1700 was an exceptional common year starting on Friday of the
Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the
Julian calendar, the 1700th year of the
Common Era (CE) and Anno
Domini (AD) designations, the 700th year of the 2nd millennium,
the 100th and last year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of
the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1700, the
Gregorian calendar was
10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use
until 1923. As of
March 1 (O.S. February 19), when the Julian calendar
acknowledged a leap day and the
Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian
calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 11
days until 1799.
In Sweden, the year started in the
Julian calendar and remained so
until February 28. Then, by skipping the leap day, the Swedish
calendar was introduced, letting February 28 be followed by
giving the entire year the same pattern as a common year starting on
Monday. This calendar, being 10 days behind the Gregorian and 1 day
ahead of the Julian, lasts until 1712.
1.3 Date unknown
1.4 Approximate date
Europe at the beginning of the 18th century
January 1 – Protestant Western Europe, except England, starts using
the Gregorian calendar.
January 1 (Julian) – The
Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia begins numbering its
calendar from the birth of Christ (Anno Domini), instead of since the
Creation (Anno Mundi).
January 26 – At approximately 9 p.m., the Cascadia earthquake
occurs, with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.7–9.2. This
megathrust earthquake ruptures about 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) of
Cascadia Subduction Zone
Cascadia Subduction Zone and causes a tsunami, that strikes the
coast of Japan approximately 10 hours later.
February 3 – The 'Lesser Great Fire' destroys a substantial part of
central Edinburgh, Scotland.
February 12 – The
Great Northern War
Great Northern War begins with a joint invasion of
Swedish territory in Germany and Latvia, by Denmark and Poland/Saxony.
Sweden has control of the
Baltic Sea and holds territory that includes
Latvia and parts of northern Germany. To challenge
its power, an alliance is formed between Tsar Peter I of Russia, King
Frederick IV of Denmark
Frederick IV of Denmark and Augustus II the Strong,
King of Poland
King of Poland and
Elector of Saxony. Sweden's ruler is the militaristic Charles XII,
known as the "Swedish Meteor".
February 27 – The island of
New Britain is discovered by William
Dampier, in the western Pacific.
March 1 (Gregorian) – Protestant Germany and
the Gregorian calendar.
March 1 (Swedish),
March 11 (Gregorian),
February 29 (Julian) – The
Swedish calendar is adopted.
March – William Congreve's comedy
The Way of the World
The Way of the World is first
performed in London.
March 25 – The Treaty of London is signed between France, England
April – Fire destroys many buildings in Gondar, the capital of
Ethiopia, including two in the palace complex.
May – In
Rhode Island (American colony), Walter Clarke, three term
former Governor of the Colony of
Rhode Island and Providence
Plantations, is elected deputy governor for the second time, serving
under his brother-in-law Samuel Cranston.
Within a few days of John Dryden's death (
May 1 O.S.), his last
written work (The Secular Masque) is performed as part of Vanbrugh's
version of The Pilgrim.
William Penn begins monthly meetings for blacks advocating
June – Massachusetts, then New York, passes similar laws that order
Roman Catholic priests to leave their colony; otherwise, after
three months, their penalty will be life imprisonment or execution.
July 11 – The
Prussian Academy of Sciences
Prussian Academy of Sciences is founded, with
Gottfried Leibniz as president.
Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII of Sweden counter-attacks his enemies by
Zealand (Denmark), assisted by an Anglo-Dutch naval squadron
under Sir George Rooke, rapidly compelling the Danes to submit to
August 18 (
August 7 O.S.) – The
Peace of Travendal
Peace of Travendal is concluded
between the Swedish Empire,
Traventhal. On the same day, Augustus II, King of Poland, and Peter
the Great, Tsar of Russia, enter the war against Sweden.
Late summer – A Russian army invades Swedish Estonia, and besieges
the town of Narva.
November 1 – Charles II, the last Spanish king of the House of
Habsburg, dies insane at the
Royal Alcazar of Madrid
Royal Alcazar of Madrid (aged 38),
leaving no children.
November 15 –
Louis XIV accepts the Spanish crown on behalf of his
grandson Philip of Anjou, who becomes Philip V of Spain (to 1746),
thus triggering the
War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1741).
November 18 – Lithuanian Civil War – Battle of Olkieniki: The
anti-Sapieha coalition is victorious.
November 23 –
Pope Clement XI
Pope Clement XI succeeds
Pope Innocent XII, as the
November 30 (
November 19 O.S.; November 20 Swedish calendar) –
Battle of Narva, Estonia: Having led his army of 8,000 on a forced
march from Denmark to Estonia,
Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII of Sweden routs the huge
December 28 – Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester, is appointed
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
Mission San Xavier del Bac
Mission San Xavier del Bac is founded in
New Spain near Tucson, as a
Roman Catholic mission.
An inventory made for the Medici family of
Florence is the first
documentary evidence for a piano, invented by their instrument keeper
An English translation of the novel Don Quixote, "translated from the
original by many hands and published by Peter Motteux", begins
publication in London. While popular among readers, it will eventually
come to be known as one of the worst translations of the novel,
totally betraying the spirit of Miguel de Cervantes's masterpiece.
The value of sales of English manufactured products to the Atlantic
economy is £3.9 million.
