The Info List - 16th Century

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The 1 6th century
6th century
begins with the Julian year 1501
and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600
(depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
introduced a lapse of 10 days in October 1582).[1] The 1 6th century
6th century
is regarded by historians as the century in which the rise of the West occurred. During the 16th century, Spain
and Portugal explored the world's seas and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes. Large parts of the New World
New World
became Spanish and Portuguese colonies, and while the Portuguese became the masters of Asia's and Africa's Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
trade, the Spanish opened trade across the Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas
with Asia. This era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another.[2] The mercantilist doctrine encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and arguably fueled European expansion and imperialism throughout the world until the 19th century or early 20th century. In Europe, the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church. European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
being laid towards the end of the century. In Italy, Luca Pacioli
Luca Pacioli
published the first work ever on accounting and Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
made the first thermometer. In England, the Italian Alberico Gentili
Alberico Gentili
wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology. In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliph, while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran
and Iraq were caught by major popularity of the Shiite sect of Islam
under the rule of the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia
independent of the majority-Sunni Muslim
world. China
evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering a severe civil war at the time. Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
extended the power of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
to cover most of the South Asian sub continent. His rule significantly influenced arts, and culture in the region. Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universe, which was met with strong resistance, and Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the 1572
appearance of a Milky Way
Milky Way
supernova. These events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy
and Aristotle, and led to major revolutions in astronomy and science.


1 Events

1.1 Undated 1.2 1500s 1.3 1510s 1.4 1520s 1.5 1530s 1.6 1540s 1.7 1550s 1.8 1560s 1.9 1570s 1.10 1580s 1.11 1590s

2 Significant people

2.1 Exploration 2.2 Visual artists 2.3 Musicians and composers 2.4 Literature 2.5 Science
and philosophy

3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Events[edit] For timelines of earlier events, see 15th century
15th century
and Timeline of the Middle Ages. Undated[edit]

Polybius' "The Histories" translated into Italian, English, German and French.[3] Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
disappears. Medallion rug, variant Star Ushak
style, Anatolia
(modern Turkey), is made. It is now kept at The Saint Louis Art Museum.


Dr Alberico Gentili, The Father of international law.

Battle of Cerignola: El Gran Capitan
El Gran Capitan
finds the corpse of Louis d'Armagnac, Duke of Nemours

Afonso de Albuquerque

Vasily III, Grand Duke of Moscow
Grand Duke of Moscow
by André Thévet.

1500: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
and King of Spain
was born. 1500: Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
the beginning and spreading of the 5th largest Religion in the World Sikhism. 1500: Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón encounters Brazil
but is prevented from claiming it by the Treaty of Tordesillas. 1500: Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
claims Brazil
for Portugal. 1500: The Ottoman fleet of Kemal Reis
Kemal Reis
defeats the Venetians at the Second Battle of Lepanto. 1501: Michelangelo
returns to his native Florence
to begin work on the statue David. 1501: Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
reunified Iran
and ruled over it until 1736. Safavids
adopt a Shia
branch of Islam.[4] 1502: First reported African slaves in The New World 1503: Foundation of the Sultanate of Sennar
Sultanate of Sennar
by Amara Dunqas, in what is modern Sudan 1503: Spain
defeats France
at the Battle of Cerignola. Considered to be the first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms. 1503: Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
begins painting the Mona Lisa
Mona Lisa
and completes it three years later. 1503: Nostradamus
was born on either December 14, or December 21. 1504: A period of drought, with famine in all of Spain. 1504: Death of Isabella I of Castile, Joanna of Castille
Joanna of Castille
became the Queen. 1505: Zhengde Emperor
Zhengde Emperor
ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty. 1505: Martin Luther
Martin Luther
enters St. Augustine's Monastery at Erfurt, Germany, on 17 July and begins his journey to instigating the Reformation. 1505: King Sultan Trenggono built the first Muslim
kingdom in Java, called Demak, in Indonesia
. Many other small kingdoms were established in other islands to fight against Portuguese. Each kingdom introduced local language as a way of communication and unity. 1506: Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
completes the Mona Lisa. 1506: King Afonso I of Kongo
Afonso I of Kongo
wins the battle of Mbanza Kongo, resulting in Catholicism
becoming Kongo's state religion. 1506: At least two thousand converted Jews are massacred in a Lisbon riot, Portugal. 1506: Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
dies in Valladolid, Spain. 1506: Poland
is invaded by Tatars from the Crimean Khanate. 1507: The first recorded epidemic of smallpox in the New World
New World
on the island of Hispaniola. It devastates the native Taíno population.[5] 1507: Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
conquered Hormuz and Muscat, among other bases in the Persian Gulf, taking control of the region at the entrance of the Gulf. 1508–1512: Michelangelo
paints the Sistine Chapel ceiling. 1509: The Battle of Diu marks the beginning of Portuguese dominance of the Spice trade
Spice trade
and the Indian Ocean. 1509: The Portuguese king sends Diogo Lopes de Sequeira
Diogo Lopes de Sequeira
to find Malacca, the eastern terminus of Asian trade. After initially receiving Sequeira, Sultan Mahmud Syah captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape.[6] The Javanese fleet is also destroyed in Malacca.

Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries
and defending Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522, from an Ottoman manuscript.

Spanish conquistadors with their Tlaxcallan
allies fighting against the Otomies
of Metztitlan in present-day Mexico, a 16th-century


Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519–1522.

