1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian
calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian
calendar, the 1890th year of the
Common Era (CE) and
Anno Domini (AD)
designations, the 890th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year
of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the
1890s decade. As of
the start of 1890, the
Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the
Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
1.5 Date unknown
2.13 Unknown date
3.3 Date unknown
5 Further reading and year books
January 25: Nellie Bly, 1890
Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy establishes
Eritrea as its colony, in the Horn of
In Michigan, the wooden steamer Mackinaw burns in a fire on the Black
The steamship Persia is wrecked off Corsica; 130 lives are lost.
Alice Sanger becomes the first female staffer in the White House.
January 11 –
1890 British Ultimatum: The United Kingdom demands
Portugal withdraw its forces, from the land between the Portuguese
colonies of Mozambique and Angola (most of present-day
January 15 – The Sleeping Beauty, with music by Tchaikovsky, is
premiered at the Imperial
Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg, Russia.
United Mine Workers
United Mine Workers of America is founded.
Nellie Bly completes her round-the-world journey in 72 days.
February 9 – The
Weather Bureau is established, within the United
States Department of Agriculture.
February 11 – The city of
Araucária is founded in Brazil.
February 17[dubious – discuss] – The British steamship Duburg is
wrecked in the South China Sea; 400 lives are lost.
February 24 –
Chicago is selected to host the Columbian Exposition.
The British steamship Quetia founders in the Torres Straits; 124 lives
Léon Bourgeois succeeds Jean Antoine Ernest Constans, as French
Minister of the Interior.
March 3 – The first
American football game in Ohio State University
history is played in Delaware, Ohio, against Ohio Wesleyan, with the
Ohio State Buckeyes winning 20–14.
March 4 – The Forth Bridge, across the
Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth in Scotland,
is opened to rail traffic.
March 8 –
North Dakota State University
North Dakota State University is founded in Fargo.
March 17 – The first railway in Transvaal, the Randtram, opens
Braamfontein in Johannesburg.
March 20 – Kaiser
Wilhelm II dismisses Otto von Bismarck.
March 27 – March
1890 middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak: 24
significant tornadoes are spawned by one system, killing least 146
March 27 –
Preston North End
Preston North End retain the English Football League
Championship, winning their final game at Notts County
March 28 –
Washington State University
Washington State University is founded in Pullman.
May 31: Cleveland Arcade.
June 1: Herman Hollerith.
April 2 – Kashihara Shrine, a landmark spot in Nara Prefecture,
Japan, is officially built by Emperor Mutsuhito.(Emperor of
April 14 – At the First International Conference of American States,
in Washington DC, The Commercial Bureau of the American Republics is
May 1 – A coordinated series of mass rallies and one-day strikes is
held throughout many cities and mining towns, in Europe and North
America, to demand an eight-hour workday.
May 2 – The
Oklahoma Territory is organized.
May 12 – The first ever official English
County Championship cricket
match begins in Bristol; Yorkshire beats Gloucestershire, by 8
May 20 – Dutch artist
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh moves to
the edge of Paris, in the care of Dr Paul Gachet, where he will
produce around seventy paintings in as many days.
May 31 – The 5-story skylight Arcade opens in Cleveland, Ohio.
June 1 – The
United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau begins using Herman
Hollerith's tabulating machine to tabulate census returns using
punched card input, a landmark in the history of computing hardware.
Hollerith's company eventually becomes IBM.
June 12 – In Michigan, the wooden steamer Ryan is lost near Thunder
June 20 –
The Picture of Dorian Gray
The Picture of Dorian Gray (by Oscar Wilde) is published
Lippincott's Monthly Magazine
Lippincott's Monthly Magazine (dated July).
June 27 – Canadian-born boxer George Dixon defeats the British
bantamweight champion in London, giving him claim to be the first
black world champion in any sport.
July 29: Vincent van Gogh.
Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty: Britain cedes the
Heligoland islands (in
the German Bight) to Germany, in return for protectorates over
Wituland and the
Sultanate of Zanzibar
Sultanate of Zanzibar (the islands of Pemba and
Unguja) in east Africa.
Japanese general election, 1890: In the first general election for the
House of Representatives of Japan, about 5% of the adult male
population elect a lower house of the Diet of Japan, in accordance
with the new
Meiji Constitution of 1889.
July 2 – The
Sherman Antitrust Act
Sherman Antitrust Act and Sherman Silver Purchase Act
become United States law.
