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The Info List - 1918



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1918 (MCMXVIII ) was a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday (dominical letter G) of the Julian calendar , the 1918th year of the Common Era (CE) and _ Anno Domini _ (AD) designations, the 918th year of the 2nd millennium , the 18th year of the 20th century , and the 9th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1918, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

CONTENTS

* 1 Events

* 1.1 January * 1.2 February * 1.3 March * 1.4 April * 1.5 May * 1.6 June * 1.7 July * 1.8 August * 1.9 September * 1.10 October * 1.11 November * 1.12 December * 1.13 Date unknown

* 2 Births

* 2.1 January * 2.2 February * 2.3 March * 2.4 April * 2.5 May * 2.6 June * 2.7 July * 2.8 August * 2.9 September * 2.10 October * 2.11 November * 2.12 December * 2.13 Date unknown

* 3 Deaths

* 3.1 January * 3.2 February * 3.3 March * 3.4 April * 3.5 May * 3.6 June * 3.7 July * 3.8 August * 3.9 September * 3.10 October * 3.11 November * 3.12 December

* 4 Nobel Prizes

* 5 References

* 5.1 Primary sources and year books

EVENTS

Below, events of World War I have the "WWI" prefix. February 16 : The Act of Independence of Lithuania

JANUARY

* January 4 Finland officially recognized by the Russian SFSR . * January 8 Woodrow Wilson delivers his Fourteen Points speech. * January 9 – U.S troops engage Yaqui Indian warriors in the Battle of Bear Valley in Arizona, a minor skirmish and one of the last battles of the American Indian Wars between the United States and Native Americans. * January 12 Finland enacts a "Mosaic Confessors" law, granting Finnish Jews civil rights. * January 15 – The keel of HMS _Hermes_ is laid in Britain, the first purpose-designed aircraft carrier to be laid down.

* January 18

* Russian Constituent Assembly meets. * The Historic Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans of Austrian and Hungarian Soldiers at the Konzerthaus, Vienna .

* January 19 Russian Constituent Assembly proclaims Russian Democratic Federative Republic , but is dissolved by Bolshevik government on same day. * January 22 – The Ukrainian People\'s Republic declares independence from Bolshevik Russia . * January 27 – The Finnish Civil War begins with the Battle of Kämärä . * January – 1918 flu pandemic : "Spanish 'flu" (influenza ) first observed in Haskell County, Kansas .

FEBRUARY

* February 1 – The Cattaro Mutiny sees Austrian sailors in the Gulf of Cattaro (Kotor), led by two Czech Socialists, mutiny. * February 5 – The SS _Tuscania_ is torpedoed off the Irish coast; it is the first ship carrying American troops to Europe to be torpedoed and sunk.

February 23 : Estonian Declaration of Independence

* February 6 – Women\'s suffrage in the United Kingdom : Representation of the People Act gives most women over 30 the vote. * February 14 – Russia switches from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar ; the date skips from February 1 to February 14. * February 16 – The Council of Lithuania adopts the Act of Independence of Lithuania , declaring Lithuania's independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . * February 19 – WWI: Capture of Jericho by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the British occupation of the Jordan Valley . * February 19 -25 – WWI: The Imperial Russian Navy evacuates Tallinn through thick ice over the Gulf of Finland . * February 21 – The last captive Carolina parakeet (the last breed of parrot native to the eastern United States) dies at the Cincinnati Zoo .

* February 24

* Estonia declares its independence from Russia after seven centuries of foreign rule. German forces capture Tallinn on the next day. * Armenia , Azerbaijan , and Georgia declare their independence from Russia as the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic .

MARCH

* March 1 – WWI: German submarine _U-19_ sinks HMS _Calgarian_ off Rathlin Island , Northern Ireland. * March 3 – WWI:the Central Powers and Bolshevist Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk , ending Russia's involvement in the war.

* March 6

* The Finnish Army Corps of Aviation is founded as a forerunner of the Finnish Air Force to be established on 4 May 1928 . The blue swastika is adopted as its symbol as a tribute to the Swedish explorer and aviator Eric von Rosen , who donated the first plane. Von Rosen had painted the Viking symbol on the plane as his personal lucky insignia. * The first pilotless drone, the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane developed by Elmer Sperry and Peter Cooper Hewitt , is test-flown in Long Island, New York , but development is scrapped in 1925 after its guidance system proves unreliable.

* March 7 – WWI: Finland forms an alliance with Germany. * March 8 – WWI: Battle of Tell \'Asur launched by units of the British Army 's Egyptian Expeditionary Force against Ottoman defences from the Mediterranean Sea , across the Judaean Mountains to the edge of the Jordan Valley ends on March 12 with the move of much of the front line north into Ottoman territory. * March 12 Moscow becomes the capital of Soviet Russia. * March 19 – The United States Congress establishes time zones and approves daylight saving time (DST goes into effect on March 31 ). * March 21 July 18 – WWI: Spring Offensive by the German Army along the Western Front fails to make a breakthrough despite large losses on each side, including nearly 20,000 British Army dead on the first day, Operation Michael . * March 21 – WWI: First Transjordan attack on Amman by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins with the passage of the Jordan River.

* March 23

* WWI: The giant German cannon, the ' Paris Gun ' (_Kaiser Wilhelm Geschütz_), begins to shell Paris from 114 km (71 mi) away. * In London at the Wood Green Empire, Chung Ling Soo (William E. Robinson, U.S.-born magician) dies during his trick where he is supposed to "catch" two separate bullets – but one of them perforates his lung. He dies the following morning in a hospital.

* March 25

* The Belarusian People\'s Republic declares independence. * Dr. Karl Muck , music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra , is arrested under the Alien Enemies Act and imprisoned for the duration of WWI. * French composer Claude Debussy dies of colorectal cancer in Paris.

* March 26 – Dr. Marie Stopes publishes her influential book _ Married Love _ in the U.K. * March 27 – WWI: First Battle of Amman launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force during the First Transjordan attack on Amman, ends with their withdrawal on 31 March back to the Jordan Valley. * March 30 March Days : Bolshevik and Armenian Revolutionary Federation forces suppress a Muslim revolt in Baku , Azerbaijan , resulting in up to 30,000 deaths.

APRIL

* April 1 – The Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service in Britain are merged to form the Royal Air Force , the first autonomous Air Force in the world. * April 5 – Sālote succeeds as Queen of Tonga ; she will remain on the throne until her death in 1965. * April 9 Union of Bessarabia with Romania : Bessarabia votes to become part of the Kingdom of Romania . * April 21 – WWI: Manfred von Richthofen , "The Red Baron", the war's most successful fighter pilot, dies in combat at Morlancourt Ridge near the Somme River.

* April 23 – WWI:

* Conscription Crisis of 1918 in Ireland: a general strike is held here against conscription. * Zeebrugge Raid , an attempt by the British Royal Navy to seal off the German U-boat base here. * First Ostend Raid , an unsuccessful attempt by the British Royal Navy to seal off the German U-boat base here.

