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1870
1870
(MDCCCLXX ) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar , the 1870th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 870th year of the 2nd millennium , the 70th year of the 19th century , and the 1st year of the 1870s decade. As of the start of 1870, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

CONTENTS

* 1 Events

* 1.1 January–March * 1.2 April–June * 1.3 July–September * 1.4 October–December * 1.5 Date unknown

* 2 Births

* 2.1 January–June * 2.2 July–December * 2.3 Date unknown

* 3 Deaths

* 3.1 January–June * 3.2 July–December

* 4 References * 5 External links

EVENTS

JANUARY–MARCH

* January 1

* The first edition of The Northern Echo newspaper is published in Priestgate, Darlington
Darlington
, England. * Plans for the Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge
are completed.

* January 3 – Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge
begins. * January 6 – The Musikverein , Vienna, is inaugurated in Austria-Hungary . * January 10 John D. Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil
Standard Oil
. * January 15 – A political cartoon for the first time symbolizes the United States Democratic Party with a donkey ("A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion" by Thomas Nast
Thomas Nast
for Harper\'s Weekly ). * January 20 SS City of Boston vanishes at sea with all 177 aboard. * January 23 – U.S soldiers attack a peaceful camp of Piegan Blackfeet Indians led by chief Heavy Runner in the Marias Massacre . * January 26 Reconstruction Era (United States): Virginia rejoins the Union. * February – Denis Vrain-Lucas is sentenced to 2 years in prison for multiple forgery in Paris. * February 1 Goodna State School in Goodna, Queensland
Goodna, Queensland
, Australia is founded. * February 2 – It is revealed that the famed Cardiff Giant
Cardiff Giant
in the U.S. is just carved gypsum and not the petrified remains of a human . * February 3 – The 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution , guaranteeing African-Americans the right to vote, is passed. * February 9 – The U.S. Army Weather Bureau (within the Army Signal Corps ) is created.

* February 10

* Anaheim, California
Anaheim, California
is incorporated. * The YWCA is founded in New York City.

* February 12 – Women gain the right to vote in Utah Territory . * February 23 – Military control of Mississippi
Mississippi
ends and it is readmitted to the Union. * February 25 Hiram Rhodes Revels
Hiram Rhodes Revels
, a Republican from Mississippi
Mississippi
, is sworn into the United States Senate , becoming the first African American ever to sit in the U.S. Congress . * February 26 – In New York City, the first pneumatic subway is opened, Beach Pneumatic
Pneumatic
Transit . * February 26 – The German Commerzbank
Commerzbank
is founded in Hamburg
Hamburg
. * February 27 – The "circle of the sun" flag of Japan is adopted as the national flag for Japanese merchant ships by proclamation of the Daijō-kan
Daijō-kan
. * February 28 – The Bulgarian Exarchate is established by decree of Sultan Abdülaziz
Abdülaziz
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. * March – The Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
company is established in Japan as a shipping firm by Iwasaki Yatarō
Iwasaki Yatarō
with Thomas Blake Glover
Thomas Blake Glover
. * March 1 – Marshal Francisco Solano López
Francisco Solano López
's last troops are cornered by those of the Triple Alliance at the Battle of Cerro Corá in Paraguay
Paraguay
. López refuses to surrender and is killed, ending the Paraguayan War . * March 4 – Thomas Scott is executed by Louis Riel
Louis Riel
's provisional government during the Red River Rebellion in modern-day Manitoba
Manitoba
, Canada. * March 5 – First ever international Association football match, England v Scotland , takes place under the auspices of the Football Association at The Oval , London. * March 10 – The Deutsche Bank is founded in Berlin. * March 19 – The Ohio Legislature passes the Cannon Act, thereby establishing the Ohio Agriculture and Mechanical College, later Ohio State University . * March 24 Syracuse University is established and officially opens.

* March 30

* The 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution , giving blacks the right to vote, is ratified. * Texas
Texas
is readmitted to the Union following Reconstruction .

* March 31 Thomas Mundy Peterson is the first African-American to vote in an election.

