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The 1 7th century
7th century
was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700, in the Gregorian calendar. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the Baroque
Baroque
cultural movement, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle (fr) dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War,[1] the Great Turkish War, and the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.[2]

Louis XIV
Louis XIV
visiting the Académie des sciences in 1671. "It is widely accepted that 'modern science' arose in the Europe of the 17th century, introducing a new understanding of the natural world." —Peter Barrett[3]

New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York City.

Shōgun
Shōgun
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
is the founder of Japan's last shogunate, which lasted well into the 19th century

Miyamoto Musashi, Self-portrait, samurai, writer and artist, c. 1640

A scene on the ice, Dutch Republic, first half of 17th century

Persian Ambassador during his entry into Kraków
Kraków
for the wedding ceremonies of King Sigismund III of Poland
Sigismund III of Poland
in 1605.

Catholic general Albrecht von Wallenstein

René Descartes
René Descartes
with Queen Christina of Sweden.

James I of England
James I of England
and VI of Scotland

Tsar
Tsar
Michael I of Russia

Battle of Nördlingen (1634). The Catholic Imperial army, bolstered by professional Spanish troops won a great victory in the battle over the combined Protestant armies of Sweden and their German allies

The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

The massacre of settlers in 1622. The massacre was instrumental in causing English colonists to view all natives as enemies.

Map of Europe in 1648
1648
at the end of the Thirty Years' War

Claiming Louisiana for France

Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed IV

Cardinal Mazarin

Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Bohdan Khmelnytsky
(left) with Tugay Bey
Tugay Bey
(right) at Lviv, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1885

Crimean Tatar soldier fighting with the soldier of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Europe's steppe frontier was in a state of semi-permanent warfare until the 18th century.

In the Islamic world, the Ottoman, Safavid
Safavid
Persian and Mughal empires grew in strength. In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
established the Tokugawa shogunate at the beginning of the century, beginning the Edo period; the isolationist Sakoku
Sakoku
policy began in the 1630s
1630s
and lasted until the 19th century. In China, the collapsing Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji
Hong Taiji
and finally consummated by his grandson, the Shunzi Emperor, founder of the Qing dynasty. European politics were dominated by the Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde. The semi-feudal territorial French nobility
French nobility
was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a greatly expanded royal court could be more easily kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France
France
to be expanded. It was during this century that English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament
Parliament
was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France. By the end of the century, Europeans were aware of logarithms, electricity, the telescope and microscope, calculus, universal gravitation, Newton's Laws of Motion, air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was also a period of development of culture in general (especially theater, music, visual arts and philosophy).

Contents

1 Events

1.1 1600s 1.2 1610s 1.3 1620s 1.4 1630s 1.5 1640s 1.6 1650s 1.7 1660s 1.8 1670s 1.9 1680s 1.10 1690s

2 Significant people

2.1 Musicians 2.2 Visual artists 2.3 Literature 2.4 Explorers 2.5 Science and philosophy

3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 References 5 Further reading

5.1 Focus on Europe

6 External links

Events[edit] 1600s[edit]

1600: On February 17 Giordano Bruno
Giordano Bruno
is burned at the stake by the Inquisition. 1600: Michael the Brave
Michael the Brave
unifies the three Romanian countries: Wallachia, Moldavia
Moldavia
and Transylvania
Transylvania
after the Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599. 1601: Battle of Kinsale, England
England
defeats Irish and Spanish forces at the town of Kinsale, driving the Gaelic aristocracy out of Ireland and destroying the Gaelic clan system. 1601: Michael the Brave
Michael the Brave
(first unifier of Romania), voivode of Wallachia, Moldavia
Moldavia
and Transylvania, is assassinated by the order of the Habsburg general Giorgio Basta
Giorgio Basta
at Câmpia Turzii. 1601–1603: The Russian famine of 1601– 1603
1603
kills perhaps one-third of Russia. 1601: Panembahan Senopati, first king of Mataram, dies and passes rule to his son Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak 1601: Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci
is given permission to live in Beijing. 1602: Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci
produces the Map of the Myriad Countries of the World (坤輿萬國全圖, Kūnyú Wànguó Quántú), a world map that will be used throughout East Asia for centuries. 1602: The Portuguese send a major (and last) expeditionary force from Malacca
Malacca
which succeeded in reimposing a degree of Portuguese control. 1602: The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC) is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies.[4] Its success contributes to the Dutch Golden Age. 1602: June, British East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrives in Aceh
Aceh
and sails on to Bantam where he is allowed to build trading post which becomes the centre of British trade in Indonesia until 1682.[5] 1602: Two emissaries from the Aceh
Aceh
Sultanate visit the Dutch Republic. 1603: Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England. 1603: Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
takes the title of shōgun, establishing the Tokugawa shogunate. This begins the Edo period, which will last until 1868. 1603–1623: After modernizing his army, Abbas I expands the Persian Empire by capturing territory from the Ottomans and the Portuguese. 1603: First permanent Dutch trading post is established in Banten, West Java.[5] First successful VOC privateering raid on a Portuguese ship. 1604: A second English East India Company
English East India Company
voyage commanded by Sir Henry Middleton reaches Ternate, Tidore, Ambon and Banda. Fierce VOC hostility is encountered in Banda thus beginning Anglo-Dutch competition for access to spices[5] 1605: Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
passes the title of shōgun to his son, Tokugawa Hidetada, and "retires" to Sunpu Domain. 1605: Gunpowder Plot
Gunpowder Plot
failed in England. 1605: The fortresses of Veszprém
Veszprém
and Visegrad are retaken by the Ottomans. 1605: February, The VOC in alliance with Hitu prepare to attack a Portuguese fort in Ambon but the Portuguese surrender.[4] 1605: Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak of Mataram establishes control over Demak, former center of the Demak Sultanate. 1605: The King of Gowa, a Makassarese kingdom in South Sulawesi, converts to Islam 1606: The Long War between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Austria is ended with the Peace of Zsitvatorok—Austria abandons Transylvania. 1606: Treaty of Vienna
Vienna
ends anti-Habsburg uprising in Royal Hungary. 1606: Assassination of Stephen Bocskay
Stephen Bocskay
of Transylvania. 1606: Time of Troubles: Vasili IV
Vasili IV
becomes Tzar of Russia. 1606: The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
enters into an alliance with the Johor Sultanate
Johor Sultanate
to attack Portuguese Malacca, but they are repelled. 1606: Captain Willem Janszoon
Willem Janszoon
and his crew aboard the Dutch East India Company ship Duyfken
Duyfken
becomes the first recorded Europeans to sight and make landfall in Australia. 1606: A Spanish fleet occupies Ternate
Ternate
and Tidore.[4] 1607: Jamestown, Virginia, is settled as what would become the first permanent English colony in North America. 1607: Flight of the Earls
Flight of the Earls
(the fleeing of most of the native Gaelic aristocracy) occurs from County Donegal
County Donegal
in the west of Ulster
Ulster
in Ireland. 1607: Iskandar Muda
Iskandar Muda
becomes the Sultan
Sultan
of Aceh
Aceh
(r. 1607–1637). He will launch a series of naval conquests that will transform Aceh
Aceh
into a great power in the western Malay Archipelago. 1608: Quebec City
Quebec City
founded by Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain
in New France (present-day Canada). 1608: The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
establishes a settlement in Siamese Ayutthaya. 1609: The Netherlands
Netherlands
and Spain
Spain
agree to a Twelve Years' Truce
Twelve Years' Truce
in the Eighty Years' War. 1609: Maximilian of Bavaria establishes the Catholic League. 1609: The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
establishes a factory in Hirado, Japan. VOC traders also make forays into South Sulawesi
South Sulawesi
and Banjarmasin, Borneo.

