17th-century clergy
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The 17th century was the
century A century is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered names of numbers in English#Ordinal numbers, ordinally in English and many other languages. The word ''century'' comes from the Latin ''centum'', meaning ''one hundred''. ''Century'' is s ...

century
that lasted from January 1,
1601 1601 ( MDCI) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added t ...
( MDCI), to December 31,
1700 As of March 1 Events Pre-1600 *509 BC – Publius Valerius Publicola celebrates the first Roman triumph, triumph of the Roman Republic after his victory over the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus at the Battle of Silva Arsia. * ...
( MDCC). The term is often used to refer to the 1600s, the century between January 1, 1600, and December 31, 1699. It falls into the
Early Modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of 's past. It is understood through , , , and , and since the , from and s. Humanity's written history was preceded by its , beginning with ...
period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...

Baroque
cultural movement, the latter part of the
Spanish Golden Age The Spanish Golden Age ( es, Siglo de Oro, links=no , "Golden Century") is a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Españ ...
, the
Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands The History of the Netherlands is a history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta A river delta is a landform A landform is a natura ...
, the French ''
Grand Siècle Grand Siècle refers to the period of French history during the 17th century, under the reign of Louis XIII Louis XIII (; sometimes called the Just; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of F ...
'' dominated by
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
, the
Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, ...

Scientific Revolution
, the world's first public company and
megacorporation Megacorporation, mega-corporation, or megacorp, a term originally coined by Alfred Eichner Alfred S. Eichner (March 23, 1937February 10, 1988) was an American post-Keynesian economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, soc ...
known as the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
, and according to some historians,
the General Crisis The General Crisis is a term used by some historians to describe an alleged period of widespread global conflict and instability that occurred from the early 17th century to the early 18th century in Europe, and in more recent historiography in t ...
. The greatest military conflicts were the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
, the
Great Turkish War The Great Turkish War (german: Großer Türkenkrieg) or the Wars of the Holy League ( tr, Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin L ...
, Mughal–Safavid Wars (
Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23) Mughal–Safavid War may refer to: * Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23) * Mughal–Safavid War (1649–53) {{disambiguation ...
,
Mughal–Safavid War (1649–53) Mughal–Safavid War may refer to: * Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23) The Mughal–Safavid War of 1622–1623 was fought over the important fortress city of Kandahar Kandahar (; ps, کندهار; prs, قندهار; known in older literature a ...
)
, Anglo-Mughal Indian War, and the
Dutch–Portuguese War The Dutch–Portuguese War (; ) was an armed conflict involving Dutch Republic, Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire. Beginning in 1602, the conflict primarily i ...
. It was during this period also that
European colonization of the Americas Although the Norse had explored and colonized northeastern North America c. 1000 CE, the later and more well-known wave of European colonization of the Americas took place in the Americas The Americas (also collectively called Ameri ...
began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe. In the
Islamic world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodne ...
, the
gunpowder empires The gunpowder empires, or Islamic gunpowder empires, is a collective term referring to the Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to ...
– the
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
,
Safavid Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, '. was one of the greatest Iranian peoples, Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia, ruled from 1501 to 1736 by the Safavid dynasty. It is often ...

Safavid
and
Mughal Mughal or Moghul may refer to: * The Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. ...
– grew in strength. Especially in the Indian subcontinent,
Mughal architecture Mughal architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture Indo-Islamic architecture is the architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced by and for Islamic patrons and purposes. Despite an initial Arab presence in Sindh Si ...

Mughal architecture
,
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...
and
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use ...

art
reached its zenith, while the empire itself, during the
sharia Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action ...
reign of Emperor
Aurangzeb Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (3 November 16183 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet (Persian language, Persian: "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title (Persian: "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled o ...

Aurangzeb
, is believed to have had the world's largest economy, bigger than the entirety of
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
and worth 25% of global GDP, and its wealthiest province, the
Bengal Subah The Bengal Subah (also known as Mughal Bengal) was the largest subdivision Subdivision may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Subdivision (metre), in music * Subdivision (film), ''Subdivision'' (film), 2009 * "Subdivision", an episode of Priso ...
, signaled the period of
proto-industrialization Proto-industrialization is the regional development, alongside commercial agriculture Intensive agriculture, also known as intensive farming (as opposed to extensive farming) and industrial agriculture, is a type of agriculture Agricult ...
. In Japan,
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shogun ...

Tokugawa Ieyasu
established the
Tokugawa shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is th ...

Tokugawa shogunate
at the beginning of the century, beginning the
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
; the isolationist
Sakoku was the isolationist Isolationism is a category of foreign policy, foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance. One possible mot ...
policy began in the 1630s and lasted until the 19th century. In China, the collapsing
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
was challenged by a series of conquests led by the
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in ...
warlord
Nurhaci Nurhaci (1559 – 30 September 1626) was a JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese o ...

