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This year saw the beginning of what became known as
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
, after Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austrian throne was assassinated by Serbian nationalist Gavrillo Princip. It also saw the first airline to provide scheduled regular commercial passenger services with heavier-than-air aircraft, with the St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line.


Events


January

* January 1 – The St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line in the United States starts services between St. Petersburg, Florida, St. Petersburg and Tampa, Florida, becoming the first airline to provide scheduled regular commercial passenger services with heavier-than-air aircraft, with Tony Jannus (the first federally-licensed pilot) conveying passengers in a Benoist XIV flying boat. Abram C. Pheil, mayor of St. Petersburg, is the first airline passenger, and over 3,000 people witness the first departure. * January 5 – Ford Motor Company announces the introduction of an eight-hour working day and a daily wage of $5. * January 8 – A railway strike is declared in the Transvaal Province, Transvaal and Orange Free State (province), Orange Free State. * January 9 – The Phi Beta Sigma fraternity is founded by African American students at Howard University, in Washington, D.C. * January 11 – The Sakurajima volcano in Japan begins to erupt, becoming effusive after a very large earthquake on January 13. The lava flow causes the island which it forms to be linked to the Ōsumi Peninsula.


February

* February 2 – Charlie Chaplin makes his film début, in the comedy short ''Making a Living''. * February 7 – Charlie Chaplin's second film, the Keystone Studios, Keystone comedy ''Kid Auto Races at Venice'', is released, in which his character of The Tramp is introduced to audiences (although first filmed in ''Mabel's Strange Predicament'', released two days later). * February 8 – The Luxembourg national football team has its first victory, beating France national football team, France 5–4 in a friendly match, for the first and only time in Association football, football history. * February 10 – The film ''Hearts Adrift'' is released; the name of Mary Pickford, the star, is displayed above the title on movie marquees. * February 12 – In Washington, D.C., the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place. * February 13 – Copyright: In New York City, the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers is established, to protect the copyrighted musical compositions of its members. * February 17 – Karl Staaff steps down as Prime Minister of Sweden, Prime Minister of Sweden, in the aftermath of the Courtyard Crisis. He is replaced by Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, father of Dag Hammarskjöld. * February 26 – The ocean liner that will become HMHS Britannic, HMHS ''Britannic'', sister to the , is launched at the Harland and Wolff shipyards in Belfast. * February 28 – The Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus is proclaimed by ethnic Greeks, in Northern Epirus.


March

* March 1 – The Republic of China (1912–49), Republic of China joins the Universal Postal Union. * March 6 – FK Vojvodina football club is founded in Novi Sad (Serbia). * March 7 – William, Prince of Albania, Prince William of Wied arrives in Principality of Albania, Albania, to begin his reign. * March 8 – Aircraft are first transferred to Don Muang Royal Thai Air Force Base. * March 10 – Suffragette Mary Richardson damages Diego Velázquez, Velázquez's painting ''Rokeby Venus'' in London's National Gallery, with a meat chopper. * March 16 – Henriette Caillaux, wife of French minister Joseph Caillaux, murders Gaston Calmette, editor of ''Le Figaro'', fearing publication of letters showing she and Caillaux were romantically involved during his first marriage (she is acquitted on July 28). * March 17 (Saint Patrick's Day) – Green beer is invented by Dr. Thomas H. Curtin, and displayed at the Schnorrer Club of Morrisania in the Bronx, New York. * March 27 – Belgian surgeon Albert Hustin makes the first successful non-direct blood transfusion, using anticoagulants. * March 29 – Katherine Routledge and her husband arrive in Easter Island, to make the first true study of it (they depart in August 1915).


April

* April 4–September 27 Komagata Maru incident, ''Komagata Maru'' incident: The ''Komagata Maru'' sails from India to Canada. Due to Canadian regulations designed to exclude Asian immigrants, the boat is not permitted to dock in Vancouver, and is forced to return to Calcutta with all its passengers. * April 9 – Tampico Affair: A misunderstanding involving United States Navy sailors in Mexico, and army troops loyal to Mexican dictator Victoriano Huerta, leads to a breakdown in diplomatic relations between the United States and Mexico. * April 11 – Canadian Margaret MacDonald (nurse), Margaret C. MacDonald is appointed Matron-in-Chief of the Canadian Nursing service band, and becomes the first woman in the British Empire to reach the rank of major. * April 14 –April 18, 18 – The first International Criminal Police Congress is held in Monaco; 24 countries are represented, including some from Asia, Europe, and the Americas; the Dean of the Paris Law School is president. * April 20 ** Colorado Coalfield War – Ludlow Massacre: The Colorado National Guard attacks a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners in Ludlow, Colorado, killing 24 people. ** President Woodrow Wilson asks the United States Congress to use military force in Mexico, in reaction to the Tampico Affair. * April 21 – United States occupation of Veracruz: 2,300 U.S. Navy sailors and Marines from the South Atlantic fleet land in the port city of Veracruz (city), Veracruz, Mexico, which they will occupy for over six months. The Ypiranga incident, ''Ypiranga'' incident occurs when they attempt to enforce an arms embargo against Mexico, by preventing the German cargo steamer from unloading arms for the Mexican government in the port. * April 22 – Mexico ends diplomatic relations with the United States for the time being. * April 23 – The Afrikaans language receives official recognition, when Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven addresses the English caucus of the Cape Provincial Council.


May

* May 1 – November 1 – The ''Exposition Internationale'' is held at Lyon, France. * May 5 – November 11 – The 1914 Jubilee Exhibition, Jubilee Exhibition (''Jubilæumsutstillingen'') is held at Kristiania, Norway, to mark the centennial of the country's Constitution of Norway, Constitution. * May 9 – J. T. Hearne becomes the first bowler (cricket), bowler to take 3,000 first-class cricket, first-class wickets. * May 14 – Woodrow Wilson signs a Mother's Day proclamation. * May 17 – The Protocol of Corfu provides for the provinces of Korçë and Gjirokastër, constituting Northern Epirus, to be granted autonomy under the nominal sovereignty of Principality of Albania, Albania. * May 25 – In the U.K., the British House of Commons, House of Commons passes the Government of Ireland Act 1914, Irish Home Rule Act. * May 29 – The ocean liner RMS Empress of Ireland, RMS ''Empress of Ireland'' sinks in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; 1,012 lives are lost. * May 30 – The ocean liner makes her maiden voyage.


June

* June 1 – Woodrow Wilson's envoy, Edward Mandell House, meets with Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Kaiser Wilhelm II. * June 8 – The Brazilian Football Confederation is founded, with Álvaro Zamith as its first president. The Brazilian Olympic Committee is founded on the same day. * June 9 – Pittsburgh Pirates, Pittsburgh Pirate Honus Wagner becomes the first baseball player in the twentieth century with 3,000 hit club, 3,000 career hits. * June 12 – Greek genocide: Ottoman Greeks in Foça, Phocaea are Massacre of Phocaea, massacred by military of the Ottoman Empire, Turkish irregular troops. * June 18 – Mexican Revolution: The ''Constitutionals'' take San Luis Potosí; Venustiano Carranza demands Victoriano Huerta's surrender. * June 23 – After it had been closed so that it could be deepened, the Kiel Canal, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal is reopened by the Kaiser; the British Fleet under Sir George Warrender, 7th Baronet, Sir George Warrender visits; the Kaiser inspects the Dreadnought HMS King George V (1911), HMS ''King George V''. * June 24 – In Manchester, New Hampshire, a downtown fire causes $400,000 worth of damage and injures 19 firemen. Image:Gavrilo Princip captured in Sarajevo 1914.jpg, 200px, This picture is usually associated with the arrest of Gavrilo Princip, although some believe it depicts Ferdinand Behr, a bystander. * June 28 – Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria: Kingdom of Serbia, Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip, 19, assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, Duchess Sophie, in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, triggering the July Crisis and World War I. Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo and Zagreb break out. * June 29 ** The Secretary of the Austro-Hungarian Legation at Belgrade sends a dispatch to Vienna, suggesting Serbian complicity in the crime of Sarajevo. Anti-Serb riots continue throughout Bosnia. ** Khioniya Guseva attempts and fails to assassinate Grigori Rasputin at his hometown in Siberia. ** The International Exhibition opens the "White City", Ashton Gate, Bristol, Ashton Gate, Bristol, England, U.K. It closes on August 15, and the site is used as a military depot. * June 30 – Among those addressing the Parliament of the United Kingdom, on the murdered Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Archduke, are Lords Robert Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe, Crewe and Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, Lansdowne in the House of Lords, and Messrs H. H. Asquith, Asquith and Bonar Law, Law in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Commons.