APRIL–JUNE

* April 27 Antonio Guzmán Blanco
Antonio Guzmán Blanco
begins his first term as President of Venezuela . * April 29 – The Chicago Base Ball Club, later to be known as the Chicago White Stockings and ultimately the Chicago Cubs , play their first game against the St. Louis Unions of the National Association of Base Ball Players , an amateur league.

* May 12

* The Canadian province of Manitoba
Manitoba
is created in response to Louis Riel 's Red River Rebellion . * The Port Adelaide Football Club is founded. The club plays its first match of Australian rules football at Buck's Flat, Glanville Estate, South Australia on May 24.

* May 14 – The first rugby match is played in New Zealand, between the Nelson Football Club and Nelson College . * May 20 Charles Craufurd Hay
Charles Craufurd Hay
becomes acting Governor of the Cape of Good Hope and High Commissioner for Southern Africa . * June 9 – Death of English novelist Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
at Gads Hill Place in Kent
Kent
, leaving his last book The Mystery of Edwin Drood , unfinished.

* June 22

* The office of the Solicitor General of the United States is set up to supervise and conduct government litigation in the United States Supreme Court . * The U.S. Congress creates the United States Department of Justice .

* June 26

* Christmas
Christmas
is declared a federal holiday in the United States. * Richard Wagner 's opera Die Walküre
Die Walküre
is first performed at Munich 's National Theatre .

JULY–SEPTEMBER

* July 13 – The Ems Dispatch serves as a reason for a war between Prussia
Prussia
and France.

* July 15

* Reconstruction Era : Georgia becomes the last former Confederate state to be readmitted to the Union. * The British government admits the former Hudson\'s Bay Company territory of Rupert\'s Land and the North-Western Territory to the Dominion of Canada.

* July 18 Pastor aeternus : Pope Pius IX declares papal infallibility in matters of faith and morals. * July 19 Franco-Prussian War : France declares war on Prussia
Prussia
. * July 30 – The Klipdrift Republic is proclaimed in South Africa by diamond miners, with Stafford Parker as President. * August 2 – Official opening of the Tower Subway
Tower Subway
beneath the River Thames
River Thames
in London, the world's first underground passenger "tube" railway. Although this lasts as a railway operation only until November, it demonstrates the technologically successful first use of the cylindrical wrought iron tunnelling shield devised by Peter W. Barlow and James Henry Greathead
James Henry Greathead
and of a permanent tunnel lining of cast iron segments. * August 8 – The Republic of Ploiești , an uprising against Domnitor Carol of Romania
Romania
, fails. * August 24 – The Red River Rebellion ends with the arrival of the Wolseley Expedition
Wolseley Expedition
and the fleeing of Louis Riel
Louis Riel
. * September 2 Franco-Prussian War Battle of Sedan : Prussian forces defeat the French armies and take emperor Napoleon III and 100,000 of his soldiers prisoner at Sedan . * September 4 – Emperor Napoleon III of France is deposed and the Third Republic is declared. Empress Eugénie
Empress Eugénie
flees to England with her children. * September 6 – Louisa Ann Swain of Laramie, Wyoming, becomes the first woman in the United States to cast a vote legally since 1807
1807
. * September 18 Old Faithful Geyser
Old Faithful Geyser
is observed and named by Henry D. Washburn during the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition to Yellowstone
Yellowstone
. * September 19 – The Siege of Paris in the Franco-Prussian War begins. * September 20 – With Bersaglieri soldiers entering Rome at Porta Pia , the unification of Italy is completed, ending the last remnant of the Papal States and the Papal temporal power .

OCTOBER–DECEMBER

* October 2 – A plebiscite held in Rome supports, by 133,681 votes to 1,507, the annexation of the city by Italy. * October 6 – Rome becomes the capital of unified Italy . * October 8 Léon Gambetta escapes the besieged Paris in a hot-air balloon . * October 20 First Vatican Council
First Vatican Council
adjourned. * October 27 Franco-Prussian War : Marshal François Achille Bazaine , commanding the French left wing, is forced by starvation to surrender the fortifications of Metz , ending the Siege of Metz . * November 1 – In the United States, the newly created Weather Bureau (later renamed the National Weather Service ) makes its first official meteorological forecast: "High winds at Chicago and Milwaukee... and along the Lakes". * November 12 – German company Dresdner Bank is founded. * November 16 – The Spanish Cortes Generales proclaims Amadeo de Saboya as King Amadeus I of Spain . * December 30 Juan Prim , prime minister of Spain, is assassinated.

