8th century lasted from January 1,
1701 to December 31,
the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment
culminated in the French and American revolutions. Philosophy and
science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter
age. This dream turned into a reality with the
French Revolution of
1789, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror
(1793–1794) under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies
of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French
Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions
for the counter-revolution. The
Ottoman Empire experienced an
unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in
no European wars from
1740 to 1768. As a consequence the empire did
not share in Europe's military improvements during the Seven Years'
War (1756–1763), causing its military to fall behind and suffer
defeats against Russia in the second half of the century.
8th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian
Commonwealth as an independent state. The once-powerful and vast
kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman
armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic
government system was not robust enough to rival the neighboring
monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the
Russian Empire and the
Austrian Empire which divided the Commonwealth territories between
themselves, changing the landscape of Central European politics for
the next hundred years.
European colonization of the Americas
European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world
intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as
Age of Sail
Age of Sail continued. Great Britain became a major power
worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the
the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost many of
its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which
resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States. The
Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the
1770s with the
production of the improved steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings
in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change
human society and the environment.
Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century
otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short"
8th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of
time between the death of
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France and the start of the
French Revolution, with an emphasis on directly interconnected
events. To historians who expand the century to include larger
historical movements, the "long" 18th century may run from the
Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the
Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo in 1815 or
2 Significant people
2.1 World leaders, politicians, military
2.2 Show business, theatre, entertainers
2.3 Musicians, composers
2.4 Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers, architects
2.5 Writers, poets
2.6 Philosophers, theologians
2.7 Scientists, researchers
3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions
4 Literary and philosophical achievements
5 Musical works
7 Further reading
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
Battle of Poltava
Battle of Poltava in
1709 turned the
Russian Empire into a
Great Northern War
Great Northern War between
Tsarist Russia and the Swedish
Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I.
Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I.
War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving
most of continental Europe.
The Daily Courant
The Daily Courant and The Norwich Post become the first
daily newspapers in England.
Forty-seven rōnin attack
Kira Yoshinaka and then commit seppuku
Camisard Rebellion in France.
Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great; it is the
Russian capital until 1918.
1703–1711: The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy.
1704: End of Japan's
1704: First Javanese War of Succession.
1705: George Frideric Handel's first opera, Almira, premieres.
1706: War of the Spanish Succession: French troops defeated at the
battles of Ramillies and Turin.
1706: The first English-language edition of the
Arabian Nights is
1707: The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English
Parliaments, thus establishing the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1707: After Aurangzeb's death, the
Mughal Empire enters a long decline
Maratha Empire slowly replaces it.
Mount Fuji erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700.
War of 27 Years
War of 27 Years between the
Marathas and Mughals ends in India.
1708: The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies
and English Company Trading to the East Indies merge to form the
United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies.
1708–1709: Famine kills one-third of East Prussia's population.
1709: The Great Frost of
1709 marks the coldest winter in 500 years.
Hotak dynasty founded in Afghanistan.
Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII of Sweden flees to the
Ottoman Empire after Peter I
of Russia defeats his army at the Battle of Poltava.
Tokugawa Yoshimune, Shogun of Japan
1710: The world's first copyright legislation, Britain's Statute of
Anne, takes effect.
Ottoman Empire fights Russia in the Russo-Turkish War.
Tuscarora War between British, Dutch, and German settlers
Tuscarora people of North Carolina.
1712: War of the Spanish Succession: The French defeat a combined
Dutch-Austrian force at the Battle of Denain.
1712: The first shipment of coffee from Java reaches Amsterdam.
Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht ends the War of the Spanish Succession.
Tarabai establishes the rival
Maratha Empire government
Kolhapur against Chattrapati Shahu.
1714: Accession of George I, Elector of Hanover, to the throne of
1715: The first Jacobite rising breaks out; the British halt the
Jacobite advance at the Battle of Sheriffmuir; Battle of Preston.
1715: Louis XIV dies, leaving France greatly enlarged but deep in
debt; The Regency takes power under Philippe d'Orleans.
Pope Clement XI
Pope Clement XI declares
Catholicism and Confucianism
1716: Establishment of the
Sikh Confederacy along the present-day
1717: The Netherlands, Britain and France sign the Triple Alliance.
Surabaya rebels against the VOC.
1718: The city of
New Orleans is founded by the French in North
Blackbeard (Edward Teach) is killed by
Robert Maynard in a North
Carolina inlet on the inner side of Ocracoke Island.
Tulip period of the Ottoman Empire.
1719: The Spanish attempt to restart the Jacobite rebellion fails.
1719: Second Javanese War of Succession.
Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700
1720: The South Sea Bubble.
1720: Spanish military embarks on the Villasur expedition, traveling
north from Mexico into the Great Plains.
1720–1721: The Great Plague of Marseille.
Robert Walpole becomes the first Prime Minister of Great Britain
Treaty of Nystad
Treaty of Nystad is signed, ending the Great Northern War.
Kangxi Emperor bans Christian missionaries because of Pope
Clement XI's decree.
1721: Peter I reforms the Russian Orthodox Church.
1722: Afghans conquer Iran, overthrowing the Safavid
Kangxi Emperor of China dies.
Bartholomew Roberts is killed in a sea battle off the African
1722–1723: Russo-Persian War.
1722–1725: Controversy over William Wood's halfpence leads to the
Drapier's Letters and begins the Irish economic independence from
Slavery is abolished in Russia;
Peter the Great
Peter the Great converts
household slaves into house serfs.
1723–1730: The "Great Disaster", an invasion of Kazakh territories
by the Dzungars.
1724: The Treaty of Constantinople is signed, partitioning Persia
Ottoman Empire and Russia.
1725: The Fulani nomads take complete control of Futa Jallon and set
up the first of many Fulani jihad states to come.