1610s[edit]

1610: Pedro de Peralta, governor of New Mexico, establishes the settlement of Santa Fe. 1610: The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
army defeats combined Russian- Swedish forces at the Battle of Klushino
Battle of Klushino
and conquers Moscow. 1610: The VOC appoints Pieter Both as its first Governor-General to enable firmer control of their affairs in Asia.[4] Previously all business had (in theory) required the approval of the Heeren XVII, a group of seventeen shareholders in Amsterdam. 1610: Ottoman Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Kuyucu Murad Pasha
Kuyucu Murad Pasha
is able to crush the major remnants of the Jelali Revolts, bringing an end to general anarchy in Anatolia. 1610: Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci
dies in Beijing. 1610: Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak of Mataram in Central Java
Java
attacks Surabaya, a major power on the north coast. 1610: King Henry IV of France
King Henry IV of France
is assassinated by François Ravaillac. 1611: The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, the oldest existing university in Asia, established by the Dominican Order
Dominican Order
in Manila[6] 1611: The English establish trading posts at Sukadana
Sukadana
(southwest Kalimantan), Makassar, Jayakarta
Jayakarta
and Jepara
Jepara
in Java, and Aceh, Pariaman
Pariaman
and Jambi
Jambi
in (Sumatra) threatening Dutch ambitions for a monopoly on East Indies trade.[5] 1611: The Kingdom of Gowa
Gowa
ends its major push to convert the Makassarese and Bugis
Bugis
in South Sulawesi
South Sulawesi
to Islam. 1611: The Dutch establish a post at Jayakarta
Jayakarta
(later 'Batavia' and then 'Jakarta'). 1611: A Dutch trader is killed in Banjarmasin
Banjarmasin
and the Dutch East India Trading Company sacks the city. 1611: The first publication of the King James Bible. 1612: Sultan
Sultan
Iskandar Muda
Iskandar Muda
of Aceh
Aceh
captures the North Sumatran port of Deli. 1612: Costwold Olympic Games, Robert Dover 1613: The Time of Troubles
Time of Troubles
in Russia ends with the establishment of the House of Romanov, which rules until 1917. 1613–1617: Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
is invaded by the Tatars dozens of times.[7] 1613: The Dutch expel the Portuguese from their Solor
Solor
fort, but won't stay for long. 1613: The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
makes its first forays into Timor. 1613: Sultan
Sultan
Iskandar Muda
Iskandar Muda
of Aceh
Aceh
captures the North Sumatran port of Aru, subjugating the Sultanate of Deli. This allows Aceh
Aceh
to focus its expansionary efforts on the Straits of Malacca. Iskandar Muda continues on to sack Johor and kidnap its Sultan's family, but is later forced to retreat back to Aceh. 1613: The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
is forced to evacuate Gresik because of the Mataram siege of neighboring Surabaya. The VOC enters into negotiations with Mataram and is allowed to set up a trading post in Jepara. 1613: Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak of Mataram dies and is succeeded by his son. 1614: John Napier
John Napier
publishes Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio, the first table of logarithms. 1614: Sultan
Sultan
Iskandar Muda
Iskandar Muda
of Aceh
Aceh
sinks a Portuguese fleet off of Bintan Island. 1615: The Battle of Osaka
Battle of Osaka
(last major threat to Tokugawa shogunate) ends. 1615: A Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
attack on Portuguese Malacca
Malacca
is repelled. 1615: The Portuguese stop hiring Japanese mercenaries after a brawl in Malacca. 1615: Panembahan ing Alaga of Mataram conquers the Eastern Salient of Java
Java
(the heartland of the old Majapahit
Majapahit
Empire). 1615: The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
is in open hostilities with the Kingdom of Gowa, South Sulawesi. 1616: The last remaining Moriscos (Moors who had nominally converted to Christianity) in Spain
Spain
are expelled. 1616: Death of retired shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu. 1616: English poet and playwright William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
dies. 1617: Sultan
Sultan
Iskandar Muda
Iskandar Muda
of Aceh
Aceh
conquers Pahang
Pahang
on the South China Sea. 1617: Panembahan ing Alaga of Mataram puts down a major revolt in Pajang. 1618: The Defenestration of Prague. 1618: The Bohemian Revolt
Bohemian Revolt
precipitates the Thirty Years' War, which devastates Europe in the years 1618–48. 1618: Bethlen Gabor, Prince of Transylvania
Transylvania
joins Protestant Rebels. 1618: The Manchus start invading China. Their conquest eventually topples the Ming dynasty. 1618: Dispute leads to the execution of Dutchmen in Mataram-controlled Jepara. 1619: Bethlen Gabor
Bethlen Gabor
is defeated outside Vienna. 1619: Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
appointed Governor-General of the VOC who would show he had no scruples about using brute force to establish the VOC on a firm footing. While Ambon and Pattani
Pattani
had been the major VOC trading centers to this point, Coen is convinced that Dutch need a more central location near the Sunda Strait. 1619: Dutch East India Company, English East India Company, and Sultanate of Banten
Banten
all fighting over port city of Jayakarta. VOC forces storm the city and withstand a months-long siege by the combined English, Bantenese, and Jayakartan forces. They are relieved by Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
and a fleet of nineteen ships out of Ambon. Coen had burned Jepara
Jepara
and its EIC post along the way. The VOC levels the old city of Jayakarta
Jayakarta
and builds its new headquarters, Batavia, on top of it.

Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
(8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629), the founder of Batavia, was an officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

1620s[edit]

1620: Emperor Ferdinand II defeats the Bohemian rebels in the Battle of White Mountain. 1620: The Brownist Pilgrims arrive in the Mayflower
Mayflower
at Cape Cod. 1620–1621: Polish-Ottoman War over Moldavia. 1620: Bethlen Gabor
Bethlen Gabor
allies with the Ottomans and an invasion of Moldavia
Moldavia
takes place. The Polish suffer a disaster at Cecora
Cecora
on the River Prut. 1620: Almost the entire native population of Banda Islands
Banda Islands
was deported, driven away, starved to death or killed in an attempt to replace them with Dutch colonial slave labour. 1620: Diplomatic agreements in Europe commence a three-year period of cooperation between the Dutch and the English over the spice trade.[5] 1621: The Battle of Chocim: Poles and Cossacks
Cossacks
under Jan Karol Chodkiewicz defeat the Ottomans. 1622: Capture of Ormuz; The island of Hormuz was captured by an Anglo-Persian force from Portuguese. 1622: Deposition and regicide of Ottoman sultan Osman II. 1622: Jamestown massacre: Algonquian natives kill 347 English settlers outside Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
(one-third of the colony's population) and burn the Henricus
Henricus
settlement. 1623: Maffeo Barberini
Barberini
is elected Pope Urban VIII
Pope Urban VIII
at the Papal conclave of 1623. 1623: In a notorious but disputed incident, known as the 'Amboyna massacre', ten English and ten Japanese traders are arrested, tried and beheaded for conspiracy against the Dutch Government.[8] The English quietly withdraw from most of their Indonesian activities (except trading in Bantam) and focus on other Asian interests. 1624–1642: As chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
centralises power in France. 1624: The Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
invades the Portuguese colony of Bahia
Bahia
in Brazil. 1625: New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
founded by the Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
in North America. 1625: Sultan Agung
Sultan Agung
of Mataram Sultanate
Mataram Sultanate
conquered Surabaya, a merchant city and Mataram's strongest rival in east Java. 1626: St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
in the Vatican completed. 1627: Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
lays siege to Protestant La Rochelle, which eventually capitulates. 1627: Aurochs
Aurochs
go extinct. 1628—1629: Sultan Agung of Mataram
Sultan Agung of Mataram
launched a failed campaign to conquer Dutch Batavia. 1629: Abbas I, the Safavids
Safavids
king, died. 1629: Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
allies with Swedish Protestant forces in the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
to counter Ferdinand II's expansion. 1629: Iskandar Muda
Iskandar Muda
of Aceh
Aceh
Sultanate launched a failed attempt to take Portuguese Malacca.