July

* July 1 – The Royal Naval Air Service, a forerunner of the Royal Air Force, is established.Admiralty Circular CW.13963/14, 1 July 1914: "Royal Naval Air Service – Organisation" * July 2 – The German Kaiser announces that he will not attend the Archduke's funeral. * July 4 ** The Archduke's funeral takes place at Artstetten Castle, 50 miles west of Vienna, Austria-Hungary. ** Lexington Avenue bombing: Four people are killed in New York City, when an anarchist bomb intended to kill John D. Rockefeller explodes prematurely, in the conspirator's apartment. * July 5 – A council is held at Potsdam, powerful leaders within Austria-Hungary and Germany meet to discuss the possibilities of war with Serbia, Russia, and France. * July 7 – Austria-Hungary convenes a Council of Ministers, including Ministers for Foreign Affairs and War, the Chief of the General Staff and Naval Commander-in-Chief; the Council lasts from 11:30 am until 6:15 pm. * July 9 – The Emperor of Austria-Hungary receives the report of the Austro-Hungarian investigation, into the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria at Sarajevo. ''The Times'' publishes an account of the Austro-Hungarian press campaign against the Serbians (who are described as "pestilent rats"). * July 10 – Nicholas Hartwig, Russian Minister to Kingdom of Serbia, Serbia, dies of a Myocardial infarction, heart attack while visiting Austrian minister Wladimir Giesl von Gieslingen, at the Austrian Legation in Belgrade. * July 11 ** Major League Baseball, Baseball legend Babe Ruth makes his major league debut, with the Boston Red Sox. ** , the United States Navy's first "Dreadnought#Super-dreadnoughts, super-dreadnought" battleship, is launched. ** Over 5,000 people attend a rally in Union Square, Manhattan, called by the Anti-Militarist League to commemorate the anarchists killed in the July 4th Lexington Avenue bombing. * July 13 – Reports surface of a projected Serbian attack upon the Austro-Hungarian Legation at Belgrade. * July 14 – The Government of Ireland Act 1914, Government of Ireland Bill completes its passage through the House of Lords in the U.K. It allows Ulster counties to vote on whether or not they wish to participate in Home Rule from Dublin. * July 15 – Mexican Revolution: Victoriano Huerta resigns from the presidency of Mexico, and leaves for Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz. * July 18 ** The Signal Corps (United States Army), Signal Corps of the United States Army is formed, giving definite status to its air service for the first time. ** Fleet review (Commonwealth realms), The British Fleet is reviewed at Spithead, by George V. ** Gandhi, Mahatma Gandhi leaves South Africa for the last time, sailing out of Cape Town for England, on board the S.S. ''Kinfauns Castle''. * July 19 – George V summons a conference to discuss the Irish Home Rule problem. It meets from July 21–July 24, 24, without reaching consensus. * July 23 – July Ultimatum: Austria-Hungary presents Serbia with an unconditional ultimatum. * July 25 – Austria-Hungary severs diplomatic ties with Kingdom of Serbia, Serbia, and begins to mobilise its own forces. Radomir Putnik, Chief of the Serbian General Staff, is arrested in Budapest, but subsequently allowed to return to Serbia. * July 26 – Bachelor's Walk massacre: The King's Own Scottish Borderers of the British Army fire on Dubliners at Bachelor's Walk, killing 3, and injuring 38 people. * July 27 **Felix Ysagun Manalo registers the ''Iglesia ni Cristo'' (Church of Christ) with the government of the Philippines. **Iglesia ni Cristo, an independent Christian sect, is founded in the Philippines. * July 28 **
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
begins when Austria-Hungary declares war on Kingdom of Serbia, Serbia by telegram. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia orders a partial mobilisation against Austria-Hungary. ** Henriette Caillaux, wife of French minister Joseph Caillaux, is acquitted of murder by reason of crime passionnel. * July 28–August 10 – World War I: Pursuit of Goeben and Breslau, Pursuit of ''Goeben'' and ''Breslau'': British and French naval forces fail to prevent the ships of the Imperial German Navy Mediterranean Division from reaching the Dardanelles. * July 29 ** World War I: Austro-Hungarian Navy river monitor fires the first shots of the war, opening the bombardment of the defences of Belgrade, Serbia's capital. ** In Massachusetts, the new Cape Cod Canal opens; it shortens the trip between New York and Boston by 66 miles, but also turns Cape Cod into an island. * July 31 ** Russian Empire, Russia orders full mobilisation. ** French anti-war socialist leader Jean Jaurès is assassinated by a nationalist in Paris.