Nurhaci
, which were consolidated by his son
Hong Taiji Hong Taiji (28 November 1592 – 21 September 1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and sometimes referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was the second khan of the Later Jin (reigned from 1626 to 1636) and the founding emperor of ...

Hong Taiji
and finally consummated by his grandson, the Shunzi Emperor, founder of the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
. From the middle decades of the 17th century, European politics were increasingly dominated by the
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
of
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
, where royal power was solidified domestically in the
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
of the
Fronde The Fronde () was a series of civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ...

Fronde
. The semi-feudal territorial
French nobility The French nobility (french: la noblesse française) was a privileged in France from the until its abolition on June 23, 1790 during the . From 1808 to 1815 during the the Emperor bestowed titles that were recognized as a new nobility by ...
was weakened and subjugated to the power of an
absolute monarchy Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocracy, autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monar ...
through the reinvention of the
Palace of Versailles The Palace of Versailles ( ; french: Château de Versailles ) is a former royal residence located in Versailles, about west of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, mo ...

Palace of Versailles
from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a greatly expanded royal court could be more easily kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded. It was during this century that the
English monarch The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of government by which a hereditary monarchy, hereditary sovereign reigns as the head of state of the United ...
became a symbolic figurehead and
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France. By the end of the century, Europeans were aware of
logarithm In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ...

logarithm
s,
electricity Electricity is the set of physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physi ...

electricity
, the
telescope A telescope is an optical instrument An optical instrument (or "optic" for short) is a device that processes light waves (or photons), either to enhance an image for viewing or to analyze and determine their characteristic properties. Common ...

telescope
and
microscope A microscope (from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' 'small' and ''skopeîn'' 'to look (at); examine, inspect') is a laboratory instrument used to examine objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye Naked eye, also called bare ...

microscope
,
calculus Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematics, mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations ...

calculus
,
universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation is usually stated as that every particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force that is Proportionality (mathematics)#Direct proportionality, directly proportional to the product of their ...

universal gravitation
,
Newton's Laws of Motion Newton's laws of motion are three law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its ...
,
air pressure Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure (after the barometer A barometer is a scientific instrument that is used to measure air pressure Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure (after the barometer A barom ...

air pressure
and
calculating machines A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic automatically, or (historically) a simulation such as an analog computer or a slide rule. Most mechanical calculators were ...
due to the work of the first scientists of the
Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, ...

Scientific Revolution
, including
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific q ...

Galileo Galilei
,
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a in the field of who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of . They observe s such as s, s, , s and ...

Johannes Kepler
,
René Descartes René Descartes ( or ; ; Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s ...

René Descartes
,
Pierre Fermat Pierre de Fermat (; between 31 October and 6 December 1607 – 12 January 1665) was a French people, French mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality. In pa ...
,
Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal ( , , ; ; 19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ...

Blaise Pascal
,
Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (; 25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish Anglo-Irish () is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a group ...

Robert Boyle
,
Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens ( , also , ; la, Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695), also spelled Huyghens, was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) i ...

Christiaan Huygens
,
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek ( ; ; 24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium ...
,
Robert Hooke Robert Hooke FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources ...
,
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
, and
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the " 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, " ...

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
. It was also a period of development of culture in general (especially theater, music, visual arts and philosophy).


Events


1601–1650

*
1600 __NOTOC__ 1600 ( MDC) was a century leap year A century leap year is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar that is divisible by 400 without a remainder. Like all leap years, it has an extra day in February for a total of 366 days instead of 3 ...

1600
:
Michael the Brave Michael the Brave ( ro, Mihai Viteazul or ; 1558 – 9 August 1601) was the Prince of Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; archaic Archaic is a period of time pr ...

Michael the Brave
unifies the three
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
n principalities:
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also not found ...
,
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian Cyrillic: or ; chu, Землѧ Молдавскаѧ; el, Ἡγεμονία τῆς Μολδαβίας) is a historical region and forme ...