1630s[edit]

1630: The Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
invades the Portuguese colony of Pernambuco
Pernambuco
and founds Dutch Brazil. 1631: Mount Vesuvius erupts. 1632: Battle of Lützen, death of king of Sweden Gustav II Adolf. 1632: Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
building work started in Agra, India. 1633: Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. 1633–1639: Japan transforms into "locked country". 1634: Battle of Nördlingen results in Catholic victory. 1634: Emperor Fasilides expels the Catholic Patriarch Afonso Mendes and several Jesuit
Jesuit
missionaries from Ethiopia. 1636: Emperor Fasilides founds the city of Gondar, which becomes the capital of Ethiopia for the next two centuries. 1636: Harvard University
Harvard University
is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1636: The Portuguese are expelled again from their Solor
Solor
fort by the Dutch following a reoccupation. 1637: Shimabara Rebellion
Shimabara Rebellion
of Japanese Christians, rōnin and peasants against Edo. 1637: René Descartes
René Descartes
publishes "Discours de la Méthode" ("The Discourse on the Method") in French. 1637: The first opera house, Teatro San Cassiano, opens in Venice. 1637: Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
attacked Joseon dynasty. 1639: Naval Battle of the Downs
Battle of the Downs
– Republic of the United Provinces fleet decisively defeats a Spanish fleet in English waters. 1639: Disagreements between the Farnese and Barberini
Barberini
Pope Urban VIII escalate into the Wars of Castro
Wars of Castro
and last until 1649. 1639–1651: Wars of the Three Kingdoms, civil wars throughout Scotland, Ireland, and England.

1640s[edit]

1640: King Charles was compelled to summon Parliament
Parliament
due to the revolt of the Scots. 1640–1668: The Portuguese Restoration War led to the end of the Iberian Union. 1640: Torture
Torture
is outlawed in England. 1641: The Irish Rebellion. 1641: René Descartes
René Descartes
publishes Meditationes de prima philosophia Meditations on First Philosophy. 1642: 5th Dalai Lama
5th Dalai Lama
swept power in Tibet, he established the theocratic state in Tibet
Tibet
after series battles against regional Kingdoms. 1642: Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman
Abel Janszoon Tasman
achieves the first recorded European sighting of New Zealand. 1642: Beginning of English Civil War, conflict will end in 1649
1649
with the execution of King Charles I, abolishment of the monarchy and the establishment of the supremacy of Parliament
Parliament
over the king. 1643: Louis XIV
Louis XIV
is crowned King of France. He reigned over the Kingdom of France
France
until his death in 1715, making his reign the longest of any monarch in history at 72 years and 110 days. 1643: L'incoronazione di Poppea, Monterverdi 1644: Giovanni Battista Pamphili
Pamphili
is elected Pope Innocent X
Pope Innocent X
at the Papal conclave of 1644. 1644: The Manchu conquer China
China
ending the Ming dynasty. The subsequent Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
rules until 1912. 1644–1674: The Mauritanian Thirty- Year
Year
War. 1644: An alliance with Scotland enables Parliamentarian forces to win the Battle of Marston Moor 1645-1647: East Anglian Witch Hunt;[9] catalysed by Matthew Hopkins 1645: The death of Miyamoto Musashi, legendary Japanese Samurai warrior, of natural causes. 1645–1669: Ottoman war with Venice. The Ottomans invade Crete
Crete
and capture Canea. 1645: British Royale Society 1646: Sultan Agung of Mataram
Sultan Agung of Mataram
dies – and is buried at his graveyard at Imogiri 1646: Defeated, King Charles I flees and surrenders to the Scottish. The First Civil War has ended in a victory for Parliament. 1647: Seven-year-old Mehmed IV
Mehmed IV
becomes sultan. 1647–1652: The Great Plague of Seville. 1648: The Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
ends the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
and the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
and marks the ends of Spain
Spain
and the Holy Roman Empire as major European powers. 1648–1653: Fronde
Fronde
civil war in France. 1648–1657: The Khmelnytsky Uprising
Khmelnytsky Uprising
– a Cossack rebellion in Ukraine
Ukraine
which turned into a Ukrainian war of liberation from Poland. 1648–1667: The Deluge wars leave Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
in ruins. 1648–1669: The Ottomans capture Crete
Crete
from the Venetians after the Siege of Candia. 1649: King Charles I is executed for High treason, the first and only English king to be subjected to legal proceedings in a High Court of Justice and put to death. 1649–1653: The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.

1650s[edit]

1650: Francesco Redi
Francesco Redi
challenges the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies. 1651: English Civil War
English Civil War
ends with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester. 1652: Cape Town
Cape Town
founded by the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
in South Africa. 1653: Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
dissolves the Rump Parliament
Parliament
and replaces it with the Nominated Assembly (also called the Assembly of Saints or Barebones Parliament.) After three months, the Nominated Assembly passes a motion to dissolve itself and Cromwell establishes the Protectorate. 1656–1661: Mehmed Köprülü
Mehmed Köprülü
is Grand Vizier. 1654: The British Museum
British Museum
was first opened. 1655: The English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort in Jamaica. 1655–1661: The Northern Wars cement Sweden's rise as a Great Power. 1658: After his father Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
completes the Taj Mahal, his son Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
deposes him as ruler of the Mughal Empire. 1658: Cromwell dies and his son Richard becomes Lord Protector. 1659: Richard Cromwell
Richard Cromwell
is pressured into dissolving the Protectorate; the Rump Parliament
Parliament
is restored.

