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1700
1700
(MDCC ) was an exceptional common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar , the 1700th year of the Common Era
Common Era
(CE) and Anno Domini
Anno Domini
(AD) designations, the 700th year of the 2nd millennium
2nd millennium
, the 100th and last year of the 17th century
17th century
, and the 1st year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1700, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1 (O.S. February 19 ), when the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
did not, the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 11 days until 1799.

In Sweden, the year started in the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
and remained so until February 28. Then, by skipping the leap day, the Swedish calendar was introduced, letting February 28 be followed by March
March
1, giving the entire year the same pattern as a common year starting on Monday . This calendar, being 10 days behind the Gregorian and 1 day ahead of the Julian, lasts until 1712 .

CONTENTS

* 1 Events

* 1.1 January– June
June
* 1.2 July–December * 1.3 Date unknown * 1.4 Approximate date

* 2 Births * 3 Deaths * 4 References

EVENTS

Europe at the beginning of the 18th century
18th century

JANUARY–JUNE

* January 1 – Protestant Western Europe
Western Europe
, except England , starts using the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. * January 1 (Julian) – The Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
begins numbering its calendar from the birth of Christ ( Anno Domini
Anno Domini
), instead of since the Creation ( Anno Mundi
Anno Mundi
). * January 26 – At approximately 9 p.m., the Cascadia earthquake occurs, with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.7–9.2. This megathrust earthquake ruptures about 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) of the Cascadia Subduction Zone
Cascadia Subduction Zone
and causes a tsunami , that strikes the coast of Japan approximately 10 hours later. * February 3 – The 'Lesser Great Fire' destroys a substantial part of central Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Scotland. * February 12 – The Great Northern War
Great Northern War
begins with a joint invasion of Swedish territory in Germany and Latvia
Latvia
, by Denmark and Poland /Saxony . Sweden has control of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and holds territory that includes Finland, Estonia
Estonia
, Latvia
Latvia
and parts of northern Germany. To challenge its power, an alliance is formed between Tsar Peter I of Russia
Peter I of Russia
, King Frederick IV of Denmark and Augustus II the Strong , King of Poland
King of Poland
and Elector of Saxony. Sweden's ruler is the militaristic Charles XII , known as the "Swedish Meteor". * February 27 – The island of New Britain
New Britain
is discovered by William Dampier , in the western Pacific. * March 1 (Gregorian) – Protestant Germany and Denmark–Norway adopt the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. * March 1 (Swedish), March 11 (Gregorian), February 29
February 29
(Julian) – The Swedish calendar is adopted. * March
March
William Congreve
William Congreve
's comedy The Way of the World
The Way of the World
is first performed in London. * March
March
25 – The Treaty of London is signed between France , England and Holland . * April
April
– Fire destroys many buildings in Gondar
Gondar
, the capital of Ethiopia , including two in the palace complex. * May
May
– In Rhode Island
Rhode Island
(American colony), Walter Clarke , three term former Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
and Providence Plantations , is elected deputy governor for the second time, serving under his brother-in-law Samuel Cranston
Samuel Cranston
.

* May
May
5

* Within a few days of John Dryden
John Dryden
's death ( May
May
1 O.S.), his last written work ( The Secular Masque ) is performed as part of Vanbrugh 's version of The Pilgrim . * William Penn
William Penn
begins monthly meetings for blacks advocating emancipation.

* June
June
Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, then New York , passes similar laws that order all Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
priests to leave their colony; otherwise, after three months, their penalty will be life imprisonment or execution.

JULY–DECEMBER

* July 11 – The Prussian Academy of Sciences is founded, with Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz
as president. * Summer – Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII of Sweden
counter-attacks his enemies by invading Zealand
Zealand
(Denmark), assisted by an Anglo-Dutch naval squadron under Sir George Rooke
George Rooke
, rapidly compelling the Danes to submit to peace. * August 18 ( August 7 O.S. ) – The Peace of Travendal
Peace of Travendal
is concluded between the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
, Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
and Holstein-Gottorp
Holstein-Gottorp
in Traventhal
Traventhal
. On the same day, Augustus II , King of Poland
King of Poland
, and Peter the Great , Tsar of Russia
Tsar of Russia
, enter the war against Sweden. * Late summer – A Russian army invades Swedish Estonia
Estonia
, and besieges the town of Narva
Narva
. * November 1 – Charles II , the last Spanish king of the House of Habsburg , dies insane at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid
Royal Alcazar of Madrid
(aged 38), leaving no children. * November 15 Louis XIV
Louis XIV
accepts the Spanish crown on behalf of his grandson Philip of Anjou , who becomes Philip V of Spain (to 1746 ), thus triggering the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
( 1701
1701
–1741). * November 18 – Lithuanian Civil War – Battle of Olkieniki : The anti-Sapieha coalition is victorious. * November 23 Pope Clement XI
Pope Clement XI
succeeds Pope Innocent XII
Pope Innocent XII
, as the 243rd pope . * November 30 ( November 19 O.S. ; November 20 Swedish calendar ) – Battle of Narva
Narva
, Estonia: Having led his army of 8,000 on a forced march from Denmark to Estonia
Estonia
, Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII of Sweden
routs the huge Russian army. * December 28 Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester
Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester
, is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
.

DATE UNKNOWN

* Mission San Xavier del Bac
Mission San Xavier del Bac
is founded in New Spain
New Spain
near Tucson , as a Spanish Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
mission. * An inventory made for the Medici family of Florence
Florence
is the first documentary evidence for a piano , invented by their instrument keeper Bartolomeo Cristofori . * An English translation of the novel Don Quixote
Don Quixote
, "translated from the original by many hands and published by Peter Motteux ", begins publication in London. While popular among readers, it will eventually come to be known as one of the worst translations of the novel, totally betraying the spirit of Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes
's masterpiece. * The value of sales of English manufactured products to the Atlantic economy is £3.9 million.

