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The 1910s
1910s
(pronounced "nineteen-tens", also abbreviated as the "teens") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
that began on January 1, 1910, and ended on December 31, 1919. The 1910s
1910s
represented the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the 19th century. The conservative lifestyles during the first half of the decade, as well as the legacy of military alliances, was forever changed by the assassination, on June 28, 1914, of Archduke
Archduke
Franz Ferdinand, the heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. The murder triggered a chain of events in which, within 33 days, World War I
World War I
broke out in Europe
Europe
on August 1, 1914. The conflict dragged on until a truce was declared on November 11, 1918, leading to the controversial, one-sided Treaty of Versailles, which was signed on June 28, 1919. The war's end triggered the abdication of various monarchies and the collapse of five of the last modern empires of Russia, Germany, China, Ottoman Turkey and Austria-Hungary, with the latter splintered into Austria, Hungary, southern Poland
Poland
(who acquired most of their land in a war with Soviet Russia), Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Yugoslavia, as well as the unification of Romania with Transylvania and Moldavia. However, each of these states (with the possible exception of Yugoslavia) had large German and Hungarian minorities, creating some unexpected problems that would be brought to light in the next two decades. (See Dissolution of Austro-Hungarian Empire: Successor States for better description of composition of names of successor countries/states following the splinter.) The decade was also a period of revolution in a number of countries. The Portuguese 5 October 1910
1910
revolution, which ended the 8 century long monarchy, spearheaded the trend, followed by the Mexican Revolution in November 1910, which led to the ousting of dictator Porfirio Diaz, developing into a violent civil war that dragged on until mid-1920, not long after a new Mexican Constitution was signed and ratified. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
also had a similar fate, since its participation on World War I
World War I
led it to a social, political and economical collapse which made the tsarist autocracy unsustainable and, as a following of the events of 1905, culminated in the Russian Revolution and the establishment of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, under the direction of the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Party later renamed as Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Russian Revolution of 1917, known as the October Revolution, was followed by the Russian Civil War, which dragged on until approximately late 1922. Much of the music in these years was ballroom-themed. Many of the fashionable restaurants were equipped with dance floors. Prohibition in the United States began January 16, 1919, with the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

Contents

1 Politics and wars

1.1 Wars 1.2 Internal conflicts 1.3 Major political changes 1.4 Decolonization and independence

2 Assassinations 3 Disasters 4 Other significant international events 5 Science and technology

5.1 Technology 5.2 Science

6 Economics 7 Popular culture

7.1 Sports 7.2 Literature and arts 7.3 Visual Arts

7.3.1 Art movements

7.3.1.1 Cubism
Cubism
and related movements 7.3.1.2 Expressionism
Expressionism
and related movements 7.3.1.3 Geometric abstraction
Geometric abstraction
and related movements 7.3.1.4 Other movements and techniques

7.4 Influential artists

8 People

8.1 World leaders 8.2 Politics 8.3 Business 8.4 Inventors 8.5 Authors 8.6 Entertainers 8.7 Sports figures

8.7.1 Baseball 8.7.2 Olympics 8.7.3 Boxing

9 See also

9.1 Timeline

10 References 11 Further reading

Politics and wars[edit] Wars[edit]

World War I
World War I
(1914–1918)

Assassination
Assassination
of Archduke
Archduke
Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
leads to the outbreak of the First World War Germany
Germany
signs the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
after losing the first world war. Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
during and just after World War I. It was characterised by the use of massacres and deportations involving forced marches under conditions designed to lead to the death of the deportees, with the total number of Armenian deaths generally held to have been between one and one-and-a-half million.[1][2][3]

Wadai War (1909–1911) Italo-Turkish War
Italo-Turkish War
(1911–1912) First Balkan Wars (1912–1913) – two wars that took place in South-eastern Europe
Europe
in 1912
1912
and 1913. Saudi-Ottoman War (1913) Latvian War of Independence
Latvian War of Independence
(1918-1920) – a military conflict in Latvia
Latvia
between the Republic of Latvia
Latvia
and the Russian SFSR.

