The Info List - 18th Century

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The 1 8th century
8th century
lasted from January 1, 1701
to December 31, 1800
in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French and American revolutions. Philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. This dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution
French Revolution
of 1789, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror (1793–1794) under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740
to 1768. As a consequence the empire did not share in Europe's military improvements during the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), causing its military to fall behind and suffer defeats against Russia in the second half of the century. The 1 8th century
8th century
also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state. The once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not robust enough to rival the neighboring monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and the Austrian Empire which divided the Commonwealth territories between themselves, changing the landscape of Central European politics for the next hundred years. European colonization of the Americas
European colonization of the Americas
and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail
Age of Sail
continued. Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s
and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States. The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
started in Britain in the 1770s
with the production of the improved steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society and the environment. Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 1 8th century
8th century
may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
and the start of the French Revolution, with an emphasis on directly interconnected events.[1][2] To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century[3] may run from the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688 to the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
in 1815[4] or even later.[5]


1 Events

1.1 1700s 1.2 1710s 1.3 1720s 1.4 1730s 1.5 1740s 1.6 1750s 1.7 1760s 1.8 1770s 1.9 1780s 1.10 1790s 1.11 1800s

2 Significant people

2.1 World leaders, politicians, military 2.2 Show business, theatre, entertainers 2.3 Musicians, composers 2.4 Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers, architects 2.5 Writers, poets 2.6 Philosophers, theologians 2.7 Scientists, researchers 2.8 Other

3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Literary and philosophical achievements 5 Musical works 6 References 7 Further reading

Events[edit] 1700s[edit]

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

The Battle of Poltava
Battle of Poltava
in 1709
turned the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
into a European power.

1700–1721: Great Northern War
Great Northern War
between Tsarist Russia
Tsarist Russia
and the Swedish Empire. 1701: Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
declared under King Frederick I. 1701: Ashanti Empire
Ashanti Empire
is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I. 1701–1714: The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
is fought, involving most of continental Europe.[6] 1701–1702: The Daily Courant
The Daily Courant
and The Norwich Post become the first daily newspapers in England. 1702: Forty-seven rōnin
Forty-seven rōnin
attack Kira Yoshinaka
Kira Yoshinaka
and then commit seppuku in Japan. 1702–1715: Camisard
Rebellion in France. 1703: Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
is founded by Peter the Great; it is the Russian capital until 1918. 1703–1711: The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy. 1704: End of Japan's Genroku
period. 1704: First Javanese War of Succession.[7] 1705: George Frideric Handel's first opera, Almira, premieres. 1706: War of the Spanish Succession: French troops defeated at the battles of Ramillies and Turin. 1706: The first English-language edition of the Arabian Nights
Arabian Nights
is published. 1707: The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments, thus establishing the Kingdom of Great Britain.[8] 1707: After Aurangzeb's death, the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
enters a long decline and the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
slowly replaces it. 1707: Mount Fuji
Mount Fuji
erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700. 1707: War of 27 Years
War of 27 Years
between the Marathas
and Mughals ends in India. 1708: The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies and English Company Trading to the East Indies merge to form the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies. 1708–1709: Famine kills one-third of East Prussia's population. 1709: The Great Frost of 1709
marks the coldest winter in 500 years. 1709: Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
founded in Afghanistan. 1709: Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII of Sweden
flees to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
after Peter I of Russia defeats his army at the Battle of Poltava.

Tokugawa Yoshimune, Shogun of Japan


1710: The world's first copyright legislation, Britain's Statute of Anne, takes effect. 1710–1711: Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
fights Russia in the Russo-Turkish War. 1711–1715: Tuscarora War between British, Dutch, and German settlers and the Tuscarora people
Tuscarora people
of North Carolina. 1712: War of the Spanish Succession: The French defeat a combined Dutch-Austrian force at the Battle of Denain. 1712: The first shipment of coffee from Java reaches Amsterdam.[9] 1713: The Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht
ends the War of the Spanish Succession. 1713–1714: Tarabai
establishes the rival Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
government in Kolhapur
against Chattrapati Shahu. 1714: Accession of George I, Elector of Hanover, to the throne of Great Britain. 1715: The first Jacobite rising breaks out; the British halt the Jacobite advance at the Battle of Sheriffmuir; Battle of Preston. 1715: Louis XIV dies, leaving France greatly enlarged but deep in debt; The Regency takes power under Philippe d'Orleans. 1715: Pope Clement XI
Pope Clement XI
declares Catholicism
and Confucianism incompatible. 1716: Establishment of the Sikh Confederacy
Sikh Confederacy
along the present-day India- Pakistan
border. 1717: The Netherlands, Britain and France sign the Triple Alliance. 1717: Surabaya
rebels against the VOC.[10] 1718: The city of New Orleans
New Orleans
is founded by the French in North America. 1718: Blackbeard
(Edward Teach) is killed by Robert Maynard
Robert Maynard
in a North Carolina inlet on the inner side of Ocracoke Island. 1718–1730: Tulip period
Tulip period
of the Ottoman Empire. 1719: The Spanish attempt to restart the Jacobite rebellion fails. 1719: Second Javanese War of Succession.[10]


Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700

1720: The South Sea Bubble. 1720: Spanish military embarks on the Villasur expedition, traveling north from Mexico into the Great Plains. 1720–1721: The Great Plague of Marseille. 1721: Robert Walpole
Robert Walpole
becomes the first Prime Minister of Great Britain (de facto). 1721: The Treaty of Nystad
Treaty of Nystad
is signed, ending the Great Northern War. 1721: Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
bans Christian missionaries because of Pope Clement XI's decree. 1721: Peter I reforms the Russian Orthodox Church. 1722: Afghans conquer Iran, overthrowing the Safavid Shah
Sultan Husayn. 1722: Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
of China dies. 1722: Bartholomew Roberts
Bartholomew Roberts
is killed in a sea battle off the African coast. 1722–1723: Russo-Persian War. 1722–1725: Controversy over William Wood's halfpence leads to the Drapier's Letters
Drapier's Letters
and begins the Irish economic independence from England movement. 1723: Slavery
is abolished in Russia; Peter the Great
Peter the Great
converts household slaves into house serfs.[11] 1723–1730: The "Great Disaster", an invasion of Kazakh territories by the Dzungars. 1724: The Treaty of Constantinople is signed, partitioning Persia between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Russia. 1725: The Fulani nomads take complete control of Futa Jallon and set up the first of many Fulani jihad states to come.[12] 1726: The enormous Chinese encyclopedia Gujin Tushu Jicheng
Gujin Tushu Jicheng
of over 100 million written Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in over 800,000 pages is printed in 60 different copies using copper-based Chinese movable type printing. 1727–1729: Anglo-Spanish War. 1729–1735: Charles Wesley
Charles Wesley
and John Wesley
John Wesley
begin Methodism
in England.


