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The 16TH CENTURY begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600
1600
(depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
introduced a lapse of 10 days in October 1582).

The 1 6th century is regarded by historians as the century in which the rise of the West occurred. During the 16th century, Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
explored the world's seas and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes. Large parts of the New World
New World
became Spanish and Portuguese colonies, and while the Portuguese became the masters of Asia's and Africa's Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
trade, the Spanish opened trade across the Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas
Americas
with Asia.

This era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another. The mercantilist doctrine encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and arguably fueled European expansion and imperialism throughout the world until the 19th century
19th century
or early 20th century .

In Europe
Europe
, the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
. European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years\' War being laid towards the end of the century. In Italy
Italy
, Luca Pacioli published the first work ever on accounting and Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
made the first thermometer. In England , the Italian Alberico Gentili
Alberico Gentili
wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology.

In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliph
Caliph
, while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran
Iran
and Iraq were caught by major popularity of the once-obscure Shiite sect of Islam
Islam
under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia
Persia
independent of the majority-Sunni Muslim world
Muslim world
.

China
China
evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering a severe civil war at the time.

Mughal Emperor Akbar
Akbar
extended the power of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
to cover most of the South Asian sub continent. His rule significantly influenced arts, and culture in the region.

Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universe , which was met with strong resistance, and Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the 1572
1572
appearance of a Milky Way
Milky Way
supernova . These events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
and Aristotle
Aristotle
, and led to major revolutions in astronomy and science .

CONTENTS

* 1 Events

* 1.1 Undated * 1.2 1500s * 1.3 1510s * 1.4 1520s * 1.5 1530s * 1.6 1540s * 1.7 1550s * 1.8 1560s * 1.9 1570s * 1.10 1580s * 1.11 1590s

* 2 Significant people

* 2.1 Exploration
Exploration
* 2.2 Visual artists * 2.3 Musicians and composers * 2.4 Literature * 2.5 Science
Science
and philosophy

* 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

EVENTS

For timelines of earlier events, see 15th century
15th century
and Timeline of the Middle Ages .

UNDATED

Portrait of Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
as a child, part of the Madonna della Misericordia by Domenico Ghirlandaio
Domenico Ghirlandaio
at the Ognissanti church in Florence
Florence
.

* Polybius\' "The Histories" translated into Italian , English , German and French . * Mississippian culture disappears. * Medallion rug, variant Star Ushak style, Anatolia
Anatolia
(modern Turkey ), is made. It is now kept at The Saint Louis Art Museum
Saint Louis Art Museum
.

1500S

Dr Alberico Gentili
Alberico Gentili
, The Father of international law. Battle of Cerignola : El Gran Capitan finds the corpse of Louis d\'Armagnac, Duke of Nemours Afonso de Albuquerque Vasily III , Grand Duke of Moscow by André Thévet
André Thévet
.

* 1500
1500
: Charles V , Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
and King of Spain
Spain
was born. * 1500
1500
: Guru Nanak the beginning and spreading of the 5th largest Religion in the World Sikhism
Sikhism
. * 1500
1500
: Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón encounters Brazil but is prevented from claiming it by the Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas
. * 1500
1500
: Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
claims Brazil for Portugal. * 1500
1500
: The Ottoman fleet of Kemal Reis defeats the Venetians at the Second Battle of Lepanto
Battle of Lepanto
. * 1501 : Michelangelo
Michelangelo
returns to his native Florence
Florence
to begin work on the statue David. * 1501 : Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
reunified Iran
Iran
and ruled over it until 1736 . Safavids adopt a Shia branch of Islam
Islam
. * 1502 : First reported African slaves in The New World
New World
* 1503 : Foundation of the Sultanate of Sennar by Amara Dunqas , in what is modern Sudan
Sudan
* 1503 : Spain
Spain
defeats France
France
at the Battle of Cerignola . Considered to be the first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms. * 1503 : Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
begins painting the Mona Lisa
Mona Lisa
and completes it three years later. * 1503 : Nostradamus was born on either December 14, or December 21. * 1504 : A period of drought , with famine in all of Spain. * 1504 : Death of Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
, Joanna of Castille became the Queen. * 1505 : Zhengde Emperor ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
. * 1505 : Martin Luther
Martin Luther
enters St. Augustine\'s Monastery at Erfurt, Germany, on 17 July and begins his journey to instigating the Reformation
Reformation
. * 1505 : King Sultan Trenggono built the first Muslim
Muslim
kingdom in Java, called Demak , in Indonesia
Indonesia
. Many other small kingdoms were established in other islands to fight against Portuguese. Each kingdom introduced local language as a way of communication and unity. * 1506 : Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
completes the Mona Lisa
Mona Lisa
. * 1506 : King Afonso I of Kongo wins the battle of Mbanza Kongo, resulting in Catholicism
Catholicism
becoming Kongo\'s state religion. * 1506 : At least two thousand converted Jews are massacred in a Lisbon
Lisbon
riot, Portugal. * 1506 : Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
dies in Valladolid
Valladolid
, Spain
Spain
. * 1506 : Poland
Poland
is invaded by Tatars from the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
. * 1507 : The first recorded epidemic of smallpox in the New World
New World
on the island of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
. It devastates the native Taíno population.