1726: The enormous Chinese encyclopedia
Gujin Tushu Jicheng
Gujin Tushu Jicheng of over
100 million written
Chinese characters in over 800,000 pages is
printed in 60 different copies using copper-based Chinese movable type
1727–1729: Anglo-Spanish War.
Charles Wesley and
John Wesley begin
Mahmud I takes over
Ottoman Empire after the Patrona Halil
revolt, ending the Tulip period.
First Great Awakening
First Great Awakening takes place in Great Britain
and North America.
1732–1734: Crimean Tatar raids into Russia.
1733–1738: War of the Polish Succession.
1734: Letters Concerning on the English Nations, Voltaire
1735–1739: Russo-Turkish War.
Qianlong Emperor of China oversees a huge expansion
Dirck van Cloon
Dirck van Cloon dies, one of many victims of
malaria in Batavia.
Nader Shah assumes the title of
Persia and founds the
Afsharid dynasty; he rules until his death in 1747.
Qing Dynasty Chinese court painters recreate Zhang Zeduan's
classic panoramic painting, Along the River During Qingming Festival.
1738–1756: Famine across the Sahel; half the population of Timbuktu
Pope Clement XII
Pope Clement XII issues In eminenti apostolatus, prohibiting
Catholics from becoming Freemasons.
1738: Turlough O'Carolan, famous Irish harper, dies.
Nader Shah defeats the Mughals at the
Battle of Karnal
Battle of Karnal and sacks
1739: Great Britain and Spain fight the
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear in the
Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia
The extinction of the
Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the
clansmen at the
Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden in 1746
Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great comes to power in Prussia.
1740: Great Awakening, George Whitefield
1740: The British attempt to capture
St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine, Florida but lose
to the Spanish during the Siege of St. Augustine.
1740–1741: Famine in Ireland kills ten percent of the population.
1740–1748: War of the Austrian Succession.
1740: 9 October, a massacre of Batavia's ethnic Chinese begins after
they are suspected by the VOC of planning a rebellion; approximately
10,000 are killed and the Chinese quarter is burned.
1741: Russians begin settling the Aleutian Islands.
Pope Benedict XIV
Pope Benedict XIV issues Immensa Pastorum principis against
1742: The rebellion of Juan Santos Atahualpa.
1742: Marvel's Mill, the first water-powered cotton mill, begins
operation in England.
1743: The capital of the
Sultanate of Mataram
Sultanate of Mataram
Kartasura fell under the
Geger Pecinan uprising — Raden Mas Garendi (Sunan Kuning) led
Chinese mercenaries in revolt against Pakubuwono II.
First Saudi State
First Saudi State is founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud.
1744: The French attempt to restart the Jacobite rebellion fails.
1744–1748: The First Carnatic War is fought between the British, the
French, the Marathas, and
Mysore in India.
1745: Second Jacobite rising is begun by
Charles Edward Stuart
Charles Edward Stuart in
1745: 17 February,
Pakubuwono II establishes a new kraton in Sala
village, along with Surakarta Sunanate.
Shah Durrani founds the
Durrani Empire in modern-day
1748: The Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle ends the War of the Austrian
Succession and First Carnatic War.
1748–1754: The Second Carnatic War is fought between the British,
the French, the Marathas, and
Mysore in India.
The Death of General Wolfe
1750: Peak of the Little Ice Age.
1754: The Treaty of Pondicherry ends the Second Carnatic War and
Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah
Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah as Nawab of the Carnatic.
1754: King's College is founded by a royal charter of George II of
1754–1763: The French and Indian War, the North American chapter of
the Seven Years' War, is fought in colonial North America, mostly by
the French and their allies against the English and their allies.
1755: The Lisbon earthquake occurs.
Great Upheaval forces transfer of the French Acadian
population from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.
1755: 13 February, the Treaty of Giyanti is signed, effectively
partitioning the Mataram Sultanate; the VOC recognizes Mangkubumi as
Sultan Hamengkubuwana I, who rules half of Central Java;
Hamengkubuwana I then establishes
Yogyakarta Sultanate, moves to Yogya
and renames the city Yogyakarta.
1755: Demand-Supply, Richard Cantillon
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War is fought among European powers in
various theaters around the world.
Third Carnatic War
Third Carnatic War is fought between the British, the
French, the Marathas, and
Mysore in India.
Battle of Plassey
Battle of Plassey signals the beginning of formal British
rule in India after years of commercial activity under the auspices of
the East India Company.
1757: 17 March, Salatiga treaty between Prince Sambernyawa with
Pakubuwono III and
Hamengkubuwono I further partitions the remnant of
Mataram Sultanate; the
Mangkunegaran Grand Duchy is established.
1758: British colonel
James Wolfe issues Wolfe's Manifesto.
1759: French and Indian War: French commander Louis-Joseph de Montcalm
and British commander
James Wolfe die during the Battle of the Plains
Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.
George III, King of Great Britain.
1760: George III becomes King of Britain.
Zand dynasty is founded in Iran.
Maratha Empire defeated at Battle of Panipat.
1762–1796: Reign of
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great of Russia.
1763: The Treaty of Paris ends the
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War and Third Carnatic
1763: Kingdom of
Mysore conquers the Kingdom of Keladi.
1763: Echelon Formation, Frederick II of Prussia
1765: The Stamp Act is introduced into the American colonies by the
1766: Christian VII becomes king of Denmark. He was king of Denmark to
1767: Burmese conquer the Ayutthaya Kingdom.
1768: Gurkhas conquer Nepal.
1768–1772: War of the Bar Confederation.
1768–1774: Russo-Turkish War.
1768: Imperial Leather, Count Olov
1769: Spanish missionaries establish the first of 21 missions in
James Cook explores and maps New Zealand and Australia.