Qianlong Emperor

1730: Mahmud I
Mahmud I
takes over Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
after the Patrona Halil revolt, ending the Tulip period. 1730–1760: The First Great Awakening
First Great Awakening
takes place in Great Britain and North America. 1732–1734: Crimean Tatar raids into Russia.[13] 1733–1738: War of the Polish Succession. 1734: Letters Concerning on the English Nations, Voltaire 1735–1739: Russo-Turkish War. 1735–1799: The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
of China oversees a huge expansion in territory. 1735: Governor-General Dirck van Cloon
Dirck van Cloon
dies, one of many victims of malaria in Batavia.[14] 1736: Nader Shah
Nader Shah
assumes the title of Shah
of Persia
and founds the Afsharid dynasty; he rules until his death in 1747. 1736: Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
Chinese court painters recreate Zhang Zeduan's classic panoramic painting, Along the River During Qingming Festival. 1738–1756: Famine across the Sahel; half the population of Timbuktu dies.[15] 1738: Pope Clement XII
Pope Clement XII
issues In eminenti apostolatus, prohibiting Catholics from becoming Freemasons. 1738: Turlough O'Carolan, famous Irish harper, dies. 1739: Nader Shah
Nader Shah
defeats the Mughals at the Battle of Karnal
Battle of Karnal
and sacks Delhi. 1739: Great Britain and Spain fight the War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
in the Caribbean.


Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia

The extinction of the Scottish clan
Scottish clan
system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden
in 1746[16]

1740: Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great
comes to power in Prussia. 1740: Great Awakening, George Whitefield 1740: The British attempt to capture St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine, Florida
but lose to the Spanish during the Siege of St. Augustine. 1740–1741: Famine in Ireland kills ten percent of the population. 1740–1748: War of the Austrian Succession. 1740: 9 October, a massacre of Batavia's ethnic Chinese begins after they are suspected by the VOC of planning a rebellion; approximately 10,000 are killed and the Chinese quarter is burned.[17] 1741: Russians begin settling the Aleutian Islands. 1741: Pope Benedict XIV
Pope Benedict XIV
issues Immensa Pastorum principis against slavery. 1742: The rebellion of Juan Santos Atahualpa. 1742: Marvel's Mill, the first water-powered cotton mill, begins operation in England.[18] 1743: The capital of the Sultanate of Mataram
Sultanate of Mataram
fell under the Geger Pecinan uprising — Raden Mas Garendi (Sunan Kuning) led Chinese mercenaries in revolt against Pakubuwono II. 1744: The First Saudi State
First Saudi State
is founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud.[19] 1744: The French attempt to restart the Jacobite rebellion fails. 1744–1748: The First Carnatic War is fought between the British, the French, the Marathas, and Mysore
in India. 1745: Second Jacobite rising is begun by Charles Edward Stuart
Charles Edward Stuart
in Scotland. 1745: 17 February, Pakubuwono II establishes a new kraton in Sala village, along with Surakarta Sunanate. 1747: Ahmed Shah
Durrani founds the Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
in modern-day Afghanistan. 1748: The Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle ends the War of the Austrian Succession and First Carnatic War. 1748–1754: The Second Carnatic War is fought between the British, the French, the Marathas, and Mysore
in India.


The Death of General Wolfe

1750: Peak of the Little Ice Age. 1754: The Treaty of Pondicherry ends the Second Carnatic War and recognizes Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah
Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah
as Nawab of the Carnatic. 1754: King's College is founded by a royal charter of George II of Great Britain.[20] 1754–1763: The French and Indian War, the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War, is fought in colonial North America, mostly by the French and their allies against the English and their allies. 1755: The Lisbon earthquake occurs. 1755–1763: The Great Upheaval
Great Upheaval
forces transfer of the French Acadian population from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. 1755: 13 February, the Treaty of Giyanti is signed, effectively partitioning the Mataram Sultanate; the VOC recognizes Mangkubumi as Sultan Hamengkubuwana I, who rules half of Central Java; Hamengkubuwana I then establishes Yogyakarta
Sultanate, moves to Yogya and renames the city Yogyakarta.[21] 1755: Demand-Supply, Richard Cantillon 1756–1763: The Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
is fought among European powers in various theaters around the world. 1756–1763: The Third Carnatic War
Third Carnatic War
is fought between the British, the French, the Marathas, and Mysore
in India. 1757: The Battle of Plassey
Battle of Plassey
signals the beginning of formal British rule in India after years of commercial activity under the auspices of the East India Company. 1757: 17 March, Salatiga treaty between Prince Sambernyawa with Pakubuwono III and Hamengkubuwono I further partitions the remnant of Mataram Sultanate; the Mangkunegaran
Grand Duchy is established. 1758: British colonel James Wolfe
James Wolfe
issues Wolfe's Manifesto. 1759: French and Indian War: French commander Louis-Joseph de Montcalm and British commander James Wolfe
James Wolfe
die during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.


Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.

George III, King of Great Britain.

