-day Lwów pogrom : Polish troops, volunteers and freed criminals massacre at least 320 Ukrainian Christians and Jews in Lwów in Galicia .

* November 22

* The Spartacist League founds the German Communist Party. * The Belgian royal family returns to Brussels
Brussels
after the war, King Albert I having commanded the Allied Army group
Army group
in the autumn Courtrai offensive which liberated his country. * Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden
Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden
, abdicates; the Grand Duchy of Baden gives way to the Republic
Republic
of Baden .

* November 23 – British military government of Palestine begins. * November 25 – General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck , German commander in German East Africa
German East Africa
, signs a ceasefire at Abercorn in Northern Rhodesia . * November 26 – The Podgorica
Podgorica
Assembly votes for a "union of the people", declaring its union with the Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
. * November 28 Estonian War of Independence
Estonian War of Independence
: The Red Army invades Estonia
Estonia
, starting the war. The Commune of the Working People of Estonia
Estonia
is established as a Soviet puppet state in Narva
Narva
on the next day. * November 29 Serbia
Serbia
annexes Montenegro
Montenegro
. * November 30 Ernest Ansermet
Ernest Ansermet
conducts the first concert by the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande
Orchestre de la Suisse Romande
.

DECEMBER

* December 1

* Iceland
Iceland
regains independence, but remains in personal union with the King of Denmark
King of Denmark
, who also becomes the King of Iceland
Iceland
until 1944 . * New voting laws in Sweden
Sweden
makes votes no longer dependent on taxable assets, each adult having one vote. * The Union of Alba Iulia is proclaimed: Following the March 27 incorporation of Bessarabia
Bessarabia
and Bucovina
Bucovina
, Transylvania
Transylvania
unites with the Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Romania
. * The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (which later becomes the Kingdom of Yugoslavia ) is proclaimed.

Flag of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats an Slovenes

* December 4 – President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
departs by ship to the Paris Peace Conference , becoming the first United States President to travel to any foreign country while holding office. * December 5 Estonian War of Independence
Estonian War of Independence
: The British light cruiser HMS Cassandra strikes a mine and sinks near Saaremaa
Saaremaa
in the Baltic Sea , killing eleven sailors. * December 14 Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse
Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse
renounces the Finnish throne. * December 16 Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas declares formation of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Republic
, a puppet state created by the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
to justify the Lithuanian–Soviet War
Lithuanian–Soviet War
. * December 17 Darwin Rebellion
Darwin Rebellion
in Australia: Disaffected workers march on Government House, Darwin
Government House, Darwin
demanding the resignation of the Administrator of the Northern Territory , John A. Gilruth
John A. Gilruth
. * December 20
December 20
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
returns to the Czechoslovak Republic. * December 21 Estonian War of Independence
Estonian War of Independence
: The Red Army captures Tartu
Tartu
in Estonia
Estonia
. * December 27 – Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1918–19) begins: Poles in Greater Poland
Poland
(the former Grand Duchy of Posen ) rise up against the Germans, ignited by a patriotic speech made in Poznań
Poznań
by pianist and politician Ignacy Jan Paderewski
Ignacy Jan Paderewski
. * December 28 Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
have a landslide victory in Irish seats in the Irish general election , following the counting of votes, winning 73 of the 105 seats in Ireland. In accordance with their manifesto , Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
members will not take their seats in the Palace of Westminster but will form the First Dáil
First Dáil
in Dublin
Dublin
. Countess Constance Markievicz
Constance Markievicz
, while detained in Holloway Prison
Holloway Prison
(London), becomes the first woman elected to (but does not take her seat in) the British House of Commons . * December 31 – A British-brokered ceasefire ends the two weeks of fighting in the Georgian–Armenian War
Georgian–Armenian War
.

DATE UNKNOWN

* The Native American Church
Native American Church
is formally founded in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
. * The Association Against the Prohibition Amendment is founded to promote repeal of Prohibition in the United States. * United Business Media is founded in London as United Newspapers Ltd. * Around 1000 pilot whales strand in the Chatham Islands
Chatham Islands
.

BIRTHS

JANUARY

João Figueiredo
João Figueiredo
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Nicolae Ceaușescu

* January 1 Patrick Anthony Porteous , Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
(d. 2000
2000
) * January 9 Alma Ziegler , American female professional baseball player (d. 2005
2005
) * January 10 Arthur Chung
Arthur Chung
, 1st President of Guyana
President of Guyana
(d. 2008
2008
) * January 11 Kassim Al-Rimawi
Kassim Al-Rimawi
, Prime Minister of Jordan (d. 1982
1982
)

* January 15

* João Figueiredo
João Figueiredo
, former President of Brazil (d. 1999
1999
) * Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
, 2nd President of Egypt
President of Egypt
(d. 1970
1970
)

* January 16

* Nel Benschop , Dutch poet (d. 2005
2005
) * Allan Ekelund , Swedish film producer (d. 2009
2009
) * Stirling Silliphant , American writer and producer (d. 1996
1996
)

* January 17 George M. Leader
George M. Leader
, American politician (d. 2013
2013
)

* January 19

* Peter Hobbs , American actor (d. 2011
2011
) * John H. Johnson
John H. Johnson
, American publisher (d. 2005
2005
)

* January 20

* Juan García Esquivel , Mexican bandleader (d. 2002
2002
) * Nevin S. Scrimshaw , American clinical (d. 2013
2013
)

* January 21

* Chichay , Filipino actress (d. 1993
1993
) * Richard D. Winters , U.S. Army officer (d. 2011
2011
)

* January 22 Elmer Lach , Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2015
2015
) * January 23 Gertrude B. Elion
Gertrude B. Elion
, American scientist recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
(d. 1999
1999
) * January 24 Oral Roberts
Oral Roberts
, American neo-Pentecostal televangelist (d. 2009
2009
) * January 25 Ernie Harwell , American baseball sportscaster (d. 2010
2010
)

* January 26

* Nicolae Ceaușescu
Nicolae Ceaușescu
, Romanian dictator (d. 1989
1989
) * Philip José Farmer
Philip José Farmer
, American writer (d. 2009
2009
) * Vito Scotti , American character actor (d. 1996
1996
)

* January 27

* Skitch Henderson
Skitch Henderson
, English-born musician and bandleader (d. 2005
2005
) * Elmore James
Elmore James
, American musician (d. 1963
1963
)