1509–10: The 'great plague' in various parts of Tudor England.[7] 1511: Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
of Portugal
conquers Malacca, the capital of the Sultanate of Malacca
in present-day Malaysia. 1512: Copernicus writes Commentariolus, and proclaims the sun the center of the solar system. 1512: The southern part (historical core) of the Kingdom of Navarre
Kingdom of Navarre
is invaded by Castile and Aragon. 1512: The first Portuguese exploratory expedition was sent eastward from Malacca
(in present-day Malaysia) to search for the 'Spice Islands' (Maluku) led by Francisco Serrão. Serrao is shipwrecked but struggles on to Hitu (northern Ambon) and wins the favour of the local rulers.[8] 1513: Machiavelli
writes The Prince, a treatise about political philosophy 1513: The Portuguese mariner Jorge Álvares
Jorge Álvares
lands at Macau, China, during the Ming Dynasty. 1513: Henry VIII defeats the French at the Battle of the Spurs. 1513: The Battle of Flodden Field
Battle of Flodden Field
in which invading Scots are defeated by Henry VIII's forces. 1513: Sultan Selim I
Selim I
("The Grim") orders the massacre of Shia
Muslims in Anatolia
(present-day Turkey). 1513: Vasco Núñez de Balboa, in service of Spain
arrives at the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
(which he called Mar del Sur) across the Isthmus of Panama. He was the first European to do so. 1514: The Battle of Orsha
Battle of Orsha
halts Muscovy's expansion into Eastern Europe. 1514: Dózsa rebellion (peasant revolt) in Hungary. 1514: The Battle of Chaldiran, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
gains decisive victory against Safavid
dynasty. 1515: The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
wrests Eastern Anatolia
from the Safavids after the Battle of Chaldiran. 1516–1517: The Ottomans defeat the Mamluks and gain control of Egypt, Arabia, and the Levant. 1517: The Sweating sickness
Sweating sickness
epidemic in Tudor England.[9] 1517: The Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
begins when Martin Luther
Martin Luther
posts his 95 Theses
95 Theses
in Saxony. 1518: Mir Chakar Khan Rind
Mir Chakar Khan Rind
leaves Baluchistan and settles in Punjab. 1518: Leo Africanus, also known as al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Wazzan al-Fasi, Arabic:حسن ابن محمد الوزان الفاسي), an Andalusian Berber diplomat who is best known for his book Descrittione dell’ Africa
(Description of Africa) describing the geography of North Africa, is captured by Spanish pirates; he will be taken to Rome and presented to Pope
Leo X. 1518: The Dancing Plague of 1518
begins in Strasbourg, lasting for about one month. 1519: Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
dies of natural causes on May 2. 1519: Wang Yangming, the Chinese philosopher and governor of Jiangxi province, describes his intent to use the firepower of the fo-lang-ji, a breech-loading Portuguese culverin, in order to suppress the rebellion of Prince Zhu Chen-hao. 1519: Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
led by Hayreddin Barbarossa
Hayreddin Barbarossa
a Turk appointed to ruling position in Algiers by the Ottoman Empire, raid Provence
and Toulon
in southern France. 1519: Charles I of Spain
becomes Emperor of Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
(ruled until 1556). 1519–1522: Spanish expedition commanded by Magellan and Elcano first to circle Earth 1519–1521: Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
leads the Spanish conquest of Mexico.

Hernan Cortes


Francis I of France

1520–1566: The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
marks the zenith of the Ottoman Empire. 1520: The first European diplomatic mission to Ethiopia, sent by the Portuguese, arrives at Massawa
9 April, and reaches the imperial encampment of Emperor Dawit II
Dawit II
in Shewa
9 October. 1520: The Yousafzais defeat Dilazaks at the battle of Katlang
to found the Yousafzai dynasty in Pakhtunkhwa
in modern-day Pakistan
and Afghanistan. 1520: The Portuguese established a trading post in the village of Lamakera on the eastern side of Solor
(in present-day Indonesia) as a transit harbour between Maluku and Malacca. 1520: Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah of Aceh
begins an expansionist campaign capturing Daya on the west Sumatran
coast (in present-day Indonesia), and the pepper and gold producing lands on the east coast. 1521: Belgrade
(in present-day Serbia) is captured by the Ottoman Empire. 1521: After building fortifications at Tuen Mun, the Portuguese attempt to invade Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
China, but are expelled by Chinese naval forces. 1521: Philippines
encountered by Ferdinand Magellan. He was later killed in battle in central Philippines
in the same year. 1521: Jiajing Emperor
Jiajing Emperor
ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty, China. 1521: November, Ferdinand Magellan's expedition reaches Maluku (in present-day Indonesia) and after trade with Ternate
returns to Europe with a load of cloves. 1521: Pati Unus led invasion of Malacca
(in present-day Malaysia) against the Portuguese occupation. Pati Unus was killed in this battle, and was succeeded by his brother, king Trenggana. 1522: Rhodes falls to the Ottoman Turks of Suleiman the Magnificent.[10] 1522: The Portuguese ally themselves with the rulers of Ternate
(in present-day Indonesia) and begin construction of a fort.[8] 1522: August, Luso Sundanese Treaty
Luso Sundanese Treaty
signed between Portugal
and Sunda Kingdom granted Portuguese permit to build fortress in Sunda Kelapa 1523: Sweden
gains independence from the Kalmar Union. 1523: The cacao bean was introduced to Spain
by Hernán Cortés 1524–1525: German Peasants' War
German Peasants' War
in the Holy Roman Empire. 1524
Giovanni da Verrazzano
Giovanni da Verrazzano
is the first European to explore the Atlantic coast of North America
North America
between South Carolina
South Carolina
and Newfoundland. 1524
– Ismail I, the founder of Safavid
dynasty, dies and Tahmasp I becomes king. 1525: Spain
and Germany
defeat France
at the Battle of Pavia, Francis I of France
is captured. 1526: The Ottomans defeat the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
at the Battle of Mohács. 1526: Mughal Empire, founded by Babur, rules India
until 1857. 1527: Sack of Rome, which is considered the end of the Italian Renaissance.

Sack of Rome
by Charles V forces.

1527: Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
begins in Sweden. 1527: The last ruler of Majapahit
falls from power. This state (located in present-day Indonesia) was finally extinguished at the hands of the Demak. A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royalty moved east to the island of Bali; however, the power and the seat of government transferred to Demak under the leadership of Pangeran, later Sultan Fatah. 1527: June 22, The Javanese Prince Fatahillah of the Cirebon Sultanate successfully defeated the Portuguese armed forces at the site of the Sunda Kelapa
Sunda Kelapa
Harbor. The city was then renamed Jayakarta, meaning "a glorious victory." This eventful day came to be acknowledged as Jakarta's Founding Anniversary, and Fatahillah Park was named after the heroic prince. 1529: The Austrians
defeat the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
at the Siege of Vienna. 1529: Treaty of Zaragoza defined the antimeridian of Tordesillas attributing the Moluccas
to Portugal
and Philippines
to Spain. 1529: Imam Ahmad Gragn
Ahmad Gragn
defeats the Ethiopian Emperor Dawit II
Dawit II
in the Battle of Shimbra Kure, the opening clash of the Ethiopian–Adal War


Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1536
– 1537, Henry VIII, King of England
and Ireland.

Portrait of Ivan the Terrible

1531–32: The Church of England
breaks away from the Roman Catholic Church and recognizes King Henry VIII as the head of the Church. 1531: The Inca Civil War
Inca Civil War
is fought between the two brothers, Atahualpa and Huáscar. 1532: Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
leads the Spanish conquest of the Inca
Empire. 1533: Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
becomes Queen of England. 1533: Elizabeth Tudor is born. 1534: Jacques Cartier
Jacques Cartier
claims Quebec
for France. 1534: The Ottomans capture Baghdad. 1534: Affair of the Placards – Francis becomes more active in repression of French Protestants. 1535: The Münster Rebellion, an attempt of radical, millennialist, Anabaptists
to establish a theocracy ends in bloodshed. 1535: The Portuguese in Ternate
depose Sultan Tabariji (or Tabarija) and send him to Portuguese Goa where he converts to Christianity
and bequeaths his Portuguese godfather Jordao de Freitas the island of Ambon.[11] 1536: Katherine of Aragon
Katherine of Aragon
dies in Kimbolton Castle, in England. 1536: In England, Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
is beheaded for adultery and treason. 1536: Establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal 1536: Foundation of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
(in present-day Argentina) by Pedro de Mendoza 1537: Portuguese establishes Recife
in Pernambuco, north-east of Brazil. 1537: William Tyndale's partial translation of the Bible
into English is published, which would eventually be incorporated into the King James Bible. 1538: Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
founds Bogotá. 1538: Spanish–Venetian fleet is defeated by the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Preveza. 1539: Hernando de Soto explores inland North America.