* 1507 : Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Hormuz and Muscat , among other bases in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
, taking control of the region at the entrance of the Gulf. * 1508
1508
1512 : Michelangelo
Michelangelo
paints the Sistine Chapel ceiling . * 1509 : The Battle of Diu marks the beginning of Portuguese dominance of the Spice trade
Spice trade
and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
. * 1509 : The Portuguese king sends Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca
Malacca
, the eastern terminus of Asian trade. After initially receiving Sequeira, Sultan Mahmud Syah captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape. The Javanese fleet is also destroyed in Malacca.

Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries
Janissaries
and defending Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522, from an Ottoman manuscript. Spanish conquistadors with their Tlaxcallan allies fighting against the Otomies of Metztitlan in present-day Mexico, a 16th-century codex

1510S

Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519–1522. Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Buonarroti

* 1509 –10 : The 'great plague ' in various parts of Tudor England . * 1511 : Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal
Portugal
conquers Malacca
Malacca
, the capital of the Sultanate of Malacca
Malacca
in present-day Malaysia. * 1512 : Copernicus writes Commentariolus , and proclaims the sun the center of the solar system. * 1512 : The southern part (historical core) of the Kingdom of Navarre
Navarre
is invaded by Castile and Aragon . * 1512 : The first Portuguese exploratory expedition was sent eastward from Malacca
Malacca
(in present-day Malaysia) to search for the 'Spice Islands ' (Maluku ) led by Francisco Serrão . Serrao is shipwrecked but struggles on to Hitu (northern Ambon ) and wins the favour of the local rulers. * 1513
1513
: Machiavelli
Machiavelli
writes The Prince
The Prince
, a treatise about political philosophy * 1513
1513
: The Portuguese mariner Jorge Álvares lands at Macau
Macau
, China, during the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
. * 1513
1513
: Henry VIII defeats the French at the Battle of the Spurs . * 1513
1513
: The Battle of Flodden Field in which invading Scots are defeated by Henry VIII 's forces. * 1513
1513
: Sultan Selim I
Selim I
("The Grim") orders the massacre of Shia Muslims in Anatolia
Anatolia
(present-day Turkey). * 1513
1513
: Vasco Núñez de Balboa
Vasco Núñez de Balboa
, in service of Spain
Spain
arrives at the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
(which he called Mar del Sur) across the Isthmus of Panama
Panama
. He was the first European to do so. * 1514 : The Battle of Orsha halts Muscovy
Muscovy
's expansion into Eastern Europe. * 1514 : Dózsa rebellion (peasant revolt) in Hungary
Hungary
. * 1514 : The Battle of Chaldiran
Battle of Chaldiran
, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
gains decisive victory against Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
. * 1515 : The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
wrests Eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
from the Safavids after the Battle of Chaldiran
Battle of Chaldiran
. * 1516 1517 : The Ottomans defeat the Mamluks and gain control of Egypt
Egypt
, Arabia , and the Levant
Levant
. * 1517 : The Sweating sickness epidemic in Tudor England
Tudor England
. * 1517 : The Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
begins when Martin Luther
Martin Luther
posts his 95 Theses in Saxony
Saxony
. * 1518 : Mir Chakar Khan Rind leaves Baluchistan and settles in Punjab . * 1518 : Leo Africanus
Leo Africanus
, also known as al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Wazzan al-Fasi, Arabic:حسن ابن محمد الوزان الفاسي), an Andalusian Berber diplomat who is best known for his book Descrittione dell’ Africa
Africa
(Description of Africa) describing the geography of North Africa, is captured by Spanish pirates; he will be taken to Rome
Rome
and presented to Pope
Pope
Leo X . * 1518 : The Dancing Plague of 1518 begins in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
, lasting for about one month. * 1519 : Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
dies of natural causes on May 2. * 1519 : Wang Yangming , the Chinese philosopher and governor of Jiangxi
Jiangxi
province, describes his intent to use the firepower of the fo-lang-ji, a breech-loading Portuguese culverin , in order to suppress the rebellion of Prince Zhu Chen-hao. * 1519 : Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
led by Hayreddin Barbarossa
Hayreddin Barbarossa
a Turk appointed to ruling position in Algiers by the Ottoman Empire, raid Provence
Provence
and Toulon in southern France
France
. * 1519 : Charles I of Spain
Spain
becomes Emperor of Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (ruled until 1556). * 1519 1522 : Spanish expedition commanded by Magellan and Elcano first to circle Earth * 1519 1521 : Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
leads the Spanish conquest of Mexico .