* April 28 – WWI: Gavrilo Princip , assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , dies in Terezin , Austria-Hungary , after three years in prison. * April 30 – WWI: Second Transjordan attack on Shunet Nimrin and Es Salt launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force ends on 4 May with their withdrawal back to the Jordan Valley.

MAY

* May 1 – German troops enter Don Host Oblast ; they take Rostov on May 8 . * May 2 General Motors acquires the Chevrolet Motor Company of Delaware . * May 7 – British capture of Kirkuk . * May 9 – WWI: Second Ostend Raid , a second unsuccessful attempt by the British Royal Navy to seal off the German U-boat base here. * May 11 – The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus is officially established. * May 14 – The Three Minute Pause, initiated by the daily firing of the Noon Gun on Signal Hill , is instituted by Cape Town Mayor Sir Harry Hands . It would inspire the introduction of the two-minute silence in November 1919.

* May 15

* End of the Finnish Civil War . * The United States Post Office Department begins the world's third regular airmail service, between New York City , Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. .

* May 16 – The Sedition Act of 1918 is approved by the U.S. Congress. * May 20 – The small town of Codell, Kansas , is hit for the third year in a row on the same date by a tornado . * May 21 – United States Army Aviation Section separated from Signal Corps and divided into the Division of Military Aeronautics and the Bureau of Aircraft Production. * May 26 – The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic is abolished. Georgia declares its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia . * May 27 – The Third Battle of the Aisne commences. * May 28 Armenia and Azerbaijan declare their independence as the Democratic Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic respectively.

JUNE

_ June 10 : Austro-Hungarian battleship Szent István_ sunk by Italian torpedo boats _ Szent István_

* June 1 – WWI: The Battle of Belleau Wood begins. * June 4 – _RMS Kenilworth Castle_, one of the Union-Castle Line steamships, collides with her escort destroyer _HMS Rival_ while trying to avoid her other escort, the cruiser _HMS Kent_ . * June 5 – The _ Afrikaner Broederbond _, a confidential cultural organisation, is founded in Johannesburg . * June 8 V603 Aquilae , the brightest nova observed since Kepler\'s of 1604 , is discovered. * June 10 – WWI: The Austro-Hungarian dreadnought battleship SMS _Szent István_ is sunk by two Italian MAS motor torpedo boats off the Dalmatian coast.

* June 12

* Grand Duke Michael of Russia is murdered, thereby becoming the first of the Romanovs to be murdered by the Bolsheviks. * WWI: First airplane bombing raid by an American unit in France.

* June 16 – The Declaration to the Seven , a British government response to a memorandum issued anonymously by seven Syrian notables, is published. * June 22 – Suspects in the Chicago Restaurant Poisonings are arrested, and more than 100 waiters are taken into custody, for poisoning restaurant customers with a lethal powder called Mickey Finn . * June–August – "Spanish \'flu " becomes pandemic . Over 30 million people die in the following 6 months.

JULY

* July 3 Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War : The Siberian Intervention is launched by the Allies to extract the Czechoslovak Legion from the Russian Civil War . * July 4 Mehmed VI succeeds as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire on the death of his half-brother Mehmed V (Reşâd, who has reigned since 1909 ), himself reigning until the Sultanate is abolished in 1922 . * July 9 Great Train Wreck of 1918 : in Nashville, Tennessee , an inbound local train collides with an outbound express, killing 101. * July 12 – The Imperial Japanese Navy battleship _Kawachi _ blows up off Tokuyama, Yamaguchi , western Honshu , Japan, killing at least 621. * July 13 – The National Czechoslovak Committee is established. * July 14 – Release in the United States of the film _The Glorious Adventure _ featuring Mammy Lou who becomes one of the oldest people ever to star in a film, at a claimed age of 114. * July 15 – WWI: Second Battle of the Marne : The battle begins near the River Marne with a German attack.

_ July 18 : Execution of the Romanov family

* July 17 – WWI: RMS Carpathia_ (famed for rescuing survivors of the RMS _Titanic_ ) is torpedoed and sunk off the east coast of Ireland by Imperial German Navy submarine _U-55 _; 218 of the 223 on board are rescued. * July 18 Execution of the Romanov family : By order of the Bolshevik Party and carried out by the Cheka , former emperor Nicholas II , his wife Alexandra Feodorovna , their children, Olga , Tatiana , Maria , Anastasia , and Alexei , and retainers are shot at the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg, Russia .

AUGUST

* August 2 North Russia Intervention : British anti-Bolshevik forces occupy Arkhangelsk . * August 8 – WWI: Battle of Amiens : Canadian and Australian troops begin a string of almost continuous victories, the 'Hundred Days Offensive ', with an 8-mile push through the German front lines, takiing 12,000 prisoners. German General Erich Ludendorff later calls this the "black day of the German Army". * August 10 – Russian Revolution : The British commander in Archangel is told to help the White Russians . * August 16 Battle of Lake Baikal is fought by the Czechoslovak legion against the Red Army . * August 17 Moisei Uritsky , the Petrograd head of the Cheka , is assassinated. * August 21 – WWI: The Second Battle of the Somme begins. * August 23 – Creation of the Bessarabian Peasants\' Party . * August 27 Battle of Ambos Nogales : U.S. Army forces skirmish against Mexican Carrancistas and their German advisors at Nogales, Arizona , in the only battle of WWI fought on United States soil.

* August 30

* 20,000 London policemen strike for increased pay and union recognition. * In response to the October Revolution in Russia, Vladimir Lenin is shot and wounded by Fanny Kaplan in Moscow, but survives.

August 30 : Attempted assassination of Lenin , depicted by Vladimir Pchelin

SEPTEMBER

* September – British armies and their Arab allies roll into Syria . * September 5 – The Kazan Operation begins. The event continues for 5 days and solidifies the Red Army's power in Russia over the White Army. * September 14 – Start of the Balkan front offensive by the Serbian army.

* September 19 – WWI:

* The British Army 's Egyptian Expeditionary Force launches the Battle of Megiddo , incorporating the Battle of Sharon , and the Battle of Nablus , an attack in the Judaean Mountains . This day are fought the Battle of Tulkarm , and the Battle of Arara , which breaks the Ottoman front line stretching from the Mediterranean coast to the Judaean Mountains; while the Battle of Tabsor extends into September 20. * Third Transjordan attack in the Jordan Valley begins.

* September 20 – WWI: The British Army's Desert Mounted Corps launches the

* Battle of Nazareth by 5th Cavalry Division (British Indian Army) ; * Capture of Afulah and Beisan by the 4th Cavalry Division (British Indian Army) ; * Capture of Jenin by the Australian Mounted Division , almost encircling the Yildirim Army Group still in the Judaean Mountains.

* September 25 – WWI:

* Battle of Megiddo ends with the Battle of Haifa , Battle of Samakh , and Capture of Tiberias . * Third Transjordan attack ends with ANZAC Mounted Division victory at the Second Battle of Amman with the subsequent capture at Ziza of the Ottoman II Corps. The division capturing more than 10,000 Ottoman and German prisoners.

* September 26 – WWI: The Capture of Damascus begins with the Charge at Irbid by the 4th Cavalry Division. * September 27 – WWI: Battle of Jisr Benat Yakub launched by the Australian Mounted Division continues the advance towards Damascus .

