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The 17TH CENTURY was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601
1601
, to December 31, 1700 , in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the Baroque
Baroque
cultural movement, the Dutch Golden Age
Dutch Golden Age
, the French Grand Siècle
Grand Siècle
(fr) dominated by Louis XIV
Louis XIV
, the Scientific Revolution
Scientific Revolution
, and according to some historians, the General Crisis . The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years\' War , the Great Turkish War , and the Dutch-Portuguese War . It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe. Louis XIV
Louis XIV
visiting the Académie des sciences in 1671. "It is widely accepted that 'modern science ' arose in the Europe of the 17th century, introducing a new understanding of the natural world." —Peter Barrett New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York City
New York City
. Shogun
Shogun
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
is the founder of Japan's last shogunate, which lasted well into the 19th century
19th century
Miyamoto Musashi, Self-portrait
Self-portrait
, Samurai
Samurai
, writer and artist, c. 1640 A scene on the ice, Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
, first half of 17th century Persian Ambassador during his entry into Kraków for the wedding ceremonies of King Sigismund III of Poland
Sigismund III of Poland
in 1605. Catholic general Albrecht von Wallenstein René Descartes
René Descartes
with Queen Christina of Sweden
Christina of Sweden
. James I of England
James I of England
and VI of Scotland Tsar
Tsar
Michael I of Russia
Michael I of Russia
Battle of Nördlingen (1634) . The Catholic Imperial army, bolstered by professional Spanish troops won a great victory in the battle over the combined Protestant armies of Sweden and their German allies The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum
Rijksmuseum
, Amsterdam
Amsterdam
The massacre of settlers in 1622. The massacre was instrumental in causing English colonists to view all natives as enemies. Map of Europe in 1648 at the end of the Thirty Years\' War Claiming Louisiana for France
France
Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed IV Cardinal Mazarin Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Bohdan Khmelnytsky
(left) with Tugay Bey (right) at Lviv
Lviv
, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko
Jan Matejko
, 1885 Crimean Tatar soldier fighting with the soldier of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth . Europe's steppe frontier was in a state of semi-permanent warfare until the 18th century.

In the Islamic world
Islamic world
, the Ottoman , Safavid
Safavid
Persian and Mughal empires grew in strength. In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
established the Edo period
Edo period
at the beginning of the century, starting the isolationist Sakoku
Sakoku
policy that was to last until the 19th century. In China, the collapsing Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci
Nurhaci
, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji and finally consummated by his grandson, the Shunzi Emperor , founder of the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
.

European politics were dominated by the Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
of Louis XIV , where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde . The semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a greatly expanded royal court could be more easily kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France
France
to be expanded. It was during this century that English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament
Parliament
was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France.

By the end of the century, Europeans were aware of logarithms , electricity , the telescope and microscope , calculus , universal gravitation , Newton\'s Laws of Motion , air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution , including Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
, Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
, René Descartes , Pierre Fermat , Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal
, Robert Boyle
Robert Boyle
, Christiaan Huygens , Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
, Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
, Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
. It was also a period of development of culture in general (especially theater, music, visual arts and philosophy).

CONTENTS

* 1 Events

* 1.1 1600s * 1.2 1610s * 1.3 1620s * 1.4 1630s * 1.5 1640s * 1.6 1650s * 1.7 1660s * 1.8 1670s * 1.9 1680s * 1.10 1690s

* 2 Significant people

* 2.1 Religious leaders * 2.2 Politicians * 2.3 Musicians * 2.4 Visual artists * 2.5 Literature * 2.6 Explorers * 2.7 Science and philosophy