Hernan Cortes
Hernan Cortes

1520S

Francis I of France
France
Martin Luther
Martin Luther
at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder , 1529)

* 1520
1520
1566 : The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
marks the zenith of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. * 1520
1520
: The first European diplomatic mission to Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, sent by the Portuguese , arrives at Massawa 9 April, and reaches the imperial encampment of Emperor Dawit II in Shewa 9 October. * 1520
1520
: The Yousafzais defeat Dilazaks at the battle of Katlang to found the Yousafzai dynasty in Pakhtunkhwa in modern-day Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. * 1520
1520
: The Portuguese established a trading post in the village of Lamakera on the eastern side of Solor (in present-day Indonesia) as a transit harbour between Maluku and Malacca
Malacca
. * 1520
1520
: Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah of Aceh
Aceh
begins an expansionist campaign capturing Daya on the west Sumatran coast (in present-day Indonesia), and the pepper and gold producing lands on the east coast. * 1521 : Belgrade
Belgrade
(in present-day Serbia) is captured by the Ottoman Empire. * 1521 : After building fortifications at Tuen Mun , the Portuguese attempt to invade Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
China, but are expelled by Chinese naval forces. * 1521 : Philippines
Philippines
encountered by Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
. He was later killed in battle in central Philippines
Philippines
in the same year. * 1521 : Jiajing Emperor ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
, China. * 1521 : November, Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
's expedition reaches Maluku (in present-day Indonesia) and after trade with Ternate
Ternate
returns to Europe
Europe
with a load of cloves . * 1521 : Pati Unus led invasion of Malacca
Malacca
(in present-day Malaysia) against the Portuguese occupation. Pati Unus was killed in this battle, and was succeeded by his brother, king Trenggana . * 1522 : Rhodes falls to the Ottoman Turks of Suleiman the Magnificent . * 1522 : The Portuguese ally themselves with the rulers of Ternate (in present-day Indonesia) and begin construction of a fort. * 1522 : August, Luso Sundanese Treaty signed between Portugal
Portugal
and Sunda Kingdom
Sunda Kingdom
granted Portuguese permit to build fortress in Sunda Kelapa * 1523 : Sweden
Sweden
gains independence from the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
. * 1523 : The cacao bean was introduced to Spain
Spain
by Hernán Cortés * 1524 1525
1525
: German Peasants\' War in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. * 1524 Giovanni da Verrazzano
Giovanni da Verrazzano
is the first European to explore the Atlantic coast of North America
North America
between South Carolina
South Carolina
and Newfoundland . * 1524 - Ismail I
Ismail I
, the founder of Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
, dies and Tahmasp I
Tahmasp I
becomes king. * 1525
1525
: Spain
Spain
and Germany
Germany
defeat France
France
at the Battle of Pavia
Battle of Pavia
, Francis I of France
France
is captured. * 1526
1526
: The Ottomans defeat the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
at the Battle of Mohács . * 1526
1526
: Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
, founded by Babur
Babur
, rules India
India
until 1857
1857
. * 1527
1527
: Sack of Rome
Rome
, which is considered the end of the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
.