Bengal famine of
1770 kills one-third of the Bengal
1769: French expeditions capture clove plants in Ambon, ending the VOC
monopoly of the plant. (to 1772)
1769: Court Factor, Mayer Amschel Rothschild
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des
Rejtan and the
Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland on a painting by Jan Matejko
James Cook claims the East Coast of Australia (New South Wales)
for Great Britain.
1770: 5 March, the Boston Massacre
1770–1771: Famine in Czech lands kills hundreds of thousands.
James Cook stops at Onrust Island in the Bay of Batavia for
repairs to his ship Endeavour on his voyage around the world.
Plague Riot in Moscow.
Richard Arkwright and his partners build the world's first
water-powered mill at Cromford.
Johann Friedrich Struensee
Johann Friedrich Struensee executed in Denmark.
Gustav III of Sweden
Gustav III of Sweden stages a coup d'état, becoming almost an
Maratha Empire fights Britain and Raghunathrao's forces
during the First Anglo-Maratha War.
Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland end the Polish–Lithuanian
Commonwealth and erase Poland from the map for 123 years.
1773–1775: Pugachev's Rebellion, the largest peasant revolt in
1773: East India Company starts operations in
Bengal to smuggle opium
1773: 16 December, the Boston Tea Party
John Harrison H4 and
Larcum Kendall K1 marine chronometers are
used to measure longitude by
James Cook on his second voyage
1775–1782: First Anglo-Maratha War.
1775–1783: American Revolutionary War.
Illuminati founded by Adam Weishaupt.
United States Declaration of Independence
United States Declaration of Independence is adopted by the
Continental Congress in Philadelphia.
Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations.
Tây Sơn Dynasty
Tây Sơn Dynasty is established in Vietnam.
James Cook becomes the first European to land on the Hawaiian
1778: 24 April, the
Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences
Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences is
established by a group of Dutch intellectuals; this institution is
a pioneer of scientific efforts in Indonesia and the founder of the
National Museum of Indonesia.
James Cook is killed by Hawaiian natives at Kealakekua
Bay, following an attempted kidnapping and ransoming of ruling chief,
Kalaniʻōpuʻu in return for a stolen boat.
Xhosa Wars between British and
Boer settlers and the
Xhosas in the South African Republic.
Declaration of the
Rights of Man
Rights of Man and of the Citizen
1780: Outbreak of the indigenous rebellion against Spanish
colonization led by
Túpac Amaru II
Túpac Amaru II in Peru.
1781: The city of Los Angeles is founded by Spanish settlers.
Serfdom is abolished in the Austrian monarchy (first
step; second step in 1848).
1783: Famine in Iceland, caused by the eruption of the Laki volcano.
Russian Empire annexes the Crimean Khanate.
1783: The Treaty of Paris formally ends the American Revolutionary
1785–1791: Imam Sheikh Mansur, a Chechen warrior and Muslim mystic,
leads a coalition of Muslim Caucasian tribes from throughout the
Caucasus in a holy war against Russian settlers and military bases in
the Caucasus, as well as against local traditionalists, who followed
the traditional customs and common law (Adat) rather than the
Northwest Indian War
Northwest Indian War is fought between the United
States and Native Americans.
United States Constitution
United States Constitution is written in
submitted to the states for ratification.
1787: Freed slaves from London establish
Freetown in present-day
Kansei Reforms instituted in Japan by Matsudaira Sadanobu.
1787–1792: Russo-Turkish War.
1788: First French
Quaker community established in Congénies.
1788: First permanent European settlement established in Australia by
Britain at Sydney.
1788–1790: Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790).
New Hampshire becomes the 9th state to ratify the United States
Constitution, and by the terms of Article VII it takes effect.
1788–1789: Inconfidência Mineira, conspiracy against the colonial
authorities in Brazil.
George Washington is elected the first President of the United
States; he serves until 1797.
1789: Declaration of the
Rights of Man
Rights of Man and of the Citizen
1789: Great Britain and Spain dispute the
Nootka Sound during the
1789–1799: French Revolution.
Napoleon at the Bridge of the Arcole
1789: The Liège Revolution.
1789: The Brabant Revolution.
United States of Belgium
United States of Belgium is proclaimed following the Brabant
1790: Suppression of the
United States of Belgium
United States of Belgium and re-establishment
of Austrian control.
1790: Establishment of the Polish-Prussian Pact.
1791: The Constitutional Act (or Canada Act) creates the two provinces
of Upper and
Lower Canada in British North America.
1791: Suppression of the
Liège Revolution by Austrian forces and
re-establishment of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège.
George Vancouver explores the world during the Vancouver
1791–1804: The Haitian Revolution.
1791: Surprise Symphony, Haydn
French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars lead into the Napoleonic
Wars, which last from 1803–1815.
1792: The New York Stock & Exchange Board is founded.
1792: Polish–Russian War of 1792.
Gustav III of Sweden
Gustav III of Sweden is assassinated by a conspiracy of
1792: March, Hamengkubuwana I dies.
1793: Former King
Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI of France and his wife Marie Antoinette
are guillotined. Louis is executed in January,
Marie Antoinette in
Upper Canada bans slavery.
1793: The largest yellow fever epidemic in American history kills as
many as 5,000 people in Philadelphia, roughly 10% of the
Revolt in the Vendée
Revolt in the Vendée against the French Republic at the
time of the Revolution.
1794: Polish revolt.
Jay's Treaty is concluded between Great Britain and the United
States, by which the Western outposts in the
Great Lakes are returned
to the U.S. and commerce between the two countries is regulated.
Qajar dynasty founded in Iran after replacing the Zand dynasty.
1794: The Mysteries of Udolpho, Ann Radcliffe
Mohammad Khan Qajar
Mohammad Khan Qajar razes
Tbilisi to the ground.
1795: Establishment of the French-backed
Batavian Republic in
Pinckney's Treaty between the United States and Spain grants the
Mississippi Territory to the U.S.