1540: Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
founds Suri dynasty in South Asia, an ethnic Pashtun (Pathan) of the house of Sur, who supplanted the Mughal dynasty as rulers of North India
during the reign of the relatively ineffectual second Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
Humayun. Sher Shah decisively defeats Central Asian invader Humayun
in the Battle of Bilgram (May 17, 1540). 1541: Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro de Valdivia
founds Santiago de Chile. 1541: An Algerian military campaign by Charles V of Spain
(Habsburg) is unsuccessful. 1541: Amazon River
Amazon River
is encountered and explored by Francisco de Orellana. 1541: Capture of Buda and the absorption of the major part of Hungary by the Ottoman Empire. 1541: Sahib I Giray of Crimea invades Russia. 1542: War resumes between Francis I of France
and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII is allied with the Emperor, while James V of Scotland
and Sultan Suleiman I are allied with the French. 1542: Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the island of Samar
and Leyte
Las Islas Filipinas honoring Philip II of Spain
and became the official name of the archipelago. 1543: Ethiopian/Portuguese troops decisively defeat the Adal-Ottoman Muslim
army at the Battle of Wayna Daga; Imam Ahmad Gragn
Ahmad Gragn
killed. 1543: Copernicus publishes his theory that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun

Nicolaus Copernicus

1543: The Nanban trade period
Nanban trade period
begins after Portuguese traders make contact with Japan. 1544: The French defeat an Imperial–Spanish army at the Battle of Ceresole. 1544: Battle of the Shirts
Battle of the Shirts
in Scotland. The Frasers and Macdonalds of Clan Ranald
Clan Ranald
fight over a disputed chiefship; reportedly, 5 Frasers and 8 Macdonalds survive. 1545: Songhai forces sack the Malian capital of Niani 1545: The Council of Trent
Council of Trent
meets for the first time in Trent (in northern Italy). 1546: Michelangelo
Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. Peter's Basilica. 1546: Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
works among the peoples of Ambon, Ternate
and Morotai
(Moro) laying the foundations for a permanent mission. (to 1547) 1547: Henry VIII dies in the Palace of Whitehall
Palace of Whitehall
on 28 January at the age of 55. 1547: Francis I dies in the Château de Rambouillet
Château de Rambouillet
on 31 March at the age of 52. 1547: Edward VI becomes King of England
King of England
and Ireland
on 28 January and is crowned on 20 February at the age of 9. 1547: Emperor Charles V
Emperor Charles V
decisively dismantles the Schmalkaldic League at the Battle of Mühlberg. 1547: Grand Prince Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible
is crowned tsar of (All)Russia, thenceforth becoming the first Russian tsar. 1548: Battle of Uedahara: Firearms
are used for the first time on the battlefield in Japan, and Takeda Shingen
Takeda Shingen
is defeated by Murakami Yoshikiyo. 1548
Askia Daoud, who reigned from 1548
to 1583, establishes public libraries in Timbuktu (in present-day Mali). 1548: The Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
government of China
issues a decree banning all foreign trade and closes down all seaports along the coast; these Hai jin laws came during the Wokou
wars with Japanese pirates. 1549: Tomé de Souza establishes Salvador in Bahia, north-east of Brazil. 1549: Arya Penangsang with the support of his teacher, Sunan Kudus, avenged the death of Raden Kikin by sending an envoy named Rangkud to kill Sunan Prawoto by Keris Kyai Satan Kober (in present-day Indonesia).


the Great

Philip II of Spain

1550: The architect Mimar Sinan
Mimar Sinan
builds the Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul. 1550: Mongols
led by Altan Khan
Altan Khan
invade China
and besiege Beijing. 1550–1551: Valladolid
debate concerning the human rights of the Indigenous people of the Americas 1551: Fifth outbreak of sweating sickness in England. John Caius
John Caius
of Shrewsbury
writes the first full contemporary account of the symptoms of the disease. 1551: North African pirates enslave the entire population of the Maltese island Gozo, between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to Libya. 1552: Russia conquers the Khanate of Kazan
Khanate of Kazan
in central Asia. 1552: Jesuit
Mission, Francis Xavier 1553: Mary Tudor becomes the first queen regnant of England
and restores the Church of England
under Papal authority. 1553: Portuguese found a settlement at Macau. 1554: Portuguese missionaries José de Anchieta
José de Anchieta
and Manuel da Nóbrega establishes São Paulo, southeast Brazil. 1554: Princess Elizabeth is imprisoned in the Tower of London
Tower of London
upon the orders of Mary I for suspicion of being involved in the Wyatt rebellion. 1555: The Muscovy
Company is the first major English joint stock trading company. 1556: Publication in Venice
of Delle Navigiationi et Viaggi (terzo volume) by Giovanni Battista Ramusio, secretary of Council of Ten, with plan La Terra de Hochelaga, an illustration of the Hochelaga.[12] 1556: The Shaanxi earthquake
Shaanxi earthquake
in China
is history's deadliest known earthquake during the Ming dynasty. 1556: Georgius Agricola, the "Father of Mineralogy", publishes his De re metallica. 1556: Akbar
the Great defeats the Sultan of Bengal
at the Second battle of Panipat 1556: Russia conquers the Astrakhan Khanate. 1556–1605: During his reign, Akbar
expands the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in a series of conquests (in the Indian subcontinent). 1556: Mir Chakar Khan Rind
Mir Chakar Khan Rind
captured Delhi
with Emperor Humayun. 1556: Pomponio Algerio, radical theologian, is executed by boiling in oil as part of the Roman inquisition. 1557: Habsburg
declares bankruptcy. Philip II of Spain
had to declare four state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1575
and 1596. 1557: The Portuguese settle in Macau
(on the western side of the Pearl River Delta across from present-day Hong Kong). 1557: The Ottomans capture Massawa, all but isolating Ethiopia
from the rest of the world. 1558
Elizabeth Tudor becomes Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
at age 25. 1558–1603: The Elizabethan era
Elizabethan era
is considered the height of the English Renaissance. 1558–1583: Livonian War
Livonian War
between Poland, Grand Principality of Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark
and Russia. 1558: After 200 years, the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
loses Calais
to France. 1559: With the Peace of Cateau Cambrésis, the Italian Wars
Italian Wars
conclude. 1559: Sultan Khairun of Ternate
(in present-day Indonesia) protests the Portuguese's Christianisation activities in his lands. Hostilities between Ternate
and the Portuguese.