August

* August 1 ** The German Empire declares war on the Russian Empire, following Russia's military mobilization in support of Serbia; Germany also begins mobilisation. ** French Third Republic, France orders general mobilisation. ** The New York Stock Exchange is closed because of the outbreak of war in Europe, where nearly all stock exchanges were already closed. ** Marcus Garvey founds the Universal Negro Improvement Association in Jamaica. * August 2 ** German troops occupy Luxembourg, in accordance with the Schlieffen Plan. ** A secret treaty between the Ottoman Empire and German Empire, Germany secures Ottoman neutrality. ** At 7:00 pm (local time) Germany issues a 12-hour ultimatum to neutral Belgium, to allow German passage into France. * August 3 ** Germany declares war on Russia's ally, French Third Republic, France. ** At 7:00 am (local time) Belgium declines to accept Germany's ultimatum of August 2. * August 4 ** German troops invade Belgium at 8:02 am (local time). Declaration of war by the United Kingdom, In London the King declares war on Germany, for this violation of Belgian neutrality and especially to defend France. This means a declaration of war by the whole British Empire against Germany. The United States declares neutrality. ** Imperial German Navy Rear-Admiral Wilhelm Souchon bombards the French Algerian ports of Annaba, Bône and Skikda, Philippeville from battlecruiser and light cruiser . * August 5 ** Germany declares war on Belgium. ** The Kingdom of Montenegro declares war on Austria-Hungary. ** The guns of Point Nepean fort at Port Phillip Heads in Victoria (Australia) fire across the bows of the Norddeutscher Lloyd steamer , which is attempting to leave the Port of Melbourne in ignorance of the declaration of war, and she is detained; this is said to be the first Allies of World War I, Allied shot of the war. ** SS Königin Luise (1913), SS ''Königin Luise'', taken over two days earlier by the Imperial German Navy as a minelayer, lays naval mine, mines off the east coast of England. She is intercepted and sunk by the British Royal Navy light cruiser HMS Amphion (1911), HMS ''Amphion'', the first German naval loss of the war. The following day, ''Amphion'' strikes mines laid by the ''Königin Luise'' and is sunk with some loss of life, in the first British casualties of the war. ** German zeppelins drop bombs on Liège, Belgium, killing 9 civilians. ** The first electric traffic light is installed between Euclid Avenue and East 105 Street, in Cleveland, Ohio. * August 5–August 16, 16 – Battle of Liège: The German Army overruns and defeats the Belgians with the first operational use of Big Bertha (howitzer), Big Bertha. * August 6 –
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
: ** Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia. ** The first engagement between ships (light cruisers) of the British Royal Navy and the Imperial German Navy occurs, when HMS Bristol (1910), HMS ''Bristol'' pursues the (which escapes) in the West Indies. * August 7 – World War I: ** Battle of Mulhouse: France launches its first attack of the war, in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to recover the province of Alsace from Germany, beginning the Battle of the Frontiers. ** British colonial troops of the British Ghana Regiment, Gold Coast Regiment, entering the German West African colony of Togoland, encounter the German-led police force at a factory in Nuatja, near Lomé, and the police open fire on the patrol. Alhaji Grunshi returns fire, the first soldier in British service to fire a shot in the war. * August 8 ** German colonial forces execute Martin-Paul Samba, for high treason. ** Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition sets sail on the ''Endurance (1912 ship), Endurance'' from England, in an attempt to cross Antarctica. * August 9 – World War I: British Royal Navy light cruiser HMS Birmingham (1913), HMS ''Birmingham'' rams and sinks German submarine ''SM U-15 (Germany), U-15'' off Fair Isle, the first U-boat lost in action. * August 12 – World War I: ** Battle of Halen: Belgian troops defeat German cavalry, but the battle does little to delay the German invasion of Belgium. ** Declarations of war by Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Formal declaration of war by the United Kingdom on Austria-Hungary. * August 13 – The Teoloyucan Treaties are signed in the State of Mexico. * August 15 ** The Panama Canal is inaugurated with the passage of the . ** Mexican Revolution: Venustiano Carranza's troops under general Álvaro Obregón enter Mexico City. * August 15–August 24, 24 – World War I: Battle of Cer: Serbian troops defeat the Austro-Hungarian army, marking the first Entente victory of the War. * August 16 – World War I: ** German warships and (both commissioned in 1912), which reached Constantinople on August 10, are transferred to the Ottoman Navy, ''Goeben'' becoming its flagship, ''Yavuz Sultan Selim''. ** Lake Nyasa is the scene of a brief naval battle, when Captain Edmund Rhoades, commander of the British steamship SS Gwendolen, SS ''Gwendolen'', hears that war has broken out, and he receives orders from the British high command to "sink, burn, or destroy" the German Empire's only ship on the lake, the ''Hermann von Wissmann'', commanded by a Captain Berndt. Rhoades's crew find the ''Hermann von Wissmann'' in a bay near "Sphinxhaven", in German East African territorial waters. ''Gwendolen'' disables the German vessel with a single cannon shot from a range of about 1,800 metres (2,000 yards). This very brief engagement is hailed by ''The Times'' in England, as the British Empire's first naval victory of World War I. * August 17–September 2 – World War I: The Battle of Tannenberg begins between German and Russian forces. * August 20 – World War I: ** German Empire, German forces occupy Brussels. ** Pope Pius X dies. * August 22 – World War I – Battle of Rossignol: German forces decisively defeat the French. * August 23 –
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
: ** Battle of Mons: In its first major action, the British Expeditionary Force (World War I), British Expeditionary Force holds the German forces, but then begins a month-long fighting Great Retreat to the Marne (river), Marne. ** Empire of Japan, Japan declares war on Germany. * August 26 – World War I: ** The Togoland Campaign ends, when the German West African colony of Togoland (Togo from 1960) surrenders to Britain and France. ** Battle of Río de Oro: British Royal Navy protected cruiser HMS Highflyer (1898), HMS ''Highflyer'' forces the , sailing as an auxiliary cruiser, to Scuttling, scuttle. * August 26–August 27, 27 – Battle of Le Cateau: British, French and Belgian forces make a successful tactical retreat from the German advance. * August 26–August 30, 30 – Battle of Tannenberg: The Russian 2nd Army (Russian Empire), Second Army is surrounded and defeated. * August 28 – Battle of Heligoland Bight (1914), Battle of Heligoland Bight: British cruisers under Admiral Beatty sink three German cruisers. * August 29–August 30, 30 – The Battle of St. Quentin (1914), Battle of St. Quentin: French forces hold back the German advance.


September

* September 1 ** (August 19 Old Style) Saint Petersburg in Russia changes its name to ''Petrograd''. ** The last known passenger pigeon, a female named Martha, dies in the Cincinnati Zoo from old age. * September 2 –
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
: The French village of Moronvilliers is occupied by the Germans. * September 3 ** Pope Benedict XV (Giacomo della Chiesa) succeeds Pope Pius X, as the 258th pope. ** William, Prince of Albania leaves the country after just six months, due to opposition to his rule. * September 5 –
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
: ** London Agreement: No member of the Triple Entente (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Britain, French Third Republic, France, or Russian Empire, Russia) may seek a separate peace with the Central Powers. ** The First Battle of the Marne begins: Situated north-east of Paris, the French 6th Army under Michel-Joseph Maunoury, General Maunoury attacks German forces near to Paris. Over 2,000,000 fight (500,000 are killed/wounded) in the Allies of World War I, Allied victory. A French and British counterattack at the Marne (river), Marne ends the German advance on Paris. ** British Royal Navy scout cruiser HMS Pathfinder (1904), HMS ''Pathfinder'' is sunk by SM U-21 (Germany), German submarine ''U-21'' in the Firth of Forth (Scotland), the first ship ever to be sunk by a locomotive torpedo fired from a submarine. * September 6–September 8, 8 – French Army troops are rushed from Paris to join the First Battle of the Marne using Renault Type AG taxicabs. * September 7 – World War I: Turkey declares war on Belgium. * September 8 – World War I: Private Thomas Highgate becomes the first British soldier to be executed for deserting during the war. * September 10 – World War I: South Africa declares war on Germany. * September 11 –
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
: ** Battle of Rawa: Austro-Hungarian forces are defeated by the Russians. ** First Battle of the Masurian Lakes: A German offensive pushes the Russian First Army back across its entire front. ** Battle of Bita Paka: The Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force lands on German New Guinea and secures a strategically significant wireless station, the first major Australian military engagement of the War. * September 13 –
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
: ** The conclusion of the Battle of Grand Couronné ends the Battle of the Frontiers, with the north-east segment of the Western Front (World War I), Western Front stabilising. ** Union of South Africa, South African troops open hostilities in German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia), with an assault on the Ramansdrift police station. * September 14 – Royal Australian Navy submarine HMAS AE1 vanishes while on combat patrol near Papua New Guinea, beginning one of Australia's longest naval mysteries; the sunken vessel will not be discovered for another 103 years. * September 15 ** The Maritz Rebellion of disaffected Boers against the government of the Union of South Africa begins. ** General Koos de la Rey, a Boer general during the Second Boer War, Boer War, is shot dead after his driver fails to stop at a police roadblock. * September 17 ** World War I: The Race to the Sea, by opposing forces on the Western Front (World War I), Western Front, begins. ** Andrew Fisher becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the third time. * September 21 – World War I: British Imperial police forces capture Luhonono, Schuckmannsburg, in the Caprivi Strip of German South-West Africa. * September 22 –
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
: ** Action of 22 September 1914: German submarine ''SM U-9, U-9'' torpedoes three British Royal Navy armoured cruisers, , and , with the death of more than 1,400 men, in the North Sea. ** Bombardment of Papeete: German naval forces bombard Papeete, French Polynesia. ** German light cruiser SMS Emden, SMS ''Emden'' bombards Madras, the only Indian city to be attacked by the Central Powers in the War. * September 25 – World War I: The first Battle of Albert (1914), Battle of Albert begins as part of the Race to the Sea. * September 26 – The United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is established, by the Federal Trade Commission Act. * September 28 – World War I: The First Battle of the Aisne ends indecisively. * September 30 ** World War I: British Indian Army Indian Army during World War I#Indian Expeditionary Force A, Expeditionary Force A arrives at Marseille for service in the Ypres Salient of the Western Front (World War I), Western Front. ** The Flying Squadron of America is established, to promote the temperance movement.