Sack of Rome
Rome
by Charles V forces.

* 1527
1527
: Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
begins in Sweden
Sweden
. * 1527
1527
: The last ruler of Majapahit
Majapahit
falls from power. This state (located in present-day Indonesia) was finally extinguished at the hands of the Demak . A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royalty moved east to the island of Bali; however, the power and the seat of government transferred to Demak under the leadership of Pangeran, later Sultan Fatah . * 1527
1527
: June 22, The Javanese Prince Fatahillah of the Cirebon Sultanate successfully defeated the Portuguese armed forces at the site of the Sunda Kelapa Harbor. The city was then renamed Jayakarta , meaning "a glorious victory." This eventful day came to be acknowledged as Jakarta's Founding Anniversary, and Fatahillah Park was named after the heroic prince. * 1529 : The Austrians defeat the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
at the Siege of Vienna . * 1529 : Treaty of Zaragoza defined the antimeridian of Tordesillas attributing the Moluccas to Portugal
Portugal
and Philippines
Philippines
to Spain. * 1529 : Imam Ahmad Gragn defeats the Ethiopian Emperor Dawit II in the Battle of Shimbra Kure , the opening clash of the Ethiopian–Adal War

1530S

Hans Holbein the Younger
Hans Holbein the Younger
, c. 1536 – 1537, Henry VIII , King of England
England
and Ireland
Ireland
. Portrait of Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible

* 1531 –32 : The Church of England
England
breaks away from the Roman Catholic Church and recognizes King Henry VIII as the head of the Church. * 1531 : The Inca Civil War is fought between the two brothers, Atahualpa and Huáscar . * 1532 : Francisco Pizarro leads the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire . * 1533 : Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
becomes Queen of England. * 1533 : Elizabeth Tudor is born. * 1534
1534
: Jacques Cartier claims Quebec
Quebec
for France. * 1534
1534
: The Ottomans capture Baghdad
Baghdad
. * 1534
1534
: Affair of the Placards – Francis becomes more active in repression of French Protestants. * 1535 : The Münster Rebellion , an attempt of radical, millennialist , Anabaptists to establish a theocracy ends in bloodshed. * 1535 : The Portuguese in Ternate
Ternate
depose Sultan Tabariji (or Tabarija) and send him to Portuguese Goa where he converts to Christianity
Christianity
and bequeaths his Portuguese godfather Jordao de Freitas the island of Ambon. * 1536 : Katherine of Aragon dies in Kimbolton Castle , in England. * 1536 : In England, Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
is beheaded for adultery and treason. * 1536 : Establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal * 1536 : Foundation of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
(in present-day Argentina) by Pedro de Mendoza * 1536 : Harvard University
Harvard University
, John Harvard * 1537 : Portuguese establishes Recife
Recife
in Pernambuco
Pernambuco
, north-east of Brazil
Brazil
. * 1537 : William Tyndale
William Tyndale
's partial translation of the Bible
Bible
into English is published, which would eventually be incorporated into the King James Bible
Bible
. * 1538 : Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada founds Bogotá . * 1538 : Spanish –Venetian fleet is defeated by the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Preveza . * 1539 : Hernando de Soto explores inland North America.