* December 31

* Sir Henry Barkly
Henry Barkly
is appointed Governor of the Cape of Good Hope and High Commissioner for Southern Africa . * The 12.8-km Fréjus Rail Tunnel through the Alps
Alps
is completed.

DATE UNKNOWN

* Infanticide is banned in India. * Just one of the 916 members of the Indian Civil Service
Indian Civil Service
is Indian. * David Kenyon invents the fireman\'s pole in Chicago. * Graeter\'s ice cream is originated in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
.

BIRTHS

JANUARY–JUNE

Ernst Barlach Gustav Bauer
Gustav Bauer
Franz Lehár
Franz Lehár

* January 1 Hermann Theodor Simon , German physicist (d. 1918
1918
) * January 2 Ernst Barlach , German sculptor, graphic artist and poet (d. 1938
1938
) * January 6 Gustav Bauer
Gustav Bauer
, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1944
1944
)

* January 8

* Walter Edwards , American film director (d. 1920
1920
) * Miguel Primo de Rivera , dictator of Spain (d. 1930
1930
)

* January 11 Alexander Stirling Calder , American sculptor (d. 1945
1945
) * January 20 Ajahn Mun Bhuridatta
Ajahn Mun Bhuridatta
, Thai Buddhist monk (d. 1949 ) * January 22 John B. Sheridan , Irish American sports journalist (d. 1930
1930
) * January 23 William G. Morgan , American inventor of volleyball (d. 1942
1942
) * February 7 Alfred Adler , Austrian psychologist (d. 1937
1937
)

* February 12

* Marie Lloyd , English singer (d. 1922
1922
) * Hugo Stinnes , German industrialist and politician (d. 1924
1924
)

* February 20 Jay Johnson Morrow , American military engineer and politician, 3rd Governor of the Panama Canal Zone (d. 1937
1937
) * February 25 Jelica Belović-Bernardzikowska , Croatian writer (d. 1946
1946
) * March 4 Thomas Sturge Moore , English poet, author and artist (d. 1944
1944
) * March 5 Frank Norris , American writer (d. 1902
1902
) * March 13 Seale Harris , American physician (d. 1957
1957
) * March 17 Horace Donisthorpe , English entomologist (d. 1951
1951
) * March 20 Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck , German general (d. 1964
1964
) * March 31 James M. Cox , Democratic candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920
1920
(d. 1957
1957
) * April 1 Hamaguchi Osachi , 27th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1931
1931
) * April 3 Agda Östlund , Swedish politician (d. 1942
1942
)

* April 4

* Curtis Hidden Page , New Hampshire politician and educator (d. 1946
1946
) * George Albert Smith , president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1951
1951
)

* April 7 Anna Lindhagen
Anna Lindhagen
, Swedish politician (d. 1941
1941
) * April 17 Ray Stannard Baker
Ray Stannard Baker
, American journalist and author (d. 1946
1946
) * April 22 Vladimir Lenin , Russian revolutionary and first Premier of the Soviet Union (d. 1924
1924
) * April 21 Edwin S. Porter
Edwin S. Porter
, American film director (d. 1941
1941
) * April 30 Franz Lehár
Franz Lehár
, Austrian composer (d. 1948
1948
) * May 4 Antonius van den Broek , Dutch physicist (d. 1926
1926
) * May 9 Harry Vardon
Harry Vardon
, English golf professional (d. 1937
1937
) * May 19 Albert Fish , American serial killer (d. 1936
1936
)

* May 24

* Benjamin N. Cardozo
Benjamin N. Cardozo
, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1938
1938
) * Jan Smuts , South African soldier and statesman (d. 1950
1950
)