October

* October 3 – World War I: 25,000 Canada, Canadian troops depart for Europe. * October 4 ** The 1914 Burdur earthquake occurs in Turkey. ** The Manifesto of the Ninety-Three is signed, supporting the early German Empire, German war effort. * October 9 – World War I: Siege of Antwerp (1914), Siege of Antwerp: Antwerp (Belgium) falls to German troops. * October 14 – World War I: The Canadian Expeditionary Force arrives on 32 ocean liners, in Plymouth Sound. * October 16–October 31, 31– World War I: Battle of the Yser: The Belgian army halts the German advance, but with heavy losses. * October 19 –
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
: ** The First Battle of Ypres begins. ** The Race to the Sea effectively ends, with the Western Front (World War I), Western Front reaching the Belgian coast. * October 27 –
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
: ** British super-dreadnought battleship (23,400 tons) is sunk off Tory Island, north-west of Ireland, by a minefield laid by the armed German merchant-cruiser ''Berlin''. ** The Greek army occupies Northern Epirus with the approval of the Allies of World War I, Allies. * October 28 –
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
: ** Battle of Penang, British Malaya, Malaya: German cruiser SMS Emden (1906), ''Emden'' sinks a Russian cruiser and French destroyer, before escaping. ** Participants in the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria are sentenced at Sarajevo. Gavrilo Princip, being under 20 years of age at the time of the assassination, cannot be given the death penalty, and is given a 20-year prison sentence instead. * October 29 – World War I: Ottoman Empire, Ottoman warships shell Russian Black Sea ports; Russia, France, and Britain declare war on November 1–November 5. * October 31 – World War I: Battle of the Vistula River concludes in Russian victory over German and Austro-Hungarian forces around Warsaw.


November

* November 1 – World War I: Battle of Coronel – A British Royal Navy squadron commanded by Rear-Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock is met in the eastern Pacific and defeated by superior German forces led by Vice-Admiral Maximilian von Spee in the first British naval defeat of the war, resulting in the loss of HMS Good Hope (1901), HMS ''Good Hope'' and HMS Monmouth (1901), HMS ''Monmouth''. * November 5 –
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
: ** United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Britain and French Third Republic, France declaration of war, declare war on Ottoman Empire, Turkey. The United Kingdom annexes Cyprus, which it controls until Cyprus' declaration of independence in 1960. ** The Battle of Tanga ends, with the British Indian Army during World War I#Indian Expeditionary Force B, Indian Expeditionary Force B failing to capture German East Africa defences. ** Alpha Phi Delta is founded as a Greek social Fraternities and sororities in North America, fraternity at Syracuse University in the United States. * November 7 – Siege of Tsingtao: The Japanese and British seize Jiaozhou Bay in China, the base of the German East Asia Squadron. * November 9 – World War I: Battle of Cocos – The German cruiser ''SMS Emden (1906), Emden'', the last active warship of the Central Powers in the Indian Ocean, is sunk by the Australian cruiser ''HMAS Sydney (1912), Sydney''. * November 13 – Zaian War: Battle of El Herri – Zayanes (Berbers) in Morocco overpower French forces. * November 16 – A year after being created by passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opens for business. * November 21 – In New Haven, Connecticut, the new Yale Bowl officially opens; Harvard defeats Yale 36–0 in the first American football game held here. * November 23 – Mexican Revolution: The last of U.S. forces withdraw from Veracruz, occupied seven months earlier in response to the Tampico Affair; Venustiano Carranza's troops take over, and Carranza makes the town his headquarters. * November 24 – Benito Mussolini is expelled from the Italian Socialist Party. * November 28 –
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond (finance), bond trading.


December

* December 2 – Serbian Campaign (World War I): Austro-Hungarian forces occupy Belgrade, Serbia. * December 8 – World War I: Battle of the Falkland Islands: A superior British Royal Navy squadron under Doveton Sturdee defeats ships of the Imperial German Navy under Maximilian von Spee. * December 12 – The New York Stock Exchange re-opens, having been closed since August 1, except for bond trading. * December 15 – A gas explosion at the Hōjō Coal Mine Disaster, Mitsubishi Hōjō mine disaster, Kyūshū, Japan, kills 687 people (the worst coal mine disaster in Japanese history). * December 16 – World War I: Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby: Imperial German Navy battlecruisers attack English North Sea ports, resulting in 137 deaths. * December 17 – United States President Woodrow Wilson signs the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act (initially introduced by Francis Burton Harrison). This begins the ongoing international War on drugs, War on Drugs. * December 18 – Sultanate of Egypt, Egypt becomes a British protectorate. * December 19 ** Serbian Campaign (World War I): The Battle of Kolubara ends, resulting in a decisive Kingdom of Serbia, Serbian victory over Austria-Hungary. ** Mohandas Gandhi leaves England, sailing for India on this date (accompanied by his wife Kasturba Gandhi, Kasturba). He begins to learn the Bengali language whilst on board. * December 20 – Tokyo Station, officially opens, and changes from railway base station from Shinbashi Station in Japan. * December 24 –
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...
: ** An unofficial, temporary Christmas truce begins, between British and German soldiers on the Western Front (World War I), Western Front. ** German planes carry out an air raid on Dover, England. * December 25 – World War I: Cuxhaven Raid: British aircraft launched from warships attack the German port of Cuxhaven with submarine support, although little damage is caused.


Date unknown

* China declares its Neutrality (international relations), neutrality in World War I. * The capital of the Guangxi Province of China is moved from Guilin to Nanning. * Oxymorphone, a powerful narcotic analgesic closely related to morphine, is first developed in Germany. * The first everyday items made of stainless steel come into public circulation. * Blaise Diagne of Senegal becomes the first Black African representative in the French Parliament. * The Port of Orange, Texas, is dredged for the fabrication of vessels for the United States Navy. * The United States Power Squadrons is formed. * Phi Sigma, a local undergraduate classical club, is founded by a group of students in the Greek Department at the University of Chicago. * Fashion and perfumes company Puig (company), Puig is founded in Barcelona. * Woodman's of Essex, the famous family-owned clam shack on Boston's North Shore, is opened.


Births


January

* January 1 – Noor Inayat Khan (aka Nora Baker), World War II heroine (executed 1944) * January 4 ** Chen Tingru, Chinese World War II army officer (d. 2017) ** Jean-Pierre Vernant, French historian and anthropologist (d. 2007) * January 5 – George Reeves, American actor (''Superman'') (d. 1959) * January 9 – Kenny Clarke, American jazz drummer and bandleader (d. 1985) * January 13 – Osa Massen, Danish actress (d. 2006) * January 14 ** Magda Fedor, Hungarian sports shooter (d. 2017) ** Harold Russell, Canadian actor (d. 2002) * January 15 – Hugh Trevor-Roper, English historian (d. 2003) * January 17 ** Anacleto Angelini, Italian-born businessman (d. 2007) ** William Stafford (poet), William Stafford, American poet, pacifist (d. 1993) * January 18 – Arno Schmidt, German author (d. 1979) * January 20 – Roy Plomley, English radio broadcaster, producer, playwright and novelist (d. 1985) * January 22 – Syd Hartley, English professional association football player (d. 1987) * January 26 – Princess Hadice Hayriye Ayshe Dürrühsehvar (d. 2006) * January 30 – John Ireland (actor), John Ireland, Canadian-born actor (d. 1992) * January 31 – Jersey Joe Walcott, American boxer (d. 1994)