William the Silent

Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo

1560: Ottoman navy
Ottoman navy
defeats the Spanish fleet at the Battle of Djerba. 1560: Elizabeth Bathory
Elizabeth Bathory
is born in Nyirbator, Hungary. 1560: By winning the Battle of Okehazama, Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
becomes one of the pre-eminent warlords of Japan 1560: Jeanne d'Albret
Jeanne d'Albret
declares Calvinism
the official religion of Navarre. 1560: Lazarus Church, Macau 1561: Sir Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
is born in London. 1561: Guido de Bres draws up the Belgic Confession
Belgic Confession
of Protestant faith. 1562: Mughal leader Akbar
reconciles the Muslim
and Hindu
factions by marrying into the powerful Rajput
caste. 1562–98: French Wars of Religion
French Wars of Religion
between Catholics
and Huguenots. 1562: Massacre of Wassy
Massacre of Wassy
and Battle of Dreux
Battle of Dreux
in the French Wars of Religion. 1562: Portuguese Dominican priests build a palm-trunk fortress which Javanese Muslims burned down the following year. The fort was rebuilt from more durable materials and the Dominicans commenced the Christianisation of the local population.[11] 1563: Plague outbreak claimed 80,000 people in Elizabethan England. In London
alone, over 20,000 people died of the disease. 1564: Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
born on February 15 1564: William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
baptized 26 April 1565: Battle of Talikota
Battle of Talikota
fought between the Hindu
kingdom of Vijayanagar and the Deccan sultanates. 1565: Mir Chakar Khan Rind
Mir Chakar Khan Rind
died age of 97. 1565: Estácio de Sá establishes Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
in Brazil. 1565: The Hospitallers, a Crusading Order, defeat the Ottoman Empire at the Siege of Malta (1565). 1565: Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
establishes in Cebu
the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines
starting a period of Spanish colonization that would last over three hundred years. 1565: Spanish navigator Andres de Urdaneta
Andres de Urdaneta
discovers the maritime route from Asia
to the Americas
across the Pacific Ocean, also known as the tornaviaje. 1565: Royal Exchange, Thomas Gresham 1566
Suleiman the Magnificent, ruler of the Ottoman Empire, dies on September 7, during the battle of Szigetvar. 1566–1648: Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
between Spain
and the Netherlands. 1566:Da le Balle Contrade d'Oriente, Rore 1567: After 45 years' reign, Jiajing Emperor
Jiajing Emperor
died in the Forbidden City, Longqing Emperor
Longqing Emperor
ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty. 1567: Mary, Queen of Scots, is imprisoned by Elizabeth I. 1568: The Transylvanian Diet, under the patronage of the prince John Sigismund Zápolya, the former king of Hungary, inspired by the teachings of Ferenc Dávid, the founder of the Unitarian Church of Transylvania, promulgates the Edict of Torda, the first law of freedom of religion and of conscience in the World. 1568–1571: Morisco Revolt
Morisco Revolt
in Spain. 1568–1600: The Azuchi-Momoyama period
Azuchi-Momoyama period
in Japan. 1568: Hadiwijaya sent his adopted son and son in-law Sutawijaya, who would later become the first ruler of the Mataram dynasty of Indonesia, to kill Aryo Penangsang. 1569: Rising of the North in England. 1569: Mercator 1569
world map published by Gerardus Mercator. 1569: The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
is created with the Union of Lublin which lasts until 1795. 1569: Peace treaty signed by Sultan Khairun of Ternate
and Governor Lopez De Mesquita of Portugal.


Oda Nobunaga.

The Battle of Lepanto.

Sir Francis Drake.

1570: Ivan the Terrible, tsar of Russia, orders the massacre of inhabitants of Novgorod. 1570: Pope
Pius V issues Regnans in Excelsis, a papal bull excommunicating all who obeyed Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
and calling on all Roman Catholics
to rebel against her. 1570: Sultan Hairun of Ternate
(in present-day Indonesia) is killed by the Portuguese.[11] The reign of Sultan Baabullah. 1571: Pope
Pius V completes the Holy League as a united front against the Ottoman Turks. 1571: The Spanish-led Holy League navy destroys the Ottoman Empire navy at the Battle of Lepanto. 1571: Crimean Tatars attack and sack Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin. 1571: American Indians kill Spanish missionaries in what would later be Jamestown, Virginia. 1571: Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
establishes Manila, Philippines
as the capital of the Spanish East Indies. 1572: Brielle
is taken from Habsburg
by Protestant Watergeuzen in the Capture of Brielle, in the Eighty Years' War. 1572: Spanish conquistadores apprehend the last Inca
leader Tupak Amaru at Vilcabamba, Peru, and execute him in Cuzco. 1572: Jeanne d'Albret
Jeanne d'Albret
dies aged 43 and is succeeded by Henry of Navarre. 1572: Catherine de' Medici
Catherine de' Medici
instigates the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre which takes the lives of Protestant leader Gaspard de Coligny and thousands of Huguenots. The violence spreads from Paris to other cities and the countryside. 1572: First edition of the epic The Lusiads
The Lusiads
of Luís Vaz de Camões, three years after the author returned from the East.[13] 1572: The 9 years old Taizi, Zhu Yijun
Zhu Yijun
ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty, known as Wanli Emperor. 1573: After heavy losses on both sides the Siege of Haarlem
Siege of Haarlem
ends in a Spanish victory. 1574: in the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
the capital of Zeeland, Middelburg declares for the Protestants. 1574: After a siege of 4 months the Siege of Leiden
Siege of Leiden
ends in a comprehensive Dutch rebel victory. 1575: Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
finally captures Nagashima fortress. 1575: Following a five-year war, the Ternateans under Sultan Baabullah defeated the Portuguese. 1576: Tahmasp I, Safavid
king, died. 1576: Sack of Antwerp
Sack of Antwerp
by badly paid Spanish soldiers. 1577–80: Francis Drake
Francis Drake
circles the world. 1577: Ki Ageng Pemanahan built his palace in Pasargede or Kotagede. 1578: King Sebastian of Portugal
is killed at the Battle of Alcazarquivir. 1578:The Portuguese establish a fort on Tidore
but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.[11] 1579: The Union of Utrecht
Union of Utrecht
unifies the northern Netherlands, a foundation for the later Dutch Republic. 1579: The Union of Arras unifies the southern Netherlands, a foundation for the later states of the Spanish Netherlands, the Austrian Netherlands
and Belgium 1579: The British navigator Sir Francis Drake
Sir Francis Drake
passes through Maluku and transit in Ternate
on his circumnavigation of the world. The Portuguese establish a fort on Tidore
but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.[14]