* May 27 Anna Stecksén , Swedish scientist, physician and pathologist (d. 1904) * June 13 Jules Bordet , Belgian immunologist and microbiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1961
1961
) * June 20 Georges Dufrénoy , French post-impressionnist painter (d. 1943
1943
)

JULY–DECEMBER

Maria Montessori Georges Claude
Georges Claude

* July 3 – Richard Bedford Bennett , eleventh Prime Minister of Canada (d. 1947
1947
) * July 9 Mathew Beard , American supercentenarian (d. 1985
1985
) * July 12 Louis II, Prince of Monaco
Louis II, Prince of Monaco
(d. 1949
1949
) * July 16 Lambert McKenna , Irish scholar (d. 1956
1956
) * July 25 Maxfield Parrish
Maxfield Parrish
, American illustrator (d. 1966
1966
) * July 27 Hilaire Belloc , French/English man of letters (d. 1953
1953
) * July 29 – George Dixon , Canadian boxer (d. 1909
1909
) * August 3 Carrie Ingalls
Carrie Ingalls
, younger sister of author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. 1946
1946
) * August 4 Harry Lauder
Harry Lauder
, Scottish entertainer (d. 1950
1950
) * August 10 Hans Zenker , German admiral (d. 1932
1932
) * August 11 – Tom Richardson , English cricketer (d. 1912
1912
) * August 12 Hubert Gough , British general (d. 1963
1963
) * August 14 Nelson McDowell , American actor (d. 1947
1947
) * August 20 Edward Stanley Kellogg
Edward Stanley Kellogg
, 16th Governor of American Samoa (d. 1948
1948
) * August 22 Bertram Fletcher Robinson , journalist, editor and author (d. 1907
1907
) * August 31 Maria Montessori , Italian educator (d. 1952
1952
) * September 1 Leopold Wharton , American film director (d. 1927 ) * September 2 James Bert Garner , American chemical engineer and inventor (d. 1960
1960
) * September 24 Georges Claude
Georges Claude
, French engineer and inventor (d. 1960
1960
) * September 25 James A. Hawken , American schoolteacher (d. 1964 ) * September 26 – King Christian X of Denmark
Christian X of Denmark
(d. 1947
1947
)

* September 30

* Jean Baptiste Perrin , French physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1942
1942
) * Thomas W. Lamont , American banker, (d. 1948
1948
)

* October 2 Horace Hood , British admiral (d. 1916
1916
) * October 4 Karl Renner , 1st Chancellor of Austria (d. 1950
1950
) * October 10 Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin
Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin
, Russian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1953
1953
) * October 18 D. T. Suzuki , Japanese philosopher (d. 1966
1966
) * October 22 Johan Ludwig Mowinckel
Johan Ludwig Mowinckel
, Norwegian businessman and Prime Minister of Norway (d. 1943
1943
) * October 30 Lawrence Grant , English actor (d. 1952
1952
) * November 2 Joseph "Sport" Sullivan , American gambler (d. 1949 ) * November 17 – Jean Prévost , Canadian politician (d. 1915
1915
) * November 21 Sigfrid Edström
Sigfrid Edström
, Swedish sports official (d. 1964
1964
) * November 27 Juho Kusti Paasikivi , Prime Minister and President of Finland (d. 1956
1956
) * November 28 Gustavus M. Blech , German-American physician and surgeon (d. 1949
1949
) * November 29 Trixie Friganza , American actress (d. 1955
1955
) * December 5 Vítězslav Novák , Czech composer (d. 1949
1949
) * December 10 Mary Bonaparte , pretender to the French imperial throne (d. 1947
1947
) * December 12 Walter Benona Sharp , American oil pioneer (d. 1912
1912
)

* December 14

* Dirk Jan de Geer
Dirk Jan de Geer
, Prime Minister of the Netherlands (d. 1960
1960
) * Karl Renner , 4th President of Austria (d. 1950
1950
)

* December 18 Saki , English writer (k. 1916
1916
)