* September 29 – WWI:

* Allied forces break through the Hindenburg Line . * Bulgaria requests an armistice.

* September 30 – WWI:

* Charge at Kaukab by units of the Australian Mounted Division. * Charge at Kiswe by 4th Cavalry Division continuing Desert Mounted Corps' advance to Damascus.

OCTOBER

* October 1 – WWI: Desert Mounted Corps Capture of Damascus . * October 2 – WWI: Charge at Khan Ayash north of Damascus by 3rd Light Horse Brigade .

* October 3

* Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany appoints Max von Baden Chancellor of Germany . * King Ferdinand I of Bulgaria abdicates in the wake of the Bulgarian military collapse in WWI. He is succeeded by his son, Boris III . * WWI: Pursuit to Haritan by Desert Mounted Corps begins.

* October 4

* Wilhelm II of Germany forms a new more liberal government to sue for peace. * The T. A. Gillespie Company Shell Loading Plant explosion in New Jersey kills 100+ and destroys enough ammunition to supply the Western Front for 6 months.

* October 7 – Polish Regency Council (Poland) declares Polish independence from German Empire and demands from Germans to cede Polish provinces of Poznań , Upper Silesia and Polish Pommerania . * October 8 – WWI: In the Forest of Argonne in France, U.S. Corporal Alvin C. York almost single-handedly kills 25 German soldiers and captures 132. * October 9 – Landgrave Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse is elected King of Finland . * October 11 – The 7.1 Mw Puerto Rico earthquake shakes the island with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (_Violent_), killing 76–116 people. A destructive tsunami contributed to the damage and loss of life. * October 12 – Cloquet Fire : The city of Cloquet, Minnesota , and nearby areas are destroyed in a fire, killing 453. * October 18 – The Washington Declaration proclaims the independent Czechoslovak Republic .

* October 25

* WWI: Aleppo captured by Prince Feisal\'s Sheifial Forces. * The steamer _Princess Sophia _ sinks on Vanderbilt Reef near Juneau, Alaska ; 353 people die in the greatest maritime disaster in the Pacific Northwest.

* October 26 – WWI: Units of Desert Mounted Corps Charge at Haritan last conflict with Ottoman forces in WWI.

* October 28

* Czechoslovakia declares its independence from Austria-Hungary . * A new Polish government is declared in Western Galicia (Eastern Europe) .

* October 29 Wilhelmshaven mutiny of the German High Seas Fleet .

* October 30

* The Martin Declaration is published, including Slovakia in the formation of the Czecho-Slovak state. * The Armistice of Mudros ends conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I . * The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen is granted independence from the Ottoman Empire by the Armistice of Mudros.

* October 31 – The Hungarian government terminates the personal union with Austria, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian Empire .

NOVEMBER

* November 1

* Polish–Ukrainian War inaugurated by proclamation of the West Ukrainian People\'s Republic in Galicia with a capital at Lwów . * Malbone Street Wreck : The worst rapid transit accident in world history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, in Brooklyn , New York City, with at least 93 dead.

* November 3

* WWI: Austria-Hungary enters an armistice with the Allies in Padua . * Poland declares its independence from Russia. * German Revolution : Sailors in the German fleet at Kiel mutiny and throughout northern Germany soldiers and workers begin to establish revolutionary councils on the Russian soviet model.

* November 4 – The Armistice of Villa Giusti ended warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front during World War I. * November 6 – A new Polish government is proclaimed in Lublin . * November 7 – King Ludwig of Bavaria flees his country. * November 8 – The German army withdraws its support of the Kaiser.

_ November 9 : Proclamation of German Republic by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin on the Reichstag balcony

* November 9

* Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates and chooses to live in exile in the Netherlands. * Proclamation of German Republic by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin on the Reichstag balcony. * Provisional National Council Minister-President Kurt Eisner declares Bavaria to be a republic. * British battleship HMS Britannia_ is sunk by a German submarine off Trafalgar with the loss of around fifty lives, the last major naval engagement of WWI.

_ November 11 : Signatories to the Armistice with Germany (Compiègne) , ending WWI, pose outside Marshal Foch's railway carriage November 11: Front page of The New York Times _ on Armistice Day

* November 11

* End of WWI and Armistice with Germany (Compiègne) : Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies between 5:12 AM and 5:20 AM in Marshal Foch 's railroad car in Compiègne Forest in France. It becomes official on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month. * Poland regains independence after 123 years of partitions . Józef Piłsudski is appointed Commander-in-Chief . * Emperor Charles I of Austria gives up his absolute power but does not abdicate.

* November 12 Austria becomes a republic .

* November 13

* Allied Occupation of Constantinople . * Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden , relinquishes all governing duties.

* November 14

* German East African troops are informed of the armistice on 11 November. * The provisional government of Baden proclaims the _Freie Volksrepublik Baden_ ("Free Peoples' Republic of Baden "). * Czechoslovakia becomes a republic . * Józef Piłsudski is appointed head of state of Poland .

* November 16 – The Hungarian Democratic Republic is declared, marking Hungary 's independence from Austria . * November 18 – Latvia declares its independence from Russia. * November 20 – U-boats start to rendezvous off Harwich to begin the surrender of the High Seas Fleet to the British Royal Navy ; in the following week the German warships are escorted to internment in Scapa Flow . * November 21 – Start of 3-day Lwów pogrom : Polish troops, volunteers and freed criminals massacre at least 320 Ukrainian Christians and Jews in Lwów in Galicia .

* November 22

* The Spartacist League founds the German Communist Party. * The Belgian royal family returns to Brussels after the war, King Albert I having commanded the Allied Army group in the autumn Courtrai offensive which liberated his country. * Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden , abdicates; the Grand Duchy of Baden gives way to the Republic of Baden .

* November 23 – British military government of Palestine begins. * November 25 – General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck , German commander in German East Africa , signs a ceasefire at Abercorn in Northern Rhodesia . * November 26 – The Podgorica Assembly votes for a "union of the people", declaring its union with the Kingdom of Serbia . * November 28 Estonian War of Independence : The Red Army invades Estonia , starting the war. The Commune of the Working People of Estonia is established as a Soviet puppet state in Narva on the next day. * November 29 Serbia annexes Montenegro . * November 30 Ernest Ansermet conducts the first concert by the _ Orchestre de la Suisse Romande _.

DECEMBER

* December 1

* Iceland regains independence, but remains in personal union with the King of Denmark , who also becomes the King of Iceland until 1944 . * New voting laws in Sweden makes votes no longer dependent on taxable assets, each adult having one vote. * The Union of Alba Iulia is proclaimed: Following the March 27 incorporation of Bessarabia and Bucovina , Transylvania unites with the Kingdom of Romania . * The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (which later becomes the Kingdom of Yugoslavia ) is proclaimed.