The fall of Spanish Armada

1580: Drake's royal reception after his attacks on Spanish possessions influences Philip II of Spain
to build up the Spanish Armada. English ships in Spanish harbours are impounded. 1580: Spain
unifies with Portugal
under Philip II. The struggle for the throne of Portugal
ends the Portuguese Empire. The Spanish and Portuguese crowns are united for 60 years, i.e. until 1640. 1580: Nagasaki, Jesuits 1582: Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
is assassinated by his general, Akechi Mitsuhide. 1582: Pope
Gregory XIII issues the Gregorian calendar. The last day of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was Thursday, 4 October 1582
and this was followed by the first day of the Gregorian calendar, Friday, 15 October 1582 1582: Yermak Timofeyevich
Yermak Timofeyevich
conquers the Siberia Khanate
Siberia Khanate
on behalf of the Stroganovs. 1583: Death of Sultan Baabullah of Ternate. 1584–85: After the Siege of Antwerp, many of its merchants flee to Amsterdam. According to Luc-Normand Tellier, "At its peak, between 1510
and 1557, Antwerp
concentrated about 40% of the world trade...It is estimated that the port of Antwerp
was earning the Spanish crown seven times more revenues than the Americas."[15] 1584 : Ki Ageng Pemanahan died. Sultan Pajang raised Sutawijaya, son of Ki Ageng Pemanahan as the new ruler in Mataram, titled "Loring Ngabehi Market" (because of his home in the north of the market). 1585 : Colony at Roanoke founded in North America 1585–1604: The Anglo-Spanish War is fought on both sides of the Atlantic. 1587 : Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots
is executed by Elizabeth I. 1587
– The reign of Abbas I marks the zenith of the Safavid
dynasty. 1587 : troops that would invade Pajang Sultanate of Mataram storm ravaged the eruption of Mount Merapi. Sutawijaya and his men survived. 1588 : Mataram into the kingdom with Sutawijaya as Sultan, titled "Senapati Ingalaga Sayidin Panatagama" means the warlord and cleric Manager Religious Life. 1588: England
repulses the Spanish Armada. 1589: Spain
repulses the English Armada. 1589 : Catherine de' Medici
Catherine de' Medici
dies aged 69.


1590: Siege of Odawara the Go-Hojo clan surrendered to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Japan
was unified (1590). 1591: Gazi Giray leads a huge Tatar expedition against Moscow. 1591: In Mali, Moroccan forces of the Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur led by Judar Pasha defeat the Songhai Empire
Songhai Empire
at the Battle of Tondibi. 1592–1593: John Stow
John Stow
reports 10,675 plague deaths in London, a city of approximately 200,000 people. 1592–1598: Korea, with the help of Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
China, repels two Japanese invasions. 1593–1606: The Long War between the Habsburg
monarchy and the Ottoman Turks. 1594: St. Paul's College, Macau, Alessandro Valignano 1595: First Dutch expedition to Indonesia
sets sail for the East Indies
with two hundred and forty-nine men and sixty-four cannons led by Cornelis de Houtman.[16] 1596: Birth of René Descartes. 1596: June, de Houtman’s expedition reaches Banten
the main pepper port of West Java
where they clash with both the Portuguese and Indonesians. It then sails east along the north coast of Java
losing twelve crew to a Javanese attack at Sidayu and killing a local ruler in Madura.[16] 1597: de Houtman’s expedition returns to the Netherlands
with enough spices to make a considerable profit.[16] 1598: The Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
ends the French Wars of Religion. 1598: Abbas I moved Safavids
capital from Qazvin
to Isfahan
in 1598. 1598–1613: Russia descends into anarchy during the Time of Troubles. 1598: The Portuguese require an armada of 90 ships to put down a Solorese uprising.[11] (to 1599) 1598: More Dutch fleets leave for Indonesia
and most are profitable.[16] 1599: The Mali Empire
Mali Empire
is defeated at the Battle of Jenné 1599: The van Neck expedition returns to Europe. The expedition makes a 400 per cent profit.[16] (to 1600) 1599: March, Leaving Europe
the previous year, a fleet of eight ships under Jacob van Neck
Jacob van Neck
was the first Dutch fleet to reach the ‘Spice Islands’ of Maluku.[16] 1600: Giordano Bruno
Giordano Bruno
is burned at the stake for heresy in Rome. 1600: Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara
in Japan. End of the Warring States period and beginning of the Edo period. 1600: The Portuguese win a major naval battle in the bay of Ambon.[17] Later in the year, the Dutch join forces with the local Hituese in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch would have the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu.[17] 1600: Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
grants a charter to the British East India
Company beginning the English advance in Asia.

Significant people[edit]