* January 29

* Luis Aguilar , Mexican actor and singer (d. 1997
1997
) * John Forsythe
John Forsythe
, American actor (Dynasty) (d. 2010
2010
)

FEBRUARY

Hella Haasse
Hella Haasse
Julian Schwinger
Julian Schwinger
Otis R. Bowen
Otis R. Bowen

* February 1

* Carlos Fayt , Argentine lawyer, politician and academic (d. 2016
2016
) * Dame Muriel Spark
Muriel Spark
, Scottish author (d. 2006
2006
)

* February 2
February 2
Hella Haasse
Hella Haasse
, Dutch writer (d. 2011
2011
)

* February 3

* Joey Bishop
Joey Bishop
, American entertainer, member of the " Rat Pack
Rat Pack
" (d. 2007
2007
) * Helen Stephens , American runner (d. 1994
1994
)

* February 4

* Ida Lupino
Ida Lupino
, Anglo-American actress, screenwriter, director and producer (d. 1995
1995
) * Clive Bossom , British politician (d. 2017
2017
)

* February 6 Lothar-Günther Buchheim , German author (d. 2007 ) * February 7 Markey Robinson , Irish painter (d. 1999
1999
)

* February 8

* Fred Blassie , American professional wrestler and novelty singer (Pencil Neck Geek) (d. 2003
2003
) * Walter Newton Read , American lawyer and second chairman of the New Jersey Casino Control Commission
New Jersey Casino Control Commission
(d. 2001
2001
)

* February 12 Julian Schwinger
Julian Schwinger
, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1994
1994
) * February 15 Allan Arbus , American actor (M*A*S*H ) (d. 2013
2013
) * February 16 Patty Andrews , American singer (The Andrews Sisters ) (d. 2013
2013
) * February 17 William Bronk
William Bronk
, American poet (d. 1999
1999
) * February 19 Fay McKenzie
Fay McKenzie
, American silent film actress

* February 22

* Charlie Finley , American owner of the Oakland A's 1960–80 (d. 1996
1996
) * Don Pardo
Don Pardo
, American TV announcer ( Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live
) (d. 2014 ) * Robert Pershing Wadlow , American tallest man record-holder (d. 1940
1940
)

* February 25

* Barney Ewell , American athlete (d. 1996
1996
) * Bobby Riggs
Bobby Riggs
, American tennis player (d. 1995
1995
)

* February 26

* Herbert Blaize , 6th Prime Minister of Grenada (d. 1989
1989
) * Otis R. Bowen
Otis R. Bowen
, American politician (d. 2013
2013
) * Theodore Sturgeon , American writer (d. 1985
1985
)

* February 28 Alfred Burke
Alfred Burke
, English actor (d. 2011
2011
)

MARCH

João Goulart
João Goulart
James Tobin
James Tobin
Cheddi Jagan
Cheddi Jagan

* March 1

* Roger Delgado , British actor (d. 1973
1973
) * João Goulart
João Goulart
, President of Brazil (d. 1976
1976
)

* March 3

* Arthur Kornberg
Arthur Kornberg
, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2007
2007
) * Fritz Thiedemann , German equestrian (d. 2000
2000
)

* March 4 Margaret Osborne duPont
Margaret Osborne duPont
, former American female tennis player (d. 2012
2012
)

* March 5

* Shlomo Lorincz , member of Israeli Knesset
Knesset
for Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
(d. 2009
2009
) * James Tobin
James Tobin
, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2002
2002
)

* March 9

* George Lincoln Rockwell
George Lincoln Rockwell
, American Nazi leader (d. 1967
1967
) * Mickey Spillane
Mickey Spillane
, American writer (d. 2006
2006
)

* March 10 Günther Rall
Günther Rall
, German ace fighter pilot (d. 2009
2009
) * March 11 Jack Coe , American evangelist (d. 1956
1956
) * March 12 Elaine de Kooning
Elaine de Kooning
, American artist (d. 1989
1989
) * March 14 – John McCallum , Australian actor (d. 2010
2010
) * March 15 – William McIntyre , Canadian Puisne Justice (d. 2009
2009
) * March 16 Frederick Reines
Frederick Reines
, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998
1998
) * March 17 Viviane Gauthier , Haitian dancer (d. 2017
2017
) * March 18 Bob Broeg , American sports writer (d. 2005
2005
) * March 20 – Jack Barry , American television game show host and producer (d. 1984
1984
) * March 22 Cheddi Jagan
Cheddi Jagan
, President of Guyana
President of Guyana
(d. 1997
1997
)

* March 23

* Stick McGhee , American jump blues singer, guitarist, and songwriter (d. 1961
1961
) * Émile Derlin Zinsou , President of Benin
Benin
(d. 2016
2016
)

* March 25 Howard Cosell
Howard Cosell
, American attorney, lecturer, and sports journalist (d. 1995
1995
)

* March 29

* Pearl Bailey
Pearl Bailey
, African-American singer and actress (d. 1990
1990
) * Shirley Jameson , American female baseball player (d. 1993
1993
) * Sam Walton , founder of Wal-Mart (d. 1992
1992
)

APRIL

Betty Ford
Betty Ford
William Holden
William Holden
Kai Siegbahn
Kai Siegbahn

* April 6 Alfredo Ovando Candía , President of Bolivia (d. 1982 ) * April 7 Bobby Doerr
Bobby Doerr
, American baseball player (d. 2017
2017
) * April 8 Betty Ford
Betty Ford
, First Lady of the United States
First Lady of the United States
(d. 2011 ) * April 9 Jørn Utzon
Jørn Utzon
, Danish architect (d. 2008
2008
) * April 14 – Mary Healy , American actress, variety entertainer, singer (d. 2015
2015
) * April 16 Spike Milligan
Spike Milligan
, Irish comedian (d. 2002
2002
)

* April 17

* William Holden
William Holden
, American actor (d. 1981
1981
) * Anne Shirley , American actress (d. 1993
1993
)

* April 18

* Gabriel Axel , Danish film director (d. 2014
2014
) * Claudio Teehankee
Claudio Teehankee
, Filipino lawyer (d. 1989
1989
) * Shinobu Hashimoto , Japanese screenwriter * Clifton Hillegass , American author, founder of CliffsNotes (d. 2001
2001
)