_ Flag of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats an Slovenes

* December 4 – President Woodrow Wilson departs by ship to the Paris Peace Conference , becoming the first United States President to travel to any foreign country while holding office. * December 5 Estonian War of Independence : The British light cruiser HMS Cassandra_ strikes a mine and sinks near Saaremaa in the Baltic Sea , killing eleven sailors. * December 14 Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse renounces the Finnish throne. * December 16 Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas declares formation of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic , a puppet state created by the Russian SFSR to justify the Lithuanian–Soviet War . * December 17 Darwin Rebellion in Australia: Disaffected workers march on Government House, Darwin demanding the resignation of the Administrator of the Northern Territory , John A. Gilruth . * December 20 Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk returns to the Czechoslovak Republic. * December 21 Estonian War of Independence : The Red Army captures Tartu in Estonia . * December 27 – Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19) begins: Poles in Greater Poland (the former Grand Duchy of Posen ) rise up against the Germans, ignited by a patriotic speech made in Poznań by pianist and politician Ignacy Jan Paderewski . * December 28 Sinn Féin have a landslide victory in Irish seats in the Irish general election , following the counting of votes, winning 73 of the 105 seats in Ireland. In accordance with their manifesto , Sinn Féin members will not take their seats in the Palace of Westminster but will form the First Dáil in Dublin . Countess Constance Markievicz , while detained in Holloway Prison (London), becomes the first woman elected to (but does not take her seat in) the British House of Commons . * December 31 – A British-brokered ceasefire ends the two weeks of fighting in the Georgian–Armenian War .

DATE UNKNOWN

* The Native American Church is formally founded in Oklahoma . * The Association Against the Prohibition Amendment is founded to promote repeal of Prohibition in the United States. * United Business Media is founded in London as United Newspapers Ltd. * Around 1000 pilot whales strand in the Chatham Islands .

BIRTHS

JANUARY

_ João Figueiredo Gamal Abdel Nasser Nicolae Ceaușescu

* January 1 Patrick Anthony Porteous , Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross (d. 2000 ) * January 9 Alma Ziegler , American female professional baseball player (d. 2005 ) * January 10 Arthur Chung , 1st President of Guyana (d. 2008 )

* January 15

* João Figueiredo , former President of Brazil (d. 1999 ) * Gamal Abdel Nasser , 2nd President of Egypt (d. 1970 )

* January 16

* Nel Benschop , Dutch poet (d. 2005 ) * Allan Ekelund , Swedish film producer (d. 2009 ) * Stirling Silliphant , American writer and producer (d. 1996 )

* January 17 George M. Leader , American politician (d. 2013 )

* January 19

* Peter Hobbs , American actor (d. 2011 ) * John H. Johnson , American publisher (d. 2005 )

* January 20

* Juan García Esquivel , Mexican bandleader (d. 2002 ) * Nevin S. Scrimshaw , American clinical (d. 2013 )

* January 21

* Chichay , Filipino actress (d. 1993 ) * Richard D. Winters , U.S. Army officer (d. 2011 )

* January 22 Elmer Lach , Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2015 ) * January 23 Gertrude B. Elion , American scientist recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1999 ) * January 24 Oral Roberts , American neo-Pentecostal televangelist (d. 2009 ) * January 25 Ernie Harwell , American baseball sportscaster (d. 2010 )

* January 26

* Nicolae Ceaușescu , Romanian dictator (d. 1989 ) * Philip José Farmer , American writer (d. 2009 ) * Vito Scotti , American character actor (d. 1996 )

* January 27

* Skitch Henderson , English-born musician and bandleader (d. 2005 ) * Elmore James , American musician (d. 1963 )

* January 29

* Luis Aguilar , Mexican actor and singer (d. 1997 ) * John Forsythe , American actor (Dynasty_) (d. 2010 )

FEBRUARY

_ Ida Lupino

* February 1

* Carlos Fayt , Argentine lawyer, politician and academic (d. 2016 ) * Dame Muriel Spark , Scottish author (d. 2006 )

* February 2 Hella Haasse , Dutch writer (d. 2011 )

* February 3

* Joey Bishop , American entertainer, member of the " Rat Pack " (d. 2007 ) * Helen Stephens , American runner (d. 1994 )

* February 4 Ida Lupino , English actress, screenwriter, director and producer (d. 1995 ) * February 6 Lothar-Günther Buchheim , German author (d. 2007 ) * February 7 Markey Robinson , Irish painter (d. 1999 )

* February 8

* Fred Blassie , American professional wrestler and novelty singer (Pencil Neck Geek_) (d. 2003 ) * Walter Newton Read , American lawyer and second chairman of the New Jersey Casino Control Commission (d. 2001 )

* February 12 Julian Schwinger , American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1994 ) * February 15 Allan Arbus , American actor (_M*A*S*H _) (d. 2013 ) * February 16 Patty Andrews , American singer (The Andrews Sisters ) (d. 2013 ) * February 17 William Bronk , American poet (d. 1999 ) * February 19 Fay McKenzie , American silent film actress

* February 22

* Charlie Finley , American owner of the Oakland A's 1960–80 (d. 1996 ) * Don Pardo , American TV announcer (_ Saturday Night Live _) (d. 2014 ) * Robert Pershing Wadlow , American tallest man record-holder (d. 1940 )

* February 25

* Barney Ewell , American athlete (d. 1996 ) * Bobby Riggs , American tennis player (d. 1995 )

* February 26

* Otis R. Bowen , American politician (d. 2013 ) * Theodore Sturgeon , American writer (d. 1985 )

* February 28 Alfred Burke , English actor (d. 2011 )

MARCH

_ João Goulart

* March 1

* Roger Delgado , British actor (d. 1973 ) * João Goulart , President of Brazil (d. 1976 )

* March 3

* Arthur Kornberg , American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2007 ) * Fritz Thiedemann , German equestrian (d. 2000 )

* March 4 Margaret Osborne duPont , former American female tennis player (d. 2012 )

* March 5

* Shlomo Lorincz , member of Israeli Knesset for Agudat Yisrael (d. 2009 ) * James Tobin , American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2002 )

* March 9

* George Lincoln Rockwell , American Nazi leader (d. 1967 ) * Mickey Spillane , American writer (d. 2006 )

* March 10 Günther Rall , German ace fighter pilot (d. 2009 ) * March 11 Jack Coe , American evangelist (d. 1956 ) * March 12 Elaine de Kooning , American artist (d. 1989 ) * March 14 – John McCallum , Australian actor (d. 2010 ) * March 15 – William McIntyre , Canadian Puisne Justice (d. 2009 ) * March 16 Frederick Reines , American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998 ) * March 17 Viviane Gauthier , Haitian dancer (d. 2017 ) * March 18 Bob Broeg , American sports writer (d. 2005 ) * March 20 – Jack Barry , American television game show host and producer (d. 1984 ) * March 22 Cheddi Jagan , President of Guyana (d. 1997 )

* March 23

* Stick McGhee , American jump blues singer, guitarist, and songwriter (d. 1961 ) * Émile Derlin Zinsou , President of Benin (d. 2016 )

* March 25 Howard Cosell , American attorney, lecturer, and sports journalist (d. 1995 )

* March 29

* Pearl Bailey , African-American singer and actress (d. 1990 ) * Shirley Jameson , American female baseball player (d. 1993 ) * Sam Walton , founder of Wal-Mart_ (d. 1992 )