1540S

* 1540 : Sher Shah Suri founds Suri dynasty in South Asia
Asia
, an ethnic Pashtun ( Pathan
Pathan
) of the house of Sur , who supplanted the Mughal dynasty as rulers of North India
India
during the reign of the relatively ineffectual second Mughal emperor Humayun. Sher Shah decisively defeats Central Asian invader Humayun
Humayun
in the Battle of Bilgram (May 17, 1540). * 1541
1541
: Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro de Valdivia
founds Santiago de Chile . * 1541
1541
: An Algerian military campaign by Charles V of Spain ( Habsburg
Habsburg
) is unsuccessful. * 1541
1541
: Amazon River
Amazon River
is encountered and explored by Francisco de Orellana . * 1541
1541
: Capture of Buda and the absorption of the major part of Hungary
Hungary
by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. * 1541
1541
: Sahib I Giray of Crimea invades Russia . * 1542 : War resumes between Francis I of France
France
and Emperor Charles V . This time Henry VIII is allied with the Emperor, while James V of Scotland
Scotland
and Sultan Suleiman I are allied with the French . * 1542 : Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the island of Samar
Samar
and Leyte
Leyte
Las Islas Filipinas honoring Philip II of Spain
Spain
and became the official name of the archipelago . * 1543 : Ethiopian /Portuguese troops decisively defeat the Adal-Ottoman Muslim
Muslim
army at the Battle of Wayna Daga ; Imam Ahmad Gragn killed. * 1543 : Copernicus publishes his theory that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun

Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus

* 1543 : The Nanban trade period begins after Portuguese traders make contact with Japan
Japan
. * 1544 : The French defeat an Imperial –Spanish army at the Battle of Ceresole . * 1544 : Battle of the Shirts in Scotland
Scotland
. The Frasers and Macdonalds of Clan Ranald fight over a disputed chiefship; reportedly, 5 Frasers and 8 Macdonalds survive. * 1545 : Songhai forces sack the Malian capital of Niani * 1545 : The Council of Trent
Council of Trent
meets for the first time in Trent (in northern Italy). * 1546 : Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. Peter\'s Basilica . * 1546 : Francis Xavier works among the peoples of Ambon, Ternate and Morotai
Morotai
(Moro) laying the foundations for a permanent mission. (to 1547) * 1547 : Henry VIII dies in the Palace of Whitehall
Palace of Whitehall
on 28 January at the age of 55. * 1547 : Francis I dies in the Château de Rambouillet
Château de Rambouillet
on 31 March at the age of 52. * 1547 : Edward VI becomes King of England and Ireland
Ireland
on 28 January and is crowned on 20 February at the age of 9. * 1547 : Emperor Charles V
Emperor Charles V
decisively dismantles the Schmalkaldic League at the Battle of Mühlberg . * 1547 : Grand Prince Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible
is crowned tsar of (All)Russia, thenceforth becoming the first Russian tsar . * 1548 : Battle of Uedahara : Firearms
Firearms
are used for the first time on the battlefield in Japan
Japan
, and Takeda Shingen
Takeda Shingen
is defeated by Murakami Yoshikiyo . * 1548 Askia Daoud, who reigned from 1548 to 1583, establishes public libraries in Timbuktu (in present-day Mali). * 1548 : The Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
government of China
China
issues a decree banning all foreign trade and closes down all seaports along the coast; these Hai jin laws came during the Wokou
Wokou
wars with Japanese pirates. * 1549 : Tomé de Souza establishes Salvador in Bahia
Bahia
, north-east of Brazil
Brazil
. * 1549 : Arya Penangsang with the support of his teacher, Sunan Kudus, avenged the death of Raden Kikin by sending an envoy named Rangkud to kill Sunan Prawoto by Keris Kyai Satan Kober (in present-day Indonesia).

1550S

Hans Eworth
Hans Eworth
, Queen Mary , c. 1555- 1558 Suleiman the Magnificent Akbar
Akbar
the Great Philip II of Spain
Spain