July 3 –
Idaho is admitted as the 43rd U.S. state.
July 10 –
Wyoming is admitted as the 44th U.S. state.
July 13 – In Minnesota, storms result in the
Sea Wing disaster
Sea Wing disaster on
Lake Pepin, killing 98.
July 14 – Lime-green is first described as a color.
July 26 – In Buenos Aires, the
Revolution of the Park
Revolution of the Park takes place,
forcing President Juárez Celman's resignation.
July 27 – Death of Vincent van Gogh: van Gogh shoots himself, dying
two days later.
August 6 – At Auburn Prison in New York,
William Kemmler becomes the
first person to be executed in the electric chair.
August 20 – Treaty of London: Portugal and the United Kingdom define
the borders of the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola.
August 23 – The
BOVESPA stock exchange is founded.
August – Kaiser
Wilhelm II and Tsar Alexander III meet at Narva.
September 6 –
Dublin association football club
Bohemian F.C. is
founded in the Gate Lodge, Phoenix Park.
September 12 –
Salisbury, Rhodesia is founded.
The Turkish frigate Ertuğrul founders off Japan; 540 lives are
University of North Texas
University of North Texas is founded, as the
Texas Normal College
and Teacher Training Institute.
Scotland Yard opens near the
Big Ben clock tower.
December 29: Wounded Knee
October 9 – The first brief flight of Clément Ader's steam-powered
Ader Éole takes place in Satory, France. It flies
uncontrolled approximately 50 m (160 ft) at a height of
20 cm, the first take-off of a powered airplane solely under its
October 11 – In Washington, D.C., the Daughters of the American
Revolution is founded.
October 12 – In Uddevalla, the
Uddevalla Suffrage Association is
founded, with a formal founding event on
November 2 a month later.
In Michigan, the schooner J.F. Warner is lost at Thunder Bay.
Delta Chi fraternity is founded by 11 law students at Cornell
University in Ithaca, New York.
November 4 – The first deep level London Underground (Tube) Railway,
the City and South London Railway, opens officially.
November 21 – Edward King,
Anglican bishop of Lincoln, is convicted
of using ritualistic practices.
November 23 – King
William III of the Netherlands
William III of the Netherlands dies without a
male heir, and his daughter Princess Wilhelmina becomes Queen, causing
the end of the personal union of thrones with
requires a male heir) so that Adolphe, Duke of Nassau becomes Grand
Duke of Luxembourg.
Meiji Constitution goes into effect in Japan, and its first Diet
At West Point, New York, the United States Navy defeats the United
States Army 24–0 in the first
Army–Navy Game of college football.
November – Scotland Yard, headquarters of the Metropolitan Police
Service, moves to a building on London's Victoria Embankment, as New
December 15 –
Hunkpapa Lakota leader
Sitting Bull is killed by
police on Standing Rock Indian Reservation.
December 27 – The British steamship Shanghai burns in the East China
Sea off the coast of
Anhui Province; 101 lives are lost.
December 29 – Wounded Knee Massacre: At Wounded Knee, South Dakota,
a Native American camp, the U.S.
7th Cavalry Regiment
7th Cavalry Regiment tries to
disperse the non-violent "Ghost-Dance" which was promised to usher in
a new era of power and freedom to Native Americans but is feared as a
potential rallying tool for violent rebellion by some in the U.S.
government. Shooting begins, and 153 Lakota Sioux and 25 troops are
killed; about 150 flee the scene. This is the last tribe to be
defeated and confined to a reservation as well as the beginning of the
decline of both the
American Indian Wars
American Indian Wars and the American frontier.
The folding carton box is invented by Robert Gair, a
who developed production of paper-board boxes in 1879.
The United States city of Boise, Idaho, drills the first geothermal
Brown trout are introduced into the upper Firehole River, in
Yellowstone National Park.
High School Cadets
High School Cadets is written by John Philip Sousa.
William II of Prussia opposes Bismarck's attempt to renew the law
outlawing the Social Democratic Party.
Blackwall Buildings, Whitechapel, noted philanthropic housing, is
built in the East End of London.
Flinders Petrie excavates at Tell el-Hesi,
Palestine (mistakenly identified as Tel Lachish), the first scientific
excavation of an archaeological site in the Holy Land, during which he
discovers how tells are formed.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan publishes his influential
book The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783.
Francis Galton announces a statistical demonstration of the uniqueness
and classifiability of individual human fingerprints.