APRIL

_ Betty Ford William Holden

* April 7 Bobby Doerr , American baseball player * April 8 Betty Ford , First Lady of the United States (d. 2011 ) * April 9 Jørn Utzon , Danish architect (d. 2008 ) * April 14 – Mary Healy , American actress, variety entertainer, singer (d. 2015 ) * April 16 Spike Milligan , Irish comedian (d. 2002 )

* April 17

* William Holden , American actor (d. 1981 ) * Anne Shirley , American actress (d. 1993 )

* April 18

* Gabriel Axel , Danish film director (d. 2014 ) * Claudio Teehankee , Filipino lawyer (d. 1989 ) * Shinobu Hashimoto , Japanese screenwriter * Clifton Hillegass , American author, founder of CliffsNotes _ (d. 2001 )

* April 20

* Edward L. Beach, Jr. , American naval officer and author (d. 2002 ) * Kai Siegbahn , Swedish physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2007 )

* April 22

* Mickey Vernon , American baseball player (d. 2008 ) * William Jay Smith , American poet (d. 2015 )

* April 26 Fanny Blankers-Koen , Dutch athlete (d. 2004 ) * April 27 – John Rice , American baseball umpire (d. 2011 ) * April 28 Karl-Eduard von Schnitzler East German journalist and host of the television show Der schwarze Kanal (d. 2001 )

MAY

_ Mike Wallace Richard Feynman Yasuhiro Nakasone

* May 1 Jack Paar , American television show host (The Tonight Show_) (d. 2004 ) * May 4 Kakuei Tanaka , former Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1993 ) * May 5 Egidio Galea , Maltese Roman Catholic priest (d. 2005 )

* May 9

* Orville Freeman , American politician (d. 2003 ) * Mike Wallace , American journalist (d. 2012 ) * Russell M. Carneal , American politician and judge (d. 1998 )

* May 10

* T. Berry Brazelton , American pediatrician * George Welch , American aviator (d. 1954 )

* May 11 Richard Feynman , American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1988 ) * May 12 Julius Rosenberg , American-born Soviet spy (d. 1953 )

* May 15

* Eddy Arnold , American country music singer (d. 2008 ) * Joseph Wiseman , Canadian actor (d. 2009 )

* May 16 Wilf Mannion , English footballer (d. 2000 )

* May 17

* A. C. Lyles , American film producer (d. 2013 ) * Birgit Nilsson , Swedish soprano (d. 2005 )

* May 18 Claudia Bryar , American actress (d. 2011 ) * May 19 Abraham Pais , Dutch-born American physicist (d. 2000 ) * May 20 Edward B. Lewis , American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004 ) * May 23 Frank Mancuso , American major league baseball player and politician (d. 2007 ) * May 27 Yasuhiro Nakasone , Prime Minister of Japan

* May 30

* Károly Doncsecz , Slovenian potter (d. 2002 ) * Martin Lundstrom , Swedish Olympic cross-country skier (d. 2016 )

JUNE

* June 2 Kathryn Tucker Windham , American writer and storyteller (d. 2011 ) * June 4 Johnny Klein , American drummer (d. 1997 )

* June 6

* Kenneth Connor , English comedy stage, radio, film and television actor (d. 1993 ) * Edwin G. Krebs , American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2009 )

* June 8 – Robert Preston , American actor (_The Music Man_) (d. 1987 ) * June 9 John Hospers , American philosopher (d. 2011 ) * June 10 Patachou , French singer (d. 2015 ) * June 15 François Tombalbaye , former President of Chad (d. 1975 ) * June 17 Ajahn Chah Subaddho, Buddhist teacher. (d. 1992 )

* June 18

* Jerome Karle , American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013 ) * Franco Modigliani , Italian-born economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003 )

* June 21

* Adriana Sivieri , Argentine-born Italian film actress * Josephine Webb , American engineer

* June 22 Cicely Saunders , English Anglican nurse, social worker, physician and writer (d. 2005 ) * June 25 Sid Tepper , American songwriter (d. 2015 ) * June 26 Ellen Liiger , Estonian actress (d. 1987 )

* June 27

* Willy Breinholst , Danish humorist and writer (d. 2009 ) * Adolph Kiefer , American former competition swimmer (d. 2017 )

* June 28 – Marshall Brown , American professional basketball player (d. 2008 )

* June 29

* Francis W. Nye , United States Air Force major general * Jeanne Manet , French actress * Pedro Rigual, Cuban actor and singer * Heini Lohrer , Swiss ice hockey player (d. 2011 )

* June 30

* Eberhard Heder , German Sturmbannführer * Des Case , Welsh rugby union and professional rugby league footballer

JULY

_ Bertram Brockhouse Nelson Mandela

* July 1

* Ralph Young , American singer and actor (d. 2008 ) * Ahmed Deedat , South African writer and public speaker (d. 2005 ) * Pedro Yap , Filipino lawyer (d. 2003 )

* July 2

* Athos Bulcão , Brazilian painter and sculptor (d. 2008 ) * Indumati Bhattacharya , Indian politician

* July 3 Benjamin C. Thompson , American architect (d. 2002 )

* July 4

* Ann Landers , American advice columnist (d. 2002 ) * Pauline Phillips , American advice columnist, popularly known as Abigail Van Buren (d. 2013 ) * Taufa\'ahau Tupou IV , King of Tonga (d. 2006 )

* July 5

* Zakaria Mohieddin , Egyptian general and politician (d. 2012 ) * Brian James , Australian actor (d. 2009 ) * George Rochberg , American composer (d. 2005 )

* July 6

* Herm Fuetsch , American professional basketball player (d. 2010 ) * J. Dewey Daane , American economist (d. 2017 )

* July 7 Bob Vanatta , American head basketball coach (d. 2016 )

* July 8

* Mary Jo Ellis, American actress * Edward B. Giller , U.S Major General * Julia Pirie , British spy working for MI5 (d. 2008 ) * Craig Stevens , American actor (d. 2000 )

* July 9 Jarl Wahlström , Salvation Army General (d. 1999 )

* July 10

* Chuck Stevens , American major baseball * Frank L. Lambert , Professor Emeritus of Chemistry at Occidental College * Anbjørg Pauline Oldervik (de), Norsk lyricist

* July 12

* Doris Grumbach , American novelist, memoirist, biographer, literary critic, and essayist * Mary Glen-Haig , British Olympic fencer (d. 2014 ) * Alice Van-Springsteen , American stuntwoman and jockey (d. 2008 ) * Vivian Mason , American actress (d. 2009 ) * Paul Stenn , American football offensive tackle (d. 2003 )

* July 13

* Ted Oldfield , English footballer (d. 2006 ) * Alberto Ascari , Italian race car driver (d. 1955 )

* July 14

* Ingmar Bergman , Swedish film director (d. 2007 ) * Jay Wright Forrester , American computer engineer and systems scientist (d. 2016 )

* July 15

* Arthur Dimmock , English writer, journalist and historian (d. 2007 ) * Bertram Brockhouse , Canadian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003 ) * Brenda Milner , Canadian neuropsychologist