Moldavia
and Translyvania after the Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599. *
1601 1601 ( MDCI) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added t ...
: In the
Battle of Kinsale The siege of Kinsale, or Battle of Kinsale ( ga, Léigear/Cath Chionn tSáile), was the ultimate battle in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wa ...
, England defeats Irish and Spanish forces at the town of Kinsale, driving the Gaelic aristocracy out of Ireland and destroying the Gaelic clan system. *
1601 1601 ( MDCI) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added t ...
1603 Events January–June * February 25 – Dutch–Portuguese War: the Portuguese Empire, Portuguese ship ''Santa Catarina (ship), Santa Catarina'' is seized by Dutch East India Company ships off Singapore. The first permanent Dutch tr ...
: The Russian famine of 1601–1603 kills perhaps one-third of Russia. *
1602 1602 ( MDCII) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added ...
:
Matteo Ricci Matteo Ricci (; la, Mattheus Riccius; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian ...
produces the Kunyu Wanguo Quantu, Map of the Myriad Countries of the World (坤輿萬國全圖, ''Kūnyú Wànguó Quántú''), a world map that will be used throughout East Asia for centuries. *
1602 1602 ( MDCII) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added ...
: The
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
(VOC) is established by merging competing Netherlands, Dutch trading companies.Ricklefs (1991), page 28 Its success contributes to the
Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands The History of the Netherlands is a history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta A river delta is a landform A landform is a natura ...
. *
1603 Events January–June * February 25 – Dutch–Portuguese War: the Portuguese Empire, Portuguese ship ''Santa Catarina (ship), Santa Catarina'' is seized by Dutch East India Company ships off Singapore. The first permanent Dutch tr ...
: Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England. *
1603 Events January–June * February 25 – Dutch–Portuguese War: the Portuguese Empire, Portuguese ship ''Santa Catarina (ship), Santa Catarina'' is seized by Dutch East India Company ships off Singapore. The first permanent Dutch tr ...
:
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shogun ...

Tokugawa Ieyasu
takes the title of ''shōgun'', establishing the
Tokugawa shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is th ...

Tokugawa shogunate
. This begins the History of Japan#Edo period (1603–1868), Edo period, which will last until 1868. *
1603 Events January–June * February 25 – Dutch–Portuguese War: the Portuguese Empire, Portuguese ship ''Santa Catarina (ship), Santa Catarina'' is seized by Dutch East India Company ships off Singapore. The first permanent Dutch tr ...
: In Nagasaki, the Portuguese Jesuit missionary João Rodrigues Tçuzu, João Rodrigues publishes ''Nippo Jisho'', the first dictionary of Japanese to an European language (Portuguese) * 1605: The King of Gowa, a Makassar (people), Makassarese kingdom in South Sulawesi, converts to Islam. * 1605-1627: The reign of
Mughal Mughal or Moghul may refer to: * The Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. ...
emperor Jahangir after the death of emperor Akbar. * 1606: The Long War (Ottoman wars), Long War between the Ottoman Empire and Habsburg Monarchy, Austria is ended with the Peace of Zsitvatorok—Austria abandons Transylvania. * 1606: Treaty of Vienna (1606), Treaty of Vienna ends anti-Habsburg uprising in Kingdom of Hungary (1538–1867), Royal Hungary. * 1607: Flight of the Earls (the fleeing of most of the native Gaelic Ireland, Gaelic aristocracy) occurs from County Donegal in the west of Ulster in Ireland. * 1607: Iskandar Muda becomes the Sultan of Aceh Sultanate, Aceh (r. 1607–1637). He will launch a series of naval conquests that will transform Aceh into a great power in the western Malay Archipelago. * 1610: The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth army defeats combined Russian–Swedish forces at the Battle of Klushino and conquers Moscow. * 1610: King Henry IV of France is assassinated by François Ravaillac. * 1611: The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, the oldest existing university in Asia, established by the Dominican Order in ManilaHistory of UST
UST.edu.ph. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
* 1611: The first publication of the King James Bible. * 1612: Cotswold Olimpick Games, Cotswold Olympic Games, Robert Dover (Cotswold Games), Robert Dover * 1613: The Time of Troubles in Russia ends with the establishment of the Romanov, House of Romanov, which rules until 1917. * 1613–1617: Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is invaded by the Crimean Khanate, Tatars dozens of times. * 1613: The
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
is forced to evacuate Gresik Regency, Gresik because of the Mataram Sultanate, Mataram siege of neighboring Surabaya. The VOC enters into negotiations with Mataram and is allowed to set up a trading post in Jepara. * 1614–1615: The Siege of Osaka (last major threat to
Tokugawa shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is th ...

Tokugawa shogunate
) ends. * 1616: The last remaining Moriscos (Moors who had nominally converted to Christianity) in Spain are expelled. * 1616: English poet and playwright William Shakespeare dies. * 1618: Defenestrations of Prague, The Defenestration of Prague. * 1618: The Bohemian Revolt precipitates the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
, which devastates Europe in the years 1618–48. * 1618: The
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in ...
s start invading China. Their Manchu conquest, conquest eventually topples the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
. * 1619:
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
, English East India Company, and Sultanate of Banten all fighting over port city of Jayakarta. VOC forces storm the city and withstand a months-long siege by the combined English, Bantenese, and Jayakartan forces. They are relieved by Jan Pieterszoon Coen and a fleet of nineteen ships out of Ambon. Coen had burned Jepara and its EIC post along the way. The VOC levels the old city of Jayakarta and builds its new headquarters, Jakarta, Batavia, on top of it. * 1620–1621: Polish-Ottoman War (1620–1621), Polish-Ottoman War over
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian Cyrillic: or ; chu, Землѧ Молдавскаѧ; el, Ἡγεμονία τῆς Μολδαβίας) is a historical region and forme ...

