1870 (MDCCCLXX ) was a common year starting on Saturday of the
Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday (dominical
letter D) of the
Julian calendar , the 1870th year of the Common Era
(CE) and _
Anno Domini _ (AD) designations, the 870th year of the 2nd
millennium , the 70th year of the
19th century , and the 1st year of
1870s decade. As of the start of 1870, the
Gregorian calendar was
12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use
* 1 Events
* 1.1 January–March
* 1.2 April–June
* 1.3 July–September
* 1.4 October–December
* 1.5 Date unknown
* 2 Births
* 2.1 January–June
* 2.2 July–December
* 2.3 Date unknown
* 3 Deaths
* 3.1 January–June
* 3.2 July–December
* 4 References
* 5 External links
* The first edition of _
The Northern Echo _ newspaper is published
Darlington , England.
* Plans for the
Brooklyn Bridge are completed.
January 3 – Construction of the
Brooklyn Bridge begins.
January 6 – The
Musikverein , Vienna, is inaugurated in
January 10 –
John D. Rockefeller incorporates
Standard Oil .
January 15 – A political cartoon for the first time symbolizes
United States Democratic Party with a donkey ("A Live Jackass
Kicking a Dead Lion" by
Thomas Nast for _Harper\'s Weekly _).
January 20 – SS _City of Boston_ vanishes at sea with all 177
January 23 – U.S soldiers attack a peaceful camp of Piegan
Blackfeet Indians led by chief Heavy Runner in the
Marias Massacre .
January 26 –
Reconstruction Era (United States): Virginia
rejoins the Union.
* February –
Denis Vrain-Lucas is sentenced to 2 years in prison
for multiple forgery in Paris.
February 1 –
Goodna State School in
Goodna, Queensland ,
Australia is founded.
February 2 – It is revealed that the famed
Cardiff Giant in the
U.S. is just carved gypsum and not the petrified remains of a human .
February 3 – The 15th Amendment to the United States
Constitution , guaranteeing African-Americans the right to vote, is
February 9 – The U.S. Army
Weather Bureau (within the Army
Signal Corps ) is created.
Anaheim, California is incorporated.
YWCA is founded in New York City.
February 12 – Women gain the right to vote in
Utah Territory .
February 23 – Military control of
Mississippi ends and it is
readmitted to the Union.
February 25 –
Hiram Rhodes Revels , a Republican from
Mississippi , is sworn into the
United States Senate , becoming the
African American ever to sit in the
U.S. Congress .
February 26 – In New York City, the first pneumatic subway is
Pneumatic Transit .
February 26 – The German
Commerzbank is founded in
February 27 – The "circle of the sun" flag of Japan is adopted
as the national flag for Japanese merchant ships by proclamation of
February 28 – The
Bulgarian Exarchate is established by decree
Abdülaziz of the
Ottoman Empire .
* March – The
Mitsubishi company is established in Japan as a
shipping firm by
Iwasaki Yatarō with
Thomas Blake Glover .
March 1 – Marshal
Francisco Solano López 's last troops are
cornered by those of the Triple Alliance at the Battle of Cerro Corá
Paraguay . López refuses to surrender and is killed, ending the
Paraguayan War .
March 4 – Thomas Scott is executed by
Louis Riel 's provisional
government during the
Red River Rebellion in modern-day
March 5 – First ever international
Association football match,
England v Scotland , takes place under the auspices of the Football
The Oval , London.
March 10 – The
Deutsche Bank is founded in Berlin.
March 19 – The Ohio Legislature passes the Cannon Act, thereby
establishing the Ohio Agriculture and Mechanical College, later Ohio
State University .
March 24 –
Syracuse University is established and officially
15th Amendment to the United States Constitution , giving
blacks the right to vote, is ratified.
Texas is readmitted to the Union following Reconstruction .
March 31 –
Thomas Mundy Peterson is the first African-American
to vote in an election.
April 27 –
Antonio Guzmán Blanco begins his first term as
President of Venezuela .