* 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions * 4 References

* 5 Further reading

* 5.1 Focus on Europe

* 6 External links

EVENTS

1600S

* 1600
1600
: On February 17 Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake by the Inquisition
Inquisition
. * 1600
1600
: Michael the Brave unifies the three Romanian countries: Wallachia
Wallachia
, Moldavia
Moldavia
and Transylvania
Transylvania
after the Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599. * 1601
1601
: Battle of Kinsale , England
England
defeats Irish and Spanish forces at the town of Kinsale, driving the Gaelic aristocracy out of Ireland and destroying the Gaelic clan system. * 1601
1601
: Michael the Brave (first unifier of Romania), voivode of Wallachia
Wallachia
, Moldavia
Moldavia
and Transylvania
Transylvania
, is assassinated by the order of the Habsburg general Giorgio Basta at Câmpia Turzii . * 1601
1601
1603
1603
: The Russian famine of 1601– 1603
1603
kills perhaps one-third of Russia. * 1601
1601
: Panembahan Senopati , first king of Mataram , dies and passes rule to his son Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak * 1601
1601
: Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci
is given permission to live in Beijing. * 1602
1602
: Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci
produces the Map of the Myriad Countries of the World (坤輿萬國全圖, Kūnyú Wànguó Quántú), a world map that will be used throughout East Asia for centuries. * 1602
1602
: The Portuguese send a major (and last) expeditionary force from Malacca
Malacca
which succeeded in reimposing a degree of Portuguese control. * 1602
1602
: The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC) is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies. Its success contributes to the Dutch Golden Age
Dutch Golden Age
. * 1602
1602
: June, British East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster , arrives in Aceh
Aceh
and sails on to Bantam where he is allowed to build trading post which becomes the centre of British trade in Indonesia until 1682. * 1602
1602
: Two emissaries from the Aceh
Aceh
Sultanate visit the Dutch Republic . * 1603
1603
: Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland , uniting the crowns of Scotland and England. * 1603
1603
: Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
takes the title of Shogun
Shogun
, establishing the Tokugawa Shogunate
Tokugawa Shogunate
. This begins the Edo period
Edo period
, which will last until 1869. * 1603
1603
1623 : After modernizing his army, Abbas I expands the Persian Empire by capturing territory from the Ottomans and the Portuguese . * 1603
1603
: First permanent Dutch trading post is established in Banten , West Java
West Java
. First successful VOC privateering raid on a Portuguese ship. * 1604 : A second English East India Company
English East India Company
voyage commanded by Sir Henry Middleton reaches Ternate, Tidore, Ambon and Banda. Fierce VOC hostility is encountered in Banda thus beginning Anglo-Dutch competition for access to spices * 1605
1605
: Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
passes the title of Shogun
Shogun
to his son, Tokugawa Hidetada , and "retires" to Sunpu . * 1605
1605
: Gunpowder Plot failed in England. * 1605
1605
: The fortresses of Veszprém
Veszprém
and Visegrad are retaken by the Ottomans . * 1605
1605
: February, The VOC in alliance with Hitu prepare to attack a Portuguese fort in Ambon but the Portuguese surrender. * 1605
1605
: Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak of Mataram establishes control over Demak , former center of the Demak Sultanate
Demak Sultanate
. * 1605
1605
: The King of Gowa , a Makassarese kingdom in South Sulawesi , converts to Islam * 1606
1606
: The Long War between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Austria is ended with the Peace of Zsitvatorok —Austria abandons Transylvania
Transylvania
. * 1606
1606
: Treaty of Vienna
Vienna
ends anti-Habsburg uprising in Royal Hungary . * 1606
1606
: Assassination of Stephen Bocskay of Transylvania
Transylvania
. * 1606
1606
: Time of Troubles : Vasili IV becomes Tzar of Russia. * 1606
1606
: The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
enters into an alliance with the Johor Sultanate
Johor Sultanate
to attack Portuguese Malacca
Malacca
, but they are repelled. * 1606
1606
: Captain Willem Janszoon
Willem Janszoon
and his crew aboard the Dutch East India Company ship Duyfken becomes the first recorded Europeans to sight and make landfall in Australia
Australia
. * 1606
1606
: A Spanish fleet occupies Ternate
Ternate
and Tidore
Tidore
. * 1607 : Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
, is settled as what would become the first permanent English colony in North America. * 1607 : Flight of the Earls
Flight of the Earls
(the fleeing of most of the native Gaelic aristocracy ) occurs from County Donegal
County Donegal
in the west of Ulster in Ireland. * 1607 : Iskandar Muda becomes the Sultan
Sultan
of Aceh
Aceh
(r. 1607–1637). He will launch a series of naval conquests that will transform Aceh into a great power in the western Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
. * 1608 : Quebec City
Quebec City
founded by Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain
in New France (present-day Canada). * 1608 : The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
establishes a settlement in Siamese Ayutthaya . * 1609 : The Netherlands
Netherlands
and Spain
Spain
agree to a Twelve Years\' Truce in the Eighty Years\' War . * 1609 : Maximilian of Bavaria establishes the Catholic League . * 1609 : The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
establishes a factory in Hirado , Japan. VOC traders also make forays into South Sulawesi
South Sulawesi
and Banjarmasin
Banjarmasin
, Borneo.

1610S

* 1610 : Pedro de Peralta , governor of New Mexico , establishes the settlement of Santa Fe . * 1610 : The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth army defeats combined Russian- Swedish forces at the Battle of Klushino and conquers Moscow. * 1610 : The VOC appoints Pieter Both as its first Governor-General to enable firmer control of their affairs in Asia. Previously all business had (in theory) required the approval of the Heeren XVII, a group of seventeen shareholders in Amsterdam. * 1610 : Ottoman Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Kuyucu Murad Pasha is able to crush the major remnants of the Jelali Revolts , bringing an end to general anarchy in Anatolia
Anatolia
. * 1610 : Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci
dies in Beijing. * 1610 : Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak of Mataram in Central Java attacks Surabaya
Surabaya
, a major power on the north coast. * 1610 : King Henry IV of France is assassinated by François Ravaillac . * 1611 : The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
, the oldest existing university in Asia, established by the Dominican Order in Manila * 1611 : The English establish trading posts at Sukadana (southwest Kalimantan
Kalimantan
), Makassar
Makassar
, Jayakarta and Jepara
Jepara
in Java
Java
, and Aceh, Pariaman and Jambi
Jambi
in ( Sumatra
Sumatra
) threatening Dutch ambitions for a monopoly on East Indies trade. * 1611 : The Kingdom of Gowa ends its major push to convert the Makassarese and Bugis in South Sulawesi
South Sulawesi
to Islam. * 1611 : The Dutch establish a post at Jayakarta (later 'Batavia' and then 'Jakarta'). * 1611 : A Dutch trader is killed in Banjarmasin
Banjarmasin
and the Dutch East India Trading Company sacks the city. * 1611 : The first publication of the King James Bible . * 1612 : Sultan
Sultan
Iskandar Muda of Aceh
Aceh
captures the North Sumatran port of Deli . * 1612 : Costwold Olympic Games , Robert Dover * 1613 : The Time of Troubles in Russia ends with the establishment of the House of Romanov
Romanov
, which rules until 1917. * 1613 1617 : Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is invaded by the Tatars dozens of times. * 1613 : The Dutch expel the Portuguese from their Solor fort, but won't stay for long. * 1613 : The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
makes its first forays into Timor
Timor
. * 1613 : Sultan
Sultan
Iskandar Muda of Aceh
Aceh
captures the North Sumatran port of Aru , subjugating the Sultanate of Deli
Sultanate of Deli
. This allows Aceh
Aceh
to focus its expansionary efforts on the Straits of Malacca
Malacca
. Iskandar Muda continues on to sack Johor and kidnap its Sultan's family, but is later forced to retreat back to Aceh. * 1613 : The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
is forced to evacuate Gresik because of the Mataram siege of neighboring Surabaya
Surabaya
. The VOC enters into negotiations with Mataram and is allowed to set up a trading post in Jepara
Jepara
. * 1613 : Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak of Mataram dies and is succeeded by his son . * 1614
1614
: John Napier publishes Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio, the first table of logarithms. * 1614
1614
: Sultan
Sultan
Iskandar Muda of Aceh
Aceh
sinks a Portuguese fleet off of Bintan Island
Bintan Island
. * 1615 : The Battle of Osaka (last major threat to Tokugawa Shogunate ) ends. * 1615 : A Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
attack on Portuguese Malacca
Malacca
is repelled. * 1615 : The Portuguese stop hiring Japanese mercenaries after a brawl in Malacca
Malacca
. * 1615 : Panembahan ing Alaga of Mataram conquers the Eastern Salient of Java
Java
(the heartland of the old Majapahit
Majapahit
Empire). * 1615 : The Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
is in open hostilities with the Kingdom of Gowa , South Sulawesi
South Sulawesi
. * 1616 : The last remaining Moriscos (Moors who had nominally converted to Christianity) in Spain
Spain
are expelled. * 1616 : Death of retired Shogun
Shogun
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
. * 1616 : English poet and playwright William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
dies. * 1617 : Sultan
Sultan
Iskandar Muda of Aceh
Aceh
conquers Pahang
Pahang
on the South China
China
Sea . * 1617 : Panembahan ing Alaga of Mataram puts down a major revolt in Pajang . * 1618 : The Defenestration of Prague . * 1618 : The Bohemian Revolt precipitates the Thirty Years\' War , which devastates Europe in the years 1618–48. * 1618 : Bethlen Gabor , Prince of Transylvania
Transylvania
joins Protestant Rebels. * 1618 : The Manchus start invading China. Their conquest eventually topples the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
. * 1618 : Dispute leads to the execution of Dutchmen in Mataram -controlled Jepara
Jepara
. * 1619 : Bethlen Gabor is defeated outside Vienna
Vienna
. * 1619 : Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
appointed Governor-General of the VOC who would show he had no scruples about using brute force to establish the VOC on a firm footing. While Ambon and Pattani had been the major VOC trading centers to this point, Coen is convinced that Dutch need a more central location near the Sunda Strait . * 1619 : Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
, English East India Company
English East India Company
, and Sultanate of Banten
Banten
all fighting over port city of Jayakarta . VOC forces storm the city and withstand a months-long siege by the combined English, Bantenese, and Jayakartan forces. They are relieved by Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
and a fleet of nineteen ships out of Ambon. Coen had burned Jepara
Jepara
and its EIC post along the way. The VOC levels the old city of Jayakarta and builds its new headquarters, Batavia , on top of it.

Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
(8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629), the founder of Batavia , was an officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies .

1620S

* 1620 : Emperor Ferdinand II defeats the Bohemian rebels in the Battle of White Mountain . * 1620 : The Brownist Pilgrims arrive in the Mayflower
Mayflower
at Cape Cod
Cape Cod
. * 1620 1621 : Polish-Ottoman War over Moldavia
Moldavia
. * 1620 : Bethlen Gabor allies with the Ottomans and an invasion of Moldavia
Moldavia
takes place. The Polish suffer a disaster at Cecora on the River Prut . * 1620 : Almost the entire native population of Banda Islands was deported, driven away, starved to death or killed in an attempt to replace them with Dutch colonial slave labour. * 1620 : Diplomatic agreements in Europe commence a three-year period of cooperation between the Dutch and the English over the spice trade. * 1621 : The Battle of Chocim : Poles and Cossacks
Cossacks
under Jan Karol Chodkiewicz defeat the Ottomans. * 1622 : Capture of Ormuz ; The island of Hormuz was captured by an Anglo-Persian force from Portuguese. * 1622 : Jamestown massacre : Algonquian natives kill 347 English settlers outside Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
(one-third of the colony's population) and burn the Henricus settlement. * 1623 : Maffeo Barberini is elected Pope Urban VIII
Pope Urban VIII
at the Papal conclave of 1623 . * 1623 : In a notorious but disputed incident, known as the 'Amboyna massacre ', ten English and ten Japanese traders are arrested, tried and beheaded for conspiracy against the Dutch Government. The English quietly withdraw from most of their Indonesian activities (except trading in Bantam) and focus on other Asian interests. * 1624 1642 : As chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu centralises power in France
France
. * 1624 : The Dutch West India Company invades the Portuguese colony of Bahia
Bahia
in Brazil
Brazil
. * 1625
1625
: New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
founded by the Dutch West India Company in North America. * 1625
1625
: Sultan Agung
Sultan Agung
of Mataram Sultanate
Mataram Sultanate
conquered Surabaya
Surabaya
, a merchant city and Mataram's strongest rival in east Java. * 1626
1626
: St. Peter\'s Basilica in the Vatican completed. * 1627 : Cardinal Richelieu lays siege to Protestant La Rochelle
La Rochelle
, which eventually capitulates. * 1627 : Aurochs
Aurochs
go extinct. * 1628 1629 : Sultan Agung of Mataram launched a failed campaign to conquer Dutch Batavia . * 1629 : Abbas I , the Safavids king, died. * 1629 : Cardinal Richelieu allies with Swedish Protestant forces in the Thirty Years\' War to counter Ferdinand II\'s expansion. * 1629 : Iskandar Muda of Aceh
Aceh
Sultanate launched a failed attempt to take Portuguese Malacca
Malacca
.