Moldavia
. * 1620: Bethlen Gabor allies with the Ottomans and an invasion of
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian Cyrillic: or ; chu, Землѧ Молдавскаѧ; el, Ἡγεμονία τῆς Μολδαβίας) is a historical region and forme ...

Moldavia
takes place. The Polish suffer a disaster at Cecora on the River Prut. * 1620: The Mayflower sets sail from Plymouth, England to what became Plymouth Colony in the New England region of North America. * 1621: The Battle of Khotyn (1621), Battle of Chocim: Poles and Cossacks under Jan Karol Chodkiewicz defeat the Ottomans. * 1622: Jamestown massacre: Algonquian peoples, Algonquian natives kill 347 English settlers outside Jamestown, Virginia (one-third of the colony's population) and burn the Henricus settlement. * 1624–1642: As chief minister, Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, Cardinal Richelieu centralises power in France. * 1626: St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican completed. * 1627: Aurochs go extinct. * 1628—1629: Sultan Agung of Mataram Sultanate, Mataram launches a failed campaign to Siege of Batavia, conquer Dutch Batavia. * 1629: Abbas I of Persia, Abbas I, the Safavids king, died. * 1629: Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, Cardinal Richelieu allies with Swedish Protestant forces in the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
to counter Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II's expansion. * 1630 : Birth of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj at Shivneri fort * 1631: Mount Vesuvius#Later eruptions from the 3rd to the 19th century, Mount Vesuvius erupts. * 1632: Battle of Lützen (1632), Battle of Lützen, death of king of Swedish Empire, Sweden Gustav II Adolf. * 1632: Taj Mahal building work started in Agra, India. * 1633:
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific q ...

Galileo Galilei
arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. * 1633–1639: Japan transforms into Sakoku, "locked country". * 1634: Battle of Nördlingen (1634), Battle of Nördlingen results in Catholic victory. * 1636: Harvard University is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts. * 1637: Shimabara Rebellion of Japanese Christians, rōnin and peasants against Edo. * 1637: The first opera house, Teatro San Cassiano, opens in Venice. * 1637: Second Manchu invasion of Korea, Qing dynasty attacked Joseon dynasty. * 1639: Naval Battle of the Downs – Republic of the United Provinces fleet decisively defeats a Spanish fleet in English waters. * 1639: Disagreements between the House of Farnese, Farnese and Barberini Pope Urban VIII escalate into the Wars of Castro and last until 1649. * 1639–1651: Wars of the Three Kingdoms, civil wars throughout Scotland, Ireland, and English Civil War, England. * 1640–1668: The Portuguese Restoration War led to the end of the Iberian Union. * 1641: The Irish Rebellion of 1641, Irish Rebellion. * 1641:
René Descartes René Descartes ( or ; ; Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s ...

René Descartes
publishes ''Meditationes de prima philosophia'' Meditations on First Philosophy. * 1642: Beginning of English Civil War, conflict will end in 1649 with the execution of Charles I of England, King Charles I, abolishment of the monarchy and the establishment of the supremacy of Parliament over the king. * 1643: L'incoronazione di Poppea, Claudio Monteverdi, Monterverdi * 1644: The
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in ...
conquer China ending the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
. The subsequent
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
rules until 1912. * 1644–1674: The Char Bouba war, Mauritanian Thirty-Year War. * 1645–1669: Ottoman war with Republic of Venice, Venice. The Ottomans invade Crete and capture Canea. * 1647–1652: The Great Plague of Seville. * 1648: The Peace of Westphalia ends the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
and the Eighty Years' War and marks the ends of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire as major European powers. * 1648–1653:
Fronde The Fronde () was a series of civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ...

Fronde
civil war in France. * 1648–1657: The Khmelnytsky Uprising – a Cossack rebellion in Ukraine which turned into a Ukrainian war of liberation from Poland. * 1648–1667: The Deluge (Polish history), The Deluge wars leave Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in ruins. * 1648–1669: The Ottoman Empire, Ottomans capture Crete from the Republic of Venice, Venetians after the Siege of Candia. * 1649: Charles I of England, King Charles I is executed for High treason, the first and only English king to be subjected to legal proceedings in a High Court of Justice and put to death. * 1649–1653: The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.


1651–1700

* 1651: English Civil War ends with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester. * 1656–1661: Mehmed Köprülü is Grand Vizier. * 1655–1661: The Northern Wars cement Swedish Empire, Sweden's rise as a Rise of Sweden as a Great Power, Great Power. * 1658: After his father Shah Jahan completes the Taj Mahal, his son
Aurangzeb Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (3 November 16183 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet (Persian language, Persian: "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title (Persian: "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled o ...