February

* February 3 ** Mary Carlisle, American actress, singer and dancer (d. 2018) ** George Nissen, American gymnast, inventor of the trampoline (d. 2010) * February 4 – Alfred Andersch, German writer (d. 1980) * February 5 ** William S. Burroughs, American author (d. 1997) ** Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, British scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1998) * February 6 ** Silvius Magnago, Italian politician (d. 2010) ** Roza Papo, Yugoslav physician and general (d. 1984) * February 10 – Larry Adler, American musician (d. 2001) * February 12 – Lazar Koliševski, Yugoslav communist political leader (d. 2000) * February 15 – Kevin McCarthy (actor), Kevin McCarthy, American actor (d. 2010) * February 17 – Arthur Kennedy, American actor (d. 1990) * February 19 – Jacques Dufilho, French comedian, actor (d. 2005) * February 20 – John Charles Daly, South African-born journalist, game show host (d. 1991) * February 22 – Renato Dulbecco, Italian-born virologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2012) * February 23 – Theofiel Middelkamp, Dutch cyclist (d. 2005) * February 26 – Robert Alda, American-born actor, father of actor Alan Alda (d. 1986)


March

* March 1 – Ralph Ellison, American writer (d. 1994) * March 2 ** Hansi Knoteck, Austrian actress (d. 2014) ** Martin Ritt, American director (d. 1990) * March 3 ** Julio Franco Arango, Colombian Roman Catholic bishop (d. 1980) ** Asger Jorn, Danish painter (d. 1973) * March 4 – Ward Kimball, American cartoonist (d. 2002) * March 6 – Kiril Kondrashin, Russian conductor (d. 1981) * March 8 – Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich, Russian physicist (d. 1987) * March 13 – Saroj Dutta, Indian communist leader (d. 1971) * March 16 – Arkady Chernyshev, Russian ice hockey player and coach (d. 1992) * March 17 – Juan Carlos Onganía, 35th President of Argentina (d. 1995) * March 19 – Jiang Qing, Chinese politician (d. 1991) * March 21 – Paul Tortelier, French cellist and composer (d. 1990) * March 23 – Wendell Smith (sportswriter), Wendell Smith, African American sportswriter (d. 1972) * March 25 – Norman Borlaug, American agricultural scientist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 2009) * March 26 – William Westmoreland, American Vietnam War general (d. 2005) * March 28 – Edmund Muskie, American politician (d. 1996) * March 30 – Sonny Boy Williamson I, American musician (d. 1948) * March 31 – Octavio Paz, Mexican diplomat, writer, and Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)


April

* April 2 ** Alec Guinness, English actor (d. 2000) * May 5 – Tyrone Power, American actor (d. 1958) * May 7 – Ye Fei, Filipino-Chinese general and politician (d. 1999) * May 8 – Romain Gary, Russian-born writer, diplomat (d. 1980) * May 9 ** Carlo Maria Giulini, conductor (d. 2005) ** Hank Snow, Canadian country musician (d. 1999) * May 12 ** Bertus Aafjes, Dutch poet (d. 1993) ** Howard K. Smith, American journalist (d. 2002) * May 13 – Joe Louis, African-American boxer (d. 1981) * May 14 ** Teodor Oizerman, Soviet and Russian philosopher and academician (d. 2017) ** Corneliu Coposu, Romanian politician (d. 1995) ** Hideko Maehata, Japanese swimmer (d. 1995) ** Mir Gul Khan Nasir, Pakistani Baloch politician, poet (d. 1983) * May 16 – Edward T. Hall, American anthropologist (d. 2009) * May 18 ** Georg von Tiesenhausen, German-American rocket scientist (d. 2018) ** Boris Christoff, Bulgarian opera singer (d. 1993) ** Pierre Balmain, French fashion designer (d. 1982) ** Maxine Grimm, American religious figure (d. 2017) * May 19 ** Max Perutz, Austrian-born molecular biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (d. 2002) ** Alex Shibicky, Canadian hockey player (d. 2005) * May 20 – Avraham Shapira, head of the Beth din, Rabbinical court of Jerusalem and the Supreme Rabbinic Court; rosh yeshiva of Mercaz HaRav (d. 2007) * May 22 ** Howard Lawson, English cricketer (d. 2006) ** Vance Packard, American social critic, author (d. 1996) ** Sun Ra, American musician (d. 1993) ** William Sperry Beinecke, American philanthropist (d. 2018) * May 24 ** Arthur A. Link, American politician (d. 2010) ** Lilli Palmer, German actress (d. 1986) ** George Tabori, Hungarian writer, director (d. 2007) * May 26 ** Irmã Dulce Pontes, Brazilian Catholic Franciscan Sister (d. 1992) ** Frankie Manning, American choreographer, dancer (d. 2009) * May 29 – Tenzing Norgay, Nepalese/Tibetan mountaineer (d. 1986) * May 31 ** Akira Ifukube, Japanese classical music, film composer (d. 2006) ** Hannes Schiel, Austrian actor (d. 2017)


June

* June 6 – Zhang Jingfu, Chinese politician (d. 2015) * June 7 – Ralph M. Holman, American attorney and judge (d. 2013) * June 10 ** Trammell Crow, American developer (d. 2009) ** Joseph DePietro, American weightlifter (d. 1999) * June 12 – Go Seigen, Japanese Go player (d. 2014) * June 13 – Prince Aschwin of Lippe-Biesterfeld (d. 1988) * June 14 **Gisèle Casadesus, French actress (d. 2017) **Ruthven Todd, Scottish poet, artist, and novelist (d. 1978) * June 15 ** Yuri Andropov, Soviet leader (d. 1984) ** Saul Steinberg, Romanian-born American cartoonist (d. 1999) * June 18 – E. G. Marshall, American actor (d. 1998) * June 19 – Alan Cranston, U.S. Senator (d. 2000) * June 20 – Muazzez İlmiye Çığ, Turkish archaeologist * June 21 ** Rex Applegate, American military officer (d. 1998) ** William Vickrey, Canadian economist, Nobel Prize in Economics, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1996) * June 22 – Mei Zhi, Chinese children's author, essayist (d. 2004) * June 23 – Juán Landolfi, Argentine-Italian football player * June 24 ** Bernard Braine, British politician (d. 2000) ** Jan Karski, Polish World War II resistance movement fighter (d. 2000) * June 25 ** Luz Magsaysay, 7th First Lady of the Philippines (d. 2004) ** Mavis Pugh, English actress (d. 2006) * June 26 ** Laurie Lee, English author (d. 1997) ** Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark (d. 2001) * June 27 ** Helena Benitez, Filipina academic, administrator (d. 2016) ** Margaret Ekpo, Nigerian women's rights activist, social mobilizer and politician (d. 2006) * June 29 – Rafael Kubelík, Czech-born conductor (d. 1996) * June 30 ** Francisco da Costa Gomes, 15th President of Portugal (d. 2001) ** Bill Monti, Australian rugby union player (d. 1977) ** Agnès-Marie Valois, French nun and nurse (d. 2018)