April 29 – The Chicago Base Ball Club, later to be known as the
Chicago White Stockings and ultimately the
Chicago Cubs , play their
first game against the St. Louis Unions of the National Association of
Base Ball Players , an amateur league.
* The Canadian province of
Manitoba is created in response to Louis
Red River Rebellion .
Port Adelaide Football Club is founded. The club plays its
first match of
Australian rules football at Buck's Flat, Glanville
South Australia on May 24.
May 14 – The first rugby match is played in New Zealand,
between the Nelson Football Club and
Nelson College .
May 20 –
Charles Craufurd Hay becomes acting Governor of the
Cape of Good Hope and
High Commissioner for Southern Africa .
June 9 – Death of English novelist
Charles Dickens at Gads Hill
Kent , leaving his last book _
The Mystery of Edwin Drood _,
* The office of the
Solicitor General of the United States is set up
to supervise and conduct government litigation in the United States
Supreme Court .
U.S. Congress creates the United States Department of Justice
Christmas is declared a federal holiday in the United States.
Richard Wagner 's opera _
Die Walküre _ is first performed at
Munich 's National Theatre .
July 13 – The _
Ems Dispatch _ serves as a reason for a war
Prussia and France.
Reconstruction Era : Georgia becomes the last former Confederate
state to be readmitted to the Union.
* The British government admits the former Hudson\'s Bay Company
territory of Rupert\'s Land and the
North-Western Territory to the
Dominion of Canada.
July 18 – _
Pastor aeternus _:
Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX declares papal
infallibility in matters of faith and morals.
July 19 –
Franco-Prussian War : France declares war on
July 30 – The Klipdrift Republic is proclaimed in South Africa
by diamond miners, with
Stafford Parker as President.
August 2 – Official opening of the
Tower Subway beneath the
River Thames in London, the world's first underground passenger "tube"
railway. Although this lasts as a railway operation only until
November, it demonstrates the technologically successful first use of
the cylindrical wrought iron tunnelling shield devised by Peter W.
James Henry Greathead and of a permanent tunnel lining of
cast iron segments.
August 8 – The _
Republic of Ploiești _, an uprising against
Domnitor Carol of
Romania , fails.
August 24 – The
Red River Rebellion ends with the arrival of the
Wolseley Expedition and the fleeing of
Louis Riel .
September 2 –
Franco-Prussian War –
Battle of Sedan : Prussian
forces defeat the French armies and take emperor
Napoleon III and
100,000 of his soldiers prisoner at Sedan .
September 4 – Emperor
Napoleon III of France is deposed and the
Third Republic is declared.
Empress Eugénie flees to England with her
September 6 – Louisa Ann Swain of Laramie, Wyoming, becomes the
first woman in the United States to cast a vote legally since
September 18 –
Old Faithful Geyser is observed and named by
Henry D. Washburn during the
Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition to
September 19 – The Siege of Paris in the Franco-Prussian War
September 20 – With _
Bersaglieri _ soldiers entering Rome at
Porta Pia , the unification of Italy is completed, ending the last
remnant of the
Papal States and the Papal temporal power .
October 2 – A plebiscite held in Rome supports, by 133,681 votes
to 1,507, the annexation of the city by Italy.
October 6 – Rome becomes the capital of unified Italy .
October 8 –
Léon Gambetta escapes the besieged Paris in a
hot-air balloon .
October 20 –
First Vatican Council adjourned.
October 27 –
Franco-Prussian War : Marshal François Achille
Bazaine , commanding the French left wing, is forced by starvation to
surrender the fortifications of Metz , ending the Siege of Metz .
November 1 – In the United States, the newly created Weather
Bureau (later renamed the
National Weather Service ) makes its first
official meteorological forecast: "High winds at Chicago and
Milwaukee... and along the Lakes".
November 12 – German company
Dresdner Bank is founded.
November 16 – The Spanish
Cortes Generales proclaims Amadeo de
Saboya as King
Amadeus I of Spain .