Aurangzeb
deposes him as ruler of the Mughal Empire. * 1660: The Commonwealth of England ends and the monarchy is brought back during the English Restoration. * 1660: The Royal Society is founded * 1661: The reign of the Kangxi Emperor of China begins. * 1663: Ottoman–Habsburg wars, Ottoman war against Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867), Habsburg Hungary. * 1664: The Battle of Saint Gotthard (1664), Battle of St. Gotthard: count Raimondo Montecuccoli defeats the Ottomans. The Peace of Vasvar – intended to keep the peace for 20 years. * 1665:
Robert Hooke Robert Hooke FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources ...
discovers cells using a microscope. * 1665: Portuguese Empire, Portugal defeats the Kongo Empire at the Battle of Mbwila. * 1665–1667: The Second Anglo-Dutch War fought between England and the Dutch Republic, United Provinces. * 1666: The Great Fire of London. * 1667: The Raid on the Medway during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. * 1667–1668: The War of Devolution; France invades the Netherlands. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668), Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668) brings this to a halt. * 1667–1699: The
Great Turkish War The Great Turkish War (german: Großer Türkenkrieg) or the Wars of the Holy League ( tr, Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin L ...
halts the Ottoman Empire's expansion into Europe. * 1672–1673: Ottoman campaign to help the Ukrainian Cossacks. John Sobieski defeats the Ottomans at the second battle of Khotyn (1673). * 1672–1674: The Third Anglo-Dutch War fought between England and the Dutch Republic, United Provinces * 1672–1676: Polish–Ottoman War (1672–1676), Polish–Ottoman War. * 1672–1678: Franco-Dutch War. * 1674: Shivaji forms the Maratha Empire, which lasts until 1818. * 1676–1681: Russia and the Ottoman Empire commence the Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681), Russo-Turkish Wars. * 1678: The Treaty of Nijmegen ends various interconnected wars among France, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, and the Holy Roman Empire. * 1680: The Pueblo Revolt drives the Spanish out of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, New Mexico until 1692. * 1682: Chateau de Versailles, Saint-Gobain *1682 – In North America, the French explorer Robert La Salle claims all the land east of the Mississippi River. * 1683: China conquers the Kingdom of Tungning and annexes Taiwan. * 1683: The Ottoman Empire is defeated in the second Battle of Vienna, Siege of Vienna. * 1683–1699: The
Great Turkish War The Great Turkish War (german: Großer Türkenkrieg) or the Wars of the Holy League ( tr, Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin L ...
leads to the conquest of most of Ottoman Hungary by the Habsburgs. * 1687:
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
publishes ''Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica''. * 1688: The Siege of Derry. * 1688: Siamese revolution of 1688 ousted French influence and virtually severed all ties with the West until the 19th century. * 1688–1689: The Glorious Revolution starts with the Dutch Republic invading England, England becomes a constitutional monarchy. * 1688–1691: Williamite War in Ireland, The War of the Two Kings in Ireland. * 1688–1697: The Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg), Grand Alliance sought to stop French expansion during the Nine Years' War. * 1689: The Battle of Killiecrankie is fought between Jacobitism, Jacobite and Williamite forces in Highland Perthshire. * 1689: The Karposh rebellion is crushed in present-day North Macedonia, Skopje is retaken by the Ottoman Turks. Karposh is killed, and the rebels are defeated. * 1689: Bill of Rights 1689, Bill of Rights * 1690: The Battle of the Boyne in Ireland. * 1692: Port Royal in Jamaica is struck by an earthquake and a tsunami. Approximately 2,000 people die and 2,300 are injured. * 1692–1694: Famine in France kills two million. * 1693: The College of William and Mary is founded in Williamsburg, Virginia, by a royal charter. * 1694: The Bank of England is established. * 1695: The Mughal Empire nearly bans the East India Company in response to pirate Henry Every's capture of the ''Ganj-i-Sawai''. * 1696–1697: List of famines, Famine in Finland wipes out almost one-third of the population.Karen J. Cullen (2010). "
Famine in Scotland: The 'Ill Years' of the 1690s
'". Edinburgh University Press. p. 20.
* 1697–1699: Grand Embassy of Peter the Great * 1699: Thomas Savery demonstrates his first steam engine to the Royal Society.


Significant people


Politics

* Abbas I of Persia, shah of the Safavid dynasty (1571–1629) * Ahmed I, sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1590–1617) * Alexis of Russia, tsar of Russia (1629–1676) * Anne of Austria, queen consort and regent of France (
1601 1601 ( MDCI) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added t ...
–1666) * Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus, Monarch of Sweden, king of Sweden (1594–1632) *
Aurangzeb Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (3 November 16183 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet (Persian language, Persian: "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title (Persian: "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled o ...