July

* July 1 ** Christl Cranz, German alpine skier (d. 2004) ** John Feenan, Irish and Northern Irish footballer (d. 1994) ** Bernard B. Wolfe, American politician (d. 2016) * July 2 – Erich Topp, German commander (d. 2005) * July 5 – Yitzhak Rafael, Israeli politician (d. 1999) * July 6 ** Otto Bumbel, Brazilian professional football manager (d. 1998) ** Vincent J. McMahon, American professional wrestling promoter (d. 1984) * July 8 ** Jyoti Basu, Indian politician (d. 2010) ** Billy Eckstine, American jazz musician and singer (d. 1993) * July 9 ** Willi Stoph, Prime Minister (1964-1973, 1976-1989) and Chairman of the Council of State (1973-1976) of the GDR (d. 1999) ** Mac Wilson (footballer, born 1914), Mac Wilson, Australian rules footballer (d. 2017) * July 10 ** Charles Donnelly (poet), Charles Donnelly, Irish poet (d. 1937) ** Joe Shuster, Canadian-born comic book author (d. 1992) ** Rempo Urip, Indonesian director * July 11 ** Mohammad Al-Abbasi, Prime Minister of Jordan (d. 1972) ** Aníbal Troilo, Argentine tango musician (d. 1975) * July 13 ** Cyril Stevenson, Bahamian politician and newspaper publisher (d. 2006) ** Trevor Berghan, New Zealand rugby union player (d. 1998) * July 14 – Hubert Gregg, English broadcaster, writer and actor (d. 2004) * July 15 ** Birabongse Bhanudej, Siamese prince, racing driver and sailor, and pilot (d. 1985) ** Akhtar Hameed Khan, Indian-born pioneer of microcredit in developing countries (d. 1999) ** V. K. Rao, Indian Civil Service officer (d. 2018) ** Howard Vernon, Swiss actor (d. 1996) * July 16 – Herbert Nürnberg, German boxer (d. 1995) * July 17 – Klári Tolnay, Hungarian actress (d. 1998) * July 18 ** Gino Bartali, Italian road cyclist (d. 2000) ** Jo Cals, Dutch politician and jurist, Prime Minister of the Netherlands (1965–1966) (d. 1970) ** Oscar Heisserer, French footballer (d. 2004) * July 19 ** César Povolny, German-French association footballer (d. unknown) ** Hans Maršálek, Austrian typesetter, political activist, detective and historian (d. 2011) ** John Kenneth Macalister, Canadian World War II hero (d. 1944) * July 20 ** Dobri Dobrev, Bulgarian ascetic and philanthropist (d. 2018) ** Charilaos Florakis, Greek Communist leader (d. 2005) ** Ersilio Tonini, Italian Cardinal (d. 2013) * July 21 ** Pan Jin-yu, (d. 2010) ** Suso Cecchi d'Amico, Italian screenwriter and actress (d. 2010) * July 22 – Charles Régnier, German actor, director, radio actor and translator (d. 2001) * July 24 ** Frances Oldham Kelsey, American Food and Drug Administration reviewer (d. 2015) ** Ed Mirvish, Canadian businessman and philanthropist (d. 2007) * July 27 – Gusti Huber, Austrian actress (d. 1993) * July 30 – Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin, Irish president of the International Olympic Committee (d. 1999) * July 31 – Louis de Funès, French comedy actor (d. 1983)


August

* August 2 – Beatrice Straight, American actress (d. 2001) * August 5 ** Parley Baer, American actor (d. 2002) ** David Brian, American actor (d. 1993) * August 8 – Yabing Masalon Dulo, Filipino textile master weaver and dyer (d. 2021) * August 9 ** Ferenc Fricsay, Hungarian conductor (d. 1963) ** Tove Jansson, Finnish author (d. 2001) * August 10 ** Ken Annakin, British film director (d. 2009) ** Jeff Corey, American actor and drama teacher (d. 2002) * August 15 – Paul Rand, American graphic designer (d. 1996) * August 17 – Gabrielle Weidner, Belgian World War II heroine (d. 1945) * August 19 ** Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury, French politician, 95th Prime Minister of France (d. 1993) ** Margaret Morgan Lawrence, American psychiatrist and psychoanalyst (d. 2019) * August 21 – Syed Jaafar Albar, Malaysian politician (d. 1977) * August 26 – Julio Cortázar, Argentine writer (d. 1984) * August 27 – Heidi Kabel, German actress (d. 2010) * August 28 – Paul (Olmari), Paul, Finnish Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox archbishop (d. 1988) * August 30 – Julie Bishop (actress), Julie Bishop, American actress (d. 2001)


September

* September 1 – Tsuneko Sasamoto, Japanese photographer * September 2 – Tom Glazer, American folk singer and songwriter (d. 2003) * September 5 ** Sor Isolina Ferré, Puerto Rican Roman Catholic nun (d. 2000) ** Nicanor Parra, Chilean poet (d. 2018) * September 7 – James Van Allen, American physicist (d. 2006) * September 10 ** Terence O'Neill, 4th Prime Minister of Northern Ireland (d. 1990) ** Robert Wise, American film director and producer (d. 2005) * September 11 – Serbian Patriarch Pavle II, Serbian Patriarch Pavle, (d. 2009) * September 12 ** Desmond Llewelyn, Welsh actor (d. 1999) ** Janusz Żurakowski, Polish-born pilot (d. 2004) * September 14 – Clayton Moore, American actor (''The Lone Ranger'') (d. 1999) * September 15 ** Creighton Abrams, U.S. Vietnam War general (d. 1974) ** Subandrio, Indonesian politician (d. 2004) ** Adolfo Bioy Casares, Argentine writer (d. 1999) ** Jens Otto Krag, Danish politician, 18th Prime Minister of Denmark (d. 1978) ** Robert McCloskey, American children's author/illustrator (d. 2003) * September 16 – Allen Funt, American television show host (''Candid Camera'') (d. 1999) * September 17 ** Thomas J. Bata, Czech-born businessman (d. 2008) ** Lambert Mascarenhas, Indian journalist, freedom activist and writer * September 18 ** Jack Cardiff, British cinematographer, director, and photographer (d. 2009) * September 20 – Kenneth More, English actor (d. 1982) ** Francis Steinmetz, Dutch military officer (d. 2006) * September 22 – Siegfried Lowitz, German television actor (d. 1999) * September 23 ** Bethsabée de Rothschild, English philanthropist and patron of dance (d. 1999) ** Omar Ali Saifuddien III, Sultan of Brunei (d. 1986) * September 24 ** Jean-Michel Guilcher, French ethnologist (d. 2017) ** John Kerr (governor-general), John Kerr, 18th Governor-General of Australia (d. 1991) * September 25 – Elena Lucena, Argentine film actress (d. 2015) * September 26 – Jack LaLanne, American fitness, exercise and nutritional expert (d. 2011) * September 27 – Sophie Sooäär, Estonian actress and singer (d. 1996) * September 28 – Marian Fuks (historian), Marian Fuks, Polish historian


October

* October 1 ** Maciej Maciejewski, Polish screen and stage actor (d. 2018) ** Daniel J. Boorstin, American historian, writer, and Librarian of Congress (d. 2004) * October 4 – Jim Cairns, Australian politician (d. 2003) * October 6 – Thor Heyerdahl, Norwegian explorer (d. 2002) * October 7 ** Begum Akhtar, Indian singer (d. 1974) ** Alfred Drake, American actor and singer (d. 1992) * October 9 ** Edward Andrews, American stage, film and television actor (d. 1985) ** Guy Charmot, French resistance fighter and doctor (d. 2019) * October 10 ** Tommy Fine, American baseball player (d. 2005) ** Agostino Straulino, Italian sailor and sailboat racer (d. 2004) * October 13 – Eleanor Perry, American screenwriter and author (d. 1981) * October 14 – Raymond Davis Jr., American physicist, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2006) * October 15 – Mohammed Zahir Shah, King of Afghanistan (d. 2007) * October 17 – Jerry Siegel, American comic book author (d. 1996) * October 19 – Juanita Moore, African-American actress (d. 2014) * October 20 – James C. Floyd, Canadian aerospace engineer * October 21 – Martin Gardner, American writer (d. 2010) * October 23 – Dick Durrance, American skier (d. 2004) * October 24 – František Čapek, Czechoslovakian canoeist (d. 2008) * October 25 – John Berryman, American poet (d. 1972) * October 26 – Jackie Coogan, American actor (d. 1984) * October 27 – Dylan Thomas, Welsh poet and author (d. 1953) * October 28 ** Jonas Salk, American medical scientist (d. 1995) ** Richard Laurence Millington Synge, English chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1994) * October 30 ** Leabua Jonathan, 2nd Prime Minister of Lesotho (d. 1987) ** Jane Randolph, American actress (d. 2009)