December 30 –
Juan Prim , prime minister of Spain, is
Henry Barkly is appointed Governor of the Cape of Good Hope
High Commissioner for Southern Africa .
* The 12.8-km
Fréjus Rail Tunnel through the
Alps is completed.
Infanticide is banned in India.
* Just one of the 916 members of the
Indian Civil Service is Indian.
* David Kenyon invents the fireman\'s pole in Chicago.
* Graeter\'s ice cream is originated in
January 1 –
Hermann Theodor Simon , German physicist (d.
January 2 –
Ernst Barlach , German sculptor, graphic artist and
January 6 –
Gustav Bauer , Chancellor of Germany (d.
January 8 –
Miguel Primo de Rivera , dictator of Spain (d. 1930
January 11 –
Alexander Stirling Calder , American sculptor (d.
January 20 –
Ajahn Mun Bhuridatta , Thai Buddhist monk (d. 1949
January 22 –
John B. Sheridan , Irish American sports journalist
January 23 –
William G. Morgan , American inventor of volleyball
February 7 –
Alfred Adler , Austrian psychologist (d.
Marie Lloyd , English singer (d.
Hugo Stinnes , German industrialist and politician (d.
February 20 –
Jay Johnson Morrow , American military engineer
and politician, 3rd
Governor of the Panama Canal Zone (d.
February 25 –
Jelica Belović-Bernardzikowska , Croatian writer
March 4 –
Thomas Sturge Moore , English poet, author and artist
March 5 –
Frank Norris , American writer (d.
March 13 –
Seale Harris , American physician (d.
March 17 –
Horace Donisthorpe , English entomologist (d.
March 20 –
Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck , German general (d.
March 31 –
James M. Cox , Democratic candidate for President of
the United States in the election of 1920 (d.
April 1 –
Hamaguchi Osachi , 27th
Prime Minister of Japan (d.
April 3 –
Agda Östlund , Swedish politician (d.
Curtis Hidden Page , New Hampshire politician and educator (d.
George Albert Smith , president of The Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints (d.
April 7 –
Anna Lindhagen , Swedish politician (d.
April 17 –
Ray Stannard Baker , American journalist and author
April 22 –
Vladimir Lenin , Russian revolutionary and first
Premier of the Soviet Union (d.
April 30 –
Franz Lehár , Austrian composer (d.
May 4 –
Antonius van den Broek , Dutch physicist (d.
May 9 –
Harry Vardon , English golf professional (d.
May 19 –
Albert Fish , American serial killer (d.
Benjamin N. Cardozo , Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of
the United States (d.
Jan Smuts , South African soldier and statesman (d.
May 27 –
Anna Stecksén , Swedish scientist, physician and
pathologist (d. 1904)
June 13 –
Jules Bordet , Belgian immunologist and
microbiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
June 20 –
Georges Dufrénoy , French post-impressionnist painter
July 3 – Richard Bedford Bennett , eleventh Prime Minister of
July 9 –
Mathew Beard , American supercentenarian (d.
July 12 –
Louis II, Prince of Monaco
Louis II, Prince of Monaco (d.
July 16 –
Lambert McKenna , Irish scholar (d.
July 25 –
Maxfield Parrish , American illustrator (d.
July 27 –
Hilaire Belloc , French/English man of letters (d.
July 29 – George Dixon , Canadian boxer (d.
August 3 –
Carrie Ingalls , younger sister of author Laura
Ingalls Wilder (d.
August 4 –
Harry Lauder , Scottish entertainer (d.
August 11 – Tom Richardson , English cricketer (d.
August 12 –
Hubert Gough , British general (d.
August 14 –
Nelson McDowell , American actor (d.
August 20 –
Edward Stanley Kellogg , 16th Governor of American
August 22 –
Bertram Fletcher Robinson , journalist, editor and
August 31 –
Maria Montessori , Italian educator (d.
September 2 –
James Bert Garner , American chemical engineer and
September 24 –
Georges Claude , French engineer and inventor (d.