* 1550: The architect Mimar Sinan
Mimar Sinan
builds the Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul. * 1550 : Mongols
Mongols
led by Altan Khan
Altan Khan
invade China
China
and besiege Beijing . * 1550 1551 : Valladolid
Valladolid
debate concerning the human rights of the Indigenous people of the Americas
Americas
* 1551 : Fifth outbreak of sweating sickness in England
England
. John Caius of Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury
writes the first full contemporary account of the symptoms of the disease. * 1551 : North African pirates enslave the entire population of the Maltese island Gozo
Gozo
, between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to Libya
Libya
. * 1552 : Russia conquers the Khanate of Kazan
Khanate of Kazan
in central Asia. * 1552 : Jesuit
Jesuit
China
China
Mission, Francis Xavier * 1553 : Mary Tudor becomes the first queen regnant of England
England
and restores the Church of England
England
under Papal authority. * 1553 : Portuguese found a settlement at Macau
Macau
. * 1554 : Portuguese missionaries José de Anchieta
José de Anchieta
and Manuel da Nóbrega establishes São Paulo , southeast Brazil
Brazil
. * 1554 : Princess Elizabeth is imprisoned in the Tower of London upon the orders of Mary I for suspicion of being involved in the Wyatt rebellion . * 1555
1555
: The Muscovy
Muscovy
Company is the first major English joint stock trading company. * 1556 : Publication in Venice
Venice
of Delle Navigiationi et Viaggi (terzo volume) by Giovanni Battista Ramusio , secretary of Council of Ten, with plan La Terra de Hochelaga, an illustration of the Hochelaga . * 1556 : The Shaanxi earthquake in China
China
is history's deadliest known earthquake during the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
. * 1556 : Georgius Agricola
Georgius Agricola
, the "Father of Mineralogy
Mineralogy
", publishes his De re metallica . * 1556 : Akbar
Akbar
the Great defeats the Sultan of Bengal
Bengal
at the Second battle of Panipat * 1556 : Russia conquers the Astrakhan Khanate . * 1556 1605
1605
: During his reign, Akbar
Akbar
expands the Mughal Empire in a series of conquests (in the Indian subcontinent). * 1556 : Mir Chakar Khan Rind captured Delhi
Delhi
with Emperor Humayun
Humayun
. * 1556 : Pomponio Algerio , radical theologian, is executed by boiling in oil as part of the Roman inquisition
Roman inquisition
. * 1557
1557
: Habsburg
Habsburg
Spain
Spain
declares bankruptcy. Philip II of Spain
Spain
had to declare four state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1575 and 1596. * 1557
1557
: The Portuguese settle in Macau
Macau
(on the western side of the Pearl River Delta across from present-day Hong Kong). * 1557
1557
: The Ottomans capture Massawa , all but isolating Ethiopia from the rest of the world. * 1558 Elizabeth Tudor becomes Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
at age 25. * 1558 1603
1603
: The Elizabethan era is considered the height of the English Renaissance
Renaissance
. * 1558 1583 : Livonian War
Livonian War
between Poland, Grand Principality of Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark
Denmark
and Russia. * 1558 : After 200 years, the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
loses Calais
Calais
to France. * 1559 : With the Peace of Cateau Cambrésis , the Italian Wars conclude. * 1559 : Sultan Khairun of Ternate
Ternate
(in present-day Indonesia) protests the Portuguese's Christianisation activities in his lands. Hostilities between Ternate
Ternate
and the Portuguese.

1560S

School of François Clouet
François Clouet
, c. 1560–1561, Mary, Queen of Scots . Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
by Ottavio Leoni
Ottavio Leoni
William the Silent Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo , the Iron Duke of Alba. Governor of the Netherlands
Netherlands
from 1567
1567
to 1573
1573