Charles V

Suleiman the Magnificent

Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
of England

Ignatius of Loyola

Martin Luther

John Calvin

Manuel I, King of Portugal. Ruler of the first global empire. He also used the motto Manuel Rex Orbis est, meaning Manuel King of the Globe (1469–1521). Abbas I, the strongest king of Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
(1571–1629). Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, Somali Imam and general (1507–1543). Akbar
the Great, third Mughal emperor, who led the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
to its zenith (1542–1605) Alberico Gentili, the "Father of international law", considered to be one of the greatest lawyers of all time (1552–1608) Andrea Amati, (c. 1520
– c. 1578) was the earliest maker of violins whose instruments still survive today. Anne Boleyn, second wife of King Henry VIII. She was the first Queen of England
to be executed, and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. (c. 1501–1536) John Calvin, theologian, and reformer. Founder of Calvinism (1509–1564). Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
and the first to reign as King of Spain. Involved in almost constant conflict with France
and the Ottoman Empire while promoting the Spanish colonization of the Americas (1500–1558). Cuauhtémoc, the last Tlatoani
of the Aztec, led the native resistance against the Conquistadores (1502–1525). Edward VI of England, notable for further differentiating Anglicanism from the practices of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
(1537–1553). Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
of England, Queen of England
(1533–1603). Francis I of France, considered the first Renaissance
monarch of his Kingdom (1494–1547). Lady Jane Grey, Queen regnant
Queen regnant
of England
and Ireland. Notably deposed by popular revolt (1537–1554). Gustav I of Sweden, restored Swedish sovereignty and introduced Protestantism
in Sweden
(1496–1560). György Dózsa, leader of the peasants' revolt in Hungary (1470–1514) Henry IV of France
and Navarre, ended the French Wars of Religion
French Wars of Religion
and reunited the kingdom under his command (1553–1610). Henry VII of England, king (1457–1509) Henry VIII of England, founder of Anglicanism
(1491–1547). Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
(1491–1556). Ismail I
Ismail I
(1487–1524) reunified Persia, established Safavid
dynasty and declared Shia Islam
Shia Islam
as the state religion. Ivan IV of Russia, first Russian tsar (1533–1584). St. John of the Cross, Spanish mystic (1542–1591). Jeanne d'Albret
Jeanne d'Albret
led the Huguenots
in the French Wars of Religion (1528–1572). John Knox
John Knox
(c. 1510
– 1572) was a Scottish clergyman and leader of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination. Martin Luther, German religious reformer (1483–1546). Michael the Brave, ruler of Walachia, national symbol of Romanians
for uniting the three provinces under his rule in 1600
(1558–1601)[18] Michel Nostradamus, French astrologer and doctor, author of Les Propheties, a book of world prophecies (1503–1566). Mary I of England. Attempted to counter the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in her domains. Nicknamed Bloody Mary for her Religious persecution (1516–1558). Mary, Queen of Scots, First female head of the House of Stuart (1542–1587). Manus O'Donnell, King of Tír Chonaill
Tír Chonaill
in Ulster. Irish Renaissance prince (died 1564). Oda Nobunaga, daimyō of the Sengoku period
Sengoku period
of Japanese civil war. First ruler of the Azuchi-Momoyama period
Azuchi-Momoyama period
(1534–1582). Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Dutch politician and Grand Pensionary, played a pivotal role in organizing the Dutch revolt
Dutch revolt
against Spain (1542–1619). Paracelsus
(11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland – 24 September 1541
in Salzburg, Austria), Renaissance
physician, botanist, alchemist, astrologer, and general occultist. Philip II of Spain. It was first said of his empire that "the sun did not set". Strong defender of Catholicism
and self-proclaimed leader of Counter- Reformation
(1527–1598). Giovanni Battista Ramusio (20 July 1485
– 10 July 1557), diplomat and secretary of council of Ten of Venice
Italy, author of Delle Navigationi et Viaggi. Third volume (terzo volume) containing plan "La Terra de Hochelaga" showing the village of Hochelaga. Matteo Ricci, Italian Jesuit
who traveled to Macau, China
in 1582, and died in Beijing, (1552–1610) Ruy López de Segura
Ruy López de Segura
(c. 1530
– c. 1580), Spanish bishop and chess player. Sigismund III Vasa, the first and only monarch of the Polish–Swedish union; his long reign in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth coincided with the apex of the Commonwealth's prestige, power and economic influence (1566–1632). Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Conqueror and legal reformer (1494–1566). St. Teresa of Ávila, Spanish mystic (1515–1582). Toyotomi Hideyoshi, daimyō of the Sengoku period
Sengoku period
of Japan. Second ruler of the Azuchi-Momoyama period
Azuchi-Momoyama period
(1536–1598). Andreas Vesalius, anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body).(1514–1564) Wanli Emperor, Emperor of China
during the Ming Dynasty, aided Korea in the Imjin War, (1563–1620) William the Silent, William I of Orange-Nassau, main leader of the Dutch revolt
Dutch revolt
against the Spanish (1533–1584). Yi Sun-sin, Korean admiral, respected as one of the greatest admirals in world history. (1545–1598). Nikola Šubić Zrinski, Ban (Viceroy) of Croatia and military leader, stopped the invading Ottoman army at the Battle of Szigetvar
Battle of Szigetvar
in 1566. Zygmunt I the Old, King of Poland, established a conscription army and the bureaucracy needed to finance it (1467–1548).

Exploration[edit] See also: Exploration

Vasco de Gama

Francisco Pizarro

Vasco Núñez de Balboa
Vasco Núñez de Balboa
(c. 1475
– 1519) – Spanish explorer. The first European to cross the Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama
and view the Pacific Ocean from American shores. Gaspar (1450–1501) and Miguel Corte-Real (1448–1502). Portuguese explorers. Among the first modern explorers (with João Fernandes Lavrador) in the coasts of the far Northeast of Northern America, including the Labrador peninsula. They also rediscovered Greenland (1499-1501/1502). Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
(c. 1467–1520), Portuguese navigator. The first European to arrive in Brazil, on 22 April 1500. Led the first expedition that united Europe, Africa, America, and Asia. Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
(c. 1467–1520), Portuguese explorer and statesman. Earlier geostrategist and explorer of the Indian Ocean. Leading builder of the Portuguese empire in Asia
and the Far East. António de Abreu (c. 1480
– c. 1514) and Francisco Serrão (died 1521) – Portuguese explorers. Led the first European fleet into the edges of the Pacific Ocean, in 1511–1512, through Indonesia, reaching the Banda Sea
Banda Sea
and the Moluccas. João de Lisboa
João de Lisboa
(c.1470–1525) – Portuguese explorer, pilot, cosmographer and cartographer. Explored the Río de La Plata
Río de La Plata
and the San Matias Gulf. Jacques Cartier
Jacques Cartier
(1491–1557) – French explorer. Discovered Canada. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
(c. 1510
– 1554) – Spanish explorer. Searched for the Seven Cities of Gold and discovered the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
in the process. Hernán Cortés, Spanish Conquistador
(1485–1547). Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca(c. 1488/ 1490 – c. 1557/1558)., Spanish explorer. Crossed North America
North America
through the US south, southwest, and Mexico Andrés de Urdaneta
Andrés de Urdaneta
(c. 1498 – 1568) was a Spanish Basque navigator, friar and circumnavigator. In 1565
he discovered the maritime path from Asia
to the Americas
across the Pacific. Sir Francis Drake
Sir Francis Drake
(1540–1596) – English explorer. The first English captain to sail around the world and survive. Juan Sebastián Elcano
Juan Sebastián Elcano
(1476–1526) – Spanish Basque explorer. Completed the first circumnavigation of the globe in a single expedition after its captain, Magellan, was killed. Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
(c. 1469 – 1524), Portuguese navigator. Discovered the ocean route to Asia
around the Cape of Good Hope. Explored and crossed the Atlantic and Indian oceans. Juan Ponce de León
Juan Ponce de León
(c. 1460 – 1521) – Spanish explorer. He explored Florida
while attempting to locate a Fountain of Youth. Ferdinand Magellan, Portuguese navigator who sailed around the world (1480–1521). Explored and crossed the Pacific Ocean. António Mota, Portuguese trader and explorer who reached Japan
in 1542–43. Francisco de Orellana
Francisco de Orellana
(1511–1546) – Spanish explorer in 1541–42 sails the length of the Amazon River. Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
(c. 1475
– 1541) – Spanish explorer and conquistador. Conquered the Inca
Empire. Hernando de Soto (c. 1496 – 1542) – Spanish explorer. Explored Florida, mainly northwest Florida, and discovered the Mississippi River. Fernão Mendes Pinto
Fernão Mendes Pinto
(c. 1509
– 8 July 1583) – Portuguese. Explored Asia
and the Indies. Supposedly Reached Japan
in 1542–43. Yermak Timofeyevich
Yermak Timofeyevich
(c. 1532–1585) – Russian cossack ataman. Conquered the Khanate of Siberia. Luis Váez de Torres
Luis Váez de Torres
(c. 1565–1607) Spanish or Portuguese navigator. Explored the Pacific for the Spanish crown and crossed the strait that bears his name in northern Australia. Giovanni da Verrazzano
Giovanni da Verrazzano
(c. 1485–1528) – Italian explorer for France. Explored the northeast coast of America, from about present-day South Carolina
South Carolina
to Newfoundland.