Internal conflicts[edit]

October Revolution
October Revolution
in Russia
Russia
results in the overthrow of capitalism and the establishment of the world's first self-proclaimed socialist state; political upheaval in Russia
Russia
culminating in the establishment of the Russian SFSR and the assassination of Emperor Nicholas II and the royal family. The Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
(1917) is the collective term for the series of revolutions in Russia
Russia
in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. April 13, 1919
1919
– The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, at Amritsar
Amritsar
in the Punjab Province of British India, sows the seeds of discontent and leads to the birth of the Indian Independence Movement. Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
causes the overthrow of China's ruling Qing Dynasty, and the establishment of the Republic of China
China
(1912-1949). Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
(1910–1920) Francisco I. Madero
Francisco I. Madero
proclaims the elections of 1910
1910
null and void, and calls for an armed revolution at 6 p.m. against the illegitimate presidency/dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz. The revolution lead to the ouster of Porfirio Díaz
Porfirio Díaz
(who ruled from 1876 to 1880 and since 1884) six months later. The Revolution progressively becomes a civil war with multiple factions and phases, culminating with the Mexican Constitution of 1917, but combat would persist for three more years.

Major political changes[edit]

Portugal becomes the first republican country in the century after the 5 October 1910
1910
revolution, ending its long-standing monarchy and creating the First Portuguese Republic
First Portuguese Republic
in 1911. Germany
Germany
abolishes its monarchy and becomes under the rule of a new elected government called the Weimar Republic. Federal Reserve Act
Federal Reserve Act
is passed by United States Congress, establishing a Central Bank
Central Bank
in the US. George V
George V
becomes king in Britain. Dissolution of the German colonial empire, Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and the Russian Empire, reorganization of European states, territorial boundaries, and the creation of several new European states and territorial entities: Austria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Finland, Free City of Danzig, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Saar, Ukraine, and Yugoslavia. Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points
as designed by United States President Woodrow Wilson advocates the right of all nations to self-determination. Rise to power of the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
in Russia
Russia
under Vladimir Lenin, creating the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, the first state committed to the establishment of communism.

Decolonization and independence[edit]

Easter Rising
Easter Rising
against the British in Ireland; eventually leads to Irish independence. Several nations in Eastern Europe
Europe
get their own nation state, thereby replacing major multiethnic empires. The Republic of China
China
is established on 1 January 1912.

Assassinations[edit]

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Archduke
Archduke
Franz Ferdinand.

The 1910s
1910s
were marked by several notable assassinations:

18 March 1913: George I of Greece 11 June 1913: Mahmud Şevket Pasha, Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
of the Ottoman Empire 28 June 1914: Archduke
Archduke
Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in Sarajevo leads to World War I 17 July 1918: Shooting of former Russian Emperor Nicholas II, his consort, their five children, and four retainers at the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic following the October Revolution
October Revolution
of 1917, and the usurpation of power by the Bolsheviks. 10 April 1919
1919
Emiliano Zapata

Disasters[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2010)

Sinking of the Titanic.

The RMS Titanic, a British ocean liner which was the largest and most luxurious ship at that time, struck an iceberg and sunk 2 hours and forty minutes later in the North Atlantic
North Atlantic
during its maiden voyage on 15 April 1912. 1,517 people perished in the disaster. On 7 May 1915, the British ocean liner RMS Lusitania
RMS Lusitania
was torpedoed by U-20, a German U-boat, off the Old Head of Kinsale
Old Head of Kinsale
in Ireland
Ireland
and sunk in 18 minutes. 1,198 lives were lost, including 128 Americans. The sinking proved to be a factor in the American decision to enter World War I two years later. From 1918
1918
through 1920, the Spanish flu
Spanish flu
killed 20 to 100 million people worldwide. In 1916, the Netherlands
Netherlands
was hit by a North Sea
North Sea
storm that flooded the lowlands and killed 10,000 people. From July 1-July 12, 1916, a series of shark attacks, known as the Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916
1916
occurred along the Jersey Shore killing four and injuring one. On 11 January 1914, Sakurajima
Sakurajima
erupted which resulted in the death of 35 people. In addition to that, the surrounding islands were consumed. Also an isthmus was created between Sakurajima
Sakurajima
and the main land.