1630S

* 1630 : The Dutch West India Company invades the Portuguese colony of Pernambuco
Pernambuco
and founds Dutch Brazil
Brazil
. * 1631
1631
: Mount Vesuvius erupts. * 1632 : Battle of Lützen , death of king of Sweden Gustav II Adolf . * 1632 : Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
building work started in Agra, India . * 1633 : Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition
Inquisition
. * 1633 1639 : Japan
Japan
transforms into "locked country" . * 1634
1634
: Battle of Nördlingen results in Catholic victory. * 1634
1634
: Emperor Fasilides expels the Catholic Patriarch Afonso Mendes and several Jesuit
Jesuit
missionaries from Ethiopia. * 1636
1636
: Emperor Fasilides founds the city of Gondar , which becomes the capital of Ethiopia for the next two centuries. * 1636
1636
: Harvard University
Harvard University
is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts. * 1636
1636
: The Portuguese are expelled again from their Solor fort by the Dutch following a reoccupation. * 1637 : Shimabara Rebellion of Japanese Christians, rōnin and peasants against Edo. * 1637 : René Descartes
René Descartes
publishes "Discours de la Méthode" ("The Discourse on the Method ") in French. * 1637 : The first opera house, Teatro San Cassiano , opens in Venice. * 1637 : Qing dynasty attacked Joseon dynasty. * 1639 : Naval Battle of the Downs – Republic of the United Provinces fleet decisively defeats a Spanish fleet in English waters. * 1639 : Disagreements between the Farnese and Barberini Pope Urban VIII escalate into the Wars of Castro and last until 1649. * 1639 1651
1651
: Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
, civil wars throughout Scotland, Ireland, and England
England
.

1640S

* 1640 : King Charles was compelled to summon Parliament
Parliament
due to the revolt of the Scots. * 1640 1668 : The Portuguese Restoration War
Portuguese Restoration War
led to the end of the Iberian Union
Iberian Union
. * 1640 : Torture
Torture
is outlawed in England. * 1641 : The Tokugawa Shogunate
Tokugawa Shogunate
institutes Sakoku
Sakoku
– foreigners are expelled and no one is allowed to enter or leave Japan
Japan
. * 1641 : The Irish Rebellion . * 1641 : René Descartes
René Descartes
publishes Meditationes de prima philosophia Meditations on First Philosophy . * 1642 : 5th Dalai Lama
5th Dalai Lama
swept power in Tibet
Tibet
, he established the theocratic state in Tibet
Tibet
after series battles against regional Kingdoms. * 1642 : Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman achieves the first recorded European sighting of New Zealand. * 1642 : Beginning of English Civil War
English Civil War
, conflict will end in 1649 with the execution of King Charles I , abolishment of the monarchy and the establishment of the supremacy of Parliament
Parliament
over the king. * 1643 : L\'incoronazione di Poppea , Monterverdi * 1644 : Giovanni Battista Pamphili is elected Pope Innocent X at the Papal conclave of 1644 . * 1644 : The Manchu conquer China
China
ending the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
. The subsequent Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
rules until 1912. * 1644 1674 : The Mauritanian Thirty-Year War . * 1644 : An alliance with Scotland enables Parliamentarian forces to win the Battle of Marston Moor * 1645
1645
: The death of Miyamoto Musashi
Miyamoto Musashi
, legendary Japanese Samurai warrior, of natural causes. * 1645
1645
1669 : Ottoman war with Venice
Venice
. The Ottomans invade Crete and capture Canea . * 1645
1645
: British Royale Society * 1646
1646
: Sultan Agung of Mataram dies – and is buried at his graveyard at Imogiri * 1646
1646
: Defeated, King Charles I flees and surrenders to the Scottish. The First Civil War has ended in a victory for Parliament. * 1647
1647
: Seven-year-old Mehmed IV becomes sultan . * 1647
1647
1652 : The Great Plague of Seville . * 1648 : The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years\' War and the Eighty Years\' War and marks the ends of Spain
Spain
and the Holy Roman Empire as major European powers. * 1648 1653 : Fronde civil war in France
France
. * 1648 1657 : The Khmelnytsky Uprising
Khmelnytsky Uprising
– a Cossack rebellion in Ukraine
Ukraine
which turned into a Ukrainian war of liberation from Poland
Poland
. * 1648 1667 : The Deluge wars leave Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in ruins. * 1648 1669 : The Ottomans capture Crete
Crete
from the Venetians after the Siege of Candia . * 1649
1649
: King Charles I is executed for High treason , the first and only English king to be subjected to legal proceedings in a High Court of Justice and put to death. * 1649
1649
1653 : The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland .

1650S

* 1650
1650
: Francesco Redi
Francesco Redi
challenges the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies . * 1651
1651
: English Civil War
English Civil War
ends with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester
Battle of Worcester
. * 1652 : Cape Town
Cape Town
founded by the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
in South Africa. * 1653 : Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
dissolves the Rump Parliament
Parliament
and replaces it with the Nominated Assembly (also called the Assembly of Saints or Barebones Parliament.) After three months, the Nominated Assembly passes a motion to dissolve itself and Cromwell establishes the Protectorate. * 1654 1661 : Mehmed Köprülü is Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
. * 1654 : British Museum
British Museum
* 1655 : The English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort in Jamaica. * 1655 1661 : The Northern Wars cement Sweden\'s rise as a Great Power . * 1658 : After his father Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
completes the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
, his son Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
deposes him as ruler of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
. * 1658 : Cromwell dies and his son Richard becomes Lord Protector. * 1659 : Richard Cromwell is pressured into dissolving the Protectorate; the Rump Parliament
Parliament
is restored.