1760: George III becomes King of Britain. 1760: Zand dynasty
Zand dynasty
is founded in Iran. 1761: Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
defeated at Battle of Panipat. 1762–1796: Reign of Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
of Russia. 1763: The Treaty of Paris ends the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
and Third Carnatic War. 1763: Kingdom of Mysore
conquers the Kingdom of Keladi. 1763: Echelon Formation, Frederick II of Prussia 1765: The Stamp Act is introduced into the American colonies by the British Parliament. 1766: Christian VII becomes king of Denmark. He was king of Denmark to 1808. 1766–1799: Anglo- Mysore
Wars. 1767: Burmese conquer the Ayutthaya Kingdom. 1768: Gurkhas conquer Nepal. 1768–1772: War of the Bar Confederation. 1768–1774: Russo-Turkish War. 1768: Imperial Leather, Count Olov 1769: Spanish missionaries establish the first of 21 missions in California. 1769–1770: James Cook
James Cook
explores and maps New Zealand and Australia. 1769–1773: The Bengal
famine of 1770
kills one-third of the Bengal population. 1769: French expeditions capture clove plants in Ambon, ending the VOC monopoly of the plant.[22] (to 1772) 1769: Court Factor, Mayer Amschel Rothschild


Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers

Rejtan and the Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland
on a painting by Jan Matejko

1770: James Cook
James Cook
claims the East Coast of Australia (New South Wales) for Great Britain. 1770: 5 March, the Boston Massacre 1770–1771: Famine in Czech lands kills hundreds of thousands. 1770: James Cook
James Cook
stops at Onrust Island in the Bay of Batavia for repairs to his ship Endeavour on his voyage around the world.[23] 1771: The Plague Riot
Plague Riot
in Moscow. 1771: Richard Arkwright
Richard Arkwright
and his partners build the world's first water-powered mill at Cromford. 1772: Reformer Johann Friedrich Struensee
Johann Friedrich Struensee
executed in Denmark. 1772: Gustav III of Sweden
Gustav III of Sweden
stages a coup d'état, becoming almost an absolute monarch. 1772–1779: Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
fights Britain and Raghunathrao's forces during the First Anglo-Maratha War. 1772–1795: The Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland
end the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and erase Poland from the map for 123 years. 1773–1775: Pugachev's Rebellion, the largest peasant revolt in Russian history. 1773: East India Company starts operations in Bengal
to smuggle opium into China. 1773: 16 December, the Boston Tea Party 1775: John Harrison
John Harrison
H4 and Larcum Kendall
Larcum Kendall
K1 marine chronometers are used to measure longitude by James Cook
James Cook
on his second voyage (1772–1775). 1775–1782: First Anglo-Maratha War. 1775–1783: American Revolutionary War. 1776: Illuminati
founded by Adam Weishaupt. 1776: The United States Declaration of Independence
United States Declaration of Independence
is adopted by the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
in Philadelphia. 1776: Adam Smith
Adam Smith
publishes The Wealth of Nations. 1778: Tây Sơn Dynasty
Tây Sơn Dynasty
is established in Vietnam. 1778: James Cook
James Cook
becomes the first European to land on the Hawaiian Islands. 1778: 24 April, the Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences
Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences
is established by a group of Dutch intellectuals;[24] this institution is a pioneer of scientific efforts in Indonesia and the founder of the National Museum of Indonesia. 1779: Captain James Cook
James Cook
is killed by Hawaiian natives at Kealakekua Bay, following an attempted kidnapping and ransoming of ruling chief, Kalaniʻōpuʻu
in return for a stolen boat. 1779–1879: Xhosa Wars
Xhosa Wars
between British and Boer
settlers and the Xhosas in the South African Republic.


George Washington

Declaration of the Rights of Man
Rights of Man
and of the Citizen

1780: Outbreak of the indigenous rebellion against Spanish colonization led by Túpac Amaru II
Túpac Amaru II
in Peru. 1781: The city of Los Angeles is founded by Spanish settlers. 1781–1785: Serfdom
is abolished in the Austrian monarchy (first step; second step in 1848). 1783: Famine in Iceland, caused by the eruption of the Laki volcano. 1783: Russian Empire
Russian Empire
annexes the Crimean Khanate. 1783: The Treaty of Paris formally ends the American Revolutionary War. 1785–1791: Imam Sheikh Mansur, a Chechen warrior and Muslim mystic, leads a coalition of Muslim Caucasian tribes from throughout the Caucasus
in a holy war against Russian settlers and military bases in the Caucasus, as well as against local traditionalists, who followed the traditional customs and common law (Adat) rather than the theocratic Sharia.[25] 1785–1795: The Northwest Indian War
Northwest Indian War
is fought between the United States and Native Americans. 1787: The United States Constitution
United States Constitution
is written in Philadelphia
and submitted to the states for ratification. 1787: Freed slaves from London establish Freetown
in present-day Sierra Leone. 1787: Kansei Reforms
Kansei Reforms
instituted in Japan by Matsudaira Sadanobu. 1787–1792: Russo-Turkish War. 1788: First French Quaker
community established in Congénies. 1788: First permanent European settlement established in Australia by Britain at Sydney. 1788–1790: Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790). 1788: New Hampshire
New Hampshire
becomes the 9th state to ratify the United States Constitution, and by the terms of Article VII it takes effect. 1788–1789: Inconfidência Mineira, conspiracy against the colonial authorities in Brazil. 1789: George Washington
George Washington
is elected the first President of the United States; he serves until 1797. 1789: Declaration of the Rights of Man
Rights of Man
and of the Citizen 1789: Great Britain and Spain dispute the Nootka Sound
Nootka Sound
during the Nootka Crisis. 1789–1799: French Revolution.

at the Bridge of the Arcole

1789: The Liège Revolution. 1789: The Brabant Revolution.