Alfred Tucker becomes
Anglican Bishop of Eastern Equatorial
January 1 – Anton Melik, Slovenian geographer (d. 1966)
January 4 – Victor Lustig, Bohemian-born con artist (d. 1947)
January 5 – Sarah Aaronsohn, member of the Jewish spy ring
January 8 – Taixu, Chinese Buddhist activist (d. 1947)
Kurt Tucholsky, German-born journalist and satirist (d. 1935)
Karel Čapek, Czech writer (d. 1938)
January 11 – Oswald de Andrade, Brazilian Modernist writer (d.1954)
January 13 – Jüri Uluots, 8th Prime Minister of Estonia (d. 1945)
January 19 – Élise Rivet, French
Roman Catholic nun and war heroine
January 21 – Wesley Englehorn,
American football player (d. 1993)
January 22 – Fred M. Vinson,
Chief Justice of the United States
Chief Justice of the United States (d.
January 28 – Robert Franklin Stroud, Birdman of Alcatraz (d. 1963)
February 9 – Carolina Nabuco, Brazilian writer and translator (d.
February 10 – Boris Pasternak, Russian writer (Doctor Zhivago),
Nobel Prize laureate (declined) (d. 1960)
February 14 – Nina Hamnett, Welsh painter (d. 1956)
February 15 – Matome Ugaki, Japanese admiral (d. 1945)
February 16 – Francesco de Pinedo, Italian aviator (d. 1933)
February 17 – Ronald Fisher, English statistician and geneticist (d.
Edward Arnold, American actor (d. 1956)
Adolphe Menjou, American actor (d. 1963)
February 24 – Marjorie Main, American actress (d. 1975)
Dame Myra Hess, English pianist (d. 1965)
Kiyohide Shima, Japanese admiral (d. 1973)
Freddie Keppard, American jazz musician (d. 1933)
Art Smith, American pilot (d. 1926)
March 4 – Norman Bethune, Canadian doctor and humanitarian (d. 1939)
March 8 – Eugeniusz Baziak, Polish
Roman Catholic archbishop (d.
(new style) Vyacheslav Molotov, Soviet politician (d. 1986)
Rupert Balfe, Australian rules footballer (d. 1915)
March 11 – Vannevar Bush, American engineer, inventor, and
politician (d. 1974)
Beniamino Gigli, Italian tenor (d. 1957)
Fania Marinoff, Russian born American actress (d. 1971)
Lauritz Melchior, Danish-American tenor (d. 1973)
March 26 – Aaron S. "Tip" Merrill, American admiral (d. 1961)
March 28 – Paul Whiteman, American bandleader (d. 1967)
March 31 – William Lawrence Bragg, English physicist, Nobel Prize
laureate (d. 1971)
April 6 – Anthony Fokker, Dutch aircraft manufacturer (d. 1939)
Paul Berth, Danish amateur footballer (d. 1969)
Marjory Stoneman Douglas, American conservationist and writer (d.
Harry W. Hill, American admiral (d. 1971)
Frank Murphy, American politician and Associate Justice of the Supreme
Court of the United States (d. 1949)
Dadasaheb Torne, Indian filmmaker (d. 1960)
April 11 – Rachele Mussolini, Italian, wife of
Benito Mussolini (d.
April 15 – Percy Shaw, British inventor (d. 1976)
Fred Root, English cricketer (d. 1954)
Vernon Sturdee, Australian general (d. 1966)
April 17 – Victor Chapman, French-American fighter pilot (d. 1916)
April 18 – Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (d.1958)
Maurice Duplessis, premier of
Quebec (d. 1959)
Adolf Schärf, former
President of Austria
President of Austria (d. 1965)
April 21 – Michitaro Tozuka, Japanese admiral (d. 1966)
April 24 – Masatane Kanda, Japanese general (d. 1983)
April 26 – Edgar Kennedy, American comedic actor (d. 1948)
April 29 – Daisy Fellowes, French society figure, writer and heiress
April 30 – Géza Lakatos, 36th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1967)
Ho Chi Minh
May 1 – Laurence Wild, 1913 NCAA Men's Basketball All-American,
former head coach for the Navy Midshipmen men's basketball, and 30th
Governor of American Samoa
Governor of American Samoa (d. 1971)
May 4 – Franklin Carmichael, Canadian artist (d. 1945)
May 7 – George Archainbaud, French film director (d. 1959)
May 10 – Alfred Jodl, German general (executed) (d. 1946)
May 11 – Woodall Rodgers, mayor of Dallas,
Texas (d. 1961)
May 15 – Katherine Anne Porter, American author (d. 1980)
May 19 – Ho Chi Minh, Prime minister/President of
North Vietnam (d.