Other significant international events[edit]

The Panama Canal
Panama Canal
is completed in 1914. World War I
World War I
from 1914
1914
until 1918
1918
dominates the Western world. Hiram Bingham rediscovers Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
on July 24, 1911.

Science and technology[edit] Technology[edit]

British World War I
World War I
Mark V tank

Gideon Sundback
Gideon Sundback
patented the first modern zipper.[4] Harry Brearley
Harry Brearley
invented stainless steel.[5] Charles Strite invented the first pop-up bread toaster.[6][7] The Model T Ford
Model T Ford
dominated the automobile market, selling more than all other makers combined in 1914.[8] The army tank was invented. Tanks in World War I
World War I
were used by the British Army, the French Army
French Army
and the German Army.[9]

Science[edit]

In 1916, Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity.[10] Max von Laue
Max von Laue
discovers the diffraction of x-rays by crystals.[11] In 1912, Alfred Wegener
Alfred Wegener
puts forward his theory of continental drift.[12]

Economics[edit]

In the years 1910
1910
and 1911, there was a minor economic depression known as the Panic of 1910-1911, which was followed by the enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

Popular culture[edit]

Radio programming becomes popular. Flying Squadron of America promotes temperance movement in the United States. Edith Smith Davis edits the Temperance Educational Quarterly. The first U.S. feature film, Oliver Twist, was released in 1912. The first mob film, D. W. Griffith's The Musketeers of Pig Alley was released in 1912. Hollywood, California, replaces the East Coast as the center of the movie industry. Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
débuts his trademark mustached, baggy-pants "Little Tramp" character in Kid Auto Races at Venice
Kid Auto Races at Venice
in 1914. The first African American
African American
owned studio, the Lincoln Motion Picture Company, was founded in 1917. The four Warner brothers, (from older to younger) Harry, Albert, Samuel, and Jack opened their first West Coast studio in 1918. The first crossword puzzle was published in 1913. The first jazz music is recorded. The Salvation Army
Salvation Army
has a new international leader, General Bramwell Booth who served from 1912
1912
to 1929. He replaces his father and co-founder of the Christian Mission (the forerunner of the Salvation Army), William Booth.

Sports[edit]

1912
1912
Summer Olympics were held in Stockholm, Sweden. 1916
1916
Summer Olympics were cancelled because of World War I.

Literature and arts[edit] See also: List of years in literature § 1910s

D. H. Lawrence
D. H. Lawrence
publishes Sons and Lovers Of Human Bondage
Of Human Bondage
by Somerset Maugham
Somerset Maugham
is published Tarzan of the Apes by Edgar Rice Burroughs
Edgar Rice Burroughs
is published Zane Grey's Wild Fire is published Dubliners
Dubliners
and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
by James Joyce are published Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw
is published Thomas Mann
Thomas Mann
publishes Death in Venice Willa Cather
Willa Cather
publishes Alexander's Bridge, O Pioneers!, The Song of the Lark and My Ántonia End of Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
and beginning of Art Deco

Visual Arts[edit]

Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, 1910, The Art Institute of Chicago. Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
and Georges Braque
Georges Braque
co-invent Cubism, revolutionizing the art of painting and advancing the concepts of Modern art
Modern art
and Modernism.