Marseillaise is officially adopted as the French national
Kamehameha I of the Island of Hawaii defeats the Oahuans at the
Battle of Nu'uanu.
Edward Jenner administers the first smallpox vaccination;
smallpox killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans each year during the
18th century, including five reigning monarchs.
1796: War of the First Coalition: The
Battle of Montenotte
Battle of Montenotte marks
Napoleon Bonaparte's first victory as an army commander.
1796: The British eject the Dutch from Ceylon.
1796: Mungo Park, backed by the African Association, is the first
European to set eyes on the
Niger River in Africa.
White Lotus Rebellion against the
Manchu dynasty in
Trinidad becomes British
1797: Napoleon's invasion and partition of the
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice ends
over 1,000 years of independence for the Serene Republic.
1798: The Irish Rebellion fails to overthrow British rule in Ireland.
Quasi-War is fought between the United States and
Napoleon stages a coup d'état and becomes
First Consul of
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company is dissolved.
1799: The assassination of the 14th Tu'i Kanokupolu, Tukuʻaho,
Tonga into half a century of civil war.
Tipu Sultan is killed in a battle with British forces.
1800: 1 January, The bankrupt
Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company (VOC) is
formally dissolved and the nationalised
Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies are
World leaders, politicians, military
See also: Founding Fathers of the United States
Peter the Great
Queen of France
Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria
Ferdinand VI, King of Spain
Prince Alexander Suvorov
Horatio Nelson, Vice Admiral in the British navy
Joseph II of Austria
Yeongjo, King of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea
John Adams, American statesman
Samuel Adams, American statesman
Shah Abdali, Afghan King
Ahmed III, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Hyder Ali, Ruler of Mysore
Ethan Allen, American Revolutionary Army
Anne, Queen of Great Britain
Marie Antoinette, Austrian-born Queen of France
Ferdinand VI, King of Spain
Augustus III, Elector of Saxony, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of
Aurangzeb, Mughal Emperor
Bajirao I, Second
Peshwa of Maratha Empire
Boromakot, King of Ayutthaya
Boromaracha V, King of Ayutthaya
Aaron Burr, American statesman
William Cavendish, Anglo-Irish politician
William Pitt the Younger, Prime Minister of Britain
John Carteret, Anglo-Irish politician
Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia
Charles III, King of Spain, Naples, and Sicily
Charles VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, King of Bohemia and
Charles XII, King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends;
Charlotte Corday, French revolutionary
Georges Danton, French revolutionary
Elizabeth of Russia, Empress of Russia
Farrukhsiyar, Emperor of Mughal
Ferdinand I, King of Naples, Sicily, and the Two Sicilies
Benjamin Franklin, American leader, scientist and statesman
Juan Francisco, Spanish naval officer and explorer
Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends
Frederick the Great, King of Prussia
George I, King of Great Britain and Ireland
George II, King of Great Britain and Ireland
George III, King of Great Britain and Ireland
Olympe de Gouges, French feminist
Robert Gray, American revolutionary, merchant, and explorer
Gustav III, King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends
Guru Gobind Singh, tenth of the eleven Sikh Gurus
Gyeongjong, King of Joseon dynasty
Nathan Hale, American patriot, executed for espionage by the British
Abdul Hamid I, Sultan of Ottoman Empire
Alexander Hamilton, American statesman
Patrick Henry, American statesman
Emperor Higashiyama, Emperor of Japan
John Jay, American statesman
Thomas Jefferson, American statesman
Jeongjo, King of Joseon Dynasty
John Paul Jones, American naval commander
Joseph I, King of Portugal
Joseph II, Austrian Emperor
Kangxi Emperor, Chinese Emperor
Shah of Iran and King of Persia
Marquis de Lafayette, Continental Army officer
Louis XIV, King of France
Louis XV, King of France
Louis XVI, King of France
Louis XVII, imprisoned King of France, never ruled
James Madison, American statesman
Madhavrao I, Fourth
Peshwa of Maratha Empire
Madhavrao I Scindia, Marathan leader
Mahmud I, Sultan of Ottoman Empire
Alessandro Malaspina, Spanish explorer
George Mason, American statesman
Prince Aleksandr Menshikov, Russian statesman, generalissimo
Michikinikwa, Miami chief and warrior
José Moñino y Redondo, Spanish statesman
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, French officer
Mustafa III, Sultan of Ottoman Empire
Nader Shah, King of Persia
Nakamikado, Emperor of Japan
Horatio Nelson, British admiral
Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao, Third
Peshwa of Maratha Empire
Shivappa Nayaka, King of Keladi Nayaka
Osman III, Sultan of Ottoman Empire
Peter I (Peter the Great), Emperor of Russia
Philip V, King of Spain
Pontiac, Ottawa chief and warrior
Prince Grigory Potyomkin, Russian statesman and general
Nguyễn Huệ, Emperor of
Tây Sơn Dynasty
Tây Sơn Dynasty of Vietnam
Qianlong Emperor, Emperor of China
Rajaram II of Satara,
Monarch of the Maratha Confederacy
Francis II Rákóczi, Prince of Hungary and Transylvania,
Tadeusz Rejtan, Polish politician
Paul Revere, American revolutionary leader and silversmith
Maximilien Robespierre, French revolutionary leader
Betsy Ross, American flag maker
Count Pyotr Rumyantsev, Russian general
Shah Rukh of Persia, King of Persia.