* 1560
1560
: Ottoman navy defeats the Spanish fleet at the Battle of Djerba . * 1560
1560
: Elizabeth Bathory is born in Nyirbator, Hungary. * 1560
1560
: By winning the Battle of Okehazama , Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
becomes one of the pre-eminent warlords of Japan
Japan
* 1560
1560
: Jeanne d\'Albret declares Calvinism
Calvinism
the official religion of Navarre
Navarre
. * 1560
1560
: Lazarus Church, Macau
Macau
* 1561
1561
: Sir Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
is born in London
London
. * 1561
1561
: Guido de Bres draws up the Belgic Confession of Protestant faith. * 1562 : Mughal leader Akbar
Akbar
reconciles the Muslim
Muslim
and Hindu factions by marrying into the powerful Rajput
Rajput
Hindu
Hindu
caste. * 1562 –98 : French Wars of Religion between Catholics
Catholics
and Huguenots . * 1562 : Massacre of Wassy and Battle of Dreux in the French Wars of Religion . * 1562 : Portuguese Dominican priests build a palm-trunk fortress which Javanese Muslims burned down the following year. The fort was rebuilt from more durable materials and the Dominicans commenced the Christianisation of the local population. * 1563 : Plague outbreak claimed 80,000 people in Elizabethan England
England
. In London
London
alone, over 20,000 people died of the disease. * 1564 : Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
born on February 15 * 1564 : William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
baptized 26 April * 1565
1565
: Battle of Talikota fought between the Hindu
Hindu
kingdom of Vijayanagar and the Deccan sultanates . * 1565
1565
: Mir Chakar Khan Rind died age of 97. * 1565
1565
: Estácio de Sá establishes Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
in Brazil
Brazil
. * 1565
1565
: The Hospitallers
Hospitallers
, a Crusading Order, defeat the Ottoman Empire at the Siege of Malta (1565)
Siege of Malta (1565)
. * 1565
1565
: Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
establishes in Cebu
Cebu
the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines
Philippines
starting a period of Spanish colonization that would last over three hundred years. * 1565
1565
: Spanish navigator Andres de Urdaneta discovers the maritime route from Asia
Asia
to the Americas
Americas
across the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
, also known as the tornaviaje. * 1565
1565
: Royal Exchange , Thomas Gresham * 1566 Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
, ruler of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, dies on September 7, during the battle of Szigetvar . * 1566 1648 : Eighty Years\' War between Spain
Spain
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
. * 1566 :Da le Balle Contrade d'Oriente, Rore * 1567
1567
: After 45 years' reign, Jiajing Emperor died in the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
, Longqing Emperor ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty . * 1567
1567
: Mary, Queen of Scots , is imprisoned by Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
. * 1568
1568
: The Transylvanian Diet , under the patronage of the prince John Sigismund Zápolya , the former King of Hungary
King of Hungary
, inspired by the teachings of Ferenc Dávid , the founder of the Unitarian Church of Transylvania , promulgates the Edict of Torda , the first law of Freedom of religion
Freedom of religion
and of conscience in the World. * 1568
1568
1571 : Morisco Revolt in Spain. * 1568
1568
1600
1600
: The Azuchi-Momoyama period
Azuchi-Momoyama period
in Japan. * 1568
1568
: Hadiwijaya sent his adopted son and son in-law Sutawijaya , who would later become the first ruler of the Mataram dynasty of Indonesia, to kill Aryo Penangsang. * 1569
1569
: Rising of the North in England. * 1569
1569
: The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is created with the Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
which lasts until 1795
1795
. * 1569
1569
: Peace treaty signed by Sultan Khairun of Ternate
Ternate
and Governor Lopez De Mesquita of Portuguese.

1570S

Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
. The Battle of Lepanto
Battle of Lepanto
. Sir Francis Drake .