DATE UNKNOWN

* Hulburd Steel , New York City marine artist

DEATHS

JANUARY–JUNE

Francisco Solano López
Francisco Solano López
Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens

* January 25 – Victor de Broglie , Prime Minister of France (b. 1785 ) * January 29 Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany
(b. 1797
1797
) * February 7 Sylvain Salnave
Sylvain Salnave
, Haitian general and 9th President of Haiti (b. 1827 ) * February 11 Carlos Soublette
Carlos Soublette
, 2-Time President of Venezuela (b. 1789
1789
) * February 19 Nathaniel de Rothschild
Nathaniel de Rothschild
, French wine grower (b. 1812
1812
) * March 1 Francisco Solano López
Francisco Solano López
, 2nd President of Paraguay (killed in action) (b. 1827 ) * March 4 – Thomas Scott , Orangeman and surveyor of the Red River Rebellion (shot by Louis Riel
Louis Riel
and the Métis) (b. c. 1842
1842
) * March 11 Moshoeshoe I of Lesotho
Lesotho
(b. 1786
1786
?) * March 28 George Henry Thomas
George Henry Thomas
, American general (b. 1816 ) * April 16 Domnița Rallou Caragea , Greek princess and independence activist (b. 1799
1799
) * May 6 – Sir James Young Simpson , Scottish physician and researcher (b. 1811
1811
) * June 6 Ferdinand von Wrangel
Ferdinand von Wrangel
, Baltic German explorer (b. 1796 / 1797
1797
) * June 7 Friedrich Hohe
Friedrich Hohe
, German lithographer and painter (b. 1802
1802
) * June 9 Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
, British novelist (b. 1812
1812
) * June 20 Jules de Goncourt , French writer and publisher (b. 1830
1830
) * June 24 Adam Lindsay Gordon
Adam Lindsay Gordon
, Australian poet (b. 1833
1833
)

JULY–DECEMBER

Alexandre Dumas, père
Alexandre Dumas, père

* July 10 Pelaghia Roșu , Romanian heroine (b. 1800
1800
) * August 14 David Farragut , American admiral (b. 1801
1801
) * August 17 Pedro Figueredo , Cuban poet, musician and freedom fighter (b. 1818
1818
) * September 4 Juan Javier Espinosa
Juan Javier Espinosa
, 9th President of Ecuador (b. 1815
1815
) * September 12 Fitz Hugh Ludlow
Fitz Hugh Ludlow
, American author and explorer (b. 1836
1836
) * September 23 Prosper Mérimée
Prosper Mérimée
, French writer (b. 1803
1803
) * September 27 William F. Packer
William F. Packer
, American politician (b. 1807 )

* October 12

* Stephen Greenleaf Bulfinch , American minister and hymn writer (b. 1809 ) * Robert E. Lee , Confederate general (b. 1807
1807
)

* November 3 Diego Noboa
Diego Noboa
, 4th President of Ecuador (b. 1789
1789
) * November 23 Giuseppina Bozzacchi
Giuseppina Bozzacchi
, Milanese-born ballerina (b. 1853
1853
) (result of deprivation during Siege of Paris ) * November 24 Comte de Lautréamont , French poet and writer (b. 1846
1846
) * November 26 Franz Graf von Wimpffen , Austrian general and admiral (b. 1797
1797
) * November 28 Frédéric Bazille , French painter (b. 1841
1841
) * December 5 Alexandre Dumas, père
Alexandre Dumas, père
, French author (b. 1802
1802
) * December 9 Patrick MacDowell , Northern Irish sculptor (b. 1799
1799
) * December 27 Juan Prim , Spanish general and prime minister (assassinated) (b. 1814
1814
)

REFERENCES

* ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0 . * ^ Smith, Denis (2001). Civil Engineering Heritage: London and the Thames Valley. Thomas Telford. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0-7277-2876-8 . * ^ West, Graham (2005). Innovation and the Rise of the Tunnelling Industry. Cambridge University Press. pp. 116–118. ISBN 0-521-33512-4 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* "1870". Timeline. USA: Digital Public Library of America
Digital Public Libra