John Russell, Anglo-Irish politician
Lionel Sackville, Anglo-Irish politician
Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, French revolutionary
Sebastião de Melo, Prime Minister of Portugal
Prithivi Narayan Shah, King of
Nepal and founder of Kingdom of Nepal
Chattrapati Shahu, Emperor of Maratha Empire
Selim III, Sultan of Ottoman Empire
Charles Edward Stuart, Anglo-Scottish Jacobite exile
Sukjong, King of Joseon Dynasty
Alexander Suvorov, Russian military leader
Maria Theresa, Austrian Empress
Theobald Wolfe Tone, Leader of the
1798 United Irishmen rebellion
Tokugawa Ieharu, Japanese Shogun
Tokugawa Ienobu, Japanese Shogun
Tokugawa Ieshige, Japanese Shogun
Tokugawa Ietsugu, Japanese Shogun
Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, Japanese Shogun
Tokugawa Yoshimune, Japanese Shogun
Toussaint L'Ouverture, Haitian revolutionary leader
Túpac Amaru II, Peruvian revolutionary
George Vancouver, British Captain and explorer
Robert Walpole, Prime Minister of Great Britain
George Washington, American general and first President of the United
James Wolfe, British officer
Yeongjo, King of Joseon Dynasty
Show business, theatre, entertainers
See also: Theatre Royal, Drury Lane; Haymarket Theatre; and Sichuan
Pierre Beaumarchais, French playwright
Antonio Bernacchi, Italian singer
Faustina Bordoni, Italian singer
La Camargo, French dancer
Barbara Campanini, Italian dancer
Colley Cibber, English actor, poet, playwright
La Clairon, French actress
Fabre d'Églantine, French actor
Farinelli, Italian singer
Denis Fonvizin, Russian playwright
David Garrick, English actor
John Gay, English dramatist and poet
Carlo Goldoni, Italian playwright
Carlo Gozzi, Italian playwright
Antiochus Kantemir, Russian playwright
Kong Shangren, Chinese dramatist, poet
Praskovia Kovalyova-Zhemchugova, Russian actress, singer
Adrienne Lecouvreur, French actress
Charles Macklin, Irish actor
Chikamatsu Monzaemon, Japanese dramatist, playwright
Jean-Georges Noverre, French dancer and balletmaster
Marie Sallé, French dancer and choreographer
Senesino, Italian singer
Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Irish playwright
Alexander Sumarokov, Russian playwright
François-Joseph Talma, French actor
Fyodor Volkov, Russian actor
Wang Yun, Chinese playwright, poet
List of Classical era composers and List of Baroque
Johann Sebastian Bach
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
George Frideric Händel
Tomaso Albinoni, Italian composer
Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer
Luigi Boccherini, Italian composer
Dmitry Bortniansky, Russian composer
Charles Burney, English musician and music historian
François Couperin, French composer
William Cowper, English hymnist and poet
Dede Efendi, Turkish/Ottoman composer
Christoph Willibald Gluck, German composer
Francesco Geminiani, Italian violinist, composer, and music theorist.
George Frideric Handel, German-English composer
Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer
Hampartsoum Limondjian, Armenian/Ottoman composer
Kali Mirza, Bengali composer
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer
Johann Pachelbel, German composer, teacher
François-André Danican Philidor, French composer and chess master
Jean-Philippe Rameau, French composer
Bharatchandra Ray, Bengali composer, musician, and poet
Antonio Salieri, Venetian composer
Domenico Scarlatti, Italian composer.
Antonio Stradivari, Italian violin maker
Georg Philipp Telemann, German composer
Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer
Isaac Watts, English hymnist
Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers, architects
Main articles: History of painting, Rococo, and Neoclassicism
Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun
John James Audubon, French painter
John Baskerville, British printer and typographer (founder of
Baskerville font, Birmingham).
Bernardo Bellotto, Italian painter
Michel Benoist, French painter, architect, missionary in China
William Blake, English artist and poet
Edmé Bouchardon, French sculptor
François Boucher, French painter
Canaletto, Italian painter
Rosalba Carriera, Italian painter
Giuseppe Castiglione, Italian painter, architect, missionary in China
Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, French painter
Vasili Bazhenov, Russian architect
Karl Blank, Russian architect
Vladimir Borovikovsky, Russian painter
Leonardo Coccorante, Italian painter
John Singleton Copley, American painter
Jacques-Louis David, French painter
Yury Felten, Russian architect
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Austrian architect
Étienne Maurice Falconet, French sculptor
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French painter
Gai Qi, Chinese painter, poet
Thomas Gainsborough, English painter
Francisco de Goya, Spanish painter
Jean-Baptiste Greuze, French painter
Giuseppe Grisoni, Italian painter
Francesco Guardi, Italian painter
Jacob Philipp Hackert, German painter
Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, Aus[trian-Italian architect
William Hogarth, English painter and engraver
Angelica Kauffman, Austrian painter
Matvey Kazakov, Russian architect
Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff, German painter and architect
Alexander Kokorinov, Russian architect
Mikhail Ivanovich Kozlovsky, Russian sculptor
Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne, French sculptor, student of his father
Jean-Louis Lemoyne, French sculptor
Dmitry Levitzky, Russian painter
Jean-Étienne Liotard, Swiss painter
Jiang Tingxi, Chinese artist and scholar
Robert Le Lorrain, French sculptor
Ivan Martos, Russian sculptor
Constance Mayer, French painter
Luis Egidio Meléndez, Spanish painter
Antoine Ignace Melling, French-German painter, architect
Louis Montoyer, Belgian architect
Nishikawa Sukenobu, Japanese printmaker, teacher
Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian painter