* July 16

* Pituka de Foronda , Spanish actress (d. 1999 ) * Paul Farnes , famed World War II Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter pilot and one of "The Few" surviving pilots of the Battle of Britain * Jim Vickers-Willis , Australian journalist (d. 2008 ) * Bayani Casimiro , Filipino dancer and actor (d. 1989 )

* July 17

* Chandler Robbins , American ornithologist (d. 2017 ) * Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio , President of Guatemala (d. 2003 )

* July 18

* Nelson Mandela , President of South Africa and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 2013 ) * James Duesenberry , American economist (d. 2009 ) * Warren Hair , American professional basketball player (d. 2006 )

* July 20 Cindy Walker , American songwriter (d. 2006 )

* July 22

* Lila Zali , Georgian-born American prima ballerina (d. 2003 ) * Stanley Lebergott , American government economist (d. 2009 )

* July 24

* Ruggiero Ricci , Italian-born violinist (d. 2012 ) * Antonio Candido , Brazilian literary critic and sociologist (d. 2017 )

* July 25

* Jane Frank , American artist (d. 1986 ) * Alexander McKee , British journalist, military historian and diver, discoverer of the Mary Rose _ (died 1992 )

* July 26 Marjorie Lord , American actress (d. 2015 ) * July 27 Leonard Rose , American cellist (d. 1984 ) * July 29 – Edwin O\'Connor , American novelist and Pulitzer Prize for Fiction winner (d. 1968 )

* July 31

* Paul D. Boyer , American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate * Hank Jones , American pianist (d. 2010 )

AUGUST

Frederick Sanger Shankar Dayal Sharma Leonard Bernstein Alejandro Agustín Lanusse

* August 3 Sidney Gottlieb , American Central Intelligence Agency official (d. 1999 ) * August 4 Noel Willman , Irish actor (d. 1988 ) * August 5 Betty Oliphant , co-founder of National Ballet of Canada (d. 2004 ) * August 6 Charles Coulston Gillispie , American historian (d. 2015 ) * August 12 Roy C. Bennett , American songwriter (d. 2015 ) * August 13 Frederick Sanger , English biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013 ) * August 19 Shankar Dayal Sharma , 9th President of India (d. 1999 ) * August 21 Bruria Kaufman , American-born Israeli physicist (d. 2010 )

* August 22

* Said Mohamed Djohar , former President of the Comoros (d. 2006 ) * Katherine Johnson , American physicist, space scientist, and mathematician

* August 25 Leonard Bernstein , American composer and conductor (d. 1990 ) * August 26 Hutton Gibson , religion writer and father of actor Mel Gibson * August 27 Jelle Zijlstra , Dutch politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1966 until 1967 (d. 2001 ) * August 28 Alejandro Agustín Lanusse , 37th President of Argentina (d. 1996 ) * August 29 Brian Stonehouse , English painter and WWII spy (d. 1998 ) * August 30 Ted Williams , American baseball player (d. 2002 )

SEPTEMBER

Oscar Luigi Scalfaro

* September 3 Helen Wagner , American soap opera actress (d. 2010 )

* September 4

* Paul Harvey , American radio broadcaster (d. 2009 ) * Gerald Wilson , American jazz trumpeter (d. 2014 )

* September 8 Derek Barton , British chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998 ) * September 9 Oscar Luigi Scalfaro , 9th President of the Italian Republic (d. 2012 )

* September 13

* Ray Charles , American musician, singer and songwriter (d. 2015 ) * Rosemary Kennedy , sister of President of the United States John F. Kennedy (d. 2005 )

* September 15 Nipsey Russell , American comedian (d. 2005 ) * September 17 Chaim Herzog , 6th President of Israel 1983–93 (d. 1997 ) * September 21 John Gofman , American Manhattan Project scientist and advocate (d. 2007 ) * September 22 Henryk Szeryng , Polish-born violinist (d. 1988 ) * September 26 Peng Chang-kuei , Taiwanese chef (d. 2016 ) * September 27 Martin Ryle , English radio astronomer, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics (d. 1984 )

* September 28

* Ángel Labruna , Argentine soccer player and manager (d. 1983 ) * Arnold Stang , American comic actor (d. 2009 )

* September 30 Giovanni Canestri , Italian cardinal (d. 2015 )

OCTOBER

_ Rita Hayworth Konstantinos Mitsotakis

* October 4 Kenichi Fukui , Japanese chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998 ) * October 6 Goh Keng Swee , former Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore (d. 2010 ) * October 8 Jens Christian Skou , Danish chemist, Nobel Prize laureate * October 9 E. Howard Hunt , Watergate break-in coordinator (d. 2007 ) * October 13 – Robert Walker , American actor (d. 1951 ) * October 14 Thelma Coyne Long , Australian tennis player (d. 2015 ) * October 16 Louis Althusser , French philosopher (d. 1990 ) * October 17 Rita Hayworth , American actress (d. 1987 )

* October 18

* Konstantinos Mitsotakis , former Greek Prime Minister (d. 2017 ) * Bobby Troup , American singer-songwriter and actor (Emergency!_) (d. 1999 )

* October 19 Robert S. Strauss , Democratic National Committee Chairman (d. 2014 ) * October 23 Augusta Dabney , American actress (d. 2008 )

* October 27

* Mihkel Mathiesen , Estonian statesman (d. 2003 ) * Teresa Wright , American actress (d. 2005 )

* October 29 Diana Serra Cary , American actress * October 31 Ian Stevenson , American parapsychologist (d. 2007 )

NOVEMBER

_ Billy Graham Spiro Agnew Patricio Aylwin

* November 2 Raimon Panikkar , Spanish theologian (d. 2010 )

* November 3

* Bob Feller , American baseball player (d. 2010 ) * Elizabeth P. Hoisington , American Brigadier General (d. 2007 ) * Russell B. Long , U.S. Senator from Louisiana (d. 2003 ) * Dean Riesner , American film and television screenwriter (d. 2002 )

* November 4

* Art Carney , American actor, better known for his role in The Honeymooners _ (d. 2003 ) * Cameron Mitchell , American actor, better known for his role in _ The High Chaparral _ (d. 1994 )

* November 7

* Paul Aussaresses , French general (d. 2013 ) * Billy Graham , American evangelist, spiritual adviser to several U.S. Presidents

* November 8 Hermann Zapf , German typeface designer (d. 2015 ) * November 9 Spiro Agnew , 39th Vice President of the United States (d. 1996 )

* November 10

* Ernst Otto Fischer , German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2007 ) * John Henry Moss , American baseball executive and politician (d. 2009 )

* November 21 Dorothy Maguire Chapman , American professional baseball player (d. 1981 ) * November 26 Patricio Aylwin , 32nd President of Chile (d. 2016 ) * November 28 Jack H. Harris , American film producer, distributor and actor (d. 2017 ) * November 29 – Madeleine L\'Engle , American author (d. 2007 ) * November 30 Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. , American actor (_The FBI _) (d. 2014 )