* April 20

* Edward L. Beach, Jr.
Edward L. Beach, Jr.
, American naval officer and author (d. 2002 ) * Kai Siegbahn
Kai Siegbahn
, Swedish physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2007
2007
)

* April 22

* Mickey Vernon
Mickey Vernon
, American baseball player (d. 2008
2008
) * William Jay Smith , American poet (d. 2015
2015
)

* April 26 Fanny Blankers-Koen
Fanny Blankers-Koen
, Dutch athlete (d. 2004
2004
) * April 27 – John Rice , American baseball umpire (d. 2011
2011
) * April 28 Karl-Eduard von Schnitzler
Karl-Eduard von Schnitzler
East German journalist and host of the television show Der schwarze Kanal (d. 2001
2001
)

MAY

Mike Wallace
Mike Wallace
Richard Feynman
Richard Feynman
Yasuhiro Nakasone
Yasuhiro Nakasone

* May 1 Jack Paar
Jack Paar
, American television show host (The Tonight Show) (d. 2004
2004
) * May 3 Richard Dudman , American reporter and editorial writer (St. Louis Post-Dispatch) (d. 2017
2017
) * May 4 Kakuei Tanaka
Kakuei Tanaka
, former Prime Minister of Japan
Prime Minister of Japan
(d. 1993 ) * May 5 Egidio Galea , Maltese Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
priest (d. 2005
2005
) * May 6 Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan
Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan
, 1st President of the United Arab Emirates (d. 2004
2004
)

* May 9

* Orville Freeman
Orville Freeman
, American politician (d. 2003
2003
) * Mike Wallace
Mike Wallace
, American journalist (d. 2012
2012
) * Russell M. Carneal , American politician and judge (d. 1998
1998
)

* May 10

* T. Berry Brazelton , American pediatrician * George Welch , American aviator (d. 1954
1954
)

* May 11 Richard Feynman
Richard Feynman
, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1988
1988
) * May 12 Julius Rosenberg
Julius Rosenberg
, American-born Soviet spy (d. 1953
1953
)

* May 15

* Eddy Arnold
Eddy Arnold
, American country music singer (d. 2008
2008
) * Joseph Wiseman
Joseph Wiseman
, Canadian actor (d. 2009
2009
)

* May 16 Wilf Mannion
Wilf Mannion
, English footballer (d. 2000
2000
)

* May 17

* A. C. Lyles
A. C. Lyles
, American film producer (d. 2013
2013
) * Birgit Nilsson
Birgit Nilsson
, Swedish soprano (d. 2005
2005
)

* May 18 Claudia Bryar , American actress (d. 2011
2011
) * May 19 Abraham Pais , Dutch-born American physicist (d. 2000
2000
) * May 20 Edward B. Lewis
Edward B. Lewis
, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
(d. 2004
2004
) * May 23 Frank Mancuso , American major league baseball player and politician (d. 2007
2007
) * May 27 Yasuhiro Nakasone
Yasuhiro Nakasone
, Prime Minister of Japan

* May 30

* Károly Doncsecz , Slovenian potter (d. 2002
2002
) * Martin Lundstrom , Swedish Olympic cross-country skier (d. 2016
2016
)

JUNE

Robert Preston Patachou
Patachou
François Tombalbaye
François Tombalbaye
Franco Modigliani
Franco Modigliani

* June 2 Kathryn Tucker Windham
Kathryn Tucker Windham
, American writer and storyteller (d. 2011
2011
) * June 4 Johnny Klein , American drummer (d. 1997
1997
)

* June 6

* Kenneth Connor
Kenneth Connor
, English comedy stage, radio, film and television actor (d. 1993
1993
) * Edwin G. Krebs
Edwin G. Krebs
, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2009
2009
)

* June 8 – Robert Preston , American actor (The Music Man) (d. 1987
1987
) * June 9 John Hospers
John Hospers
, American philosopher (d. 2011
2011
) * June 10 Patachou
Patachou
, French singer (d. 2015
2015
) * June 15 François Tombalbaye
François Tombalbaye
, former President of Chad (d. 1975
1975
)

* June 17

* Raúl Padilla , alias El Chato, Mexican actor (d. 1994
1994
) * Ajahn Chah
Ajahn Chah
Subaddho, Buddhist teacher. (d. 1992
1992
)

* June 18

* Jerome Karle , American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013
2013
) * Franco Modigliani
Franco Modigliani
, Italian-born economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003
2003
)

* June 21

* Adriana Sivieri , Argentine-born Italian film actress * Josephine Webb , American engineer * Allan Lindberg , Swedish pole vaulter (d. 2004
2004
)

* June 22 Cicely Saunders , English Anglican nurse, social worker, physician and writer (d. 2005
2005
) * June 23 Paul Ashbee , British archaeologist (d. 2009
2009
) * June 24 Yong Nyuk Lin , Singaporean politician (d. 2012
2012
) * June 25 Sid Tepper , American songwriter (d. 2015
2015
)

* June 26

* Leo Rosner , Polish-born Austrian Jewish musician (d. 2008
2008
) * Raleigh Rhodes , American combat fighter pilot (d. 2007
2007
)

* June 27

* Willy Breinholst , Danish humorist and writer (d. 2009
2009
) * Adolph Kiefer , American former competition swimmer (d. 2017
2017
)

* June 28 – Marshall Brown , American professional basketball player (d. 2008
2008
)

* June 29

* Francis W. Nye
Francis W. Nye
, United States Air Force major general * Jeanne Manet , French actress * Gene La Rocque , U.S admiral (d. 2016
2016
) * Heini Lohrer , Swiss ice hockey player (d. 2011
2011
)

* June 30

* Des Case , Welsh rugby union and professional rugby league footballer

JULY

Ingmar Bergman Bertram Brockhouse
Bertram Brockhouse
Nelson Mandela Paul D. Boyer

* July 1

* Ralph Young , American singer and actor (d. 2008
2008
) * Ahmed Deedat
Ahmed Deedat
, South African writer and public speaker (d. 2005
2005
) * Pedro Yap , Filipino lawyer (d. 2003
2003
)

* July 2

* Athos Bulcão
Athos Bulcão
, Brazilian painter and sculptor (d. 2008
2008
) * Indumati Bhattacharya , Indian politician

* July 3 Benjamin C. Thompson , American architect (d. 2002
2002
)