1660S

* 1660 : The Commonwealth of England
Commonwealth of England
ends and the monarchy is brought back during the English Restoration
English Restoration
. * 1660 : Royal Society
Royal Society
of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge founded. * 1660 : Royale General Post Office
General Post Office
* 1661 : Mehmed Köprülü dies and is succeeded by his son Ahmed. * 1661 : The reign of the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
of China
China
begins. * 1661 : Cardinal Mazarin , de facto ruler of France, dies. * 1662 : Koxinga captures Taiwan
Taiwan
from the Dutch and founds the Kingdom of Tungning
Kingdom of Tungning
, which rules until 1683. * 1662 : Jacques Aymar-Vernay , who later reintroduced Dowsing into popular use in Europe, is born. * 1663 : Ottoman war against Habsburg Hungary . * 1663 : France
France
takes full political and military control over its colonial possessions in New France
New France
. * 1663 : Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
discovers cells using a microscope. * 1664
1664
: The Battle of St. Gotthard : count Raimondo Montecuccoli defeats the Ottomans. The Peace of Vasvar – intended to keep the peace for 20 years. * 1664
1664
: British troops capture New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
and rename it New York. * 1664
1664
: John Evelyn 's forestry book, Sylva , is published in England. * 1665
1665
: The Great Plague of London
Great Plague of London
. * 1665
1665
: Portugal defeats the Kongo Empire at the Battle of Mbwila . * 1665
1665
1667 : The Second Anglo-Dutch War fought between England and the United Provinces . * 1666 : The 10th Sikh
Sikh
guru, Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
is born in Patna Sahib . * 1666 - The Great Shivaji-Agra Visit * 1666 : The Great Fire of London
Great Fire of London
. * 1667 : The Raid on the Medway during the Second Anglo-Dutch War . * 1667 1668 : The War of Devolution ; France
France
invades the Netherlands. The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668) brings this to a halt. * 1667 1699 : The Great Turkish War halts the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
's expansion into Europe. * 1667 : As a result of the Treaty of Breda between Dutch and England, the Dutch secured a worldwide monopoly on nutmeg by forcing England
England
to give up their claim on Run , the most remote of the Banda Islands . While the Dutch did not press their claims on New Netherland . * 1668 : Peace Treaty of Lisbon between Spain
Spain
and Portugal recognizes Portugal as independent country. * 1669 : The Ottomans capture Crete
Crete
.

View of Canton with merchant ship of the Dutch East India Company, c. 1665
1665

1670S

* 1670 : The Hudson\'s Bay Company was founded in New France (Modern-day Canada) * 1670 : The city of Charleston is founded in present-day South Carolina . * 1672
1672
1673
1673
: Ottoman campaign to help the Ukrainian Cossacks
Cossacks
. John Sobieski defeats the Ottomans at the second battle of Khotyn (1673) . * 1672
1672
1676 : Polish-Ottoman War . * 1672
1672
: Rampjaar
Rampjaar
in the Netherlands
Netherlands
– Combined attack by France, England
England
and two German states on the Republic of the United Provinces . * 1672
1672
: Lynching of Johan de Witt and his brother Cornelis de Witt in the Hague – William III of Orange takes power. * 1672
1672
1678
1678
: Franco-Dutch War
Franco-Dutch War
. * 1673
1673
: Antoni van Leeuwenhoek is the first to observe microbes with a homemade microscope, using samples he collected from his teeth scrapings, raindrops, and his own feces. He calls them "animalcules." * 1674 : The Treaty of Westminster ends the war between England
England
and the Republic of the United Provinces . * 1674 : Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
founded in India by Shivaji
Shivaji
. * 1676 : The Treaty of Zurawno brings Polish-Ottoman hostilities to a halt. * 1675 : Greenwich Observatory * 1676 : Kara Mustafa becomes Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
. * 1676 1681 : Russia and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
commence the Russo-Turkish Wars . * 1678
1678
: The Treaty of Nijmegen ends various interconnected wars among France, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, and the Holy Roman Empire.

French invasion of the Netherlands, which Louis XIV
Louis XIV
initiated in 1672, starting the Franco-Dutch War
Franco-Dutch War
The Battle of Vienna marked the historic end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
into Europe.

1680S

* 1680 : The Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
drives the Spanish out of New Mexico until 1692. * 1680 : Johnathan\'s Coffee-House , John Miles * 1681 : The Pasha of Buda
Buda
supports Imre Thököly 's rebellion in Hungary. * 1682 : Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed IV , advised by Kara Mustafa , decides to disregard the existing peace treaty with Leopold I , due to expire in 1684. * 1682 : Peter the Great becomes joint ruler of Russia (sole tsar in 1696). * 1682 : La Salle explores the length of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and claims Louisiana for France
France
. * 1682 : Chateau de Versailles
Chateau de Versailles
, Saint-Gobain
Saint-Gobain
* 1683 : China
China
conquers the Kingdom of Tungning
Kingdom of Tungning
and annexes Taiwan
Taiwan
. * 1683 : The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
is defeated in the second Siege of Vienna
Vienna
. * 1683 - 1699 : The Great Turkish War leads to the conquest of most of Ottoman Hungary by the Habsburgs. * 1685
1685
: Edict of Fontainebleau
Edict of Fontainebleau
outlaws Protestantism in France. King Charles II dies. * 1687 : Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
publishes Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica . * 1688 : The Siege of Derry . * 1688 : Siamese revolution of 1688 ousted French influence and virtually severed all ties with the West until the 19th century. * 1688 1689 : The Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
starts with the Dutch Republic invading England, England
England
becomes a constitutional monarchy . * 1688 1691 : The War of the Two Kings in Ireland. * 1688 1697 : The Grand Alliance sought to stop French expansion during the Nine Years War . * 1689 : William ascends to the throne over England, Scotland, and Ireland. * 1689 : John Locke
John Locke
publishes his first \'Letter Concerning Toleration\' . * 1689 : The Treaty of Nerchinsk established a border between Russia and China. * 1689 : The Battle of Killiecrankie is fought between Jacobite and Williamite forces in Highland Perthshire
Perthshire
. * 1689 : The Karposh rebellion is crushed in present-day Republic of Macedonia , Skopje is retaken by the Ottoman Turks. Karposh is killed, and the rebels are defeated. * 1689 : Two Treatises of Government , John Locke
John Locke
* 1689 : Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights

1690S

* 1690 : The Battle of the Boyne in Ireland. * 1692 : Salem witch trials
Salem witch trials
in Massachusetts . * 1692 : Port Royal in Jamaica is destroyed by an earthquake and tsunami , estimated 2000 die, 2300 are injured. * 1692 1694 : Famine
Famine
in France
France
kills 2 million. * 1693
1693
: The College of William and Mary
The College of William and Mary
is founded in Williamsburg, Virginia , by a royal charter. * 1694 : The Bank of England
England
is established. * 1694 : Mary II of England
England
dies. * 1695 : The Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
nearly bans the East India Company
East India Company
in response to pirate Henry Every
Henry Every
's capture of the Ganj-i-Sawai
Ganj-i-Sawai
. * 1696 1697 : Famine
Famine
in Finland
Finland
wipes out almost one-third of the population. * 1697 : The earliest known first-class cricket match takes place in Sussex
Sussex
. * 1697 - 1699 : Grand Embassy of Peter the Great * 1699 : The 10th Sikh
Sikh
guru, Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
, establishes the Khalsa . * 1699 : The Treaty of Karlowitz ends the Great Turkish War . * 1699 : Thomas Savery demonstrates his first steam engine to the Royal Society
Royal Society
. * 1700 : With the decline of the spice trade , textiles are now the most important trade item in the Dutch East Indies.

SIGNIFICANT PEOPLE

See also: English Restoration
English Restoration
Cardinal Richelieu Oliver Cromwell Gustav II Adolf
Gustav II Adolf
of Sweden Anne of Austria , Queen of France
France
Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
Rembrandt van Rijn
Rembrandt van Rijn
Diego Velazquez
Diego Velazquez
Moliere
Moliere
Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
René Descartes
René Descartes
Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz

RELIGIOUS LEADERS

* Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh

POLITICIANS

* Abbas I of Persia
Abbas I of Persia
, shah * Ahmed I , sultan of Turkey * Alexis of Russia
Alexis of Russia
, tsar of Russia (1629–1676) * Anne of Austria , queen consort and regent of France
France
(1601–1666) * Gustavus Adolphus , king of Sweden (1594–1632) * Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
, Moghol emperor * Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Bohdan Khmelnytsky
(1595–1657), hetman of Cossacks
Cossacks
* Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan , lover of Louis XIV (1641–1707) * Françoise d\'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon , wife of Louis XIV (1635–1719) * Guru Teg Bahadur , 9th Sikh
Sikh
Guru (1621–1675) * Gabriel Bethlen , Hungarian prince of Transylvania
Transylvania
(1580–1629) * Shivaji
Shivaji
Bhonsle , the creator of Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
(1630–1680) * Queen Christina of Sweden
Christina of Sweden
, high-profile Catholic convert, matron of arts (1626–1689) * Charles I of England
Charles I of England
(1600–1649) * Charles II of England
England
(1630–1685) * Charles II of Spain
Spain
(1661–1700) * Jean-Baptiste Colbert , chief minister of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France * Louis de Bourbon, prince of Condé , French general(1621-1686) * Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
, Lord Protector
Lord Protector
of England, Scotland and Ireland (1599–1658) * Richard Cromwell , Lord Protector
Lord Protector
of England, Scotland and Ireland (1626–1712) * Henry IV of France
France
(1553-1610) * Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
(1543–1616), the founder of the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan * Jahangir
Jahangir
, Moghol emperor * James I of England
James I of England
(1566–1625) * James II of England
England
(1633–1701) * Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
, ruler of China * Leopold I , Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
(1640–1705) * Louis XIII
Louis XIII
of France
France
, King of France
France
(1601–1643) * Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France
France
, King of France
France
(1638–1715) * Maria Theresa of Spain
Spain
, queen consort of France * Marie de\' Medici (1575-1642), regent of France * Mary II of England
England
(1662–1694) * Cardinal Mazarin , French prime minister of Italian origin (1602–1661) * Mehmed IV , sultan of Turkey * Murad IV
Murad IV
, sultan of Turkey * Peter the Great , first Russian emperor (1672–1725) * Philip III of Spain
Spain
, Spanish king (1578–1621) * Philip IV of Spain
Spain
, Spanish king (1605–1665) * Philippe I, Duke of Orleans , ancestor of many European monarchs * Dmitry Pozharsky , Russian prince, leader of anti-Polish uprising (1577–1642) * Cardinal Richelieu , French prime minister (1585–1642) * Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares , Spanish prime minister * Michael of Russia , tsar of Russia (1596–1645) * Michiel de Ruyter
Michiel de Ruyter
, Dutch admiral (1607–1676) * Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
, Moghol emperor * Jan III Sobieski , military leader and king of Poland (1629–1696) * Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly
Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly
, Catholic general in the Thirty Years\' War (1559-1632) * Imre Thököly , leader of the anti-Habsburg uprising in Hungary (1657–1705) * Henri de Turenne , Marshal General of France
France
(1611-1675) * Albrecht von Wallenstein , Catholic German general in the Thirty Years\' War (1583–1634) * William III of England
England
(1650–1702), stadthouder of the main provinces of the Republic of the United Provinces and King of England
England
* Johan de Witt , Grand Pensionary of the Republic of the United Provinces – 1625–1672

MUSICIANS

See also: List of Baroque
Baroque
composers

* Johann Christoph Bach , Composer and great-uncle of J.S. Bach, (1642–1703) * John Blow
John Blow
, English composer (1649–1708) * Dieterich Buxtehude
Dieterich Buxtehude
, Danish-German composer * Francesco Cavalli
Francesco Cavalli
, Venetian opera composer (1602–1676) * Marc-Antoine Charpentier
Marc-Antoine Charpentier
, French composer (1643–1708) * Arcangelo Corelli
Arcangelo Corelli
, Italian composer (1653–1713) * Jean-Baptiste Lully , Italian-born composer regarded as the father of French opera (1632–1687) * Claudio Monteverdi
Claudio Monteverdi
, the most prominent composer of his time and creator of Baroque
Baroque
(1567–1643) * Johann Pachelbel
Johann Pachelbel
, German composer (1653–1706) * Henry Purcell
Henry Purcell
, English composer (1659–1695) * Alessandro Scarlatti
Alessandro Scarlatti
, Italian opera composer (1660–1725) * Heinrich Schütz
Heinrich Schütz
, German composer (1585–1672)