Visual artists[edit] See also: Artists of the Tudor court, Renaissance
painting, Italian Renaissance
painting, and Renaissance



Albrecht Dürer

Andrea Palladio


El Greco

Bartolommeo Bandinelli
Bartolommeo Bandinelli
(1493–1560), Italian sculptor Donato Bramante
Donato Bramante
(1444–1514), Italian architect Michelangelo
Buonarroti, Italian painter and sculptor (1475–1564). Bronzino
(1503–1572), Italian painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder, (c. 1525
– September 9, 1569) Jan Brueghel the Elder
Jan Brueghel the Elder
(1568–1625), Caravaggio(1571–1610), Italian artist. Benvenuto Cellini
Benvenuto Cellini
(1500–1571), Italian jeweller and sculptor. Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach the Elder
(1472–1553), German painter. Lucas Cranach the Younger
Lucas Cranach the Younger
(1515–1586), German painter. Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
(1471–1528), German artist. Rosso Fiorentino
Rosso Fiorentino
(1494–1540), Italian painter. Domenico Fontana
Domenico Fontana
(1543–1607), Italian architect. Giambologna
(1529–1608), Flemish-Italian sculptor. El Greco
El Greco
(1541–1614), Greek-Spanish painter, sculptor, and architect Juan de Herrera, Spanish architect (1530–1597) Hans Holbein the Younger, German artist, (1497–1543) Andrea Palladio
Andrea Palladio
(1508–1580), Italian architect Parmigianino
(1503–1540), Italian painter Pontormo
(1494–1557), Italian painter. Raphael
(1483–1520), Italian painter Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano
(c. 1499–1546), Italian painter and architect. Andrea del Sarto
Andrea del Sarto
(1486–1530), Italian painter. Giuliano da Sangallo
Giuliano da Sangallo
(c. 1445 – 1516), Italian sculptor, architect and military engineer Antonio da Sangallo the Younger
Antonio da Sangallo the Younger
(1484–1546), Italian architect Mimar Sinan
Mimar Sinan
(1489–1588) was a civil engineer and chief architect of the Ottoman Empire Tintoretto
(1518–1594), Italian painter Titian(c. 1485–1576), Italian painter Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
(1511–1574), Italian painter, architect, writer and historian. Paolo Veronese, Italian painter, ( 1528
– April 19, 1588) Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
famous artist and inventor and scientist (1452–1519). Qiu Ying, Chinese painter who belonged to the Wu School
Wu School
and used gongbi brush style (1494–1552)

Musicians and composers[edit] See also: List of Baroque composers

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

Andrea Amati
Andrea Amati
(c. 1520
– c. 1578) Felice Anerio
Felice Anerio
(c. 1560
– 1614) Adriano Banchieri
Adriano Banchieri
(c. 1557
– 1634) Giovanni Bassano (c. 1558
– 1617) William Brade (1560–1630) John Bull (c. 1562
– 1628) Antonio de Cabezón
Antonio de Cabezón
(c. 1510
– 1566) Giulio Caccini
Giulio Caccini
(c. 1545
– 1618) Dario Castello
Dario Castello
(c. 1560
– c. 1640) Emilio de' Cavalieri (c. 1550
– March 11, 1602) Jacques Champion
Jacques Champion
(before 1555
– 1642) Manuel Rodrigues Coelho (c. 1555
– c. 1635) John Dowland
John Dowland
(1563–1626) Giles Farnaby (1565–1640) Alfonso Fontanelli (1557–1622) Hans Leo Hassler
Hans Leo Hassler
(1562–1612) Sebastian Aguilera de Heredia (1565–1627) Giovanni Gabrieli
Giovanni Gabrieli
(1557–1612) Joseph Lupo Peter Lupo (c. 1535
– 1608) Thomas Lupo (c. 1571
– c. 1627) Ascanio Mayone (1565–1627) Cristóbal de Morales
Cristóbal de Morales
(c. 1500
– 1553) Giovanni Bernardino Nanino (c. 1560
– 1623) Johannes Nucius (c. 1556
– 1620) Claudio Merulo
Claudio Merulo
(1533–1604) Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, (1525–1594) Jacopo Peri
Jacopo Peri
(1561–1633) Peter Philips (c. 1560
– 1628) Hieronymus Praetorius (1560–1629) Cipriano de Rore
Cipriano de Rore
(1516–1565) Paolo Quagliati
Paolo Quagliati
(c. 1555
– 1628) Francisco de Salinas
Francisco de Salinas
(1513–1590) Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck
Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck
(1562–1621) Jean Titelouze
Jean Titelouze
(1563–1633) Lodovico Grossi da Viadana (1564–1627) Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548–1611)

Literature[edit] See also: Renaissance, 1 6th century
6th century
in literature, 1 6th century
6th century
in poetry, Elizabethan literature, Renaissance
literature, Early Modern literature, and Dutch Renaissance
and Golden Age literature

Miguel de Cervantes

William Shakespeare

Michel de Montaigne

Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar, Spanish poet and painter, (1483–1541) Mateo Alemán, Spanish novelist and writer ( 1547
– c. 1615) Ludovico Ariosto, Italian poet, (1474–1533) Bâkî, Ottoman Turkish poet. He was known as "Sultan of poets" (1526–1600) Luís de Camões, Portuguese poet (c. 1524
– 1580). Baldassare Castiglione, Italian author (1478–1529) Miguel de Cervantes, Spanish author (1547–1616) John Donne, English metaphysical poet (1572–1631) Torquato Tasso, Italian poet Alonso de Ercilla, Spanish poet (1533–1594) Luis de Góngora, Spanish poet (1561–1627) Thomas Heywood, English dramatist (c. early 1570s – 1641) Malaye Jaziri, Kurdish poet and mystic (1570–1640) Ben Jonson, English dramatist (c. 1572
– 1637) Jan Kochanowski, Polish poet (1530–1584) Fuzûlî, Azerbaijani poet (1483–1556) Thomas Kyd, English dramatist (1558–1594) Luis de León, Spanish poet (1527–1591) Thomas Lodge, English dramatist (1558–1625) Niccolò Machiavelli, Italian author (1469–1527) Christopher Marlowe, English poet and dramatist (1564–1593). Michel de Montaigne, French essayist (1533–1592). Thomas More, English politician and author (1478–1535). Miyamoto Musashi, famous warrior in Japan, author of The Book of Five Rings, a treaty on strategy and martial combat. (1584–1645) François Rabelais, French author (c. 1493 – 1553). Mikołaj Rej, Polish writer (1505–1569). Pierre de Ronsard, French poet. Called the "Prince of poets" of his generation. (1524–1585). William Shakespeare, English playwright (1564–1616). Edmund Spenser, English poet (c. 1552–1599) Gian Giorgio Trissino, Italian humanist, poet, dramatist, diplomat, and grammarian (1478–1550) Garcilaso de la Vega, Spanish poet (1501–1536) Lope de Vega, Spanish dramatist (1562–1635). Benedetto Varchi, Italian humanist, a historian and poet (1502/1503 – 1565) Sharaf Khan Bidlisi, Kurdish politician, historian and poet (1543–1603)