* July 4

* Alec Bedser , English cricketer (d. 2010
2010
) * Eric Bedser , English cricketer (d. 2006
2006
) * Ann Landers , American advice columnist (d. 2002
2002
) * Joe Fortunato , American football, basketball, and baseball coach (d. 2004
2004
) * Pauline Phillips
Pauline Phillips
, American advice columnist, popularly known as Abigail Van Buren (d. 2013
2013
) * Taufa\'ahau Tupou IV , King of Tonga
Tonga
(d. 2006
2006
)

* July 5

* Zakaria Mohieddin , Egyptian general and politician (d. 2012
2012
) * Brian James , Australian actor (d. 2009
2009
) * George Rochberg , American composer (d. 2005
2005
) * Nikos Papatakis , Greek- Ethiopian-born naturalised French filmmaker (d. 2010
2010
)

* July 6

* Herm Fuetsch , American professional basketball player (d. 2010
2010
) * J. Dewey Daane , American economist (d. 2017
2017
)

* July 7

* Bob Vanatta , American head basketball coach (d. 2016
2016
) * Jing Shuping , Chinese businessman (d. 2009
2009
)

* July 8

* Edward B. Giller , U.S Major General (d. 2017
2017
) * Julia Pirie , British spy working for MI5 (d. 2008
2008
) * Oluf Reed-Olsen , Norwegian resistance member and pilot (d. 2002
2002
) * Craig Stevens , American actor (d. 2000
2000
) * Paul B. Fay
Paul B. Fay
, American businessman, soldier, and diplomat, 12th United States Secretary of the Navy
United States Secretary of the Navy
(d. 2009
2009
)

* July 9 Jarl Wahlström , Salvation Army General (d. 1999
1999
)

* July 10

* Chuck Stevens , American major baseball * Frank L. Lambert , Professor Emeritus of Chemistry at Occidental College

* July 11 Venetia Burney , English woman known for being the first person to suggest the name Pluto for the planet in 1930 (d. 2009 )

* July 12

* Doris Grumbach , American novelist, memoirist, biographer, literary critic, and essayist * Mary Glen-Haig , British Olympic fencer (d. 2014
2014
) * Alice Van-Springsteen , American stuntwoman and jockey (d. 2008
2008
) * Vivian Mason , American actress (d. 2009
2009
) * Paul Stenn , American football offensive tackle (d. 2003
2003
)

* July 13

* Ted Oldfield , English footballer (d. 2006
2006
) * Alberto Ascari
Alberto Ascari
, Italian race car driver (d. 1955
1955
)

* July 14

* Ingmar Bergman , Swedish film director (d. 2007
2007
) * Jay Wright Forrester , American computer engineer and systems scientist (d. 2016
2016
)

* July 15

* Brenda Milner
Brenda Milner
, Canadian neuropsychologist * Arthur Dimmock , English writer, journalist and historian (d. 2007 ) * Bertram Brockhouse
Bertram Brockhouse
, Canadian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003
2003
) * Aubrey Buxton, Baron Buxton of Alsa , British soldier, politician, television executive and writer (d. 2009
2009
)

* July 16

* Pituka de Foronda , Spanish actress (d. 1999
1999
) * Paul Farnes , famed World War II Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) fighter pilot and one of "The Few" surviving pilots of the Battle of Britain * Jim Vickers-Willis , Australian journalist (d. 2008
2008
) * Denis Edward Arnold , English soldier (d. 2015
2015
)

* July 17

* Chandler Robbins , American ornithologist (d. 2017
2017
) * Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio , President of Guatemala
President of Guatemala
(d. 2003
2003
)

* July 18

* Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
, President of South Africa
President of South Africa
and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
(d. 2013
2013
) * James Duesenberry , American economist (d. 2009
2009
) * Warren Hair , American professional basketball player (d. 2006
2006
) * Lia Dorana , Dutch comedian and actress (d. 2010
2010
)

* July 20

* Auður Laxness , Icelandic writer and craftsperson (d. 2012
2012
) * Cindy Walker
Cindy Walker
, American songwriter (d. 2006
2006
)

* July 22

* Lila Zali
Lila Zali
, Georgian-born American prima ballerina (d. 2003
2003
) * Stanley Lebergott , American government economist (d. 2009
2009
)

* July 23 Abraham Bueno de Mesquita , Dutch comedian and actor (d. 2005
2005
)

* July 24

* Ruggiero Ricci , Italian-born violinist (d. 2012
2012
) * Antonio Candido
Antonio Candido
, Brazilian literary critic and sociologist (d. 2017
2017
)

* July 25

* Jane Frank , American artist (d. 1986
1986
) * Alexander McKee , British journalist, military historian and diver, discoverer of the Mary Rose
Mary Rose
(d. 1992
1992
)

* July 26 Marjorie Lord , American actress (d. 2015
2015
) * July 27 Leonard Rose
Leonard Rose
, American cellist (d. 1984
1984
) * July 28 Penaia Ganilau , 1st President of Fiji (d. 1993
1993
) * July 29 – Edwin O\'Connor , American novelist and Pulitzer Prize for Fiction winner (d. 1968
1968
) * July 30 John L. Cason
John L. Cason
, American actor (d. 1961
1961
)

* July 31

* Paul D. Boyer , American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate * Hank Jones
Hank Jones
, American pianist (d. 2010
2010
)

AUGUST

Frederick Sanger
Frederick Sanger
Shankar Dayal Sharma Leonard Bernstein Alejandro Agustín Lanusse
Alejandro Agustín Lanusse

* August 3 Sidney Gottlieb , American Central Intelligence Agency official (d. 1999
1999
) * August 4 Noel Willman
Noel Willman
, Irish actor (d. 1988
1988
) * August 5 Betty Oliphant , co-founder of National Ballet of Canada (d. 2004
2004
) * August 6 Charles Coulston Gillispie , American historian (d. 2015
2015
) * August 11 Thomas A. Bird , British WWII army officer and architect (d. 2017
2017
) * August 12 Roy C. Bennett , American songwriter (d. 2015
2015
)

* August 13

* Noor Hassanali , 2nd President of Trinidad and Tobago (d. 2006
2006
) * Frederick Sanger
Frederick Sanger
, English biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013
2013
)