1790: The United States of Belgium
United States of Belgium
is proclaimed following the Brabant Revolution. 1790: Suppression of the United States of Belgium
United States of Belgium
and re-establishment of Austrian control. 1790: Establishment of the Polish-Prussian Pact. 1791: The Constitutional Act (or Canada Act) creates the two provinces of Upper and Lower Canada
Lower Canada
in British North America. 1791: Suppression of the Liège Revolution
Liège Revolution
by Austrian forces and re-establishment of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. 1791–1795: George Vancouver
George Vancouver
explores the world during the Vancouver Expedition. 1791–1804: The Haitian Revolution. 1791: Surprise Symphony, Haydn 1792–1802: The French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
lead into the Napoleonic Wars, which last from 1803–1815. 1792: The New York Stock & Exchange Board is founded. 1792: Polish–Russian War of 1792. 1792: King Gustav III of Sweden
Gustav III of Sweden
is assassinated by a conspiracy of noblemen. 1792: March, Hamengkubuwana I dies.[26] 1793: Former King Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI of France
and his wife Marie Antoinette are guillotined. Louis is executed in January, Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
in October. 1793: Upper Canada
Upper Canada
bans slavery. 1793: The largest yellow fever epidemic in American history kills as many as 5,000 people in Philadelphia, roughly 10% of the population.[27] 1793–1796: Revolt in the Vendée
Revolt in the Vendée
against the French Republic at the time of the Revolution. 1794: Polish revolt. 1794: Jay's Treaty
Jay's Treaty
is concluded between Great Britain and the United States, by which the Western outposts in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
are returned to the U.S. and commerce between the two countries is regulated. 1794: Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
founded in Iran after replacing the Zand dynasty. 1794: The Mysteries of Udolpho, Ann Radcliffe 1795: Mohammad Khan Qajar
Mohammad Khan Qajar
razes Tbilisi
to the ground. 1795: Establishment of the French-backed Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
in present-day Netherlands. 1795: Pinckney's Treaty
Pinckney's Treaty
between the United States and Spain grants the Mississippi Territory
Mississippi Territory
to the U.S. 1795: The Marseillaise
is officially adopted as the French national anthem. 1795: Kamehameha I
Kamehameha I
of the Island of Hawaii defeats the Oahuans at the Battle of Nu'uanu. 1796: Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner
administers the first smallpox vaccination; smallpox killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans each year during the 18th century, including five reigning monarchs.[28] 1796: War of the First Coalition: The Battle of Montenotte
Battle of Montenotte
marks Napoleon
Bonaparte's first victory as an army commander. 1796: The British eject the Dutch from Ceylon. 1796: Mungo Park, backed by the African Association, is the first European to set eyes on the Niger River
Niger River
in Africa. 1796–1804: The White Lotus Rebellion against the Manchu dynasty
Manchu dynasty
in China. 1796: Trinidad
becomes British 1797: Napoleon's invasion and partition of the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
ends over 1,000 years of independence for the Serene Republic. 1798: The Irish Rebellion fails to overthrow British rule in Ireland. 1798–1800: The Quasi-War
is fought between the United States and France. 1799: Napoleon
stages a coup d'état and becomes First Consul
First Consul
of France. 1799: Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
is dissolved. 1799: The assassination of the 14th Tu'i Kanokupolu, Tukuʻaho, plunges Tonga
into half a century of civil war. 1799: Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
is killed in a battle with British forces.


1800: 1 January, The bankrupt Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC) is formally dissolved and the nationalised Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
are established.[29]

Significant people[edit] World leaders, politicians, military[edit] See also: Founding Fathers of the United States

Peter the Great

Louis XV

Queen Anne

Marie Antoinette, Queen of France
Queen of France
and Archduchess of Austria

Ferdinand VI, King of Spain

Prince Alexander Suvorov

Horatio Nelson, Vice Admiral in the British navy

Toussaint Louverture

Benjamin Franklin

Joseph II of Austria

Louis XVI


Yeongjo, King of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea

John Adams, American statesman Samuel Adams, American statesman Ahmad Shah
Abdali, Afghan King Ahmed III, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Hyder Ali, Ruler of Mysore Ethan Allen, American Revolutionary Army Anne, Queen of Great Britain Marie Antoinette, Austrian-born Queen of France Ferdinand VI, King of Spain Augustus III, Elector of Saxony, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Lithuania Aurangzeb, Mughal Emperor Bajirao I, Second Peshwa
of Maratha Empire Boromakot, King of Ayutthaya Boromaracha V, King of Ayutthaya Aaron Burr, American statesman William Cavendish, Anglo-Irish politician William Pitt the Younger, Prime Minister of Britain John Carteret, Anglo-Irish politician Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia Charles III, King of Spain, Naples, and Sicily Charles VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, King of Bohemia and Hungary Charles XII, King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends; Charlotte Corday, French revolutionary Georges Danton, French revolutionary Elizabeth of Russia, Empress of Russia Farrukhsiyar, Emperor of Mughal Ferdinand I, King of Naples, Sicily, and the Two Sicilies Benjamin Franklin, American leader, scientist and statesman Juan Francisco, Spanish naval officer and explorer Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends Frederick the Great, King of Prussia George I, King of Great Britain and Ireland George II, King of Great Britain and Ireland George III, King of Great Britain and Ireland Olympe de Gouges, French feminist Robert Gray, American revolutionary, merchant, and explorer Gustav III, King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends Guru Gobind Singh, tenth of the eleven Sikh Gurus Gyeongjong, King of Joseon dynasty Nathan Hale, American patriot, executed for espionage by the British Abdul Hamid I, Sultan of Ottoman Empire Alexander Hamilton, American statesman Patrick Henry, American statesman Emperor Higashiyama, Emperor of Japan John Jay, American statesman Thomas Jefferson, American statesman Jeongjo, King of Joseon Dynasty John Paul Jones, American naval commander Joseph I, King of Portugal Joseph II, Austrian Emperor Kangxi Emperor, Chinese Emperor Karim Khan, Shah
of Iran and King of Persia Marquis de Lafayette, Continental Army officer Louis XIV, King of France Louis XV, King of France Louis XVI, King of France Louis XVII, imprisoned King of France, never ruled James Madison, American statesman Madhavrao I, Fourth Peshwa
of Maratha Empire Madhavrao I
Madhavrao I
Scindia, Marathan leader Mahmud I, Sultan of Ottoman Empire Alessandro Malaspina, Spanish explorer George Mason, American statesman Prince Aleksandr Menshikov, Russian statesman, generalissimo Michikinikwa, Miami chief and warrior José Moñino y Redondo, Spanish statesman Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, French officer Mustafa III, Sultan of Ottoman Empire Nader Shah, King of Persia Nakamikado, Emperor of Japan Horatio Nelson, British admiral Peshwa
Balaji Baji Rao, Third Peshwa
of Maratha Empire Shivappa Nayaka, King of Keladi Nayaka Osman III, Sultan of Ottoman Empire Peter I (Peter the Great), Emperor of Russia Philip V, King of Spain Pontiac, Ottawa chief and warrior Prince Grigory Potyomkin, Russian statesman and general Nguyễn Huệ, Emperor of Tây Sơn Dynasty
Tây Sơn Dynasty
of Vietnam Qianlong Emperor, Emperor of China Rajaram II of Satara, Monarch
of the Maratha Confederacy Francis II Rákóczi, Prince of Hungary and Transylvania, revolutionary leader Tadeusz Rejtan, Polish politician Paul Revere, American revolutionary leader and silversmith Maximilien Robespierre, French revolutionary leader Betsy Ross, American flag maker Count Pyotr Rumyantsev, Russian general Shah
Rukh of Persia, King of Persia. John Russell, Anglo-Irish politician Lionel Sackville, Anglo-Irish politician Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, French revolutionary Sebastião de Melo, Prime Minister of Portugal Prithivi Narayan Shah, King of Nepal
and founder of Kingdom of Nepal Chattrapati Shahu, Emperor of Maratha Empire Selim III, Sultan of Ottoman Empire Charles Edward Stuart, Anglo-Scottish Jacobite exile Sukjong, King of Joseon Dynasty Alexander Suvorov, Russian military leader Maria Theresa, Austrian Empress Theobald Wolfe Tone, Leader of the 1798
United Irishmen rebellion Tokugawa Ieharu, Japanese Shogun Tokugawa Ienobu, Japanese Shogun Tokugawa Ieshige, Japanese Shogun Tokugawa Ietsugu, Japanese Shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, Japanese Shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune, Japanese Shogun Toussaint L'Ouverture, Haitian revolutionary leader Túpac Amaru II, Peruvian revolutionary George Vancouver, British Captain and explorer Robert Walpole, Prime Minister of Great Britain George Washington, American general and first President of the United States James Wolfe, British officer Yeongjo, King of Joseon Dynasty