Lions become extinct in Libya.
January 29 – Konstancja Czartoryska, Polish noblewoman (d. 1759)
February 2 – Johann Christoph Gottsched, German writer (d. 1766)
February 8 – Daniel Bernoulli, Dutch-born Swiss mathematician (d.
March 13 – Michel Blavet, French flutist (d. 1768)
April 30 – Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Swedish
nobleman (d. 1739)
May 7 – Gerard van Swieten, Dutch-born physician (d. 1772)
May 12 – Luigi Vanvitelli, Italian architect (d. 1773)
May 19 – José de Escandón, Spanish colonial governor (d. 1770)
May 26 – Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf, German religious and social
reformer (d. 1760)
August 13 – Heinrich, count von Brühl, German statesman (d. 1763)
August 17 – Clemens August of Bavaria, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne
September 11 – James Thomson, Scottish poet (d. 1748)
September 30 – Stanisław Konarski, Polish writer (d. 1773)
October 10 – Lambert-Sigisbert Adam, French sculptor (d. 1759)
November 19 – Jean-Antoine Nollet, French abbot and physicist (d.
November 21 – Charlotta Elisabeth van der Lith, politically active
Governor's wife in Surinam (d. 1753)
November 28 – Nathaniel Bliss, English astronomer (d. 1764)
December 25 – Leopold II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, Prussian general
Franciszek Salezy Potocki, Polish nobleman (d. 1772)
Ivan Ranger, Austrian painter (d. 1753)
January 7 – Raffaello Fabretti, Italian antiquary (b. 1618)
January 12 – Marguerite Bourgeoys, French founder of the
Congregation of Notre Dame of Montreal, in the colony of New France
January 21 – Henry Somerset, 1st Duke of Beaufort, English
politician (b. 1629)
February 5 – Louis Maracci, Italian priest (b. 1612)
February 12 – Aleksei Shein, Russian commander and statesman (b.
Girolamo Casanata, Italian cardinal (b. 1620)
Chhatrapati Rajaram Raje Bhonsale, 3rd Maratha Emperor (b. 1670)
March 4 – Lorenzo Pasinelli, Italian painter (b. 1629)
March 14 – Henry Killigrew, English dramatist (b. 1613)
May 1 – Francis Winnington, Solicitor-General for England and Wales
May 5 – Angelo Italia, Sicilian architect (b. 1628)
May 12 – John Dryden, English poet and dramatist (b. 1631)
May 15 – John Hale, American witch hunter (b. 1636)
May 18 – Teofil Rutka, Polish philosopher (b. 1622)
May 23 – Jens Juel, Danish diplomat (b. 1631)
May 28 – Jan Six, important cultural figure in the Dutch Golden Age
May 31 – Agostino Scilla, Italian painter and scientist (b. 1629)
Thomas Creech, English translator (suicide) (b. 1659)
John Lowther, 1st Viscount Lonsdale, English politician (b. 1655)
Sir Thomas Grosvenor, 3rd Baronet, English politician (b. 1655)
Hoshina Masakage, Japanese daimyō of the Edo period (b. 1616)
July 7 – Silvestro Valiero, Doge of Venice (b. 1630)
July 22 – Alderano Cybo, Catholic cardinal (b. 1613)
July 30 – Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, member of the English
royal family (b. 1689)
August 22 – Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora, Mexican academic (b.
August 30 – Sir Richard Cust, 1st Baronet, English politician (b.
September 15 – André Le Nôtre, French landscape gardener (b. 1613)
September 23 – Nicolaus Adam Strungk, German composer and violinist
Pope Innocent XII
September 27 –
Pope Innocent XII
Pope Innocent XII (b. 1615)
October 16 – Patriarch Adrian, Russian Orthodox Church leader (b.
October 27 – Armand Jean le Bouthillier de Rancé, French founder of
the Trappist Order (b. 1626)
November 1 –
Charles II of Spain
Charles II of Spain (b. 1661)
Charles II of Spain
November 2 – Francis Turner, British bishop (b. 1637)
November 16 – Paul Rycaut, British diplomat (b. 1629)
November 18 – Robert Walpole (1650–1700), English politician (b.
November 25 – Stephanus Van Cortlandt, first native-born mayor of
New York (b. 1643)
December 16 – Thomas Morgan, English politician (b. 1664)
December 18 – Edward Harley, English politician (b. 1624)
December 20 – Mary Bradbury, accused Salem,
Massachusetts witch (b.
Caius Gabriel Cibber, Danish sculptor working in England (b. 1630)
Kamalakara, Indian astronomer and mathematician (b. 1616)
Louis Guittar, French pirate (hanged)
Louis Jolliet, Canadian explorer (b. 1645)
^ Colville, Ian (2011-02-08). "The Lesser Great Fire of
Edinburgh". On this day in Scotland. Retrieved 2011-11-21.
^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006.
^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History.
London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 289.
^ Hochman, Stanley. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of World Drama. 4.
^ "The House Laws of the German Habsburgs". Retrieved
^ "US History Timeline:
1700 - 1800". faculty.washington.edu.
^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F. (August 2004). "Berlin
Academy of Science". MacTutor History of Mathematics. Retrieved 21