* August 19 Shankar Dayal Sharma , 9th President of India (d. 1999
1999
) * August 21 Bruria Kaufman , American-born Israeli physicist (d. 2010
2010
) * August 22 Said Mohamed Djohar , former President of the Comoros (d. 2006
2006
) * August 25 Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
, American composer and conductor (d. 1990
1990
)

* August 26

* Hutton Gibson , religion writer and father of actor Mel Gibson
Mel Gibson
* Katherine Johnson
Katherine Johnson
, American physicist, space scientist, and mathematician

* August 27 Jelle Zijlstra , Dutch politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1966 until 1967
1967
(d. 2001
2001
) * August 28 Alejandro Agustín Lanusse
Alejandro Agustín Lanusse
, 37th President of Argentina (d. 1996
1996
) * August 29 Brian Stonehouse
Brian Stonehouse
, English painter and WWII spy (d. 1998
1998
) * August 30 Ted Williams
Ted Williams
, American baseball player (d. 2002
2002
)

SEPTEMBER

Paul Harvey
Paul Harvey
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro

* September 1 James D. Martin
James D. Martin
, American politician (d. 2017
2017
) * September 3 Helen Wagner
Helen Wagner
, American soap opera actress (d. 2010
2010
)

* September 4

* Paul Harvey
Paul Harvey
, American radio broadcaster (d. 2009
2009
) * Gerald Wilson
Gerald Wilson
, American jazz trumpeter (d. 2014
2014
)

* September 8 Derek Barton , British chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998
1998
) * September 9 Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
, 9th President of the Italian Republic
Republic
(d. 2012
2012
)

* September 13

* Ray Charles , American musician, singer and songwriter (d. 2015
2015
) * Rosemary Kennedy , sister of President of the United States
President of the United States
John F. Kennedy (d. 2005
2005
)

* September 15 Nipsey Russell
Nipsey Russell
, American comedian (d. 2005
2005
) * September 17 Chaim Herzog
Chaim Herzog
, 6th President of Israel 1983–93 (d. 1997
1997
) * September 21
September 21
John Gofman
John Gofman
, American Manhattan Project scientist and advocate (d. 2007
2007
) * September 22 Henryk Szeryng
Henryk Szeryng
, Polish-born violinist (d. 1988
1988
) * September 26 Peng Chang-kuei , Taiwanese chef (d. 2016
2016
) * September 27 Martin Ryle , English radio astronomer, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
(d. 1984
1984
)

* September 28

* Ángel Labruna
Ángel Labruna
, Argentine soccer player and manager (d. 1983
1983
) * Arnold Stang
Arnold Stang
, American comic actor (d. 2009
2009
)

* September 30 Giovanni Canestri , Italian cardinal (d. 2015
2015
)

OCTOBER

Rita Hayworth
Rita Hayworth
Konstantinos Mitsotakis
Konstantinos Mitsotakis

* October 4 Kenichi Fukui
Kenichi Fukui
, Japanese chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998
1998
) * October 6 Goh Keng Swee , former Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore (d. 2010
2010
) * October 8 Jens Christian Skou
Jens Christian Skou
, Danish chemist, Nobel Prize laureate * October 9 E. Howard Hunt , Watergate break-in coordinator (d. 2007
2007
) * October 13 – Robert Walker , American actor (d. 1951
1951
) * October 14 Thelma Coyne Long
Thelma Coyne Long
, Australian tennis player (d. 2015
2015
) * October 16 Louis Althusser
Louis Althusser
, French philosopher (d. 1990
1990
) * October 17 Rita Hayworth
Rita Hayworth
, American actress (d. 1987
1987
)

* October 18

* Konstantinos Mitsotakis
Konstantinos Mitsotakis
, former Greek Prime Minister (d. 2017
2017
) * Bobby Troup
Bobby Troup
, American singer-songwriter and actor (Emergency!) (d. 1999
1999
)

* October 19 Robert S. Strauss
Robert S. Strauss
, Democratic National Committee Chairman (d. 2014
2014
) * October 23 Augusta Dabney , American actress (d. 2008
2008
)

* October 27

* Mihkel Mathiesen , Estonian statesman (d. 2003
2003
) * Teresa Wright
Teresa Wright
, American actress (d. 2005
2005
)

* October 29 Diana Serra Cary
Diana Serra Cary
, American actress * October 31
October 31
Ian Stevenson
Ian Stevenson
, American parapsychologist (d. 2007 )

NOVEMBER

Billy Graham
Billy Graham
Spiro Agnew
Spiro Agnew
Patricio Aylwin
Patricio Aylwin

* November 2 Raimon Panikkar , Spanish theologian (d. 2010
2010
)

* November 3

* Bob Feller
Bob Feller
, American baseball player (d. 2010
2010
) * Elizabeth P. Hoisington , American Brigadier General (d. 2007
2007
) * Russell B. Long , U.S. Senator from Louisiana (d. 2003
2003
) * Dean Riesner , American film and television screenwriter (d. 2002 )

* November 4

* Art Carney
Art Carney
, American actor, better known for his role in The Honeymooners (d. 2003
2003
) * Cameron Mitchell , American actor, better known for his role in The High Chaparral
The High Chaparral
(d. 1994
1994
)

* November 7

* Paul Aussaresses
Paul Aussaresses
, French general (d. 2013
2013
) * Billy Graham
Billy Graham
, American evangelist, spiritual adviser to several U.S. Presidents * Fred Cusick , American ice hockey broadcaster (d. 2009
2009
)

* November 8

* Hermann Zapf
Hermann Zapf
, German typeface designer (d. 2015
2015
) * Bob Schiller , American screenwriter (d. 2017
2017
)

* November 9 Spiro Agnew
Spiro Agnew
, 39th Vice President of the United States (d. 1996
1996
)

* November 10

* Ernst Otto Fischer , German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2007 ) * John Henry Moss
John Henry Moss
, American baseball executive and politician (d. 2009
2009
)

* November 14 John Bromwich
John Bromwich
, Australian tennis player (d. 1999 ) * November 21 Dorothy Maguire Chapman , American professional baseball player (d. 1981
1981
) * November 26 Patricio Aylwin
Patricio Aylwin
, 32nd President of Chile (d. 2016 ) * November 28 Jack H. Harris , American film producer, distributor and actor (d. 2017
2017
) * November 29 – Madeleine L\'Engle , American author (d. 2007
2007
) * November 30 Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.
Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.
, American actor (The FBI ) (d. 2014
2014
)