Ulrika Pasch, Swedish painter
Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Italian painter
Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann, German architect (Saxony)
Bartolomeo Rastrelli, Italian-born Russian architect
Joshua Reynolds, English painter
Rachel Ruysch, Dutch painter
Giacomo Quarenghi, Italian-born Russian architect
Francisco Salzillo, Spanish sculptor
Gilbert Stuart, American painter
Suzuki Harunobu, Japanese woodblock printer
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Venetian painter
Domenico Trezzini, Italian-born Russian architect
Kitagawa Utamaro, Japanese printmaker and painter
Luigi Vanvitelli, Italian architect
Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, French painter
Juan de Villanueva, Spanish architect
Marie-Denise Villers, French painter
Antoine Watteau, French painter
Yuan Mei, Chinese painter, poet, essayist
Mikhail Zemtsov, Russian architect
Jane Austen, English writer
Anna Laetitia Barbauld, English Poet, essayist, and children's author
Pierre Beaumarchais, French writer
Bernardin de St. Pierre, French writer
Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, French poet and literary critic
James Boswell, Scottish biographer
Frances Burney, English novelist
Robert Burns, Scottish poet
Cao Xueqin, Chinese writer
Giacomo Casanova, Venetian adventurer, writer and womanizer
Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, French writer
Daniel Defoe, English novelist and journalist
Gavrila Derzhavin, Russian poet
Maria Edgeworth, Anglo-Irish novelist
Olaudah Equiano, Eboe writer and abolitionist
Henry Fielding, English novelist
Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, French writer
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer
Oliver Goldsmith, Anglo-Irish writer, poet, children's writer, and
Thomas Gray, English poet, scholar, and educator
Eliza Haywood, English writer
Samuel Johnson, British writer, lexicographer, poet, and literary
Ferenc Kazinczy, Hungarian writer
Ivan Krylov, Russian fabulist
Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, French writer
Charlotte Lennox, English novelist and poet
Liang Desheng, Chinese poet and writer
Matthew Lewis, English novelist and playwright
Li Ruzhen, Chinese novelist
Sadhak Kamalakanta, Indian poet
Henry Mackenzie, Scottish novelist
Jean-Paul Marat, French journalist
Pierre de Marivaux, French writer
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, Spanish writer
Honoré Mirabeau, French writer and politician
John Newbery, English children's literature publisher
Alexander Pope, English poet
Abbe Prevost, French writer
Pu Songling, Chinese short story writer
Ann Radcliffe, English novelist
Alexander Radishchev, Russian writer
Samuel Richardson, English novelist
Marquis de Sade, French writer and philosopher
Ramprasad Sen, Bengali poet and singer
Friedrich Schiller, German writer
Walter Scott, Scottish novelist and poet
Christopher Smart, English poet and actor
Robert Southey, English poet and biographer
Hester Thrale, English memoirist
Vasily Trediakovsky, Russian poet and playwright
Charlotte Turner Smith, English writer
Laurence Sterne, Anglo-Irish writer
Jonathan Swift, Anglo-Irish satirist and
Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland Dean
Ueda Akinari, Japanese writer
Voltaire, French writer and philosopher
Horace Walpole, English writer and politician
Phillis Wheatley, first published African-American female poet
Mary Wollstonecraft, British writer and feminist
Wu Jingzi, Chinese writer
Yuan Mei, Chinese poet, scholar and artist
Arai Hakuseki, Japanese scholar, writer and politician
Baal Shem Tov, Ukrainian rabbi
Cesare Beccaria, Italian philosopher and politician
Jeremy Bentham, English philosopher and reformer
George Berkeley, Irish empiricist philosopher
Edmund Burke, British statesman and philosopher
Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, French philosopher
Marquis de Condorcet, French philosopher
Frederick Cornwallis, Archbishop of Canterbury
Erasmus Darwin, English philosopher, poet and scientist
Denis Diderot, French writer and philosopher
Jonathan Edwards, American theologian and philosopher
William Godwin, English philosopher and novelist
Aaron Halle-Wolfssohn, German writer, Jewish theologian, translator,
Johann Gottfried Herder, German philosopher, writer, and critic
Thomas Herring, Archbishop of Canterbury
Baron d'Holbach, French-German philosopher and writer
David Hume, Scottish philosopher
Matthew Hutton, Archbishop of Canterbury
Kamo no Mabuchi, Japanese philosopher
Immanuel Kant, German philosopher
William Law, English theologian
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, German philosopher and writer
Alphonsus Liguori, Italian bishop, founder of Redemptorists, Saint
Joseph de Maistre, Italian philosopher and diplomat
Moses Mendelssohn, German philosopher
Charles de Secondat (Montesquieu), French thinker
John Moore, Archbishop of Canterbury
Motoori Norinaga, Japanese philosopher and scholar
Thomas Paine, English philosopher
Elihu Palmer, American deist
Thomas Percy, English bishop and editor
Joseph Perl, German writer, Jewish theologian, and educator
John Potter, Archbishop of Canterbury
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, French writer and philosopher
Thomas Secker, Archbishop of Canterbury
Seraphim of Sarov, Russian theologian
Sugita Genpaku, Japanese scholar and translator
Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish scientist, thinker and mystic
Thomas Tenison, Archbishop of Canterbury
Christian Thomasius, German philosopher and jurist
Giambattista Vico, Italian philosopher
Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab, Arab Islamic theologian and founder of
William Wake, Archbishop of Canterbury
John Wesley, English theologian, founder of Methodism
Zeynalabdin Shirvani, also known as Tamkin, was an Azerbaijani
geographer, philosopher and poet]]
Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf, German religious writer and bishop
Jean le Rond d'Alembert
Maria Gaetana Agnesi, Italian mathematician
Jean le Rond d'Alembert, French mathematician, physicist and
Joseph Banks, English botanist
Laura Bassi, Italian scientist, the first European female college
Daniel Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician and physicist
Joseph Black, Scottish chemist (discovered carbon dioxide)
Roger Joseph Boscovich, physicist, astronomer, mathematician,
philosopher, diplomat, poet, and Jesuit
Comte de Buffon, French scientist
Henry Cavendish, chemist (recognized Hydrogen as its own elemental
Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer
Jacques Charles, French scientist and inventor
Anders Chydenius, Finnish philosopher and economist
Alexis Clairaut, French mathematician
James Cook, English navigator, explorer and cartographer
Dai Zhen, Chinese mathematician, geographer, phonologist and
Eugenio Espejo, Ecuadorian scientist
Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, German physicist and engineer
George Fordyce, Scottish physician and chemist
Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, physicist and astronomer
Edward Gibbon, English historian
Edward Jenner, English inventor of vaccination
William Jones, English philologist
Nikolay Karamzin, Russian historian
Ivan Kulibin, Russian inventor
Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Italian-French mathematician and physicist
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, French naturalist, biologist
Pierre-Simon Laplace, French physicist and mathematician
Antoine Lavoisier, French chemist, considered father of modern
Marie-Anne Paulze Lavoisier, French chemist and painter
John Law, Scottish economist
Pan Lei, Chinese scholar and mathematician
Adrien-Marie Legendre, French mathematician
Carl Linnaeus, Swedish biologist
Mikhail Lomonosov, Russian scientist
Edmond Malone, Irish literary scholar
Thomas Malthus, English economist
Pierre Louis Maupertuis, French mathematician
Peter Simon Pallas, German-Russian zoologist and botanist
Joseph Priestley, dissenting minister and chemist
René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, French scientist
François Quesnay, French economist
Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Swedish chemist (discovered oxygen)
John Smeaton, civil engineer and physicist
Adam Smith, Scottish economist and philosopher
Vasily Tatishchev, Russian historian and ethnographer
Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, French economist
Antonio de Ulloa, Spanish scientist and explorer
Alessandro Volta, Italian physicist and chemist
James Watt, Scottish scientist and inventor
Benjamin West, American astronomer and mathematician
John Whitehurst, English geologist
Blackbeard, English pirate
John Bowen, Bermudian pirate
Black Caesar, African pirate
Calico Jack, English pirate
Gabriel Prosser, American literate enslaved blacksmith
Bartholomew Roberts, Welsh pirate
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
Main articles: Timeline of historic inventions § 18th century,
and Timeline of scientific discoveries § 18th century
The Spinning Jenny
Putuo Zongcheng Temple
Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771,
during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
1709: The first piano was built by Bartolomeo Cristofori
Tuning fork was invented by John Shore
Steam engine invented by Thomas Newcomen
Mercury thermometer by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
Diving bell was successfully tested by Edmond Halley,
sustainable to a depth of 55 ft
c. 1730: Octant navigational tool was developed by
John Hadley in
England, and Thomas Godfrey in America
Flying shuttle invented by John Kay
1736: Europeans encountered rubber – the discovery was made by
Charles Marie de La Condamine
Charles Marie de La Condamine while on expedition in South America. It
was named in
1770 by Joseph Priestley
c. 1740: Modern steel was developed by Benjamin Huntsman
Vitus Bering discovers Alaska
Leyden jar invented by
Ewald Georg von Kleist
Ewald Georg von Kleist was the first
Lightning rod invented by Benjamin Franklin
1755: The tallest wooden
Bodhisattva statue in the world is erected at
Puning Temple, Chengde, China.
Spinning jenny created by
James Hargreaves brought on the
James Watt enhances Newcomen's steam engine, allowing new steel
1761: The problem of longitude was finally resolved by the fourth
chronometer of John Harrison
Thomas Bayes publishes first version of Bayes' theorem, paving
the way for Bayesian probability
James Cook mapped the boundaries of the Pacific Ocean and
discovered many Pacific Islands
Joseph Priestley discovers "dephlogisticated air" Oxygen
Joseph Priestley first synthesis of "phlogisticated nitrous air"
Nitrous Oxide "laughing gas"
1776: First improved steam engines installed by James Watt
Steamboat invented by Claude de Jouffroy
Circular saw invented by Samuel Miller
Photosynthesis was first discovered by Jan Ingenhousz
William Herschel announces discovery of Uranus
Bifocals invented by Benjamin Franklin
Argand lamp invented by Aimé Argand
Power loom invented by Edmund Cartwright
1785: Automatic flour mill invented by Oliver Evans
Threshing machine invented by Andrew Meikle
Jacques Charles discovers Charles's law
Antoine Lavoisier discovers the law of conservation of mass, the
basis for chemistry, and begins modern chemistry
Edward Jenner publishes a treatise about smallpox vaccination
1798: The Lithographic printing process invented by Alois
Rosetta Stone discovered by Napoleon's troops
Literary and philosophical achievements
The Love Suicides at Sonezaki
The Love Suicides at Sonezaki by
Chikamatsu first performed
One Thousand and One Nights
One Thousand and One Nights translated into French by
Antoine Galland. The work becomes immensely popular throughout Europe.