Aurangzeb
, Mughal emperor * Bohdan Khmelnytsky, hetman of Cossacks (1595–1657) * Gabriel Bethlen, Hungarian prince of Transylvania (1580–1629) * Christina of Sweden, Queen Christina of Sweden, high-profile Catholic convert, matron of the arts (1626–1689) * Charles I of England (
1600 __NOTOC__ 1600 ( MDC) was a century leap year A century leap year is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar that is divisible by 400 without a remainder. Like all leap years, it has an extra day in February for a total of 366 days instead of 3 ...

1600
–1649) * Charles II of England (1630–1685) * Charles II of Spain (1661–
1700 As of March 1 Events Pre-1600 *509 BC – Publius Valerius Publicola celebrates the first Roman triumph, triumph of the Roman Republic after his victory over the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus at the Battle of Silva Arsia. * ...
) * Jean-Baptiste Colbert, chief minister of Louis XIV of France * Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (1599–1658) * Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (1626–1712) * Henry IV of France (1553–1610) *
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shogun ...

Tokugawa Ieyasu
, the founder of the
Tokugawa shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is th ...

Tokugawa shogunate
in Japan (1543–1616) * Jahangir, Mughal emperor * James I of England (1566–1625) * James II of England (1633–1701) * Kangxi Emperor, ruler of China * Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (1640–1705) * Louis XIII of France, King of France (
1601 1601 ( MDCI) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added t ...
–1643) * Louis XIV of France, King of France (1638–1715) * Marie de' Medici, regent of France (1575–1642) * Mary II of England (1662–1694) * Cardinal Mazarin, French prime minister of Italian origin (
1602 1602 ( MDCII) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added ...
–1661) * Mehmed IV, sultan of the Ottoman Empire * Murad IV, sultan of the Ottoman Empire * Peter I of Russia, Peter the Great, first Russian emperor (1672–1725) * Philip III of Spain, Spanish king (1578–1621) * Philip IV of Spain, Spanish king (1605–1665) * Dmitry Pozharsky, Russian prince, leader of anti-Polish uprising (1577–1642) * Cardinal Richelieu, French prime minister (1585–1642) * Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares, Spanish prime minister * Michael of Russia, tsar of Russia (1596–1645) * Shah Jahan, Mughal emperor * Shivaji, emperor of the Maratha Empire (1674–1680) * John III Sobieski, King of Poland, Jan III Sobieski, military leader and king of Poland (1629–1696) * Imre Thököly, leader of the anti-Habsburg uprising in Hungary (1657–1705) * Henri de Turenne, Marshal General of France (1611–1675) * Albrecht von Wallenstein, Catholic German general and Diplomat, statesman in the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
(1583–1634) * William III of England, stadthouder of the main provinces of the Republic of the United Provinces and King of England (1650–17027) * Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary of the Republic of the United Provinces (1625–1672)


Consorts of Rulers (and lovers)

* Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan, lover of
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
(1641–1707) * Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, wife of
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
(1635–1719) * Maria Theresa of Spain, queen consort of France


Military

* Louis, Grand Condé, Louis de Bourbon, prince of Condé, French general(1621–1686) * Michiel de Ruyter, Dutch admiral (1607–1676) * Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, Catholic general in the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
(1559–1632)


Relatives of political figures

* Philippe I, Duke of Orleans, younger son of Louis XIII of France and his wife, Anne of Austria. His older brother was the "Sun King", Louis XIV of France, Louis XIV. He is also ancestor of many European monarchs


Religious Leader

* Guru Teg Bahadur, 9th Sikh Guru (1621–1675)


Musicians

* Johann Christoph Bach, Composer and great-uncle of J.S. Bach, (1642–1703) * John Blow, English composer (1649–1708) * Dieterich Buxtehude, Danish-German composer * Francesco Cavalli, Venetian opera composer (1602–1676) * Marc-Antoine Charpentier, French composer (1643–1708) * Arcangelo Corelli, Italian composer (1653–1713) * Jean-Baptiste Lully, Italian-born composer regarded as the father of French opera (1632–1687) * Claudio Monteverdi, the most prominent composer of his time and creator of Baroque (1567–1643) * Johann Pachelbel, German composer (1653–1706) * Henry Purcell, English composer (1659–1695) * Alessandro Scarlatti, Italian opera composer (1660–1725) * Heinrich Schütz, German composer (1585–1672)


Visual artists

* Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Italian sculptor and architect (1598–1680) * Francesco Borromini, Italian architect (1599–1667) * Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, Italian painter (1571–1610) * Anthony van Dyck, Flemish painter (1599–1641) * Artemisia Gentileschi, Italian painter (1593 – c. 1656) * Frans Hals, Dutch painter (1580–1666) * Georges de La Tour, French painter (1593–1652) * Charles Le Brun, painter of Louis XIV * André Le Nôtre, French landscape architect (1613–1700) * Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Spanish painter (1617–1682) * Nicolas Poussin, French painter (1594–1665) * Guido Reni, Italian painter * José de Ribera, ''Lo Spagnoletto'' (1591–1652) * Rembrandt van Rijn, Dutch painter (1606–1669) * Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, 1577–1640 * Jan Steen, Dutch painter (1626–1679) * Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez, Spanish painter (1599–1660) * Vauban, French military architect * Johannes Vermeer, Dutch painter (1632–1675) * Christopher Wren, English architect * Francisco de Zurbarán, Spanish painter (1598–1664)