May 23 – Herbert Marshall, English actor (d. 1966)
June 1 – Frank Morgan, American actor (d. 1949)
June 6 – Ted Lewis, American jazz musician and entertainer (d. 1971)
June 10 – William A. Seiter, American film director (d. 1964)
June 11 – Béla Miklós, 38th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1948)
June 12 – Junius Matthews, American actor (d. 1978)
June 16 – Stan Laurel, English-born actor (d. 1965)
June 17 – Hatazō Adachi, Japanese general (d. 1947)
June 21 – Lewis H. Brereton, American aviation pioneer and air force
general (d. 1967)
June 23 – Salvatore Papaccio, Italian tenor (d. 1977)
June 25 – Charlotte Greenwood, American actress (d. 1977)
Oscar C. Badger II, American admiral (d. 1958)
Jeanne Eagels, American actress (d. 1929)
June 28 – William H. P. Blandy, American admiral (d. 1954)
Hendrikje van Andel-Schipper, Dutch supercentenarian (d. 2005)
Pietro Montana, Italian-American sculptor, painter and teacher (d.
June 30 – Paul Boffa, 5th Prime Minister of Malta (d. 1962)
P. S. Subrahmanya Sastri
July 9 – Joseph-Alphida Crête, Canadian politician (d. 1964)
July 10 – Leo Rush, Australian rules footballer (d. 1983)
July 11 – Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, British air force air
marshal (d. 1967)
Carmelo Flores Laura, Bolivian supercentenarian (d. 2014)
Carlos Carmelo Vasconcellos Motta, Brazilian cardinal (d. 1982)
July 18 – Frank Forde, 15th Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1983)
July 20 – Verna Felton, American character actress (d. 1966)
July 22 – Rose Kennedy, American philanthropist and matriarch of the
Kennedy family (d. 1995)
Daniel J. Callaghan, American admiral and Medal of Honor recipient (d.
Seiichi Itō, Japanese admiral (d. 1945)
July 29 – P. S. Subrahmanya Sastri, Sanskrit scholar. First to
translate Tolkāppiyam into English (d. 1978)
H. P. Lovecraft
August 2 – Marin Sais, American film actress (d. 1971)
August 3 – Konstantin Melnikov, Russian avant-garde architect (d.
August 4 – Erich Weinert, German writer and political activist (d.
August 5 – Erich Kleiber, Austrian conductor (d. 1956)
Angus L. Macdonald,
Nova Scotia Premier (d. 1954)
Bechara El Khoury, 2-Time Prime Minister and 2-Time President of
Lebanon (d. 1964)
Jacques Ibert, French composer (d. 1962)
Elizabeth Bolden, American, last verified person born in
August 18 – Walther Funk, German politician (d. 1960)
August 20 – H. P. Lovecraft, American writer (d. 1937)
Hans-Joachim Buddecke, German
World War I
World War I fighter pilot and ace (d.
Cecil Kellaway, South African character actor (d. 1973)
Henry "Son" Sims, American
Delta blues fiddler and songwriter (d.
August 24 – Duke Kahanamoku, American swimmer (d. 1968)
September 7 – Colonel Sanders, Founder of
KFC (d. 1980)
September 8 – Dorothy Price, Irish physician (d. 1954)
Elsa Schiaparelli, French couturiere (d. 1973)
Sir Mortimer Wheeler, British archaeologist (d. 1976)
Agatha Christie, English writer (d. 1976)
Frank Martin, Swiss composer (d. 1974)
Jelly Roll Morton, American jazz pianist, composer, and bandleader (d.
Rachel Bluwstein, Israeli poet (d. 1931)
September 21 – Max Immelmann, German
World War I
World War I fighter ace (d.
Kakuji Kakuta, Japanese admiral (d. 1944)
Friedrich Paulus, German field marshal (d. 1957)
September 24 – A. P. Herbert, English humorist, novelist, playwright
and law reform activist (d. 1971)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Charles de Gaulle
Hermann Joseph Muller
Katherine Corri Harris, American socialite and actress, first wife of
John Barrymore (d. 1927)
Stanley Holloway, English actor (d. 1982)
Alice Joyce, American silent film actress (d. 1955)
Blanche Oelrichs, American poet, second wife of
John Barrymore (d.