DECEMBER

Helmut Schmidt
Helmut Schmidt
Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat

* December 3 Abdul Haris Nasution
Abdul Haris Nasution
, Indonesian general (d. 2000 ) * December 7 Jórunn Viðar , Icelandic pianist and composer (d. 2017
2017
) * December 8 Gérard Souzay , French baritone (d. 2004
2004
) * December 11 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
, Russian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2008
2008
) * December 12 – Joe Williams , American jazz singer (d. 1999
1999
) * December 14 B. K. S. Iyengar , Indian yoga teacher (d. 2014
2014
) * December 15 – Jeff Chandler , American actor (d. 1961
1961
) * December 20
December 20
Joseph Payne Brennan , American poet and author (d. 1990
1990
)

* December 21

* Donald Regan
Donald Regan
, American Treasury Secretary and White House Chief of Staff (d. 2003
2003
) * Kurt Waldheim
Kurt Waldheim
, President of Austria
Austria
and Secretary-General of the United Nations (d. 2007
2007
)

* December 23

* José Greco , Italian-born flamenco dancer (d. 2001
2001
) * Helmut Schmidt
Helmut Schmidt
, Chancellor of Germany (d. 2015
2015
)

* December 25

* Bertie Mee
Bertie Mee
, English football player and manager (d. 2001
2001
) * Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
, President of Egypt
President of Egypt
, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1981
1981
)

* December 31 Al Lakeman , American catcher in Major League Baseball (d. 1976
1976
)

DATE UNKNOWN

* Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
, 5th President of Bangladesh (d. 1996
1996
) * Lou Dorfsman , American graphic designer (d. 2008
2008
) * Louis Wienholt , Australian public servant (d. 1973
1973
)

DEATHS

JANUARY

Georg Cantor
Georg Cantor
María Dolores Rodríguez Sopeña

* January 6 Georg Cantor
Georg Cantor
, German mathematician (b. 1845
1845
)

* January 8

* Johannes Pääsuke , Estonian photographer and filmmaker (b. 1892 ) * Ellis H. Roberts , American politician (b. 1827
1827
)

* January 9

* Max Ritter von Müller , German World War I
World War I
fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1887
1887
) * Émile Reynaud , French inventor (b. 1844
1844
)

* January 10 María Dolores Rodríguez Sopeña , Spanish Roman Catholic religious sister and blessed (b. 1848
1848
) * January 26 Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich of Russia
Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich of Russia
(b. 1850
1850
) * January 28 John McCrae
John McCrae
, Canadian soldier, surgeon and poet (b. 1872
1872
)

FEBRUARY

Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt
Sultan Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II

* February 2
February 2
John L. Sullivan
John L. Sullivan
, American boxer, World Heavyweight Champion (b. 1858
1858
) * February 5 Leonard Monteagle Barlow , British fighter pilot (accident) (b. 1898
1898
) * February 6 Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt
, Austrian painter (b. 1862
1862
) * February 8 – Louis Renault , French jurist, educator and Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1843
1843
)

* February 10

* Sultan Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(b. 1842
1842
) * Ernesto Teodoro Moneta , Italian pacifist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1833
1833
)

* February 11 Alexey Kaledin
Alexey Kaledin
, Russian general (suicide) (b. 1861
1861
) * February 15 Vernon Castle
Vernon Castle
, American dancer (b. 1887
1887
) * February 16 Károly Khuen-Héderváry
Károly Khuen-Héderváry
, 2-Time Prime Minister of Hungary
Hungary
(b. 1849
1849
) * February 23 – Adolphus Frederick VI, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1882
1882
)

MARCH

Claude Debussy
Claude Debussy
Martin Sheridan
Martin Sheridan

* March 2
March 2
– Prince Mirko of Montenegro
Montenegro
(b. 1879
1879
) * March 9 Frank Wedekind
Frank Wedekind
, German playwright (b. 1864
1864
)

* March 10

* Hans-Joachim Buddecke , German flying ace (killed in action) (b. 1890
1890
) * Jim McCormick , Scottish-born American baseball player (b. 1856
1856
)

* March 13 César Cui
César Cui
, Lithuanian composer (b. 1835
1835
)

* March 14

* Lucretia Garfield
Lucretia Garfield
, First Lady of the United States
First Lady of the United States
(b. 1832
1832
) * Gennaro Rubino , Italian anarchist who unsuccessfully tried to assassinate King Leopold II of Belgium.

* March 15 Adolf Ritter von Tutschek , German fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1891
1891
) * March 23 T. P. Cameron Wilson , English poet and novelist (b. 1888
1888
)

* March 25

* Claude Debussy
Claude Debussy
, French composer (b. 1862
1862
) * Walter Tull , First Black infantry officer to serve in the British Army (b. 1888
1888
)

* March 27

* Henry Adams
Henry Adams
, American historian (b. 1838
1838
) * Martin Sheridan
Martin Sheridan
, American Olympic athlete (b. 1881
1881
)

APRIL

King George Tupou II of Tonga
Tonga
Karl Ferdinand Braun
Karl Ferdinand Braun
Manfred von Richthofen
Manfred von Richthofen
.

* April 1

* Paul von Rennenkampf , Russian general (executed) (b. 1854
1854
) * Isaac Rosenberg , British war poet (killed in action) (b. 1890
1890
)

* April 4 Hermann Cohen
Hermann Cohen
, German philosopher (b. 1842
1842
) * April 5 – King George Tupou II of Tonga
Tonga
(b. 1874
1874
) * April 18 Otto Wagner
Otto Wagner
, Austro-Hungarian architect and urban planner (b. 1841
1841
)

* April 20

* Karl Ferdinand Braun
Karl Ferdinand Braun
, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1850
1850
) * Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn
Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn
, Austrian statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1851
1851
)

* April 21

* Friedrich II, Duke of Anhalt (b. 1856
1856
) * Manfred von Richthofen
Manfred von Richthofen
, German fighter pilot, top-scoring ace of World War I
World War I
(killed in action) (b. 1892
1892
)

* April 27 Jacques Duchesne
Jacques Duchesne
, French general (b. 1837
1837
) * April 28 Gavrilo Princip , Yugoslav assassin (b. 1894
1894
)

