18th Army (Wehrmacht)
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The 18th Army (German: ''18. Armee'') was a
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposin ...
field army A field army (or numbered army or simply army) is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group. Likewise, air armies are equivalent formation within some air forces, and with ...
in the German ''Wehrmacht''. Formed in November 1939 in Military Region (''Wehrkreis'') VI, the 18th Army was part of the offensive into the
Netherlands ) , anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = , map_caption = , subdivision_type = Sovereign state , subdivision_name = Kingdom of the Netherlands , established_title = Before independence , established_date = Spanish Netherl ...
(
Battle of the Netherlands The German invasion of the Netherlands ( nl, Duitse aanval op Nederland), otherwise known as the Battle of the Netherlands ( nl, Slag om Nederland), was a military campaign part of Battle of France, Case Yellow (german: Fall Gelb), the Nazi Ge ...
) and
Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Northwestern Europe. The country is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to th ...
(
Battle of Belgium The invasion of Belgium or Belgian campaign (10–28 May 1940), often referred to within Belgium as the 18 Days' Campaign (french: Campagne des 18 jours, nl, Achttiendaagse Veldtocht), formed part of the greater Battle of France, an Military o ...
) during
Fall Gelb (Case Yellow), the invasion of France and the Low Countries , scope = Strategic , type = , location = South-west Netherlands, central Belgium, northern France , coordinates = , planned = 1940 , planned_by = Erich von ...
and later moved into
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
in 1940. The 18th Army was then moved East and participated in
Operation Barbarossa Operation Barbarossa (german: link=no, Unternehmen Barbarossa; ) was the invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany and many of its Axis allies, starting on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during the Second World War. The operation, code-named after ...
in 1941. The Army was a part of the
Army Group North Army Group North (german: Heeresgruppe Nord) was a German strategic formation, commanding a grouping of field armies during World War II. The German Army Group was subordinated to the ''Oberkommando des Heeres'' (OKH), the German army high comman ...
until early 1945, when it was subordinated to
Army Group Kurland Army Group Courland (german: Heeresgruppe Kurland) was a German Army Group on the Eastern Front which was created from remnants of the Army Group North, isolated in the Courland Peninsula by the advancing Soviet Army forces during the 1944 Balti ...
. In October 1944, the army was encircled by the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Russian: Рабо́че-крестья́нская Кра́сная армия),) often shortened to the Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after ...
offensives and spent the remainder of the war in the
Courland Pocket The Courland Pocket (Blockade of the Courland army group), (german: Kurland-Kessel)/german: Kurland-Brückenkopf (Courland Bridgehead), lv, Kurzemes katls (Courland Cauldron) or ''Kurzemes cietoksnis'' (Courland Fortress)., group=lower-alpha ...
.


Commanders

Chiefs of the Generalstab * 5 November 1939 – 10 December 1940 Generalmajor
Erich Marcks Erich Marcks (6 June 1891 – 12 June 1944) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II. He authored the first draft of the operational plan, ''Operation Draft East'', for Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union, ad ...
* 10 December 1940 – 19 January 1941 Generalmajor Wilhelm Hasse * 19 January 1941 – 17 November 1942 Generalmajor Dr. Ing. h.c. Kurt Waeger * 24 November 1942 – 1 December 1943 Generalmajor
Hans Speth Hans-Ludwig Speth (7 October 1897 – 30 April 1985) was a German general during World War II who commanded the 28th Jäger Division (Germany), 28th Jäger Division. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross of Nazi Germany. Awa ...
* 1 December 1943 – 25 January 1945 Generalmajor
Friedrich Foertsch Friedrich Albert Foertsch (19 May 1900 – 14 December 1976) was a German general serving during World War II and from 1961 to 1963 the second Inspector General of the Bundeswehr. Foertsch was born in 1900 and joined the military service in ...
* 25 January 1945 – 5 March 1945 Oberst i.G. Wilhelm Hetzel * 5 March 1945 – 10(!) May 1945 Generalmajor
Ernst Merk __NOTOC__ Ernst Merk (27 September 1903 – 12 June 1975) was a general in the Army of Nazi Germany during World War II. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. Awards * Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 15 July 1944 as ...


Orders of Battle


10 May 1940

* XXVI Army Corps ** 256th Infantry Division ** 254th Infantry Division ** SS "Der Führer" Regiment * X Army Corps ** SS "Adolf Hitler" Regiment ** 227th Infantry Division ** 207th Infantry Division ** 1st Cavalry Division * Direct control of Army Headquarters ** SS "Verfügungstruppe" Division **
9th Panzer Division The 9th Panzer Division was a panzer division of the German Army during World War II. It came into existence after 4th Light Division was reorganized in January 1940. The division was headquartered in Vienna, in the German military district Weh ...
** 208th Infantry Division ** 225th Infantry Division


1 July 1941

* XXXVIII Army Corps ** 58th Infantry Division ** 291st Infantry Division * XXVI Army Corps ** 1st Infantry Division ** 61st Infantry Division ** 217th Infantry Division * I Army Corps ** 11th Infantry Division ** 21st Infantry Division


September 1941

* L Army Corps * LIV Army Corps * XXVI Army Corps * XXVIII Army Corps * I Army Corps


15 July 1944

* XVIII Army Corps ** 12th Luftwaffe Division ** Kampfgruppe Hoefer ** 21st Infantry Division ** 30th Infantry Division * XXXVIII Army Corps ** 121st Infantry Division ** 32nd Infantry Division ** 21st Luftwaffe Division ** 83rd Infantry Division * L Army Corps ** 218th Infantry Division ** 19th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Latvian) ** 126th Infantry Division ** 93rd Infantry Division **
15th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Latvian) The 15th ''Waffen'' Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Latvian) (german: 15. Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS (lettische Nr. 1)), lv, 15. SS grenadieru divīzija (latviešu Nr. 1)) was an Infantry Division of the ''Waffen-SS'' during World War I ...
** Kampfgruppe Streckenbach * Direct control of Army Headquarters ** Headquarters
VI SS Corps VI SS Army Corps (Latvian) or VI. SS-Freiwilligen-Armeekorps (Lettisches) (German) was a unit of the Waffen SS during World War II. It was formed in October 1943, to command the Latvian Waffen SS divisions. It fought in the northern sector of the ...
** 207th Security Division ** 300th Division zbV (Estonian border guard units)


12 April 1945

* L Army Corps ** 11th Infantry Division ** 290th Infantry Division * II Army Corps ** 563rd Volksgrenadier Division ** 126th Infantry Division ** 263rd Infantry Division ** 87th Infantry Division * I Army Corps ** 225th Infantry Division ** 132nd Infantry Division * X Army Corps ** 30th Infantry Division ** 121st Infantry Division ** Kampfgruppe (Ernst) Gise * Direct control of Army Headquarters ** 52nd Security Division ** 14th Panzer Division


References

* {{Use dmy dates, date=June 2017 18 Military units and formations established in 1939 Military units and formations disestablished in 1945 1939 establishments in Germany