A Tale of a Tub
A Tale of a Tub by
Jonathan Swift first published
The Rape of the Lock
The Rape of the Lock by
Alexander Pope (publication of first
Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe
1725: The New Science by Giambattista Vico
Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift
The Dunciad by
Alexander Pope (publication of first version)
A Little Pretty Pocket-Book
A Little Pretty Pocket-Book becomes one of the first books
marketed for children
Chushingura (The Treasury of Loyal Retainers), popular Japanese
puppet play, composed
Clarissa by Samuel Richardson
The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling by Henry Fielding
Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard by
Thomas Gray published
1751–1785: The French Encyclopédie
A Dictionary of the English Language
A Dictionary of the English Language by Samuel Johnson
Candide by Voltaire
The Theory of Moral Sentiments by Adam Smith
Tristram Shandy by Laurence Sterne
1762: Emile: or, On Education by Jean-Jacques Rousseau
1762: The Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Right by
The Sorrows of Young Werther
The Sorrows of Young Werther by
Goethe first published
Ugetsu Monogatari (Tales of Moonlight and Rain) by Ueda Akinari
1776: The Wealth of Nations, foundation of the modern theory of
economy, was published by Adam Smith
1776–1789: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
was published by Edward Gibbon
Amazing Grace published by John Newton
Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets
Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets by Samuel Johnson
Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason by
Immanuel Kant (publication of first
The Robbers by
Friedrich Schiller first published
Les Liaisons dangereuses
Les Liaisons dangereuses by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos
1786: Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect by Robert Burns
The Federalist Papers
The Federalist Papers by Alexander Hamilton, James
Madison, and John Jay
Critique of Practical Reason
Critique of Practical Reason by Immanuel Kant
Songs of Innocence
Songs of Innocence by William Blake
Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow
Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow by Alexander Radishchev
Reflections on the Revolution in France
Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke
Rights of Man
Rights of Man by Thomas Paine
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Mary Wollstonecraft
Songs of Experience
Songs of Experience by William Blake
Lyrical Ballads by
William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor
An Essay on the Principle of Population
An Essay on the Principle of Population published by Thomas
The Dream of the Red Chamber
The Dream of the Red Chamber (authorship
attributed to Cao Xueqin), one of the most famous Chinese novels
1711: Rinaldo, Handel's first opera for the London stage, premiered
Brandenburg Concertos by J.S. Bach
1723: The Four Seasons, violin concertos by Antonio Vivaldi, composed
St John Passion
St John Passion by J.S. Bach
St Matthew Passion
St Matthew Passion composed by J.S. Bach
1733: Hippolyte et Aricie, first opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau
Goldberg Variations for harpsichord published by Bach
1742: Messiah, oratorio by
Handel premiered in Dublin
Mass in B minor
Mass in B minor by J.S. Bach assembled in current form
The Art of Fugue
The Art of Fugue by J.S. Bach
1762: Orfeo ed Euridice, first "reform opera" by Gluck, performed in
1786: The Marriage of Figaro, opera by Mozart
1787: Don Giovanni, opera by Mozart
1788: Jupiter Symphony (Symphony No.41) composed by Mozart
1791: The Magic Flute, opera by Mozart
London symphonies by Haydn
1798: The Pathétique, piano sonata by Beethoven
1798: The Creation, oratorio by Haydn first performed
^ Anderson, M. S. (1979). Historians and Eighteenth-
1715–1789. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822548-5.
^ Ribeiro, Aileen (2002). Dress in Eighteenth-
1789 (revised edition). Yale University Press.
ISBN 978-0-300-09151-9. OCLC 186413657.
^ Baines, Paul (2004). The Long 18th Century. London: Arnold.
^ Marshall, P. J. (Editor) (2001). The Oxford History of the British
Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth
Century (Oxford History of the
British Empire). Oxford University Press, USA.
ISBN 978-0-19-924677-9. OCLC 174866045. CS1 maint:
Extra text: authors list (link) , "Introduction" by P. J. Marshall,
^ O'Gorman, Frank (1997). The Long Eighteenth Century: British
Political and Social History 1688–1832 (The Arnold History of
Britain Series). A Hodder Arnold Publication.
ISBN 978-0-340-56751-7. OCLC 243883533.
^ "War of the Spanish Succession, 1701–1714". Historyofwar.org.
^ Ricklefs (1991), page 82
^ Historic uk – heritage of britain accommodation guide
(2007-05-03). "The history of Scotland – The Act of Union 1707".
Historic-uk.com. Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. Retrieved
^ Moore (Ed) (1999), p90
^ a b Ricklefs (1991), page 84
^ "Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to History".
Britannica.com. 1910-01-31. Archived from the original on 16 April
2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
^ "Usman dan Fodio (Fulani leader)". Britannica.com. Retrieved
^ "List of Wars of the Crimean Tatars". Zum.de. Archived from the
original on 12 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
^ Ricklefs (1991), page 86
^ "Len Milich: Anthropogenic Desertification vs 'Natural' Climate
Trends". Ag.arizona.edu. 1997-08-10. Archived from the original on
2012-02-11. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
^ "A guide to Scottish clans". Unique-cottages.co.uk. Archived from
the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
^ Ricklefs (1991), page 87
^ Wadsworth, Alfred P.; Mann, Julia De Lacy (1931). The Cotton Trade
and Industrial Lancashire, 1600–1780. Manchester University Press.
p. 433. OCLC 2859370.
^ "Saudi Arabia – The Saud Family and Wahhabi Islam".
Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
^ "History". Columbia University.
^ Ricklefs (1991), page 93
^ Ricklefs (1991), page 102
^ Heuken (2000), page 307
^ Rosi, Adele (1998). Museum Nasional Guide Book. Jakarta: PT Indo
Multi Media, Museum Nasional and Indonesian Heritage Society.
^ "Sufism in the Caucasus". Islamicsupremecouncil.org. Archived from
the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
^ Ricklefs (1991), page 101
^ "Yellow Fever Attacks Philadelphia, 1793". EyeWitness to History.
Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-22.
^ Riedel S (2005). "
Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and
vaccination". Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 18 (1): 21–5.
doi:10.1080/08998280.2005.11928028. PMC 1200696 .
^ Ricklefs (1991), page 106
^ Porter, Roy (Editor) (2003). The Cambridge History of Science,
Volume 4: The Eighteenth
Century (The Cambridge History of Science).
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-57243-9.
OCLC 123123201. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ,
"The Philosopher's Beard: Women and Gender in Science" by Londra
Schiebinger, pages 184–210
^ Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions, Encyclopædia
Britannica Archived August 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. (1998) John Wiley
& Sons, Inc. p 146 ISBN 978-0-471-29198-5
Jeremy Black and Roy Porter, eds. A Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century
World History (1994) 890pp
Klekar, Cynthia. “Fictions of the Gift: Generosity and Obligation in
Century English Literature.” Innovative Course Design
Winner. American Society for Eighteenth-
Century Studies: Wake Forest
University, 2004. <http://asecs.press.jhu.edu>. Refereed.
The Wallace Collection, London, houses one of the finest collections
of 18th-century decorative arts from France, England and Italy,
including paintings, furniture, porcelain and gold boxes.
Decades and years
16th century ← 17th century ← ↔ → 19th
century → 20th century
Centuries and millennia