October 2 – Groucho Marx, American comedian (d. 1977)
Henrich Focke, German aviation pioneer (d. 1979)
Eddie Rickenbacker, race car driver and American
World War I
World War I fighter
pilot (d. 1973)
October 9 – Aimee Semple McPherson, Canadian-American Pentecostal
Evangelist (d. 1944)
October 13 – Conrad Richter, American novelist and short story
writer (d. 1968)
October 14 – Dwight D. Eisenhower, U.S. general and 34th President
of the United States (d. 1969)
Michael Collins, Irish patriot (d. 1922)
Paul Strand, American photographer (d. 1976)
October 17 – Roy Kilner, English cricketer (d. 1928)
October 20 – Sherman Minton, American politician and Associate
Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1965)
October 23 – Abdul Hamid Karami, 16th Prime Minister of Lebanon (d.
October 25 – Floyd Bennett, American aviator and explorer (d. 1928)
October 26 – John Aae, Norwegian politician (d. 1968)
October 29 – Hans-Valentin Hube, German army general (d. 1944)
Tomitarō Horii, Japanese general (d. 1942)
Jan Matulka, American painter (d. 1972)
November 8 – Conrad Weygand, German chemist (d. 1945)
November 16 – Elpidio Quirino, 6th
President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines (d.
November 20 – Leon Cadore, American baseball pitcher (d. 1968)
November 22 – Charles de Gaulle,
President of France
President of France (d. 1970)
November 23 – El Lissitzky, Russian artist and architect (d. 1941)
David Bomberg, English painter (d. 1957)
Fritz Lang, German-Austrian filmmaker, screenwriter, and actor (d.
December 6 – Dion Fortune, British occultist (d. 1946)
December 8 – Bohuslav Martinů, Czech composer (d. 1959)
László Bárdossy, 33rd Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1946)
Henry Louis Larsen, American Marine Corps General; Governor of
American Samoa and
Governor of Guam
Governor of Guam (d. 1962)
December 11 – Carlos Gardel,
Argentine tango singer (d. 1935)
December 12– Charles Basil Price, Canadian soldier and politician
December 20 – Jaroslav Heyrovský, Czech chemist, Nobel Prize
laureate (d. 1967)
December 21 – Hermann Joseph Muller, American geneticist, recipient
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1967)
December 25 – Robert Ripley, American collector of odd facts (d.
Uncle Charlie Osborne, Appalachian fiddler (d. 1992)
Konstantinos Georgakopoulos, Greek lawyer and professor, 152nd Prime
Minister of Greece (b. 1973)
Lanoe Hawker, British fighter pilot (d. 1916)
Adolfo Ruiz Cortines, 47th President of Mexico (d. 1973)
Hatı Çırpan, Turkish politician (d. 1956)
Saadi Al Munla, 17th Prime Minister of Lebanon (d. 1975)
Lydia Zvereva, first Russian woman to earn a pilot's license (d. 1916)
January 7 – Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Empress Consort of
William I, German Emperor
William I, German Emperor (b. 1811)
January 18 – King Amadeus I of Spain (b. 1845)
February 18 – Gyula Andrássy, 4th Prime Minister of Hungary (b.
John Jacob Astor III, American businessman (b. 1822)
Carl Heinrich Bloch, Danish painter (b. 1834)
March 3 – Innocenzo da Berzo, Capuchin friar (b. 1844)
March 7 – Karl Rudolf Friedenthal, Prussian statesman (b. 1827)
March 9 – Sir Mangaldas Nathubhoy, Indian politician (b. 1832)
March 16 –
Princess Zorka of Montenegro
Princess Zorka of Montenegro (b. 1864)
David Wilber, American politician (b. 1820)
Alexander Mozhaysky, Russian aeronautical pioneer (b. 1825)
David de Jahacob Lopez Cardozo, Dutch Talmudist (b. 1808)
Joseph Merrick (The Elephant Man), English oddity (b. 1862)
April 19 – James Pollock, American politician (b. 1810)
June 24 – Subba Row, Hindu theosophist (b. 1856)
June 30 – Samuel Parkman Tuckerman, American composer (b. 1819)
John Boyle O'Reilly
William III of the Netherlands
July 7 – Henri Nestlé, Swiss confectioner and the founder of
Nestlé (b. 1814)
July 9 – Clinton B. Fisk, American philanthropist and temperance
activist (b. 1828)
John C. Frémont, American explorer and military officer (b. 1813)
Johann Voldemar Jannsen, Estonian journalist and poet (b. 1819)
July 15 – Gottfried Keller, Swiss writer (b. 1819)
July 29 – Vincent van Gogh, Dutch painter (b. 1853)
August 6 – William Kemmler, American murderer, first person executed
in the electric chair (b. 1860)
August 10 – John Boyle O'Reilly, Irish-born poet, journalist and
fiction writer (b. 1844)
August 11 – John Henry Newman, English
Roman Catholic Cardinal (b.