VISUAL ARTISTS

See also: Baroque
Baroque
painting , Baroque
Baroque
architecture , and Baroque sculpture

* Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
, Italian sculptor and architect (1598–1680) * Francesco Borromini
Francesco Borromini
, Italian architect (1599–1667) * Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
, Italian painter (1571–1610) * Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck
, Flemish painter (1599–1641) * Artemisia Gentileschi
Artemisia Gentileschi
, Italian painter ( 1593 – c. 1656) * Frans Hals
Frans Hals
, Dutch painter (1580–1666) * Georges de La Tour
Georges de La Tour
, French painter (1593–1652) * Charles Le Brun
Charles Le Brun
, painter of Louis XIV * André Le Nôtre , French landscape architect (1613–1700) * Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
, Spanish painter (1617–1682) * Nicolas Poussin
Nicolas Poussin
, French painter (1594–1665) * Guido Reni
Guido Reni
, Italian painter * José de Ribera , Lo Spagnoletto (1591–1652) * Rembrandt van Rijn
Rembrandt van Rijn
, Dutch painter (1606–1669) * Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
, Flemish painter, 1577–1640 * Jan Steen
Jan Steen
, Dutch painter (1626–1679) * Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez , Spanish painter (1599–1660) * Vauban
Vauban
, French military architect * Johannes Vermeer
Johannes Vermeer
, Dutch painter (1632–1675) * Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren
, English architect * Francisco Zurbarán , Spanish painter (1598–1664)

LITERATURE

See also: French literature of the 17th century and Spanish Golden Age

* Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux
Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux
, French poet and critic (1636–1711) * John Bunyan
John Bunyan
, author of The Pilgrim\'s Progress (1628–1688) * Pedro Calderón de la Barca , Spanish dramatist (1600–1681) * Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra , Spanish novelist (1574–1616) * Pierre Corneille , French dramatist (1606–1684) * Cyrano de Bergerac
Cyrano de Bergerac
, French playwright and novelist (1619-1655) * John Donne , English metaphysical poet (1572–1631) * John Dryden , English poet (1631–1700) * Jean de La Fontaine
Jean de La Fontaine
, French poet (1621–1695) * Luis de Góngora , Spanish poet (1561–1627) * Juana Inés de la Cruz , Mexican poet (1651-1695) * Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
, English dramatist (1572–1637) * Matsuo Bashō , the first author of haiku (1644-1694) * John Milton
John Milton
, English author and poet (1608–1674) * Molière , French dramatist (1622–1673) * Tirso de Molina
Tirso de Molina
, Spanish dramatist (1579–1648) * Miyamoto Musashi
Miyamoto Musashi
, Japanese samurai and author (1584–1645) * Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
, English civil servant and diarist (1633–1703) * Charles Perrault
Charles Perrault
, French author of fairy tales (1628-1703) * Francisco de Quevedo
Francisco de Quevedo
, Spanish writer (1580–1645) * Jean Racine
Jean Racine
, French dramatist (1639–1699) * William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
, English playwright (1564–1616) * Félix Lope de Vega , Spanish playwright (1562–1635)

EXPLORERS

See also: Exploration
Exploration

* William Baffin , English navigator in Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage
* Evliya Çelebi , Ottoman traveler * Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain
, French founder of Canada * Semyon Dezhnyov (1605–1672), Russian explorer of Siberia * Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson
(1570?–1611), English navigator of North America * René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle , French explorer of Mississippi * Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci
, Italian missionary in China * Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603–1659), Dutch seafarer of Australia * Luis Váez de Torres (c. 1565–1607), Spanish explorer of the Pacific

SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY

See also: Scientific Revolution
Scientific Revolution
and Age of Reason

* Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
, Dutch biologist * Athanasius Kircher
Athanasius Kircher
, German polymath * Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
, Dutch philosopher (1632–1677) * Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal
, French mathematician and philosopher (1623–1662) * Christiaan Huygens
Christiaan Huygens
, Dutch inventor, physicist and astronomer (1629–1695) * Edmund Halley
Edmund Halley
, English astronomer * Evangelista Torricelli , Italian physicist and mathematician * Francis Bacon , English methodologist and politician (1561–1626) * Francis de Sales , doctor of the Church * Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
, Italian astronomer (1564–1642) * Giovanni Cassini , Italian-French astronomer * Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz
, German philosopher and mathematician (1646–1716) * Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius
, Dutch political scientist * Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
, English physicist, mathematician and philosopher (1643–1727) * Jacques-Benigne Bossuet , French theologian * Jakob Bernoulli , Swiss mathematician * Johannes Amos Comenius , Czech educationist * Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
, German astronomer (1571–1630) * John Locke
John Locke
, English philosopher (1632–1704) * John Napier , Scottish inventor of the logarithms (1550-1617) * Margaret Mary Alacoque , French mystic * Marin Mersenne
Marin Mersenne
, (1588–1648), French polymath * Ole Rømer , Danish astronomer (1644−1710) * Otto von Guericke , German inventor (1602−1686) * Pierre Bayle , French freethinker * Pierre de Fermat
Pierre de Fermat
, French mathematician (1601–1665) * Pierre Gassendi , French philosopher * René Descartes
René Descartes
, French philosopher and mathematician (1596–1650) * Robert Boyle
Robert Boyle
, the founder of chemistry * Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
, English biologist and physicist (1635−1703) * Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
, English philosopher (1588–1679) * Tommaso Campanella
Tommaso Campanella
, Italian philosopher * William Harvey
William Harvey
, English biologist (1578–1657)

INVENTIONS, DISCOVERIES, INTRODUCTIONS

See also: List of 1 7th century inventions

Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterized as the Scientific revolution
Scientific revolution
.