Henri Matisse, L'Atelier Rouge, 1911, oil on canvas, 162 × 130 cm., The Museum of Modern Art, New York City

Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917, Duchamp introduces his Readymades, as an example of Dada
Dada
and Anti-art. Photograph by Alfred Stieglitz

Armory Show
Armory Show
poster, 1913, Internationally groundbreaking exhibition of Modern art

See also: Armory Show
Armory Show
and History of painting The 1913
1913
Armory Show
Armory Show
in New York City
New York City
was a seminal event in the history of Modern Art. Innovative contemporaneous artists from Europe and the United States exhibited together in a massive group exhibition in New York City, and Chicago. Art movements[edit]

Imagism

Cubism
Cubism
and related movements[edit]

Proto-Cubism Crystal
Crystal
Cubism Orphism Section d'Or Synchromism Futurism

Expressionism
Expressionism
and related movements[edit]

Symbolism Blaue Reiter Die Brücke

Geometric abstraction
Geometric abstraction
and related movements[edit]

Suprematism De Stijl Constructivism

Other movements and techniques[edit]

Surrealism Dada Collage

Influential artists[edit]

Pablo Picasso Georges Braque Henri Matisse Jean Metzinger Marcel Duchamp Wassily Kandinsky Albert Gleizes Kasimir Malevich Giorgio de Chirico

People[edit] World leaders[edit]

Prime Minister Alfred Deakin (Australia) Prime Minister Andrew Fisher
Andrew Fisher
(Australia) Prime Minister Joseph Cook
Joseph Cook
(Australia) Prime Minister Billy Hughes
Billy Hughes
(Australia) Emperor Franz Josef (Austria-Hungary) Emperor Karl (Austria-Hungary) Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden
Robert Borden
(Canada) Emperor Henry Pu Yi
Henry Pu Yi
of the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
(China) Sun Yat-sen, President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai, President of the Republic of China
China
and briefly Emperor Xu Shichang, President of the Republic of China Sultan Hussein Kamel of Egypt Sultan Fuad I of Egypt Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany) Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg
Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg
(Germany) King Victor Emmanuel III (Italy) Pope Pius X Pope Benedict XV Sultan Vahidettin (Ottoman Empire) Ahmad Shah Qajar
Ahmad Shah Qajar
(Persia) Tsar Nicholas II (Russia) Minister-Chairman Georgy Lvov
Georgy Lvov
(Russia) Minister-Chairman Alexander Kerensky
Alexander Kerensky
(Russia) Chairman Lev Kamenev
Lev Kamenev
(Russia) King Peter I of Serbia King Alfonso XIII
Alfonso XIII
(Spain) Prime Minister José Canalejas
José Canalejas
(Spain) Prime Minister Eduardo Dato Iradier
Eduardo Dato Iradier
(Spain) George V
George V
(United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
H. H. Asquith
(United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) Prime Minister David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
(United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) President William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
(United States) President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(United States)

Politics[edit]

John Barrett, Director-general Organization of American States Georges Louis Beer, Chairman Permanent Mandates Commission Henry P. Davison, Chairman International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Sir James Eric Drummond, Secretary-general League of Nations Emil Frey, Director International Telecommunication Union Christian Louis Lange, Secretary-general Inter-Parliamentary Union Baron Louis Paul Marie Hubert Michiels van Verduynen, Secretary-general Permanent Court of Arbitration William E. Rappard, Secretary-general International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Manfred von Richthofen, alias the "Red Baron", fighter pilot Eugène Ruffy, Director Universal Postal Union William Napier Shaw, President World Meteorological Organization Albert Thomas, Director International Labour Organization Grigory Yevseyevich Zinoviev, Chairman of the Executive Committee Communist International

Business[edit]

Arnold Rothstein, gangster, gambler, fixed the 1919
1919
World Series Henry Ford, industrialist, founder of the Ford Motor Company

Inventors[edit]

Nikola Tesla, electrical and mechanical engineer

Authors[edit]

James Joyce

Entertainers[edit]