APPROXIMATE DATE

* Lions become extinct in Libya
Libya
.

BIRTHS

* January 29 – Konstancja Czartoryska , Polish noblewoman (d. 1759 ) * February 2 Johann Christoph Gottsched
Johann Christoph Gottsched
, German writer (d. 1766 )

Daniel Bernoulli

* February 8 Daniel Bernoulli , Dutch-born Swiss mathematician (d. 1782 ) * March
March
13 – Michel Blavet , French flutist (d. 1768 ) * April
April
30 – Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Holstein-Gottorp
, Swedish nobleman (d. 1739 ) * May
May
7 – Gerard van Swieten , Dutch-born physician (d. 1772 ) * May
May
12 – Luigi Vanvitelli
Luigi Vanvitelli
, Italian architect (d. 1773 ) * May
May
19 – José de Escandón , Spanish colonial governor (d. 1770 ) * May
May
26 – Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf
Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf
, German religious and social reformer (d. 1760
1760
) * August 13 Heinrich, count von Brühl , German statesman (d. 1763 ) * August 17 Clemens August of Bavaria
Clemens August of Bavaria
, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne (d. 1761 ) * September 11 – James Thomson , Scottish poet (d. 1748 ) * September 30 Stanisław Konarski , Polish writer (d. 1773 ) * October 10 Lambert-Sigisbert Adam , French sculptor (d. 1759 ) * November 19 Jean-Antoine Nollet
Jean-Antoine Nollet
, French abbot and physicist (d. 1770
1770
) * November 21 Charlotta Elisabeth van der Lith , politically active Governor's wife in Surinam (d. 1753 ) * November 28 Nathaniel Bliss
Nathaniel Bliss
, English astronomer (d. 1764
1764
) * December 25 Leopold II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau , Prussian general (d. 1751 )

* date unknown

* Franciszek Salezy Potocki , Polish nobleman (d. 1772 ) * Ivan Ranger , Austrian painter (d. 1753 )

DEATHS

* January 7 Raffaello Fabretti
Raffaello Fabretti
, Italian antiquary (b. 1618
1618
) * January 12 Marguerite Bourgeoys , French founder of the Congregation of Notre Dame of Montreal , in the colony of New France (b. 1620 ) * January 21 Henry Somerset, 1st Duke of Beaufort , English politician (b. 1629 ) * February 5 Louis Maracci , Italian priest (b. 1612
1612
) * February 12 Aleksei Shein , Russian commander and statesman (b. 1662 ) * March
March
3 – Girolamo Casanata , Italian cardinal (b. 1620 ) * March
March
4 – Lorenzo Pasinelli , Italian painter (b. 1629 ) * March
March
14 – Henry Killigrew , English dramatist (b. 1613 ) * May
May
1 – Francis Winnington , Solicitor-General for England and Wales (b. 1634
1634
) * May
May
5 – Angelo Italia , Sicilian architect (b. 1628 ) * May
May
12 – John Dryden
John Dryden
, English poet and dramatist (b. 1631
1631
) * May
May
15 – John Hale , American witch hunter (b. 1636
1636
) * May
May
18 – Teofil Rutka , Polish philosopher (b. 1622 ) * May
May
23 – Jens Juel , Danish diplomat (b. 1631
1631
) * May
May
28 – Jan Six
Jan Six
, important cultural figure in the Dutch Golden Age (b. 1618
1618
)

Jan Six
Jan Six

* May
May
31 – Agostino Scilla , Italian painter and scientist (b. 1629 )

* July
July

* Thomas Creech , English translator (suicide) (b. 1659 ) * John Lowther, 1st Viscount Lonsdale , English politician (b. 1655 )

* July
July
2

* Sir Thomas Grosvenor, 3rd Baronet , English politician (b. 1655 ) * Hoshina Masakage , Japanese daimyō of the Edo period (b. 1616 )

* July
July
7 – Silvestro Valiero , Doge of Venice (b. 1630
1630
) * July
July
22 – Alderano Cybo , Catholic cardinal (b. 1613 ) * July
July
30 – Prince William, Duke of Gloucester , member of the English royal family (b. 1689 ) * August 22 Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora
Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora
, Mexican academic (b. 1645 ) * August 30 Sir Richard Cust, 1st Baronet , English politician (b. 1622 ) * September 15 André Le Nôtre
André Le Nôtre
, French landscape gardener (b. 1613 ) * September 23 Nicolaus Adam Strungk , German composer and violinist (b. 1640
1640
)

Pope Innocent XII
Pope Innocent XII

* September 27 Pope Innocent XII
Pope Innocent XII
(b. 1615
1615
) * October 16 – Patriarch Adrian , Russian Orthodox Church leader (b. 1627 ) * October 27 Armand Jean le Bouthillier de Rancé
Armand Jean le Bouthillier de Rancé
, French founder of the Trappist Order (b. 1626
1626
) * November 1 Charles II of Spain
Charles II of Spain
(b. 1661 )

Charles II of Spain
Charles II of Spain

* November 2 – Francis Turner , British bishop (b. 1637 ) * November 16 Paul Rycaut , British diplomat (b. 1629 ) * November 18 Robert Walpole (1650–1700) , English politician (b. 1650
1650
) * November 25 Stephanus Van Cortlandt
Stephanus Van Cortlandt
, first native-born mayor of New York (b. 1643 ) * December 16 – Thomas Morgan , English politician (b. 1664
1664
) * December 18 – Edward Harley , English politician (b. 1624
1624
) * December 20
December 20
Mary Bradbury , accused Salem, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
witch (b. 1615