September 25 –
James A. Hawken , American schoolteacher (d. 1964
September 26 – King
Christian X of Denmark (d.
Jean Baptiste Perrin , French physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d.
Thomas W. Lamont , American banker, (d.
October 2 –
Horace Hood , British admiral (d.
October 4 –
Karl Renner , 1st Chancellor of Austria (d.
October 10 –
Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin , Russian writer, Nobel
Prize laureate (d.
October 18 –
D. T. Suzuki , Japanese philosopher (d.
October 22 –
Johan Ludwig Mowinckel , Norwegian businessman and
Prime Minister of Norway (d.
October 30 –
Lawrence Grant , English actor (d.
November 2 –
Joseph "Sport" Sullivan , American gambler (d. 1949
November 17 – Jean Prévost , Canadian politician (d.
November 21 –
Sigfrid Edström , Swedish sports official (d.
November 27 –
Juho Kusti Paasikivi , Prime Minister and
President of Finland (d.
November 28 –
Gustavus M. Blech , German-American physician and
November 29 –
Trixie Friganza , American actress (d.
December 5 –
Vítězslav Novák , Czech composer (d.
December 10 –
Mary Bonaparte , pretender to the French imperial
December 12 –
Walter Benona Sharp , American oil pioneer (d.
December 14 –
Dirk Jan de Geer , Prime Minister of the
December 18 –
Saki , English writer (k.
Hulburd Steel , New York City marine artist
Francisco Solano López
January 29 –
Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b.
February 7 –
Sylvain Salnave , Haitian general and 9th President
of Haiti (b.
February 19 –
Nathaniel de Rothschild , French wine grower (b.
March 1 –
Francisco Solano López , 2nd President of Paraguay
(killed in action) (b.
March 4 – Thomas Scott , Orangeman and surveyor of the Red River
Rebellion (shot by
Louis Riel and the Métis) (b. c.
March 11 –
Moshoeshoe I of
March 28 –
George Henry Thomas , American general (b.
April 16 –
Domnița Rallou Caragea , Greek princess and
independence activist (b.
May 6 – Sir
James Young Simpson , Scottish physician and
June 6 –
Ferdinand von Wrangel , Baltic German explorer (b. 1796
June 7 –
Friedrich Hohe , German lithographer and painter (b.
June 9 –
Charles Dickens , British novelist (b.
June 20 –
Jules de Goncourt , French writer and publisher (b.
June 24 –
Adam Lindsay Gordon , Australian poet (b.
Alexandre Dumas, père
July 10 –
Pelaghia Roșu , Romanian heroine (b.
August 14 –
David Farragut , American admiral (b.
August 17 –
Pedro Figueredo , Cuban poet, musician and freedom
September 12 –
Fitz Hugh Ludlow , American author and explorer
September 23 –
Prosper Mérimée , French writer (b.
September 27 –
William F. Packer , American politician (b. 1807
Stephen Greenleaf Bulfinch , American minister and hymn writer (b.
Robert E. Lee , Confederate general (b.
November 23 –
Giuseppina Bozzacchi , Milanese-born ballerina
1853 ) (result of deprivation during Siege of Paris )
November 24 –
Comte de Lautréamont , French poet and writer (b.
November 26 –
Franz Graf von Wimpffen , Austrian general and
November 28 –
Frédéric Bazille , French painter (b.
December 5 –
Alexandre Dumas, père , French author (b.
December 9 –
Patrick MacDowell , Northern Irish sculptor (b.
December 27 –
Juan Prim , Spanish general and prime minister
* ^ _Penguin Pocket On This Day_. Penguin Reference Library. 2006.
ISBN 0-14-102715-0 .
* ^ Smith, Denis (2001). _Civil Engineering Heritage: London and
the Thames Valley_. Thomas Telford. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0-7277-2876-8 .
* ^ West, Graham (2005). _Innovation and the Rise of the Tunnelling
Industry_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 116–118. ISBN
* "1870". _Timeline_. USA:
Digital Public Library of America .
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