November

* November 1 – Moshe Teitelbaum (Satmar), Moshe Teitelbaum, Hassidic rabbi (d. 2006) * November 2 ** Johnny Vander Meer, baseball player (d. 1997) ** Ray Walston, American actor (d. 2001) * November 6 – Jonathan Harris, American actor (''Lost in Space'') (d. 2002) * November 8 ** George Dantzig, American mathematician (d. 2005) ** Norman Lloyd, American actor, producer, and director * November 9 – Hedy Lamarr, Austrian actress (d. 2000) * November 11 ** Daisy Bates (activist), Daisy Bates, American civil rights activist, publisher, journalist, and lecturer (d. 1999) ** Howard Fast, American novelist and television writer (d. 2003) ** Yue Yiqin, Chinese flying ace (d. 1937) * November 13 ** Alberto Lattuada, Italian film director (d. 2005) ** Amelia Bence, Argentine actress (d. 2016) * November 14 – Joseph Barnes (Irish doctor), Joseph Barnes, Irish physician (d. 2017) * November 18 – William Phillips (economist), William Phillips, New Zealand economist (d. 1974) * November 21 – Abd al-Karim Qasim, Iraqi general, 24th Prime Minister of Iraq (d. 1963) * November 25 – Joe DiMaggio, American baseball player (d. 1999) * November 28 – Gertrude Jeannette, American actress (d. 2018)


December

* December 2 – Bill Erwin, American actor (d. 2010) * December 8 ** Corbett Davis, American football player (d. 1968) ** Mary Tortorich, American voice teacher (d. 2017) * December 9 – Frances Reid, American actress (d. 2010) * December 10 – Dorothy Lamour, American actress and singer (d. 1996) * December 11 – Gabriel Chiramel, Indian priest, zoologist and author (d. 2017) * December 12 – Patrick O'Brian, British novelist (d. 2000) * December 13 – Larry Parks, American actor (d. 1975) * December 14 **Karl Carstens, German president (d. 1992) **Frane Milčinski, Frane Milčinski - Ježek, Slovene language, Slovene poet, Satire, satirist, comedian, actor, children's writer and director (d. 1988) **Rosalyn Tureck, American pianist and harpsichordist (d. 2003) * December 15 – Anatole Abragam, French physicist (d. 2011) * December 16 – Renzo Franzo, Italian politician (d. 2018) * December 19 – Dietrich Hrabak, German World War II flying ace (d. 1995) * December 20 – Harry F. Byrd Jr., American politician (d. 2013) * December 21 – Frank Fenner, Australian virologist and microbiologist (d. 2010) * December 23 – David Alexander (director), David Alexander, American television director (d. 1983) * December 24 ** Zoya Bulgakova, Russian Soviet stage actress (d. 2017) ** Herbert Reinecker, German writer (d. 2007) * December 25 – Abelardo Raidi, Venezuelan sportswriter and radio broadcaster (d. 2002) * December 26 – Richard Widmark, American actor (d. 2008) * December 28 – Bidia Dandaron, Buddhist author and teacher in the USSR (d. 1974) * December 29 – Billy Tipton, American jazz musician (d. 1989)


Date unknown

* Makhosini Dlamini, 1st Prime Minister of Swaziland (d. 1978) * Sudha Roy, Indian radical leader (d. 1987) * Clint C. Wilson Sr., African American editorial cartoonist (d. 2005)


Deaths


January

* January 3 – Nadezhda Rykalova, Russian actress (b. 1824) * January 8 – Simon Bolivar Buckner, American soldier and politician and Confederate soldier (b. 1823) * January 10 – Leonie Aviat, French Roman Catholic religious sister and saint (b. 1844) * January 11 – Carl Jacobsen, Danish brewer and patron of the arts (b. 1842) * January 15 – Camilo Garcia de Polavieja, Spanish general (b. 1838) * January 16 – Itō Sukeyuki, Japanese admiral (b. 1843) * January 17 – Fernand Foureau, French explorer (b. 1850) * January 19 ** Candelaria Figueredo, Cuban patriot (b. 1852) ** Georges Picquart, French general and politician (b. 1854) * January 21 – Donald Smith, 1st Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal, Scottish-born Canadian businessman and philanthropist (b. 1820) * January 26 – Jose Gabriel del Rosario Brochero, Argentine Roman Catholic priest and saint (b. 1840)


February

* February 1 – Albert Günther, German-born British zoologist (b. 1830) * February 4 – Per Pålsson, Swedish criminal (b. 1828) * February 13 – Alphonse Bertillon, French police officer and forensic scientist (b. 1853) * February 15 – Giuseppe Vigoni, Italian explorer (b. 1846) * February 20 – Federico Degetau, Puerto Rican politician (b. 1862) * February 24 – Joshua Chamberlain, American Civil War general (b. 1828) * February 25 – John Tenniel, Sir John Tenniel, English illustrator (b. 1820)


March

* March 1 ** Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto, British aristocrat and politician, 2-time Governor-General of Canada (b. 1845) ** Carlos Felipe Morales, Dominican Roman Catholic priest, politician and military figure, 30th President of the Dominican Republic (b. 1868) * March 6 – George Washington Vanderbilt II, American businessman (b. 1862) * March 9 – José Luciano de Castro, Portuguese politician, 3-time Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1834) * March 12 – George Westinghouse, American entrepreneur (b. 1846) * March 13 ** Hakeem Noor-ud-Din, Indian Muslim scholar (b. 1841) ** María Tubau, Spanish actress (b. 1854) * March 16 – Charles Albert Gobat, Swiss politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1843) * March 18 – Andreas Beck (explorer), Andreas Beck, Norwegian explorer (b. 1864) * March 19 – Giuseppe Mercalli, Italian volcanologist (b. 1850) * March 22 – Allen Caperton Braxton, American lawyer (b. 1862) * March 23 – Rafqa Pietra Choboq Ar-Rayès, Lebanese Maronite, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic nun and saint (b. 1832) * March 25 – Frédéric Mistral, French writer, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1830) * March 31 – Christian Morgenstern, German poet and writer (b. 1871)


April

* April 1 – Rube Waddell, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1876) * April 2 – Paul Heyse, German writer, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1830) * April 7 – Mohammad Ayub Khan (Emir of Afghanistan), Mohammad Ayyub Khan, Emir of Afghanistan (b. 1855) * April 11 – Elena Guerra, Italian Roman Catholic religious professed and blessed (b. 1835) * April 15 – Count Frederick of Hohenau (b. 1857) * April 16 ** George William Hill, American astronomer and mathematician (b. 1838) ** Jacinta Parejo, Venezuelan public figure, First Lady of Venezuela (b. 1845) * April 19 ** Charles Sanders Peirce, American philosopher (b. 1839) ** Empress Shōken, empress-consort of the Emperor Meiji, Meiji Emperor (b. 1849) * April 24 – Benedict Menni, Italian Roman Catholic priest and saint (b. 1841) * April 25 – Géza Fejérváry, 16th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1833) * April 26 – Eduard Suess, Austrian geologist (b. 1831) * April 28 – Philippe Édouard Léon Van Tieghem, French botanist (b. 1839)


May

* May 2 – John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, husband of Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, Princess Louise of the United Kingdom (b. 1845) * May 3 – Élisabeth Leseur, French Roman Catholic mystic and servant of God (b. 1866) * May 8 – Seth Edulji Dinshaw, Indian Parsi philanthropist (b. 1842) * May 9 – C. W. Post, American cereal manufacturer (b. 1854) * May 10 – Lillian Nordica, American opera singer (b. 1857) * May 12 – Eugenio Montero Ríos, 29th Prime Minister of Spain (b. 1832) * May 15 – Ida Freund, Austrian-born chemist and educator (b. 1863) * May 23 – William O'Connell Bradley, American politician from Kentucky (b. 1847) * May 26 – Jacob Riis, Danish-American social reformer (b. 1849) * May 27 – Joseph Swan, Sir Joseph Swan, British scientist (b. 1828) * May 29 – Joseph Gérard, French Roman Catholic priest and blessed (b. 1831) * May 31 – Angelo Moriondo, Italian inventor (b. 1851)