Show business, theatre, entertainers[edit] See also: Theatre Royal, Drury Lane; Haymarket Theatre; and Sichuan opera



Pierre Beaumarchais, French playwright Antonio Bernacchi, Italian singer Faustina Bordoni, Italian singer La Camargo, French dancer Barbara Campanini, Italian dancer Colley Cibber, English actor, poet, playwright La Clairon, French actress Fabre d'Églantine, French actor Farinelli, Italian singer Denis Fonvizin, Russian playwright David Garrick, English actor John Gay, English dramatist and poet Carlo Goldoni, Italian playwright Carlo Gozzi, Italian playwright Antiochus Kantemir, Russian playwright Kong Shangren, Chinese dramatist, poet Praskovia Kovalyova-Zhemchugova, Russian actress, singer Adrienne Lecouvreur, French actress Charles Macklin, Irish actor Chikamatsu
Monzaemon, Japanese dramatist, playwright Jean-Georges Noverre, French dancer and balletmaster Marie Sallé, French dancer and choreographer Senesino, Italian singer Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Irish playwright Alexander Sumarokov, Russian playwright François-Joseph Talma, French actor Fyodor Volkov, Russian actor Wang Yun, Chinese playwright, poet

Musicians, composers[edit] Main articles: List of Classical era composers and List of Baroque composers

Johann Sebastian Bach

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

George Frideric Händel

Tomaso Albinoni, Italian composer Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer Luigi Boccherini, Italian composer Dmitry Bortniansky, Russian composer Charles Burney, English musician and music historian François Couperin, French composer William Cowper, English hymnist and poet Dede Efendi, Turkish/Ottoman composer Christoph Willibald Gluck, German composer Francesco Geminiani, Italian violinist, composer, and music theorist. George Frideric Handel, German-English composer Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer Hampartsoum Limondjian, Armenian/Ottoman composer Kali Mirza, Bengali composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer Johann Pachelbel, German composer, teacher François-André Danican Philidor, French composer and chess master Jean-Philippe Rameau, French composer Bharatchandra Ray, Bengali composer, musician, and poet Antonio Salieri, Venetian composer Domenico Scarlatti, Italian composer. Antonio Stradivari, Italian violin maker Georg Philipp Telemann, German composer Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer Isaac Watts, English hymnist

Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers, architects[edit] Main articles: History of painting, Rococo, and Neoclassicism

Antoine Watteau

Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin

Joshua Reynolds

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun

Jacques-Louis David

John James Audubon, French painter John Baskerville, British printer and typographer (founder of Baskerville font, Birmingham). Bernardo Bellotto, Italian painter Michel Benoist, French painter, architect, missionary in China William Blake, English artist and poet Edmé Bouchardon, French sculptor François Boucher, French painter Canaletto, Italian painter Rosalba Carriera, Italian painter Giuseppe Castiglione, Italian painter, architect, missionary in China Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, French painter Vasili Bazhenov, Russian architect Karl Blank, Russian architect Vladimir Borovikovsky, Russian painter Leonardo Coccorante, Italian painter John Singleton Copley, American painter Jacques-Louis David, French painter Yury Felten, Russian architect Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Austrian architect Étienne Maurice Falconet, French sculptor Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French painter Gai Qi, Chinese painter, poet Thomas Gainsborough, English painter Francisco de Goya, Spanish painter Jean-Baptiste Greuze, French painter Giuseppe Grisoni, Italian painter Francesco Guardi, Italian painter Jacob Philipp Hackert, German painter Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, Aus[trian-Italian architect William Hogarth, English painter and engraver Angelica Kauffman, Austrian painter Matvey Kazakov, Russian architect Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff, German painter and architect Alexander Kokorinov, Russian architect Mikhail Ivanovich Kozlovsky, Russian sculptor Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne, French sculptor, student of his father Jean-Louis Lemoyne, French sculptor Dmitry Levitzky, Russian painter Jean-Étienne Liotard, Swiss painter Jiang Tingxi, Chinese artist and scholar Robert Le Lorrain, French sculptor Ivan Martos, Russian sculptor Constance Mayer, French painter Luis Egidio Meléndez, Spanish painter Antoine Ignace Melling, French-German painter, architect Louis Montoyer, Belgian architect Nishikawa Sukenobu, Japanese printmaker, teacher Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian painter Ulrika Pasch, Swedish painter Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Italian painter Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann, German architect (Saxony) Bartolomeo Rastrelli, Italian-born Russian architect Joshua Reynolds, English painter Rachel Ruysch, Dutch painter Giacomo Quarenghi, Italian-born Russian architect Francisco Salzillo, Spanish sculptor Gilbert Stuart, American painter Suzuki Harunobu, Japanese woodblock printer Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Venetian painter Domenico Trezzini, Italian-born Russian architect Kitagawa Utamaro, Japanese printmaker and painter Luigi Vanvitelli, Italian architect Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, French painter Juan de Villanueva, Spanish architect Marie-Denise Villers, French painter Antoine Watteau, French painter Yuan Mei, Chinese painter, poet, essayist Mikhail Zemtsov, Russian architect