and philosophy[edit] See also: Scientific revolution

Niccolò Machiavelli

Erasmus of Rotterdam

Sir Thomas More


Mulla Sadra, (1571–1641), the single most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world
Muslim world
in the last four hundred years who introduced Transcendent Theosophy or al-hikmah al-muta'liyah Sir Francis Bacon, (1561–1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, and essayist. Pietro Bembo
Pietro Bembo
(1470–1547), Italian scholar, poet, literary theorist and a cardinal. Tycho Brahe, (1546–1601), Danish astronomer. Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher and astronomer/astrologer (1548–1600). Tommaso Campanella
Tommaso Campanella
(1568–1639), Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet. Demetrios Chalkokondyles, (1423–1511), Greek humanist, scholar. Nicolaus Copernicus, (1473–1543) astronomer, developed the heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory using scientific methods. Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus
(sometimes known as Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, 1466/1469, Rotterdam – July 12, 1536, Basel was a Dutch Renaissance
humanist and Catholic Christian theologian. Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
(1564[19] – 1642) was a Tuscan (Italian) physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution. Konrad Gessner
Konrad Gessner
(1516–1565) was a Swiss naturalist, bibliographer, Botanist, His three-volume Historiae animalium
Historiae animalium
(1551–1558) is considered the beginning of modern zoology William Gilbert, also known as Gilberd, (1544–1603) was an English physician and a natural philosopher. Francesco Guicciardini, (1483–1540) Italian historian and statesman. Johannes Kepler, (1571–1630), German mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution. Niccolò Machiavelli
(1469–1527), Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. Gerardus Mercator
Gerardus Mercator
(5 March 1512
– 2 December 1594), famous cartographer. Michael Servetus
Michael Servetus
( 1509
or 1511
– 27 October 1553), Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance
humanist. Francisco Suarez
Francisco Suarez
(1548–1617), Spanish philosopher and theologian. Andreas Vesalius
Andreas Vesalius
(Brussels, December 31, 1514
– Zakynthos, October 15, 1564) was an anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body). Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. Edward Wright, (baptized 1561; died 1615), English mathematician and cartographer who determined the mathematical basis of the Mercator projection and produced the first maps in England
according to this method

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

Related article: List of 1 6th century
6th century

The Columbian Exchange
Columbian Exchange
introduces many plants, animals and diseases to the Old and New Worlds. Introduction of the spinning wheel revolutionizes textile production in Europe. The letter J is introduced into the English alphabet. 1500: First portable watch is created by Peter Henlein
Peter Henlein
of Germany. 1513: Juan Ponce de León
Juan Ponce de León
sights Florida
and Vasco Núñez de Balboa sights the eastern edge of the Pacific Ocean. 1519–22: Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
and Juan Sebastián Elcano
Juan Sebastián Elcano
lead the first circumnavigation of the World. 1519–1540: In America, Hernando de Soto expeditions map the Gulf of Mexico coastline and bays. 1525: Modern square root symbol (√) 1540: Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
sights the Grand Canyon. 1541–42: Francisco de Orellana
Francisco de Orellana
sails the length of the Amazon River. 1542–43: Firearms
are introduced into Japan
by the Portuguese. 1543: Copernicus publishes his theory that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun 1545: Theory
of complex numbers is first developed by Gerolamo Cardamo of Italy. 1558: Camera obscura
Camera obscura
is first used in Europe
by Giambattista della Porta of Italy. 1559–1562: Spanish settlements in Alabama/ Florida
and Georgia confirm dangers of hurricanes and local native warring tribes. 1565: Spanish settlers outside New Spain
(Mexico) colonize Florida's coastline at St. Augustine. 1565: Invention of the graphite pencil (in a wooden holder) by Conrad Gesner. Modernized in 1812. 1568: Gerardus Mercator
Gerardus Mercator
creates the first Mercator projection
Mercator projection
map. 1572: Supernova
SN 1572
SN 1572
is observed by Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
in the Milky Way. 1582: Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is introduced in Europe
by Pope
Gregory XIII and adopted by catholic countries. c. 1583: Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
of Pisa, Italy
identifies the constant swing of a pendulum, leading to development of reliable timekeepers. 1585: earliest known reference to the 'sailing carriage' in China. 1589: William Lee invents the stocking frame. 1591: First flush toilet is introduced by Sir John Harrington of England, the design published under the title 'The Metamorphosis of Ajax'. 1593: Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
invents a thermometer. 1596: William Barents
William Barents
discovers Spitsbergen. 1597: Opera
in Florence
by Jacopo Peri.

See also[edit]

Entertainment in the 16th century


^ Modern reference works on the period tend to follow the introduction of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
for the sake of clarity; thus NASA's lunar eclipse catalogue states "The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is used for all dates from 1582
Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
is used." For dates after 15 October 1582, care must be taken to avoid confusion of the two styles. ^ Ekelund & Tollison 1981, p. 9. ^ Polybius: "The Rise Of The Roman Empire", Page 36, Penguin, 1979. ^ "16th Century
Timeline ( 1501
to 1600)". fsmitha.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009.  ^ "History of Smallpox
Through the Ages". Texas Department of State Health Services. ^ Ricklefs (1991), p.23 ^ "A LIST OF NATIONAL EPIDEMICS OF PLAGUE IN ENGLAND 1348–1665". Archived from the original on 2009-05-04. Retrieved 2009-04-25.  ^ a b Ricklefs (1991), page 24 ^ The Sweating Sickness. Story of London.. Accessed 2009-04-25. Archived 2009-05-03. ^ Sandra Arlinghaus. "Life Span of Suleiman the Magnificent 1494–1566". Personal.umich.edu. Retrieved 2013-05-05.  ^ a b c d e Ricklefs (1991), page 25 ^ "La Terra De Hochelaga – Jaques Cartier a Hochelaga". jacquescarter.org. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008.  ^ "The Lusiads". World Digital Library. 1800–1882. Retrieved 2013-08-31.  ^ Miller, George (ed.) (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. xv. ISBN 967-65-3099-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). "Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective". PUQ. p.308. ISBN 2-7605-1588-5 ^ a b c d e f Ricklefs (1991), page 27 ^ a b Ricklefs (1991), page 28 ^ Stoica, Vasile (1919). The Roumanian Question: The Roumanians and their Lands. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Printing Company. p. 18.  ^ Drake (1978, p.1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout the whole of Christendom. In 1582
it was replaced in Italy
and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar.

External links[edit]

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6th century
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