1660s[edit]

1660: The Commonwealth of England
Commonwealth of England
ends and the monarchy is brought back during the English Restoration. 1660: Royal Society
Royal Society
of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge founded. 1660: Royale General Post Office 1661: Mehmed Köprülü
Mehmed Köprülü
dies and is succeeded by his son Ahmed. 1661: The reign of the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
of China
China
begins. 1661: Cardinal Mazarin, de facto ruler of France, dies. 1662: Koxinga
Koxinga
captures Taiwan
Taiwan
from the Dutch and founds the Kingdom of Tungning, which rules until 1683. 1662: Jacques Aymar-Vernay, who later reintroduced Dowsing
Dowsing
into popular use in Europe, is born. 1663: Ottoman war against Habsburg Hungary. 1663: France
France
takes full political and military control over its colonial possessions in New France. 1663: Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
discovers cells using a microscope. 1664: The Battle of St. Gotthard: count Raimondo Montecuccoli
Raimondo Montecuccoli
defeats the Ottomans. The Peace of Vasvar
Peace of Vasvar
– intended to keep the peace for 20 years. 1664: British troops capture New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
and rename it New York. 1664: John Evelyn's forestry book, Sylva, is published in England. 1665: The Great Plague of London. 1665: Portugal defeats the Kongo Empire
Kongo Empire
at the Battle of Mbwila. 1665–1667: The Second Anglo-Dutch War
Second Anglo-Dutch War
fought between England
England
and the United Provinces. 1666: The 10th Sikh
Sikh
guru, Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
is born in Patna Sahib. 1666- The Great Shivaji-Agra Visit 1666: The Great Fire of London. 1667: The Raid on the Medway
Raid on the Medway
during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. 1667–1668: The War of Devolution; France
France
invades the Netherlands. The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668) brings this to a halt. 1667–1699: The Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War
halts the Ottoman Empire's expansion into Europe. 1667: As a result of the Treaty of Breda between Dutch and England, the Dutch secured a worldwide monopoly on nutmeg by forcing England
England
to give up their claim on Run, the most remote of the Banda Islands. While the Dutch did not press their claims on New Netherland. 1668: Peace Treaty of Lisbon between Spain
Spain
and Portugal recognizes Portugal as independent country. 1669: The Ottomans capture Crete.

View of Canton with merchant ship of the Dutch East India Company, c. 1665

1670s[edit]

1670: The Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
was founded in New France
New France
(Modern-day Canada) 1670: The city of Charleston is founded in present-day South Carolina. 1672–1673: Ottoman campaign to help the Ukrainian Cossacks. John Sobieski defeats the Ottomans at the second battle of Khotyn (1673). 1672–1676: Polish-Ottoman War. 1672: Rampjaar
Rampjaar
in the Netherlands
Netherlands
– Combined attack by France, England
England
and two German states on the Republic of the United Provinces. 1672: Lynching of Johan de Witt
Johan de Witt
and his brother Cornelis de Witt
Cornelis de Witt
in the Hague – William III of Orange takes power. 1672–1678: Franco-Dutch War. 1673: Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
is the first to observe microbes with a homemade microscope, using samples he collected from his teeth scrapings, raindrops, and his own feces. He calls them "animalcules." 1674: The Treaty of Westminster ends the war between England
England
and the Republic of the United Provinces. 1674: Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
founded in India by Shivaji. 1676: The Treaty of Zurawno brings Polish-Ottoman hostilities to a halt. 1675: Greenwich Observatory 1676: Kara Mustafa
Kara Mustafa
becomes Grand Vizier. 1676–1681: Russia and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
commence the Russo-Turkish Wars. 1678: The Treaty of Nijmegen
Treaty of Nijmegen
ends various interconnected wars among France, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, and the Holy Roman Empire.

French invasion of the Netherlands, which Louis XIV
Louis XIV
initiated in 1672, starting the Franco-Dutch War

The Battle of Vienna
Vienna
marked the historic end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
into Europe.

1680s[edit]

1680: The Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
drives the Spanish out of New Mexico until 1692. 1680: Johnathan's Coffee-House, John Miles 1681: The Pasha of Buda
Buda
supports Imre Thököly's rebellion in Hungary. 1682: Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed IV, advised by Kara Mustafa, decides to disregard the existing peace treaty with Leopold I, due to expire in 1684. 1682: Peter the Great becomes joint ruler of Russia (sole tsar in 1696). 1682: La Salle explores the length of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and claims Louisiana for France. 1682: Chateau de Versailles, Saint-Gobain 1683: China
China
conquers the Kingdom of Tungning
Kingdom of Tungning
and annexes Taiwan. 1683: The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
is defeated in the second Siege of Vienna. 1683-1699: The Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War
leads to the conquest of most of Ottoman Hungary
Ottoman Hungary
by the Habsburgs. 1685: Edict of Fontainebleau
Edict of Fontainebleau
outlaws Protestantism in France. King Charles II dies. 1687: Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
publishes Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. 1688: The Siege of Derry. 1688: Siamese revolution of 1688
1688
ousted French influence and virtually severed all ties with the West until the 19th century. 1688–1689: The Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
starts with the Dutch Republic invading England, England
England
becomes a constitutional monarchy. 1688–1691: The War of the Two Kings in Ireland. 1688–1697: The Grand Alliance sought to stop French expansion during the Nine Years War. 1689: William and Mary ascend to the throne over England, Scotland, and Ireland. 1689: John Locke
John Locke
publishes his first 'Letter Concerning Toleration'. 1689: The Treaty of Nerchinsk
Treaty of Nerchinsk
established a border between Russia and China. 1689: The Battle of Killiecrankie
Battle of Killiecrankie
is fought between Jacobite and Williamite
Williamite
forces in Highland Perthshire. 1689: The Karposh rebellion is crushed in present-day Republic of Macedonia, Skopje is retaken by the Ottoman Turks. Karposh is killed, and the rebels are defeated. 1689: Two Treatises of Government, John Locke 1689: Bill of Rights