Writers, poets[edit]


Alexander Pope

Mary Wollstonecraft

Friedrich Schiller

Jane Austen, English writer Anna Laetitia Barbauld, English Poet, essayist, and children's author Pierre Beaumarchais, French writer Bernardin de St. Pierre, French writer Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, French poet and literary critic James Boswell, Scottish biographer Frances Burney, English novelist Robert Burns, Scottish poet Cao Xueqin, Chinese writer Giacomo Casanova, Venetian adventurer, writer and womanizer Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, French writer Daniel Defoe, English novelist and journalist Gavrila Derzhavin, Russian poet Maria Edgeworth, Anglo-Irish novelist Olaudah Equiano, Eboe writer and abolitionist Henry Fielding, English novelist Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, French writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer Oliver Goldsmith, Anglo-Irish writer, poet, children's writer, and playwright Thomas Gray, English poet, scholar, and educator Eliza Haywood, English writer Samuel Johnson, British writer, lexicographer, poet, and literary critic Ferenc Kazinczy, Hungarian writer Ivan Krylov, Russian fabulist Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, French writer Charlotte Lennox, English novelist and poet Liang Desheng, Chinese poet and writer Matthew Lewis, English novelist and playwright Li Ruzhen, Chinese novelist Sadhak Kamalakanta, Indian poet Henry Mackenzie, Scottish novelist Jean-Paul Marat, French journalist Pierre de Marivaux, French writer Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, Spanish writer Honoré Mirabeau, French writer and politician John Newbery, English children's literature publisher Alexander Pope, English poet Abbe Prevost, French writer Pu Songling, Chinese short story writer Ann Radcliffe, English novelist Alexander Radishchev, Russian writer Samuel Richardson, English novelist Marquis de Sade, French writer and philosopher Ramprasad Sen, Bengali poet and singer Friedrich Schiller, German writer Walter Scott, Scottish novelist and poet Christopher Smart, English poet and actor Robert Southey, English poet and biographer Hester Thrale, English memoirist Vasily Trediakovsky, Russian poet and playwright Charlotte Turner Smith, English writer Laurence Sterne, Anglo-Irish writer Jonathan Swift, Anglo-Irish satirist and Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland
Dean Ueda Akinari, Japanese writer Voltaire, French writer and philosopher Horace Walpole, English writer and politician Phillis Wheatley, first published African-American female poet Mary Wollstonecraft, British writer and feminist Wu Jingzi, Chinese writer Yuan Mei, Chinese poet, scholar and artist

Philosophers, theologians[edit]


Denis Diderot

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Arai Hakuseki, Japanese scholar, writer and politician Baal Shem Tov, Ukrainian rabbi Cesare Beccaria, Italian philosopher and politician Jeremy Bentham, English philosopher and reformer George Berkeley, Irish empiricist philosopher Edmund Burke, British statesman and philosopher Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, French philosopher Marquis de Condorcet, French philosopher Frederick Cornwallis, Archbishop of Canterbury Erasmus Darwin, English philosopher, poet and scientist Denis Diderot, French writer and philosopher Jonathan Edwards, American theologian and philosopher William Godwin, English philosopher and novelist Aaron Halle-Wolfssohn, German writer, Jewish theologian, translator, and professor Johann Gottfried Herder, German philosopher, writer, and critic Thomas Herring, Archbishop of Canterbury Baron d'Holbach, French-German philosopher and writer David Hume, Scottish philosopher Matthew Hutton, Archbishop of Canterbury Kamo no Mabuchi, Japanese philosopher Immanuel Kant, German philosopher William Law, English theologian Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, German philosopher and writer Alphonsus Liguori, Italian bishop, founder of Redemptorists, Saint Joseph de Maistre, Italian philosopher and diplomat Moses Mendelssohn, German philosopher Charles de Secondat (Montesquieu), French thinker John Moore, Archbishop of Canterbury Motoori Norinaga, Japanese philosopher and scholar Thomas Paine, English philosopher Elihu Palmer, American deist Thomas Percy, English bishop and editor Joseph Perl, German writer, Jewish theologian, and educator John Potter, Archbishop of Canterbury Jean-Jacques Rousseau, French writer and philosopher Thomas Secker, Archbishop of Canterbury Seraphim of Sarov, Russian theologian Sugita Genpaku, Japanese scholar and translator Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish scientist, thinker and mystic Thomas Tenison, Archbishop of Canterbury Christian Thomasius, German philosopher and jurist Giambattista Vico, Italian philosopher Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab, Arab Islamic theologian and founder of Wahhabism William Wake, Archbishop of Canterbury John Wesley, English theologian, founder of Methodism Zeynalabdin Shirvani, also known as Tamkin, was an Azerbaijani geographer, philosopher and poet]] Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf, German religious writer and bishop

Scientists, researchers[edit]

Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Alessandro Volta

Carl Linnaeus

Leonhard Euler

Mikhail Lomonosov

James Watt

Maria Gaetana Agnesi, Italian mathematician Jean le Rond d'Alembert, French mathematician, physicist and encyclopedist Joseph Banks, English botanist Laura Bassi, Italian scientist, the first European female college teacher[30] Daniel Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician and physicist Joseph Black, Scottish chemist (discovered carbon dioxide) Roger Joseph Boscovich, physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, and Jesuit Comte de Buffon, French scientist Henry Cavendish, chemist (recognized Hydrogen as its own elemental substance) Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer Jacques Charles, French scientist and inventor Anders Chydenius, Finnish philosopher and economist Alexis Clairaut, French mathematician James Cook, English navigator, explorer and cartographer Dai Zhen, Chinese mathematician, geographer, phonologist and philosopher Eugenio Espejo, Ecuadorian scientist Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, German physicist and engineer George Fordyce, Scottish physician and chemist Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, physicist and astronomer Edward Gibbon, English historian Edward Jenner, English inventor of vaccination William Jones, English philologist Nikolay Karamzin, Russian historian Ivan Kulibin, Russian inventor Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Italian-French mathematician and physicist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, French naturalist, biologist Pierre-Simon Laplace, French physicist and mathematician Antoine Lavoisier, French chemist, considered father of modern chemistry Marie-Anne Paulze Lavoisier, French chemist and painter John Law, Scottish economist Pan Lei, Chinese scholar and mathematician Adrien-Marie Legendre, French mathematician Carl Linnaeus, Swedish biologist Mikhail Lomonosov, Russian scientist Edmond Malone, Irish literary scholar Thomas Malthus, English economist Pierre Louis Maupertuis, French mathematician Peter Simon Pallas, German-Russian zoologist and botanist Joseph Priestley, dissenting minister and chemist René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, French scientist François Quesnay, French economist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Swedish chemist (discovered oxygen) John Smeaton, civil engineer and physicist Adam Smith, Scottish economist and philosopher Vasily Tatishchev, Russian historian and ethnographer Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, French economist Antonio de Ulloa, Spanish scientist and explorer Alessandro Volta, Italian physicist and chemist James Watt, Scottish scientist and inventor Benjamin West, American astronomer and mathematician John Whitehurst, English geologist


Edward Teach

Blackbeard, English pirate John Bowen, Bermudian pirate Black Caesar, African pirate Calico Jack, English pirate Gabriel Prosser, American literate enslaved blacksmith Bartholomew Roberts, Welsh pirate

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit] Main articles: Timeline of historic inventions § 18th century, and Timeline of scientific discoveries § 18th century

The Spinning Jenny

The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple
Putuo Zongcheng Temple
of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

1709: The first piano was built by Bartolomeo Cristofori 1711: Tuning fork
Tuning fork
was invented by John Shore 1712: Steam engine
Steam engine
invented by Thomas Newcomen 1714: Mercury thermometer
Mercury thermometer
by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit 1717: Diving bell
Diving bell
was successfully tested by Edmond Halley, sustainable to a depth of 55 ft c. 1730: Octant navigational tool was developed by John Hadley
John Hadley
in England, and Thomas Godfrey in America 1733: Flying shuttle
Flying shuttle
invented by John Kay 1736: Europeans encountered rubber – the discovery was made by Charles Marie de La Condamine
Charles Marie de La Condamine
while on expedition in South America. It was named in 1770
by Joseph Priestley c. 1740: Modern steel was developed by Benjamin Huntsman 1741: Vitus Bering
Vitus Bering
discovers Alaska 1745: Leyden jar
Leyden jar
invented by Ewald Georg von Kleist
Ewald Georg von Kleist
was the first electrical capacitor 1752: Lightning rod
Lightning rod
invented by Benjamin Franklin 1755: The tallest wooden Bodhisattva
statue in the world is erected at Puning Temple, Chengde, China. 1764: Spinning jenny
Spinning jenny
created by James Hargreaves
James Hargreaves
brought on the Industrial Revolution 1765: James Watt
James Watt
enhances Newcomen's steam engine, allowing new steel technologies 1761: The problem of longitude was finally resolved by the fourth chronometer of John Harrison 1763: Thomas Bayes
Thomas Bayes
publishes first version of Bayes' theorem, paving the way for Bayesian probability 1768–1779: James Cook
James Cook
mapped the boundaries of the Pacific Ocean and discovered many Pacific Islands 1774: Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley
discovers "dephlogisticated air" Oxygen 1775: Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley
first synthesis of "phlogisticated nitrous air" Nitrous Oxide "laughing gas" 1776: First improved steam engines installed by James Watt 1776: Steamboat
invented by Claude de Jouffroy 1777: Circular saw
Circular saw
invented by Samuel Miller 1779: Photosynthesis
was first discovered by Jan Ingenhousz 1781: William Herschel
William Herschel
announces discovery of Uranus 1784: Bifocals
invented by Benjamin Franklin 1784: Argand lamp
Argand lamp
invented by Aimé Argand[31] 1785: Power loom
Power loom
invented by Edmund Cartwright 1785: Automatic flour mill invented by Oliver Evans 1786: Threshing machine
Threshing machine
invented by Andrew Meikle 1787: Jacques Charles
Jacques Charles
discovers Charles's law 1789: Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier
discovers the law of conservation of mass, the basis for chemistry, and begins modern chemistry 1798: Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner
publishes a treatise about smallpox vaccination 1798: The Lithographic printing process invented by Alois Senefelder[32] 1799: Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone
discovered by Napoleon's troops

Literary and philosophical achievements[edit]