DECEMBER

Helmut Schmidt Anwar Sadat

* December 3 Abdul Haris Nasution , Indonesian general (d. 2000 ) * December 7 Jórunn Viðar , Icelandic pianist and composer (d. 2017 ) * December 8 Gérard Souzay , French baritone (d. 2004 ) * December 11 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn , Russian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2008 ) * December 12 – Joe Williams , American jazz singer (d. 1999 ) * December 14 B. K. S. Iyengar , Indian yoga teacher (d. 2014 ) * December 15 – Jeff Chandler , American actor (d. 1961 ) * December 20 Joseph Payne Brennan , American poet and author (d. 1990 )

* December 21

* Donald Regan , American Treasury Secretary and White House Chief of Staff (d. 2003 ) * Kurt Waldheim , President of Austria and Secretary-General of the United Nations (d. 2007 )

* December 23

* José Greco , Italian-born flamenco dancer (d. 2001 ) * Helmut Schmidt , Chancellor of Germany (d. 2015 )

* December 25

* Bertie Mee , English football player and manager (d. 2001 ) * Anwar Sadat , President of Egypt , recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1981 )

* December 31 Al Lakeman , American catcher in Major League Baseball (d. 1976 )

DATE UNKNOWN

* Lou Dorfsman , American graphic designer (d. 2008 ) * Louis Wienholt , Australian public servant (d. 1973 )

DEATHS

JANUARY

Georg Cantor Gustav Klimt Sultan Abdul Hamid II Claude Debussy Martin Sheridan

* January 6 Georg Cantor , German mathematician (b. 1845 )

* January 8

* Johannes Pääsuke , Estonian photographer and filmmaker (b. 1892 ) * Ellis H. Roberts , American politician (b. 1827 )

* January 9

* Max Ritter von Müller , German World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1887 ) * Émile Reynaud , French inventor (b. 1844 )

* January 26 Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich of Russia (b. 1850 ) * January 28 John McCrae , Canadian soldier, surgeon and poet (b. 1872 )

FEBRUARY

* February 2 John L. Sullivan , American boxer, World Heavyweight Champion (b. 1858 ) * February 5 Leonard Monteagle Barlow , British fighter pilot (accident) (b. 1898 ) * February 6 Gustav Klimt , Austrian painter (b. 1862 )

* February 10

* Sultan Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1842 ) * Ernesto Teodoro Moneta , Italian pacifist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1833 )

* February 11 Alexey Kaledin , Russian general (suicide) (b. 1861 ) * February 15 Vernon Castle , American dancer (b. 1887 ) * February 23 – Adolphus Frederick VI, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1882 )

MARCH

* March 2 – Prince Mirko of Montenegro (b. 1879 ) * March 9 Frank Wedekind , German playwright (b. 1864 )

* March 10

* Hans-Joachim Buddecke , German flying ace (killed in action) (b. 1890 ) * Jim McCormick , Scottish-born American baseball player (b. 1856 )

* March 13 César Cui , Lithuanian composer (b. 1835 )

* March 14

* Lucretia Garfield , First Lady of the United States (b. 1832 ) * Gennaro Rubino , Italian anarchist who unsuccessfully tried to assassinate King Leopold II of Belgium.

* March 15 Adolf Ritter von Tutschek , German fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1891 ) * March 23 T. P. Cameron Wilson , English poet and novelist (b. 1888 )

* March 25

* Claude Debussy , French composer (b. 1862 ) * Walter Tull , First Black infantry officer to serve in the British Army (b. 1888 )

* March 27

* Henry Adams , American historian (b. 1838 ) * Martin Sheridan , American Olympic athlete (b. 1881 )

APRIL

King George Tupou II of Tonga Karl Ferdinand Braun Saint Kyrion II of Georgia

* April 1

* Paul von Rennenkampf , Russian general (executed) (b. 1854 ) * Isaac Rosenberg , British war poet (killed in action) (b. 1890 )

* April 4 Hermann Cohen , German philosopher (b. 1842 ) * April 5 – King George Tupou II of Tonga (b. 1874 ) * April 18 Otto Wagner , Austro-Hungarian architect and urban planner (b. 1841 )

* April 20

* Karl Ferdinand Braun , German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1850 ) * Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn , Austrian statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1851 )

* April 21

* Friedrich II, Duke of Anhalt (b. 1856 ) * Manfred von Richthofen , German fighter pilot, top-scoring ace of World War I (killed in action) (b. 1892 )

* April 27 Jacques Duchesne , French general (b. 1837 ) * April 28 Gavrilo Princip , Yugoslav assassin (b. 1894 )

MAY

* May 2 Jüri Vilms , Estonian politician (b. 1889 ) * May 14 James Gordon Bennett, Jr. , American newspaper publisher (b. 1841 ) * May 17 William Drew Robeson , American minister, father of singer and actor Paul Robeson (b. 1844 ) * May 19 Raoul Lufbery , Franco-American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1885 ) * May 23 Mariano Ponce , Filipino diplomat, politician and writer (b. 1863 ) * May 24 József Kiss , Austro-Hungarian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1896 ) * May 30 Georgi Plekhanov , Russian revolutionary and philosopher (b. 1856 )

JUNE

* June 1 Roderic Dallas , Australian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1891 ) * June 3 – Count Richard von Bienerth-Schmerling , Austrian noble and statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1863 ) * June 4 Charles W. Fairbanks , 26th Vice President of the United States (b. 1852 ) * June 10 Arrigo Boito , Italian poet and composer (b. 1842 ) * June 13 – Grand Duke Michael Romanov (assassinated) (b. 1878 ) * June 19 Francesco Baracca , Italian fighter pilot (air crash) (b. 1888 ) * June 25 Jake Beckley , American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1867 ) * June 26 Kyrion II of Georgia , Georgian religious leader and saint (b. 1855 ) * June 27 Joséphin Péladan , French occultist (b. 1858 )

JULY

Sultan Mehmed V Quentin Roosevelt Emperor Nicholas II of Russia Henry Macintosh George Reid Eduard, Duke of Anhalt Prince Erik, Duke of Vastmanland

* July 3 – Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1844 ) * July 9 James McCudden , British fighter pilot (air crash) (b. 1895 ) * July 14 Quentin Roosevelt , youngest son of President Theodore Roosevelt , killed in action as fighter pilot (b. 1897 )

* July 17 – Executed members of the Romanov family:

* Former Emperor Nicholas II of Russia (b. 1868 ) * Former Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia (b. 1872 ) * Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1895 ) * Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1897 ) * Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1899 ) * Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1901 ) * Former Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich of Russia (b. 1904 )

* July 18

* Prince Constantine Constantinovich of Russia (b. 1891 ) * Prince Igor Constantinovich of Russia (b. 1894 ) * Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich of Russia (b. 1869 )

* July 20 Francis Lupo , American soldier (b. 1895 )

* July 22

* Indra Lal Roy , Indian fighter pilot (b. 1898 ) * Manuel González Prada , Peruvian politician and author (b. 1844 )

* July 26

* Henry Macintosh , British Olympic athlete (killed in action) (b. 1892 ) * Edward Mannock , British fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1887 )

* July 29 Ernest William Christmas , Australian painter (b. 1863 )

* July 30

* Joyce Kilmer , American journalist and poet (killed in action) (b. 1886 ) * Frank Linke-Crawford , Austro-Hungarian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1893 )