1690s[edit]

1690: The Battle of the Boyne
Battle of the Boyne
in Ireland. 1692: Salem witch trials
Salem witch trials
in Massachusetts. 1692: Port Royal in Jamaica is destroyed by an earthquake and tsunami, estimated 2000 die, 2300 are injured. 1692–1694: Famine
Famine
in France
France
kills 2 million.[10] 1693: The College of William and Mary
The College of William and Mary
is founded in Williamsburg, Virginia, by a royal charter. 1694: The Bank of England
England
is established. 1694: Mary II of England
England
dies. 1695: The Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
nearly bans the East India Company
East India Company
in response to pirate Henry Every's capture of the Ganj-i-Sawai. 1696–1697: Famine
Famine
in Finland
Finland
wipes out almost one-third of the population.[11] 1697: The earliest known first-class cricket match takes place in Sussex. 1697-1699: Grand Embassy of Peter the Great 1699: The 10th Sikh
Sikh
guru, Guru Gobind Singh, establishes the Khalsa. 1699: The Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
ends the Great Turkish War. 1699: Thomas Savery
Thomas Savery
demonstrates his first steam engine to the Royal Society. 1700: With the decline of the spice trade, textiles are now the most important trade item in the Dutch East Indies.[12]

Significant people[edit]

Louis XIV

Cardinal Richelieu

Oliver Cromwell

Gustav II Adolf
Gustav II Adolf
of Sweden

Anne of Austria, Queen of France

Abbas I of Persia, shah Ahmed I, sultan of Turkey Alexis of Russia, tsar of Russia (1629–1676) Anne of Austria, queen consort and regent of France
France
(1601–1666) Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden (1594–1632) Aurangzeb, Moghol emperor Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Bohdan Khmelnytsky
(1595–1657), hetman of Cossacks Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan, lover of Louis XIV (1641–1707) Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, wife of Louis XIV (1635–1719) Guru Teg Bahadur, 9th Sikh
Sikh
Guru (1621–1675) Gabriel Bethlen, Hungarian prince of Transylvania
Transylvania
(1580–1629) Shivaji
Shivaji
Bhonsle, the creator of Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
(1630–1680) Queen Christina of Sweden, high-profile Catholic convert, matron of arts (1626–1689) Charles I of England
Charles I of England
(1600–1649) Charles II of England
England
(1630–1685) Charles II of Spain
Spain
(1661–1700) Jean-Baptiste Colbert, chief minister of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France Louis de Bourbon, prince of Condé, French general(1621-1686) Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector
Lord Protector
of England, Scotland and Ireland (1599–1658) Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector
Lord Protector
of England, Scotland and Ireland (1626–1712) Henry IV of France
France
(1553-1610) Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
(1543–1616), the founder of the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan Jahangir, Moghol emperor James I of England
James I of England
(1566–1625) James II of England
England
(1633–1701) Kangxi Emperor, ruler of China Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
(1640–1705) Louis XIII
Louis XIII
of France, King of France
France
(1601–1643) Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France, King of France
France
(1638–1715) Maria Theresa of Spain, queen consort of France Marie de' Medici
Marie de' Medici
(1575-1642), regent of France Mary II of England
England
(1662–1694) Cardinal Mazarin, French prime minister of Italian origin (1602–1661) Mehmed IV, sultan of Turkey Murad IV, sultan of Turkey Peter the Great, first Russian emperor (1672–1725) Philip III of Spain, Spanish king (1578–1621) Philip IV of Spain, Spanish king (1605–1665) Philippe I, Duke of Orleans, ancestor of many European monarchs Dmitry Pozharsky, Russian prince, leader of anti-Polish uprising (1577–1642) Cardinal Richelieu, French prime minister (1585–1642) Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares, Spanish prime minister Michael of Russia, tsar of Russia (1596–1645) Michiel de Ruyter, Dutch admiral (1607–1676) Shah Jahan, Moghol emperor Jan III Sobieski, military leader and king of Poland
Poland
(1629–1696) Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, Catholic general in the Thirty Years' War (1559-1632) Imre Thököly, leader of the anti-Habsburg uprising in Hungary (1657–1705) Henri de Turenne, Marshal General of France
France
(1611-1675) Albrecht von Wallenstein, Catholic German general in the Thirty Years' War (1583–1634) William III of England
England
(1650–1702), stadthouder of the main provinces of the Republic of the United Provinces
Republic of the United Provinces
and King of England Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary of the Republic of the United Provinces – 1625–1672

Musicians[edit]

Claudio Monteverdi

See also: List of Baroque
Baroque
composers

Johann Christoph Bach, Composer and great-uncle of J.S. Bach, (1642–1703) John Blow, English composer (1649–1708) Dieterich Buxtehude, Danish-German composer Francesco Cavalli, Venetian opera composer (1602–1676) Marc-Antoine Charpentier, French composer (1643–1708) Arcangelo Corelli, Italian composer (1653–1713) Jean-Baptiste Lully, Italian-born composer regarded as the father of French opera (1632–1687) Claudio Monteverdi, the most prominent composer of his time and creator of Baroque
Baroque
(1567–1643) Johann Pachelbel, German composer (1653–1706) Henry Purcell, English composer (1659–1695) Alessandro Scarlatti, Italian opera composer (1660–1725) Heinrich Schütz, German composer (1585–1672)