Literature

* Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, French poet and critic (1636–1711) * John Bunyan, author of ''The Pilgrim's Progress'' (1628–1688) * Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Spanish dramatist (1600–1681) * Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Spanish novelist (1574–1616) * Pierre Corneille, French dramatist (1606–1684) * Cyrano de Bergerac, French playwright and novelist (1619–1655) * John Donne, English Metaphysical Poetry, metaphysical poet (1572–1631) * John Dryden, English poet (1631–1700) * Jean de La Fontaine, French poet (1621–1695) * Luis de Góngora, Spanish poet (1561–1627) * Juana Inés de la Cruz, Mexican poet (1651–1695) * Ben Jonson, English dramatist (1572–1637) * Matsuo Bashō, the first author of haiku (1644–1694) * François de La Rochefoucauld (writer), François de La Rochefoucauld, French author (1613–1680) * John Milton, English author and poet (1608–1674) * Molière, French dramatist (1622–1673) * Tirso de Molina, Spanish dramatist (1579–1648) * Miyamoto Musashi, Japanese samurai and author (1584–1645) * Samuel Pepys, English civil servant and diarist (1633–1703) * Charles Perrault, French author of fairy tales (1628–1703) * Francisco de Quevedo, Spanish writer (1580–1645) * Jean Racine, French dramatist (1639–1699) * William Shakespeare, English playwright (1564–1616) * Félix Lope de Vega, Spanish playwright (1562–1635)


Explorers

* William Baffin, English navigator in Northwest Passage * Evliya Çelebi, Ottoman traveler * Samuel de Champlain, French founder of Canada * Semyon Dezhnyov (1605–1672), Russian explorer of Siberia * Henry Hudson (1565–1611), English navigator of North America * René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, French explorer of Mississippi *
Matteo Ricci Matteo Ricci (; la, Mattheus Riccius; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian ...
, Italian missionary in China * Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603–1659), Dutch seafarer of Australia * Luis Váez de Torres (c. 1565–1607), Spanish explorer of the Pacific


Science and philosophy

*
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek ( ; ; 24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium ...
, Dutch biologist * Athanasius Kircher, German polymath * Baruch Spinoza, Dutch philosopher (1632–1677) *
Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal ( , , ; ; 19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ...

Blaise Pascal
, French mathematician and philosopher (1623–1662) *
Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens ( , also , ; la, Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695), also spelled Huyghens, was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) i ...

Christiaan Huygens
, Dutch inventor, physicist and astronomer (1629–1695) * Edmond Halley, English astronomer * Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist and mathematician * Francis Bacon (philosopher), Francis Bacon, English methodologist and politician (1561–1626) * Francis de Sales, doctor of the Church *
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific q ...

Galileo Galilei
, Italian astronomer (1564–1642) * Giovanni Cassini, Italian-French astronomer * Gottfried Leibniz, German philosopher and mathematician (1646–1716) * Hugo Grotius, Dutch political scientist *
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
, English physicist, mathematician and philosopher (1643–1727) * Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, French theologian * Jacob Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician * Johannes Amos Comenius, Czech educationist *
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a in the field of who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of . They observe s such as s, s, , s and ...

Johannes Kepler
, German astronomer (1571–1630) * John Locke, English philosopher (1632–1704) * John Napier, Scottish inventor of the logarithms (1550–1617) * Margaret Mary Alacoque, French mystic * Marin Mersenne, (1588–1648), French polymath * Ole Rømer, Danish astronomer (1644–1710) * Otto von Guericke, German inventor (1602–1686) * Pierre Bayle, French freethinker * Pierre de Fermat, French mathematician (1601–1665) * Pierre Gassendi, French philosopher *
René Descartes René Descartes ( or ; ; Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s ...

René Descartes
, French philosopher and mathematician (1596–1650) *
Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (; 25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish Anglo-Irish () is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a group ...

Robert Boyle
, the founder of chemistry *
Robert Hooke Robert Hooke FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources ...
, English biologist and physicist (1635–1703) * Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (1588–1679) * Tommaso Campanella, Italian philosopher * William Harvey, English biologist (1578–1657)


Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterized as the Scientific revolution. * Banknotes reintroduced in Europe. * Ice cream. * Tea and Coffeehouse, coffee become popular in Europe. * Banking, Central Banking in France and Finance, modern Finance by Scottish economist John Law (economist), John Law. * Minarets, Jamé Mosque of Isfahan, Isfahan, Persia (Iran), are built. * 1604: Supernova SN 1604 is observed in the Milky Way. * 1605:
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a in the field of who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of . They observe s such as s, s, , s and ...