* Banknotes reintroduced in Europe. * Ice cream
Ice cream
. * Tea and coffee become popular in Europe. * Central Banking
Banking
in France
France
and modern Finance
Finance
by Scottish economist John Law . * Minarets , Jamé Mosque of Isfahan , Isfahan
Isfahan
, Persia
Persia
(Iran), are built. * 1604 : Supernova SN 1604 is observed in the Milky Way
Milky Way
. * 1605
1605
: Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
starts investigating elliptical orbits of planets. * 1605
1605
: Johann Carolus of Germany publishes the 'Relation', the first newspaper. * 1608 : Hans Lippershey
Hans Lippershey
constructs a refracting telescope , the first for which sufficient evidence exists. * 1610 : The Orion Nebula
Orion Nebula
is identified by Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc of France. * 1610 : Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
and Simon Marius
Simon Marius
observe Jupiter
Jupiter
's Galilean moons
Galilean moons
. * 1611 : King James Bible or 'Authorized Version' first published. * 1612 : The first flintlock musket likely created for Louis XIII
Louis XIII
of France
France
by gunsmith Marin Bourgeois . * 1614
1614
: John Napier introduces the logarithm to simplify calculations. * 1616 : Niccolò Zucchi describes experiments with a bronze parabolic mirror trying to make a reflecting telescope . * 1620 : Cornelius Drebbel , funded by James I of England, builds the first 'submarine ' made of wood and greased leather. * 1623 : The first English dictionary, 'English Dictionarie' is published by Henry Cockeram , listing difficult words with definitions. * 1628 : William Harvey
William Harvey
publishes and elucidates his earlier discovery of the circulatory system . * 1637 : Dutch Bible published. * 1637 : Teatro San Cassiano , the first public opera house, opened in Venice. * 1637 : Pierre de Fermat
Pierre de Fermat
formulates his so-called Last Theorem , unsolved until 1995. * 1637 : Although Chinese naval mines were earlier described in the 1 4th century
4th century
Huolongjing
Huolongjing
, the Tian Gong Kai Wu book of Ming Dynasty scholar Song Yingxing describes naval mines wrapped in a lacquer bag and ignited by an ambusher pulling a rip cord on the nearby shore that triggers a steel-wheel flint mechanism. * 1642 : Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal
invents the mechanical calculator called Pascal\'s calculator . * 1642 : Mezzotint engraving introduces grey tones to printed images. * 1643 : Evangelista Torricelli of Italy invents the mercury barometer . * 1645
1645
: Giacomo Torelli of Venice
Venice
, Italy invents the first rotating stage. * 1651
1651
: Giovanni Riccioli renames the lunar maria . * 1656 : Christiaan Huygens
Christiaan Huygens
describes the true shape of the rings of Saturn . * 1657 : Christiaan Huygens
Christiaan Huygens
develops the first functional pendulum clock based on the learnings of Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
. * 1659 : Christiaan Huygens
Christiaan Huygens
first to observe surface details of Mars . * 1662 : Christopher Merret
Christopher Merret
presents first paper on the production of sparkling wine. * 1663 : James Gregory publishes designs for a reflecting telescope. * 1669 : The first known operational reflecting telescope is built by Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
. * 1676 : Antoni van Leeuwenhoek discovers Bacteria
Bacteria
. * 1676 : First measurement of the speed of light . * 1679 : Binary system developed by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
. * 1684 : Calculus
Calculus
independently developed by both Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
and used to formulate classical mechanics .

REFERENCES

* ^ "The Thirty-Years-War". Western New England
England
College. Archived from the original on 1999-10-09. Retrieved 2008-05-24. * ^ "The Seventeenth- Century
Century
Decline". The Library of Iberian resources online. Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ Peter Barrett (2004), Science and Theology Since Copernicus: The Search for Understanding, p. 14, Continuum International Publishing Group , ISBN 0-567-08969-X * ^ A B C D Ricklefs (1991), page 28 * ^ A B C D E Ricklefs (1991), page 29 * ^ History of UST UST.edu.ph. Retrieved December 21, 2008. * ^ The Tatar Khanate of Crimea * ^ Miller, George (ed.) (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 967-65-3099-9 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Alan Macfarlane (1997). The savage wars of peace: England, Japan
Japan
and the Malthusian trap. p. 64. ISBN 0-631-18117-2 * ^ Karen J. Cullen (2010). " Famine
Famine
in Scotland: The \'Ill Years\' of the 1690s". Edinburgh University Press
Edinburgh University Press
. p. 20. ISBN 0-7486-3887-3 * ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 63

FURTHER READING

* Chang, Chun-shu, and Shelley Hsueh-lun Chang. Crisis and Transformation in Seventeenth- Century
Century
China" (1998). * Reid, A.J.S. Trade and State Power in 16th & 17th Century Southeast Asia (1977). * Spence, J. D. The Death of Woman Wang: Rural Life in China
China
in the 17th Century
Century
(1978).

FOCUS ON EUROPE

* Clark, George. The Seventeenth Century
Century
(2nd ed. 1945). * Hampshire, Stuart. The Age of Reason the 17th Century Philosophers, Selected, with Introduction and Interpretive Commentary (1961). * Lewitter, Lucian Ryszard. "Poland, the Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia in the 17th Century." The Slavonic and East European Review (1948): 157-171. in JSTOR * Ogg, David. Europe in the Seventeenth Century
Century
(6th ed. 1965). * Rowbotham, Sheila. Hidden from history: Rediscovering women in history from the 1 7th century to the present (1976). * Trevor-Roper, Hugh R. "The general crisis of the 17th century." Past ">

* Millennia * Centuries * Decades * Years

* v * t * e

Decades and years

17TH CENTURY 15th century
15th century
 ←  16th century
16th century
 ← ↔ → 18th century  →  19th century
19th century

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1600S 1600
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