* July 31 George McElroy , British fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1893 )

AUGUST

* August 1

* John Riley Banister , American policeman and cowboy (b. 1854 ) * Gabriel Guérin , French World War I fighter ace (air crash) (b. 1892 )

* August 6 Peter Strasser , German naval officer and airship commander (killed in action) (b. 1876 )

* August 10

* Jean Brillant , Canadian soldier (b. 1890 ) * Erich Löwenhardt , German World War I fighter ace (b. 1897 ) * Aleksander Uurits , Estonian painter and graphic artist (b. 1888 )

* August 12 Anna Held , French actress (b. 1873 ) * August 18 Henry Norwest , Canadian sniper (b. 1884 ) * August 30 – William Duncan , British missionary in Canada and United States (b. 1832 )

SEPTEMBER

* September 5 Nikolay Maklakov , Russian politician, former minister of the Interior (b. 1871 ) * September 6 Elizabeth Yates (mayor) , New Zealand politician (b. 1845 ) * September 8 Francis Mary of the Cross Jordan , German Roman Catholic priest and venerable (b. 1848 ) * September 12 – George Reid , Australian politician, 4th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1845 ) * September 13 Eduard, Duke of Anhalt (b. 1861 ) * September 16 Maurice Boyau , French World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1888 ) * September 20 Prince Erik, Duke of Västmanland , Swedish prince (b. 1889 ) * September 25 Mikhail Alekseyev , Russian general (b. 1857 ) * September 27 Fritz Rumey , German World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1891 )

* September 28

* True Boardman , American actor (b. 1882 ) * Georg Simmel , German sociologist and philosopher (b. 1858 ) * Freddie Stowers , American soldier (b. 1896 )

* September 29 Frank Luke , American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1897 )

OCTOBER

Wilfred Owen Sidonio Pais Sultan Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar

* October 5

* Roland Garros , French fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1888 ) * Robbie Ross , British writer (b. 1869 )

* October 9 Raymond Duchamp-Villon , French sculptor (b. 1876 ) * October 11 Wallace Lloyd Algie , Canadian soldier (b. 1891 ) * October 14 Nikolai Skrydlov , Russian admiral (executed) (b. 1844 ) * October 15 Sai Baba of Shirdi , Indian guru and yogi (b. 1838 ) * October 16 Felix Arndt , American pianist and composer (b. 1889 ) * October 18 Radko Dimitriev , Bulgarian and Russian general (executed) (b. 1859 )

* October 19

* Harold Lockwood , American actor (b. 1887 ) * Prince Umberto, Count of Salemi (b. 1889 )

* October 22 Myrtle Gonzalez , American actress (b. 1891 ) * October 24 Daniel Burley Woolfall , English administrator, 2nd President of FIFA (b. 1852 ) * October 28 Michel Coiffard , French World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1892 ) * October 29 Rudolf Tobias , Estonian composer (b. 1873 ) * October 31 Egon Schiele , Austrian artist (b. 1890 )

NOVEMBER

* November 2 – Hugh Cairns , Canadian soldier (b. 1896 )

* November 4

* Wilfred Owen , British poet and soldier (killed in action) (b. 1893 ) * Andrew Dickson White , American academic, diplomat, and co-founder of Cornell University (b. 1832 )

* November 5

* Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers , British occultist (b. 1854 ) * William Shea , British actor (b. 1856 )

* November 6 Alan Arnett McLeod , Canadian soldier (b. 1899 )

* November 9

* Guillaume Apollinaire , French poet (b. 1880 ) * Albert Ballin , German-Jewish shipping magnate (b. 1857 ) * Peter Lumsden , British general in Indian army (b. 1829 )

* November 11 George Lawrence Price , Last Commonwealth soldier to die in WWI (b. 1892 ) * November 19 – Joseph Fielding Smith , American Mormon leader (b. 1838 ) * November 22 Rose Cleveland , _de facto_ First Lady of the United States (b. 1846 ) * November 23 Fritz von Below , German general (b. 1853 ) * November 30 Karl Petrovich Jessen , Russian admiral (b. 1852 )

DECEMBER

* December 2 Edmond Rostand , French writer (b. 1868 ) * December 4 Princess Teriivaetua (b. 1869 ) * December 5 Schalk Willem Burger , Boer military leader, lawyer, politician, and statesman, acting President of the South African Republic (1900-1902) (b. 1852 ) * December 11 Ivan Cankar , Slovenian writer (b. 1876 ) * December 14 Sidónio Pais , Portuguese politician, general and diplomat, 66th Prime Minister of Portugal and 4th President of Portugal (b. 1872 ) * December 20 – Sultan Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar (b. 1884 ) * December 21 – Prince Konrad of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst , Austrian statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1863 ) * December 28 Olavo Bilac , Brazilian poet (b. 1865 )

NOBEL PRIZES

* Physics – Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck * Chemistry – Fritz Haber * Medicine – not awarded * Literature – not awarded * Peace – not awarded

REFERENCES

* ^ "Historical Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans". _World Digital Library_. 2014-02-10. Retrieved 2014-06-22. * ^ Barry, John M. (2005). _The Great Influenza; The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History_. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0143036494 . * ^ _Penguin Pocket On This Day_. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0 . * ^ Shores, Christopher (1969). _Finnish Air Force, 1918–1968_. Reading, Berkshire, UK: Osprey Publications Ltd. p. 3. ISBN 978-0668021210 . * ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). _The Chronology of British History_. London: Century Ltd. pp. 355–356. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2 . * ^ Royal Canadian Legion Branch # 138."2-Minute Wave of Silence" Revives a Time-honoured Tradition. Accessed on 5 June 2014. * ^ The first was from Allahabad to Naini Junction in India on 18 February 1911 and the second from London to Windsor Castle on 22 June 1911. * ^ "La Grippe Espagnole de 1918". Institut Pasteur . Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011. * ^ "Carpathia Sunk; 5 of Crew Killed". _ New York Times _. 20 July 1918. p. 4. * ^ Lichfield, John (2014-07-07). "A History of the First World War in 100 Moments: The ‘blackest day’ of the German army". _The Independent _. London. Retrieved 2014-07-07. * ^ Pitt, Barrie (2003). _1918: The Last Act_. Barnsley: Pen and Sword. ISBN 0-85052-974-3 . * ^ Massie, Robert K. (2004). _Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea _. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-40878-0 . * ^ Biger, Gideon (2004). _The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840–1947_. London: Routledge. pp. 55, 164. ISBN 978-0-7146-5654-0 . Retrieved 2009-05-02. * ^ Wainwright, Martin (23 August 2010). "British warships sunk 90 years ago found off Estonian coast". _ The Guardian _. London. Retrieved 2010-08-24. * ^ Ward, Margaret (1983). _Unmanageable Revolutionaries: Women and Irish nationalism_. London: Pluto Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-86104-700-1 .

PRIMARY SOURCES AND YEAR BOOKS

* _New International Year Book 1918_ (1919), Comprehensive coverage of world and national affairs, 904 pp * Wickware. Francis Graham. ed. (1919). _The American Year Book: A Record of Events and Progress..._ T. Nelson & Sons. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )

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