Visual artists[edit]

Peter Paul Rubens

Rembrandt van Rijn

Diego Velazquez

See also: Baroque
Baroque
painting, Baroque
Baroque
architecture, and Baroque sculpture

Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Italian sculptor and architect (1598–1680) Francesco Borromini, Italian architect (1599–1667) Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, Italian painter (1571–1610) Anthony van Dyck, Flemish painter (1599–1641) Artemisia Gentileschi, Italian painter ( 1593
1593
– c. 1656) Frans Hals, Dutch painter (1580–1666) Georges de La Tour, French painter (1593–1652) Charles Le Brun, painter of Louis XIV André Le Nôtre, French landscape architect (1613–1700) Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Spanish painter (1617–1682) Nicolas Poussin, French painter (1594–1665) Guido Reni, Italian painter José de Ribera, Lo Spagnoletto (1591–1652) Rembrandt van Rijn, Dutch painter (1606–1669) Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, 1577–1640 Jan Steen, Dutch painter (1626–1679) Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez, Spanish painter (1599–1660) Vauban, French military architect Johannes Vermeer, Dutch painter (1632–1675) Christopher Wren, English architect Francisco de Zurbarán, Spanish painter (1598–1664)

Literature[edit]

Lope de Vega

Molière

See also: French literature of the 17th century
French literature of the 17th century
and Spanish Golden Age

Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, French poet and critic (1636–1711) John Bunyan, author of The Pilgrim's Progress
The Pilgrim's Progress
(1628–1688) Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Spanish dramatist (1600–1681) Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Spanish novelist (1574–1616) Pierre Corneille, French dramatist (1606–1684) Cyrano de Bergerac, French playwright and novelist (1619-1655) John Donne, English metaphysical poet (1572–1631) John Dryden, English poet (1631–1700) Jean de La Fontaine, French poet (1621–1695) Luis de Góngora, Spanish poet (1561–1627) Juana Inés de la Cruz, Mexican poet (1651-1695) Ben Jonson, English dramatist (1572–1637) Matsuo Bashō, the first author of haiku (1644-1694) François de La Rochefoucauld, French author (1613–1680) John Milton, English author and poet (1608–1674) Molière, French dramatist (1622–1673) Tirso de Molina, Spanish dramatist (1579–1648) Miyamoto Musashi, Japanese samurai and author (1584–1645) Samuel Pepys, English civil servant and diarist (1633–1703) Charles Perrault, French author of fairy tales (1628-1703) Francisco de Quevedo, Spanish writer (1580–1645) Jean Racine, French dramatist (1639–1699) William Shakespeare, English playwright (1564–1616) Félix Lope de Vega, Spanish playwright (1562–1635)

Explorers[edit]

Abel Tasman

See also: Exploration

William Baffin, English navigator in Northwest Passage Evliya Çelebi, Ottoman traveler Samuel de Champlain, French founder of Canada Semyon Dezhnyov
Semyon Dezhnyov
(1605–1672), Russian explorer of Siberia Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson
(1570?–1611), English navigator of North America René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, French explorer of Mississippi Matteo Ricci, Italian missionary in China Abel Janszoon Tasman
Abel Janszoon Tasman
(1603–1659), Dutch seafarer of Australia Luis Váez de Torres
Luis Váez de Torres
(c. 1565–1607), Spanish explorer of the Pacific

Science and philosophy[edit]

Johannes Kepler

René Descartes

Galileo Galilei

Hugo Grotius

Blaise Pascal

Sir Isaac Newton

Gottfried Leibniz

See also: Scientific Revolution
Scientific Revolution
and Age of Reason

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch biologist Athanasius Kircher, German polymath Baruch Spinoza, Dutch philosopher (1632–1677) Blaise Pascal, French mathematician and philosopher (1623–1662) Christiaan Huygens, Dutch inventor, physicist and astronomer (1629–1695) Edmond Halley, English astronomer Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist and mathematician Francis Bacon, English methodologist and politician (1561–1626) Francis de Sales, doctor of the Church Galileo Galilei, Italian astronomer (1564–1642) Giovanni Cassini, Italian-French astronomer Gottfried Leibniz, German philosopher and mathematician (1646–1716) Hugo Grotius, Dutch political scientist Isaac Newton, English physicist, mathematician and philosopher (1643–1727) Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, French theologian Jacob Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician Johannes Amos Comenius, Czech educationist Johannes Kepler, German astronomer (1571–1630) John Locke, English philosopher (1632–1704) John Napier, Scottish inventor of the logarithms (1550–1617) Margaret Mary Alacoque, French mystic Marin Mersenne, (1588–1648), French polymath Ole Rømer, Danish astronomer (1644−1710) Otto von Guericke, German inventor (1602−1686) Pierre Bayle, French freethinker Pierre de Fermat, French mathematician (1601–1665) Pierre Gassendi, French philosopher René Descartes, French philosopher and mathematician (1596–1650) Robert Boyle, the founder of chemistry Robert Hooke, English biologist and physicist (1635−1703) Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (1588–1679) Tommaso Campanella, Italian philosopher William Harvey, English biologist (1578–1657)

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit] See also: List of 1 7th century
7th century
inventions Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterized as the Scientific revolution.