Fatty Arbuckle Theda Bara Richard Barthelmess Béla Bartók Irving Berlin Ben Black Eubie Blake Shelton Brooks Lew Brown Tom Brown Anne Caldwell Eddie Cantor Enrico Caruso Charlie Chaplin Lon Chaney George M. Cohan Henry Creamer Bebe Daniels Cecil B. DeMille Buddy De Sylva Walter Donaldson Marie Dressler Eddie Edwards Gus Edwards Douglas Fairbanks Fred Fisher John Ford George Gershwin Beniamino Gigli Dorothy Gish Lillian Gish Samuel Goldwyn D. W. Griffith W. C. Handy Otto Harbach Lorenz Hart Victor Herbert Harry Houdini Charles Ives Tony Jackson Emil Jannings William Jerome Al Jolson Gus Kahn Gustave Kahn Buster Keaton Jerome David Kern Ring Lardner Nick LaRocca Harry Lauder Florence Lawrence Ted Lewis Harold Lloyd Charles McCarron Joseph McCarthy Winsor McCay Oscar Micheaux Mae Murray Alla Nazimova Pola Negri Anna Q. Nilsson Ivor Novello Alcide Nunez Geoffrey O'Hara Sidney Olcott Jack Pickford Mary Pickford Armand J. Piron Cole Porter Richard Rodgers Sigmund Romberg Jean Schwartz Mack Sennett Larry Shields Chris Smith Erich von Stroheim Arthur Sullivan Gloria Swanson Wilber Sweatman Blanche Sweet Albert Von Tilzer Harry Von Tilzer Sophie Tucker Pete Wendling Pearl White Bert Williams Clarence Williams Harry Williams Spencer Williams P. G. Wodehouse Mabel Normand

Sports figures[edit] Baseball[edit]

Babe Ruth, 1915

See also: History of baseball in the United States

Babe Ruth, (American baseball player) Honus Wagner, (American baseball player) Christy Mathewson, (American baseball player) Walter Johnson, (American baseball player) Ty Cobb, (American baseball player) Tris Speaker, (American baseball player) Nap Lajoie, (American baseball player) Eddie Collins, (American baseball player) Mordecai Brown, (American baseball player)

Olympics[edit] See also: Art competitions at the Summer Olympics

Jim Thorpe

Boxing[edit]

Jack Dempsey Jess Willard

See also[edit]

1910s
1910s
in literature

Timeline[edit] The following articles contain brief timelines which list the most prominent events of the decade: 1910
1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915
1915
1916
1916
• 1917 • 1918
1918
• 1919 References[edit]

^ Dictionary of Genocide, by Samuel Totten, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, ISBN 0-313-34642-9, p. 19 ^ Intolerance: a general survey, by Lise Noël, Arnold Bennett, 1994, ISBN 0773511873, p. 101 ^ Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, by Richard T. Schaefer, 2008, p. 90 ^ Friedel, Robert D (1996). Zipper : an Exploration in Novelty. New York: Norton. p. 94. ISBN 0393313654. OCLC 757885297.  ^ "A Non-Rusting Steel: Sheffield Invention Especially Good for Table Cutlery". The New York Times. 1914-01-31. Retrieved 2017-05-11.  ^ "Bread-toaster" (Patent #1,387,670 application filed May 29, 1919, granted August 16, 1921). Google Patents. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "Patent for Bread- Toaster
Toaster
Issued October 18, 1921" (Patent #1,394,450 application filed June 22, 1920, granted October 18, 1921). United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ Brinkley, Douglas (2004). Wheels for the world : Henry Ford, his company, and a century of progress, 1903-2003. Penguin Books. ISBN 9780142004395. OCLC 796971541.  ^ Watson, Greig (2014-02-24). "World War One: The tank's secret Lincoln origins". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-05-11.  ^ O'Conner, J.J.; Robertson, E.F. (May 1996). "General relativity". www.st-andrews.ac.uk. University of St. Andrews. Retrieved 2017-05-11.  ^ "Gerade auf LeMO gesehen: LeMO Bestand: Biografie". www.dhm.de (in German). Stiftung Deutsches Historisches Museum. 2014-09-14. Retrieved 2017-05-11.  ^ Demhardt, Imre (2012) [1912]. "Alfred Wegeners Hypothesis on Continental Drift and its Discussion in Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen" (PDF). Polarforschung. 75: 29–35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-04. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1910s.

Further reading[edit]

Britannica Year-book 1913.  (covers 1910-1912)

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