MAY

Maria Magdalena Merten

* May 2 Jüri Vilms , Estonian politician (b. 1889
1889
) * May 14 James Gordon Bennett, Jr.
James Gordon Bennett, Jr.
, American newspaper publisher (b. 1841
1841
) * May 17 William Drew Robeson , American minister, father of singer and actor Paul Robeson (b. 1844
1844
) * May 18 Maria Magdalena Merten , German Roman Catholic religious professed and blessed (b. 1883
1883
) * May 19 Raoul Lufbery , Franco-American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1885
1885
) * May 23 Mariano Ponce
Mariano Ponce
, Filipino diplomat, politician and writer (b. 1863
1863
) * May 24 József Kiss , Austro-Hungarian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1896
1896
) * May 30 Georgi Plekhanov
Georgi Plekhanov
, Russian revolutionary and philosopher (b. 1856
1856
)

JUNE

Kyrion II of Georgia

* June 1 Roderic Dallas
Roderic Dallas
, Australian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1891
1891
) * June 3 – Count Richard von Bienerth-Schmerling , Austrian noble and statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1863
1863
) * June 4 Charles W. Fairbanks
Charles W. Fairbanks
, 26th Vice President of the United States (b. 1852
1852
) * June 10 Arrigo Boito
Arrigo Boito
, Italian poet and composer (b. 1842
1842
) * June 13 – Grand Duke Michael Romanov (assassinated) (b. 1878
1878
) * June 19 Francesco Baracca , Italian fighter pilot (air crash) (b. 1888
1888
) * June 25 Jake Beckley
Jake Beckley
, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1867
1867
) * June 26 Kyrion II of Georgia , Georgian Orthodox religious leader and saint (b. 1855
1855
) * June 27 Joséphin Péladan
Joséphin Péladan
, French occultist (b. 1858
1858
)

JULY

Sultan Mehmed V
Mehmed V
Quentin Roosevelt Emperor Nicholas II of Russia
Nicholas II of Russia
Henry Macintosh
Henry Macintosh

* July 3 – Sultan Mehmed V
Mehmed V
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(b. 1844
1844
) * July 9 James McCudden
James McCudden
, British fighter pilot (air crash) (b. 1895
1895
) * July 14 Quentin Roosevelt , youngest son of President Theodore Roosevelt , killed in action as fighter pilot (b. 1897
1897
)

* July 17 – Executed members of the Romanov family:

* Former Emperor Nicholas II of Russia
Nicholas II of Russia
(b. 1868
1868
) * Former Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia (b. 1872
1872
) * Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia
Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia
(b. 1895
1895
) * Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia
Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia
(b. 1897
1897
) * Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1899
1899
) * Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia
Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia
(b. 1901
1901
) * Former Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich of Russia (b. 1904
1904
)

* July 18

* Prince Constantine Constantinovich of Russia
Prince Constantine Constantinovich of Russia
(b. 1891
1891
) * Prince Igor Constantinovich of Russia (b. 1894
1894
) * Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich of Russia (b. 1869
1869
)

* July 20 Francis Lupo , American soldier (b. 1895
1895
)

* July 22

* Indra Lal Roy , Indian fighter pilot (b. 1898
1898
) * Manuel González Prada , Peruvian politician and author (b. 1844
1844
)

* July 26

* Henry Macintosh
Henry Macintosh
, British Olympic athlete (killed in action) (b. 1892
1892
) * Edward Mannock
Edward Mannock
, British fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1887 )

* July 29 Ernest William Christmas , Australian painter (b. 1863
1863
)

* July 30

* Joyce Kilmer
Joyce Kilmer
, American journalist and poet (killed in action) (b. 1886
1886
) * Frank Linke-Crawford , Austro-Hungarian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1893
1893
)

* July 31 George McElroy , British fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1893
1893
)

AUGUST

Marianne Cope
Marianne Cope

* August 1

* John Riley Banister , American policeman and cowboy (b. 1854
1854
) * Gabriel Guérin , French World War I
World War I
fighter ace (air crash) (b. 1892
1892
)

* August 6 Peter Strasser , German naval officer and airship commander (killed in action) (b. 1876
1876
) * August 9 Marianne Cope
Marianne Cope
, German-born American Roman Catholic nun and saint (b. 1838
1838
)

* August 10

* Jean Brillant , Canadian soldier (b. 1890
1890
) * Erich Löwenhardt , German World War I
World War I
fighter ace (b. 1897
1897
) * Aleksander Uurits , Estonian painter and graphic artist (b. 1888
1888
)

* August 12 Anna Held
Anna Held
, French actress (b. 1873
1873
) * August 18 Henry Norwest , Canadian sniper (b. 1884
1884
) * August 24 Louis Bennett Jr.
Louis Bennett Jr.
, American World War I
World War I
flying ace (killed in action) (b. 1894
1894
) * August 30 – William Duncan , British missionary in Canada and United States (b. 1832
1832
)

SEPTEMBER

George Reid Eduard, Duke of Anhalt
Eduard, Duke of Anhalt
Prince Erik, Duke of Vastmanland

* September 5 Nikolay Maklakov
Nikolay Maklakov
, Russian politician, former minister of the Interior (b. 1871
1871
) * September 6 Elizabeth Yates (mayor) , New Zealand politician (b. 1845
1845
) * September 8 Francis Mary of the Cross Jordan , German Roman Catholic priest and venerable (b. 1848
1848
) * September 12 – George Reid , Australian politician, 4th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1845
1845
) * September 13 Eduard, Duke of Anhalt
Eduard, Duke of Anhalt
(b. 1861
1861
) * September 16 Maurice Boyau , French World War I
World War I
fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1888
1888
) * September 20 Prince Erik, Duke of Västmanland
Prince Erik, Duke of Västmanland
(b. 1889
1889
) * September 25 Mikhail Alekseyev
Mikhail Alekseyev
, Russian general (b. 1857
1857
) * September 27 Fritz Rumey , German World War I
World War I
fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1891
1891
)

* September 28

* True Boardman
True Boardman
, American actor (b. 1882
1882
) * Georg Simmel
Georg Simmel
, German sociologist and philosopher (b. 1858
1858
) * Freddie Stowers , American soldier (b. 1896
1896
)

* September 29 Frank Luke
Frank Luke
, American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1897
1897
)

OCTOBER

* October 5

* Roland Garros , French fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1888
1888
) * Robbie Ross , British writer (b. 1869
1869
)