Banknotes reintroduced in Europe. Ice cream. Tea and coffee become popular in Europe. Central Banking
Banking
in France
France
and modern Finance
Finance
by Scottish economist John Law. Minarets, Jamé Mosque of Isfahan, Isfahan, Persia
Persia
(Iran), are built. 1604: Supernova SN 1604
1604
is observed in the Milky Way. 1605: Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
starts investigating elliptical orbits of planets. 1605: Johann Carolus
Johann Carolus
of Germany publishes the 'Relation', the first newspaper. 1608: Refracting telescope's first appear. Dutch spectacle-maker Hans Lippershey tries to obtain a patent on one spreading word of the invention. 1610: The Orion Nebula
Orion Nebula
is identified by Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc of France. 1610: Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
and Simon Marius
Simon Marius
observe Jupiter's Galilean moons. 1611: King James Bible
King James Bible
or 'Authorized Version' first published. 1612: The first flintlock musket likely created for Louis XIII
Louis XIII
of France
France
by gunsmith Marin Bourgeois. 1614: John Napier
John Napier
introduces the logarithm to simplify calculations. 1616: Niccolò Zucchi
Niccolò Zucchi
describes experiments with a bronze parabolic mirror trying to make a reflecting telescope. 1620: Cornelis Drebbel, funded by James I of England, builds the first 'submarine' made of wood and greased leather. 1623: The first English dictionary, 'English Dictionarie' is published by Henry Cockeram, listing difficult words with definitions. 1628: William Harvey
William Harvey
publishes and elucidates his earlier discovery of the circulatory system. 1637: Dutch Bible published. 1637: Teatro San Cassiano, the first public opera house, opened in Venice. 1637: Pierre de Fermat
Pierre de Fermat
formulates his so-called Last Theorem, unsolved until 1995. 1637: Although Chinese naval mines were earlier described in the 14th century Huolongjing, the Tian Gong Kai Wu book of Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
scholar Song Yingxing
Song Yingxing
describes naval mines wrapped in a lacquer bag and ignited by an ambusher pulling a rip cord on the nearby shore that triggers a steel-wheel flint mechanism. 1642: Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal
invents the mechanical calculator called Pascal's calculator. 1642: Mezzotint
Mezzotint
engraving introduces grey tones to printed images. 1643: Evangelista Torricelli
Evangelista Torricelli
of Italy invents the mercury barometer. 1645: Giacomo Torelli
Giacomo Torelli
of Venice, Italy invents the first rotating stage. 1651: Giovanni Riccioli renames the lunar maria. 1656: Christiaan Huygens
Christiaan Huygens
describes the true shape of the rings of Saturn. 1657: Christiaan Huygens
Christiaan Huygens
develops the first functional pendulum clock based on the learnings of Galileo Galilei. 1659: Christiaan Huygens
Christiaan Huygens
first to observe surface details of Mars. 1662: Christopher Merret
Christopher Merret
presents first paper on the production of sparkling wine. 1663: James Gregory publishes designs for a reflecting telescope. 1669: The first known operational reflecting telescope is built by Isaac Newton. 1676: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
discovers Bacteria. 1676: First measurement of the speed of light. 1679: Binary system developed by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. 1684: Calculus
Calculus
independently developed by both Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
and used to formulate classical mechanics.

References[edit]

^ "The Thirty-Years-War". Western New England
England
College. Archived from the original on 1999-10-09. Retrieved 2008-05-24.  ^ "The Seventeenth- Century
Century
Decline". The Library of Iberian resources online. Retrieved 13 August 2008.  ^ Peter Barrett (2004), Science and Theology Since Copernicus: The Search for Understanding, p. 14, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 0-567-08969-X ^ a b c d Ricklefs (1991), page 28 ^ a b c d e Ricklefs (1991), page 29 ^ History of UST UST.edu.ph. Retrieved December 21, 2008. ^ The Tatar Khanate of Crimea ^ Miller, George (ed.) (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 967-65-3099-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "Suffolk's history of witch trials". 2009-12-02. Retrieved 2018-02-14.  ^ Alan Macfarlane (1997). The savage wars of peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian trap. Wiley . p. 64. ISBN 0-631-18117-2 ^ Karen J. Cullen (2010). " Famine
Famine
in Scotland: The 'Ill Years' of the 1690s". Edinburgh University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-7486-3887-3 ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 63

Further reading[edit]

Chang, Chun-shu, and Shelley Hsueh-lun Chang. Crisis and Transformation in Seventeenth- Century
Century
China" (1998). Reid, A. J. S. Trade and State Power in 16th & 17th Century Southeast Asia (1977). Spence, J. D. The Death of Woman Wang: Rural Life in China
China
in the 17th Century
Century
(1978).

Focus on Europe[edit]

Clark, George. The Seventeenth Century
Century
(2nd ed. 1945). Hampshire, Stuart. The Age of Reason
Age of Reason
the 17th Century
Century
Philosophers, Selected, with Introduction and Interpretive Commentary (1961). Lewitter, Lucian Ryszard. "Poland, the Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia in the 17th Century." The Slavonic and East European Review (1948): 157–171. in JSTOR Ogg, David. Europe in the Seventeenth Century
Century
(6th ed. 1965). Rowbotham, Sheila. Hidden from history: Rediscovering women in history from the 1 7th century
7th century
to the present (1976). Trevor-Roper, Hugh R.
Trevor-Roper, Hugh R.
"The general crisis of the 17th century." Past & Present 16 (1959): 31–64.

External links[edit]

Vistorica: Timelines of 1 7th century
7th century
events, science, culture and persons

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