June

* June 10 – Abraam, Bishop of Faiyum, Abraam, Egyptian Coptic Orthodox bishop and saint (b. 1829) * June 11 – Adolf Friedrich V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1848) * June 14 – Adlai Stevenson I, Adlai E. Stevenson I, List of Vice Presidents of the United States, 23rd Vice President of the United States (b. 1835) * June 15 – John Robert Sitlington Sterrett, American classical scholar and archeologist (b. 1851) * June 19 – Brandon Thomas, British actor and playwright (''Charley's Aunt'') (b. 1848) * June 21 – Bertha von Suttner, Austrian writer and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1843) * June 22 – Princess Phannarai, Thai princess consort (b. 1838) * June 25 – Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (b. 1826) * June 28 ** Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (assassinated) (b. 1863) ** Patrick James Foley, Irish politician (b. 1836) ** Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (assassinated) (b. 1868)


July

* July 2 – Joseph Chamberlain, British politician (b. 1836) * July 9 – Prince Gustav of Thurn and Taxis (1848–1914), Prince Gustav of Thurn and Taxis (b. 1848) * July 12 – Horace Harmon Lurton, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (b. 1844) * July 17 – Luis Uribe, Chilean naval hero (b. 1847) * July 21 – Karl von Czyhlarz, Czech-born Austrian jurist and politician (b. 1833) * July 23 – Vladimir Meshchersky, Russian journalist and novelist (b. 1839) * July 29 – Pietro Pace, Maltese Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1831) * July 31 ** Jean Jaurès, French pacifist (assassinated) (b. 1859) ** Giovanni Lugari, Italian Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1846)


August

File:Pius X, by Francesco De Federicis, 1903 (retouched, colorized).tif, 110px, Pope Pius X * August 4 – Hubertine Auclert, French feminist (b. 1848) * August 6 ** Maxim Sandovich, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox priest, martyr and saint (b. 1888) ** Ellen Axson Wilson, First Lady of the United States (b. 1860) * August 8 ** Martin-Paul Samba, Cameroonian rebel leader (executed) ** Rudolf Duala Manga Bell, Cameroonian resistance leader (executed) * August 9 – Roque Sáenz Peña, 16th President of Argentina (b. 1851) * August 12 – John Philip Holland, Irish developer of the submarine (b. 1840) * August 15 – Adolfo Carranza, Argentine lawyer (b. 1857) * August 20 – Pope Pius X (b. 1835) * August 22 – Giacomo Radini-Tedeschi, Italian Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1857) * August 23 ** Prince Friedrich of Saxe-Meiningen (b. 1861) ** Robert Strange (bishop), Robert Strange, American Episcopal Church (United States), Episcopal bishop (b. 1857) * August 26 – Achille Pierre Deffontaines, French general (died of wounds received in action) (b. 1858) * August 27 – Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, Austrian economist (b. 1851) * August 28 – Leberecht Maass, German admiral (killed in action) (b. 1863) * August 30 – Alexander Samsonov, Russian general (suicide) (b. 1859)


September

* September 3 – Albéric Magnard, French composer (b. 1865) * September 5 – Charles Péguy, French poet, essayist and editor (b. 1873) * September 11 ** Mircea Demetriade, Romanian poet, playwright and actor (b. 1861) ** Ismail Gasprinski, Crimean Tatar intellectual (b. 1851) * September 13 – Mostafa Fahmy Pasha, Egyptian politician, 7th Prime Minister of Egypt (b. 1840) * September 14 – Nicolás Zamora, Filipino Methodist minister and bishop (b. 1875) * September 15 – Koos de la Rey, Boer general (b. 1847) * September 16 – C. X. Larrabee, American businessman (b. 1843) * September 22 – Alain-Fournier, French writer (killed in action) (b. 1886) * September 26 – August Macke, German painter (killed in action) (b. 1887) * September 28 – Richard Warren Sears, American founder of Sears, Roebuck and Company (b. 1863)


October

* October 1 – Kitty Lange Kielland, Norwegian painter (b. 1843) * October 10 ** King Carol I of Romania (b. 1839) ** Domenico Ferrata, Italian Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1847) * October 12 – Prince Oleg Konstantinovich of Russia (b. 1892) * October 16 ** Victor Arnold (Austrian actor), Victor Arnold, Austrian actor (b. 1873) ** Antonino Paternò Castello, Marchese di San Giuliano, Italian diplomat (b. 1852) * October 17 ** Giuseppe Puzone, Italian composer (b. 1820) ** Adolfo Saldias, Argentine historian, lawyer, politician, soldier and diplomat (b. 1849) ** Prince Wolrad of Waldeck and Pyrmont (b. 1892) * October 19 – Julio Argentino Roca, Argentine general and statesman, 2-Time President of Argentina (b. 1843) * October 21 – Dimitrie Sturdza, 4-Time Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1833) * October 23 – Edward Wilkinson (bishop), Edward Wilkinson, English Anglican bishop in Africa and Europe (b. 1837) * October 23 – José Evaristo Uriburu, Argentine politician, 12th President of Argentina (b. 1831) * October 24 – Yevgeniya Mravina, Russian soprano (b. 1864) * October 25 – Jim Martin (Australian soldier), Jim Martin, Australian soldier and the youngest Australian casualty in World War I, World War 1 (b. 1901) * October 27 – Prince Maurice of Battenberg (b. 1891) * October 28 ** Princess Adelgunde of Bavaria (b. 1823) ** Federico Peliti, Italian baker (b. 1844)


November

* November 1 ** Adna Chaffee, American Lieutenant General (b. 1842) ** Christopher Cradock, Sir Christopher Cradock, British admiral (killed in action) (b. 1862) * November 2 – Heinrich Burkhardt, German mathematician (b. 1861) * November 3 – Georg Trakl, Austrian poet (suicide) (b. 1887) * November 5 – August Weismann, German evolutionary biologist (b. 1834) * November 9 – Princess Therese of Saxe-Altenburg (b. 1836) * November 12 – Augusto dos Anjos, Brazilian poet (b. 1884) * November 14 – Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, British field marshal (b. 1832) * November 17 – Sattar Khan, Persian pivotal figure (b. 1866) * November 21 – Thaddeus C. Pound, American businessman and politician (b. 1832) * November 24 – Aristide Cavallari, Italian Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1849) * November 28 – Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, German physicist (b. 1824)


December

* December 1 – Alfred Thayer Mahan, United States Navy admiral, geostrategist and historian (b. 1840) * December 5 – Angelo Di Pietro, Italian Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1828) * December 8 – Maximilian von Spee, German admiral (killed in action) (b. 1861) * December 14 – Giovanni Sgambati, Italian pianist and composer (b. 1841) * December 16 – Ivan Zajc, Croatian composer (b. 1832) * December 24 – John Muir, American naturalist (b. 1838) * December 29 ** Johannes Ludwig Janson, German scientist (b. 1849) ** Otto Wilhelm Lindholm, Finnish businessman (b. 1832)


Date unknown

* Jehandad Khan, Afghan emir (executed)


Nobel Prizes

* Nobel Prize in Physics, Physics – Max von Laue * Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Chemistry – Theodore William Richards * Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Medicine – Róbert Bárány * Nobel Prize in Literature, Literature – not awarded * Nobel Peace Prize, Peace – not awarded


References


Primary sources and year books


''New International Year Book 1914''
Comprehensive coverage of world and national affairs, 913pp


Further reading

* Beatty, Jack. ''The Lost History of 1914: Reconsidering the Year the Great War Began'' (1912
excerpt
argues the war was not inevitable * Gilbert, Martin. ''A History of the Twentieth Century: Volume 1 1900-1933'' (1997); global coverage of politics, diplomacy and warfare; pp 297–349; emphasis on World War I


External links


European newspapers from 1914
{{Authority control 1914,