* October 9 Raymond Duchamp-Villon
Raymond Duchamp-Villon
, French sculptor (b. 1876
1876
) * October 11 Wallace Lloyd Algie , Canadian soldier (b. 1891
1891
) * October 14 Nikolai Skrydlov , Russian admiral (executed) (b. 1844
1844
) * October 15 Sai Baba of Shirdi
Sai Baba of Shirdi
, Indian guru and yogi (b. 1838 ) * October 16 Felix Arndt , American pianist and composer (b. 1889
1889
)

* October 18

* Radko Dimitriev
Radko Dimitriev
, Bulgarian and Russian general (executed) (b. 1859
1859
) * Daudo Okelo and Jildo Irwa , Uganda Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
maryrs and saints (b. Uganda nationality)

* October 19

* Harold Lockwood , American actor (b. 1887
1887
) * Prince Umberto, Count of Salemi (b. 1889
1889
)

* October 22 Myrtle Gonzalez , American actress (b. 1891
1891
)

* October 24

* César Ritz , Swiss hotelier (b. 1850
1850
) * Daniel Burley Woolfall , English administrator, 2nd President of FIFA (b. 1852
1852
)

* October 28 Michel Coiffard , French World War I
World War I
fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1892
1892
) * October 29 Rudolf Tobias
Rudolf Tobias
, Estonian composer (b. 1873
1873
)

* October 31
October 31

* Egon Schiele
Egon Schiele
, Austrian artist (b. 1890
1890
) * István Tisza
István Tisza
, 2-time Prime Minister of Hungary
Hungary
(assassinated) (b. 1861
1861
)

NOVEMBER

Wilfred Owen
Wilfred Owen

* November 2 – Hugh Cairns , Canadian soldier (b. 1896
1896
)

* November 4

* Wilfred Owen
Wilfred Owen
, British poet and soldier (killed in action) (b. 1893
1893
) * Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White
, American academic, diplomat, and co-founder of Cornell University (b. 1832
1832
)

* November 5

* Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers
Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers
, British occultist (b. 1854
1854
) * William Shea , British actor (b. 1856
1856
)

* November 6 Alan Arnett McLeod
Alan Arnett McLeod
, Canadian soldier (b. 1899
1899
)

* November 9

* Guillaume Apollinaire
Guillaume Apollinaire
, French poet (b. 1880
1880
) * Albert Ballin
Albert Ballin
, German-Jewish shipping magnate (b. 1857
1857
) * Peter Lumsden , British general in Indian army (b. 1829
1829
)

* November 11 George Lawrence Price , Last Commonwealth soldier to die in WWI (b. 1892
1892
) * November 19 – Joseph Fielding Smith , American Mormon leader (b. 1838
1838
) * November 22 Rose Cleveland
Rose Cleveland
, de facto First Lady of the United States (b. 1846
1846
) * November 23 Fritz von Below , German general (b. 1853
1853
) * November 30 Karl Petrovich Jessen , Russian admiral (b. 1852
1852
)

DECEMBER

Sidónio Pais
Sidónio Pais
Sultan Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar
Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar

* December 2 Edmond Rostand
Edmond Rostand
, French writer (b. 1868
1868
) * December 4 Princess Teriivaetua (b. 1869
1869
) * December 5 Schalk Willem Burger , Boer military leader, lawyer, politician, and statesman, acting President of the South African Republic
Republic
(1900-1902) (b. 1852
1852
) * December 11 Ivan Cankar
Ivan Cankar
, Slovenian writer (b. 1876
1876
) * December 14 Sidónio Pais
Sidónio Pais
, Portuguese politician, general and diplomat, 66th Prime Minister of Portugal and 4th President of Portugal (b. 1872
1872
) * December 20
December 20
– Sultan Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar
Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar
(b. 1884
1884
) * December 21 – Prince Konrad of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst , Austrian statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1863
1863
) * December 28 Olavo Bilac
Olavo Bilac
, Brazilian poet (b. 1865
1865
)

NOBEL PRIZES

* Physics – Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck * Chemistry – Fritz Haber
Fritz Haber
* Medicine – not awarded * Literature – not awarded * Peace – not awarded

REFERENCES

* ^ "Historical Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans". World Digital Library. 2014-02-10. Retrieved 2014-06-22. * ^ Barry, John M. (2005). The Great Influenza; The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic
Pandemic
in History. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0143036494 . * ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0 . * ^ Shores, Christopher (1969). Finnish Air Force, 1918–1968. Reading, Berkshire, UK: Osprey Publications Ltd. p. 3. ISBN 978-0668021210 . * ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 355–356. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2 . * ^ Royal Canadian Legion Branch # 138."2-Minute Wave of Silence" Revives a Time-honoured Tradition. Accessed on 5 June 2014. * ^ The first was from Allahabad to Naini Junction in India on 18 February 1911 and the second from London to Windsor Castle on 22 June 1911. * ^ "La Grippe Espagnole de 1918". Institut Pasteur
Institut Pasteur
. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011. * ^ "Carpathia Sunk; 5 of Crew Killed". New York Times . 20 July 1918. p. 4. * ^ Lichfield, John (2014-07-07). "A History of the First World War in 100 Moments: The \'blackest day\' of the German army". The Independent . London. Retrieved 2014-07-07. * ^ Pitt, Barrie (2003). 1918: The Last Act. Barnsley: Pen and Sword. ISBN 0-85052-974-3 . * ^ Massie, Robert K. (2004). Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea . New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-40878-0 . * ^ Biger, Gideon (2004). The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840–1947. London: Routledge. pp. 55, 164. ISBN 978-0-7146-5654-0 . Retrieved 2009-05-02. * ^ Wainwright, Martin (23 August 2010). "British warships sunk 90 years ago found off Estonian coast". The Guardian
The Guardian
. London. Retrieved 2010-08-24. * ^ Ward, Margaret (1983). Unmanageable Revolutionaries: Women and Irish nationalism. London: Pluto Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-86104-700-1 .

PRIMARY SOURCES AND YEAR BOOKS

* New International Year Book 1918
1918
(1919), Comprehensive coverage of world and national affairs, 904 pp * Wickware. Francis Graham. ed. (1919). The American Year Book: A Record of Events and Progress.. T. Nelson & Sons. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )

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