October 4 – Catherine Booth, Mother of
The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army (b. 1829)
October 20 – Richard Francis Burton, English explorer, linguist,
soldier (b. 1820)
October 26 – Carlo Collodi, Italian writer (The Adventures of
Pinocchio) (b. 1826)
November 3 – Ulrich Ochsenbein, member of the Swiss Federal Council
November 4 – Félix du Temple de la Croix, French Army Captain &
aviation pioneer (b. 1823)
November 7 – Comanche, American horse, survivor of Custer's cavalry
at the Battle of the Little Bighorn
November 8 – César Franck, Belgian composer and organist (b. 1822)
November 11 – Marie-Charles David de Mayréna, French adventurer and
self-styled King of Sedang (b. 1842)
November 23 – King
William III of the Netherlands
William III of the Netherlands (b. 1817)
November 24 –
August Belmont, Sr., Prussian-born financier (b. 1816)
December 15 – Sitting Bull, Native American chief (b. c. 1831)
December 21 – Johanne Luise Heiberg, Danish actress (b. 1812)
December 26 – Heinrich Schliemann, German archaeologist (b. 1822)
December 31 – Pancha Carrasco, Costa Rican war heroine (b. 1826)
Ann Leah Underhill, one of the Fox sisters, American fraudulent medium
^ a b c "Full List of Thunder Bay Region Shipwrecks (by name)". MSU
Sea Grant Extension, Northeast District,
Michigan State University.
^ a b c d "Many Great Liners Paid Toll Of The Sea; Republic Was First
to Utilize the Wireless in Calls for Aid". The New York Times. 16
April 1912. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
^ "This Day in History: 1890". History.com. A&E Television
Networks. Archived from the original on February 9, 2010. Retrieved
^ "A Steamer and 400 Lives Lost". Otago Times. 17 January 1890.
^ The South African Railways - Historical Survey. Editor George Hart,
Publisher Bill Hart, Sponsored by Dorbyl Ltd., Published c. 1978.
^ Statement Showing, in Chronological Order, the Date of Opening and
the Mileage of Each Section of Railway, Statement No. 19, p. 182, ref.
^ Hermann, Christoph: Capitalism and the Political Economy of Work
Time, pp. 113
^ "Dixon, George (Little Chocolate)". Dictionary of Canadian Biography
Online. University of Toronto; Université Laval. 2000. Retrieved
^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History.
London: Century Ltd. pp. 317–318.
^ The Daily News (London). "lime, n2". Oxford English Dictionary
online version. Oxford University Press. September 2011. Retrieved
2011-11-15. (subscription or UK public library membership
^ "History of UNT 125th Anniversary". 125.unt.edu. Retrieved
^ Crouch, Tom D. "Clément Ader". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved
^ Gray, Carroll (1998–2003). "Clement Ader 1841–1925". Flying
Machines. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
^ Gibbs-Smith, Charles H. (1959). "Hops and Flights: A Roll Call of
Early Powered Take-offs". Flight. 75: 468. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
^ "Read And Others V. The Lord Bishop Of Lincoln: Court Of The
Archbishop Of Canterbury, Lambeth Palace, Nov. 21".
The Times (33176).
London. 1890-11-22. p. 4.
^ Two Hundred Drowned - Panic among the Chinese on the burned steamer
^ Galton, Francis (1891). "The Patterns in Thumb and Finger Marks –
On Their Arrangement into Naturally Distinct Classes, the Permanence
of the Papillary Ridges that Make Them, and the Resemblance of Their
Classes to Ordinary Genera". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B. 182: 1–23. doi:10.1098/rstb.1891.0001.
^ "Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa". World Digital Library.
1908. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
Further reading and year books
1890 Annual Cyclopedia online; highly detailed coverage of "Political,
Military, and Ecclesiastical Affairs; Public Documents; Biography,
Statistics, Commerce, Finance, Literature, Science, Agriculture, and
Mechanical Industry" (1891); compilation of facts and primary