1703: The Love Suicides at Sonezaki
The Love Suicides at Sonezaki
by Chikamatsu
first performed 1704–1717: One Thousand and One Nights
One Thousand and One Nights
translated into French by Antoine Galland. The work becomes immensely popular throughout Europe. 1704: A Tale of a Tub
A Tale of a Tub
by Jonathan Swift
Jonathan Swift
first published 1712: The Rape of the Lock
The Rape of the Lock
by Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope
(publication of first version) 1719: Robinson Crusoe
Robinson Crusoe
by Daniel Defoe 1725: The New Science by Giambattista Vico 1726: Gulliver's Travels
Gulliver's Travels
by Jonathan Swift 1728: The Dunciad
The Dunciad
by Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope
(publication of first version) 1744: A Little Pretty Pocket-Book
A Little Pretty Pocket-Book
becomes one of the first books marketed for children 1748: Chushingura
(The Treasury of Loyal Retainers), popular Japanese puppet play, composed 1748: Clarissa
by Samuel Richardson 1749: The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
by Henry Fielding 1751: Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
by Thomas Gray
Thomas Gray
published 1751–1785: The French Encyclopédie 1755: A Dictionary of the English Language
A Dictionary of the English Language
by Samuel Johnson 1759: Candide
by Voltaire 1759: The Theory of Moral Sentiments by Adam Smith 1759–1767: Tristram Shandy
Tristram Shandy
by Laurence Sterne 1762: Emile: or, On Education by Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1762: The Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Right by Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1774: The Sorrows of Young Werther
The Sorrows of Young Werther
by Goethe
first published 1776: Ugetsu Monogatari
Ugetsu Monogatari
(Tales of Moonlight and Rain) by Ueda Akinari 1776: The Wealth of Nations, foundation of the modern theory of economy, was published by Adam Smith 1776–1789: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire was published by Edward Gibbon 1779: Amazing Grace
Amazing Grace
published by John Newton 1779–1782: Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets
Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets
by Samuel Johnson 1781: Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason
by Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
(publication of first edition) 1781: The Robbers
The Robbers
by Friedrich Schiller
Friedrich Schiller
first published 1782: Les Liaisons dangereuses
Les Liaisons dangereuses
by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos 1786: Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect by Robert Burns 1787–1788: The Federalist Papers
The Federalist Papers
by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay 1788: Critique of Practical Reason
Critique of Practical Reason
by Immanuel Kant 1789: Songs of Innocence
Songs of Innocence
by William Blake 1790: Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow
Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow
by Alexander Radishchev 1790: Reflections on the Revolution in France
Reflections on the Revolution in France
by Edmund Burke 1791: Rights of Man
Rights of Man
by Thomas Paine 1792: A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
by Mary Wollstonecraft 1794: Songs of Experience
Songs of Experience
by William Blake 1798: Lyrical Ballads
Lyrical Ballads
by William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth
and Samuel Taylor Coleridge 1798: An Essay on the Principle of Population
An Essay on the Principle of Population
published by Thomas Malthus (mid-18th century): The Dream of the Red Chamber
The Dream of the Red Chamber
(authorship attributed to Cao Xueqin), one of the most famous Chinese novels

Musical works[edit]

1711: Rinaldo, Handel's first opera for the London stage, premiered 1721: Brandenburg Concertos
Brandenburg Concertos
by J.S. Bach 1723: The Four Seasons, violin concertos by Antonio Vivaldi, composed 1724: St John Passion
St John Passion
by J.S. Bach 1727: St Matthew Passion
St Matthew Passion
composed by J.S. Bach 1733: Hippolyte et Aricie, first opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau 1741: Goldberg Variations
Goldberg Variations
for harpsichord published by Bach 1742: Messiah, oratorio by Handel
premiered in Dublin 1749: Mass in B minor
Mass in B minor
by J.S. Bach assembled in current form 1751: The Art of Fugue
The Art of Fugue
by J.S. Bach 1762: Orfeo ed Euridice, first "reform opera" by Gluck, performed in Vienna 1786: The Marriage of Figaro, opera by Mozart 1787: Don Giovanni, opera by Mozart 1788: Jupiter Symphony (Symphony No.41) composed by Mozart 1791: The Magic Flute, opera by Mozart 1791–1795: London symphonies by Haydn 1798: The Pathétique, piano sonata by Beethoven 1798: The Creation, oratorio by Haydn first performed


^ Anderson, M. S. (1979). Historians and Eighteenth- Century
Europe, 1715–1789. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822548-5. OCLC 185538307.  ^ Ribeiro, Aileen (2002). Dress in Eighteenth- Century
Europe 1715– 1789
(revised edition). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09151-9. OCLC 186413657.  ^ Baines, Paul (2004). The Long 18th Century. London: Arnold. ISBN 978-0-340-81372-0.  ^ Marshall, P. J. (Editor) (2001). The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth Century
(Oxford History of the British Empire). Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-924677-9. OCLC 174866045. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) , "Introduction" by P. J. Marshall, page 1 ^ O'Gorman, Frank (1997). The Long Eighteenth Century: British Political and Social History 1688–1832 (The Arnold History of Britain Series). A Hodder Arnold Publication. ISBN 978-0-340-56751-7. OCLC 243883533.  ^ "War of the Spanish Succession, 1701–1714". Historyofwar.org. Retrieved 2009-04-25.  ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 82 ^ Historic uk – heritage of britain accommodation guide (2007-05-03). "The history of Scotland – The Act of Union 1707". Historic-uk.com. Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25.  ^ Moore (Ed) (1999), p90 ^ a b Ricklefs (1991), page 84 ^ "Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to History". Britannica.com. 1910-01-31. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25.  ^ "Usman dan Fodio (Fulani leader)". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2009-04-25.  ^ "List of Wars of the Crimean Tatars". Zum.de. Archived from the original on 12 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25.  ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 86 ^ "Len Milich: Anthropogenic Desertification vs 'Natural' Climate Trends". Ag.arizona.edu. 1997-08-10. Archived from the original on 2012-02-11. Retrieved 2009-04-25.  ^ "A guide to Scottish clans". Unique-cottages.co.uk. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-25.  ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 87 ^ Wadsworth, Alfred P.; Mann, Julia De Lacy (1931). The Cotton Trade and Industrial Lancashire, 1600–1780. Manchester University Press. p. 433. OCLC 2859370.  ^ "Saudi Arabia – The Saud Family and Wahhabi Islam". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2009-04-25.  ^ "History". Columbia University.  ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 93 ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 102 ^ Heuken (2000), page 307 ^ Rosi, Adele (1998). Museum Nasional Guide Book. Jakarta: PT Indo Multi Media, Museum Nasional and Indonesian Heritage Society. p. 4.  ^ "Sufism in the Caucasus". Islamicsupremecouncil.org. Archived from the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25.  ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 101 ^ "Yellow Fever Attacks Philadelphia, 1793". EyeWitness to History. Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-22.  ^ Riedel S (2005). " Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner
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Further reading[edit]

Jeremy Black and Roy Porter, eds. A Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century World History (1994) 890pp Klekar, Cynthia. “Fictions of the Gift: Generosity and Obligation in Eighteenth- Century
English Literature.” Innovative Course Design Winner. American Society for Eighteenth- Century
Studies: Wake Forest University, 2004. <http://asecs.press.jhu.edu>. Refereed. The Wallace Collection, London, houses one of the finest collections of 18th-century decorative arts from France, England and Italy, including paintings, furniture, porcelain and gold boxes.

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