Johannes Kepler
starts investigating Kepler's laws of planetary motion, elliptical orbits of planets. * 1605: Johann Carolus of Germany publishes the 'Relation', the first newspaper. * 1608: Refracting telescope's first appear. Dutch spectacle-maker Hans Lippershey tries to obtain a patent on one spreading word of the invention. * 1610: The Orion Nebula is identified by Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc of France. * 1610:
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific q ...

Galileo Galilei
and Simon Marius observe Jupiter's Galilean moons. * 1611: King James Version, King James Bible or 'Authorized Version' first published. * 1612: The first flintlock musket likely created for Louis XIII of France by gunsmith Marin Bourgeois. * 1614: John Napier introduces the
logarithm In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ...

logarithm
to simplify calculations. * 1616: Niccolò Zucchi describes experiments with a bronze parabolic reflector, parabolic mirror trying to make a reflecting telescope. * 1620: Cornelis Drebbel, funded by James I of England, builds the first 'submarine' made of wood and greased leather. * 1623: The first English dictionary, 'English Dictionarie' is published by Henry Cockeram, listing difficult words with definitions. * 1628: William Harvey publishes and elucidates his earlier discovery of the Systemic circulation, circulatory system. * 1637: Dutch Bible published. * 1637: Teatro San Cassiano, the first public opera house, opened in Venice. * 1637: Pierre de Fermat formulates his so-called Fermat's Last Theorem, Last Theorem, unsolved until 1995. * 1637: Although Chinese naval mines were earlier described in the 14th century ''Huolongjing'', the ''Tian Gong Kai Wu'' book of
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
scholar Song Yingxing describes naval mines wrapped in a lacquer bag and ignited by an ambusher pulling a rip cord on the nearby shore that triggers a steel-wheel flint mechanism. * 1642:
Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal ( , , ; ; 19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ...

Blaise Pascal
invents the mechanical calculator called Pascal's calculator. * 1642: Mezzotint engraving introduces grey tones to printed images. * 1643: Evangelista Torricelli of Italy invents the mercury barometer. * 1645: Giacomo Torelli of Venice, Italy invents the first rotating stage. * 1651: Giovanni Battista Riccioli, Giovanni Riccioli renames the Lunar mare, lunar maria. * 1656:
Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens ( , also , ; la, Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695), also spelled Huyghens, was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) i ...

Christiaan Huygens
describes the true shape of the rings of Saturn. * 1657:
Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens ( , also , ; la, Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695), also spelled Huyghens, was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) i ...

Christiaan Huygens
develops the first functional pendulum clock based on the learnings of
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific q ...

Galileo Galilei
. * 1659:
Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens ( , also , ; la, Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695), also spelled Huyghens, was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) i ...

Christiaan Huygens
first to observe surface details of Mars. * 1662: Christopher Merret presents first paper on the production of sparkling wine. * 1663: James Gregory (astronomer and mathematician), James Gregory publishes designs for a reflecting telescope. * 1669: The first known operational reflecting telescope is built by
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
. * 1676:
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek ( ; ; 24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium ...
discovers Bacteria. * 1676: First measurement of the speed of light. * 1679: Binary numeral system, Binary system developed by
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the " 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, " ...

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
. * 1684: Calculus independently developed by both Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Sir Isaac Newton and used to formulate classical mechanics.


References


Further reading

* Chang, Chun-shu, and Shelley Hsueh-lun Chang. ''Crisis and Transformation in Seventeenth-Century China" (1998). * Langer, William. ''An Encyclopedia of World History'' (5th ed. 1973); highly detailed outline of event
online free
* Reid, A. J. S. ''Trade and State Power in 16th & 17th Century Southeast Asia'' (1977). * Spence, J. D. ''The Death of Woman Wang: Rural Life in China in the 17th Century'' (1978).


Focus on Europe

* George Norman Clark, Clark, George. ''The Seventeenth Century'' (2nd ed. 1945). * Hampshire, Stuart. ''The Age of Reason the 17th Century Philosophers, Selected, with Introduction and Interpretive Commentary'' (1961). * Lewitter, Lucian Ryszard. "Poland, the Ukraine and Russia in the 17th Century." ''The Slavonic and East European Review'' (1948): 157–171
in JSTOR
* David Ogg (historian), Ogg, David. ''Europe in the Seventeenth Century'' (6th ed. 1965). * Rowbotham, Sheila. ''Hidden from history: Rediscovering women in history from the 17th century to the present'' (1976). * Trevor-Roper, Hugh R. "The general crisis of the 17th century." ''Past & Present (journal), Past & Present'' 16 (1959): 31–64.


External links


Vistorica
Timelines of 17th century events, science, culture and persons {{Authority control 17th century, 2nd millennium Centuries Early Modern period