* 1570 : Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible
, tsar of Russia, orders the massacre of inhabitants of Novgorod
Novgorod
. * 1570 : Pope
Pope
Pius V issues Regnans in Excelsis , a papal bull excommunicating all who obeyed Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
and calling on all Roman Catholics
Catholics
to rebel against her. * 1570 : Sultan Hairun of Ternate
Ternate
(in present-day Indonesia) is killed by the Portuguese. The reign of Sultan Baabullah. * 1571 : Pope
Pope
Pius V completes the Holy League as a united front against the Ottoman Turks . * 1571 : The Spanish-led Holy League navy destroys the Ottoman Empire navy at the Battle of Lepanto
Battle of Lepanto
. * 1571 : Crimean Tatars attack and sack Moscow
Moscow
, burning everything but the Kremlin . * 1571 : American Indians kill Spanish missionaries in what would later be Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
. * 1571 : Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
establishes Manila
Manila
, Philippines
Philippines
as the capital of the Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies
. * 1572
1572
: Brielle is taken from Habsburg
Habsburg
Spain
Spain
by Protestant Watergeuzen in the Capture of Brielle , in the Eighty Years\' War . * 1572
1572
: Spanish conquistadores apprehend the last Inca
Inca
leader Tupak Amaru at Vilcabamba, Peru
Vilcabamba, Peru
, and execute him in Cuzco
Cuzco
. * 1572
1572
: Jeanne d\'Albret dies aged 43 and is succeeded by Henry of Navarre
Navarre
. * 1572
1572
: Catherine de\' Medici instigates the St. Bartholomew\'s Day massacre which takes the lives of Protestant leader Gaspard de Coligny and thousands of Huguenots . The violence spreads from Paris to other cities and the countryside. * 1572
1572
: First edition of the epic The Lusiads of Luís Vaz de Camões , three years after the author returned from the East. * 1572
1572
: The 9 years old Taizi , Zhu Yijun ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty, known as Wanli Emperor . * 1573
1573
: After heavy losses on both sides the Siege of Haarlem
Siege of Haarlem
ends in a Spanish victory. * 1574 : in the Eighty Years\' War the capital of Zeeland , Middelburg
Middelburg
declares for the Protestants. * 1574 : After a siege of 4 months the Siege of Leiden ends in a comprehensive Dutch rebel victory. * 1575 : Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
finally captures Nagashima fortress. * 1575 : Following a five-year war, the Ternateans under Sultan Baabullah defeated the Portuguese. * 1576 : Tahmasp I
Tahmasp I
, Safavid
Safavid
king, died. * 1576 : Sack of Antwerp
Sack of Antwerp
by badly paid Spanish soldiers. * 1577 –80 : Francis Drake circles the world . * 1577 : Ki Ageng Pemanahan built his palace in Pasargede or Kotagede. * 1578 : King Sebastian of Portugal
Portugal
is killed at the Battle of Alcazarquivir . * 1578 :The Portuguese establish a fort on Tidore
Tidore
but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon. * 1579 : The Union of Utrecht
Union of Utrecht
unifies the northern Netherlands, a foundation for the later Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
. * 1579 : The Union of Arras
Union of Arras
unifies the southern Netherlands, a foundation for the later states of the Spanish Netherlands
Netherlands
, the Austrian Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium
Belgium
* 1579 : The British navigator Sir Francis Drake
Sir Francis Drake
passes through Maluku and transit in Ternate
Ternate
on his circumnavigation of the world. The Portuguese establish a fort on Tidore
Tidore
but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.

1580S

The fall of Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada
George Gower, c. 1588, Queen Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
Shah Abbas I of Persia
Abbas I of Persia

* 1580 : Drake 's royal reception after his attacks on Spanish possessions influences Philip II of Spain
Spain
to build up the Spanish Armada . English ships in Spanish harbours are impounded. * 1580 : Spain
Spain
unifies with Portugal
Portugal
under Philip II . The struggle for the throne of Portugal
Portugal
ends the Portuguese Empire . The Spanish and Portuguese crowns are united for 60 years, i.e. until 1640. * 1580 : Nagasaki
Nagasaki
, Jesuits
Jesuits
* 1582 : Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
is assassinated by his general, Akechi Mitsuhide . * 1582 : Pope
Pope
Gregory XIII issues the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. The last day of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was Thursday, 4 October 1582 and this was followed by the first day of the Gregorian calendar, Friday, 15 October 1582 * 1582 : Yermak Timofeyevich
Yermak Timofeyevich
conquers the Siberia Khanate on behalf of the Stroganovs . * 1583 : Death of Sultan Baabullah of Ternate
Ternate
. * 1584
1584
–85 : After the Siege of Antwerp
Antwerp
, many of its merchants flee to Amsterdam
Amsterdam
. According to Luc-Normand Tellier, "At its peak, between 1510 and 1557, Antwerp
Antwerp
concentrated about 40% of the world trade...It is estimated that the port of Antwerp
Antwerp
was earning the Spanish crown seven times more revenues than the Americas
Americas
." * 1584
1584
: Ki Ageng Pemanahan died. Sultan Pajang raised Sutawijaya, son of Ki Ageng Pemanahan as the new ruler in Mataram , titled "Loring Ngabehi Market" (because of his home in the north of the market). * 1585 : Colony at Roanoke founded in North America * 1585 1604 : The Anglo-Spanish War is fought on both sides of the Atlantic. * 1587 : Mary, Queen of Scots is executed by Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
. * 1587 - The reign of Abbas I marks the zenith of the Safavid dynasty . * 1587 : troops that would invade Pajang Sultanate of Mataram storm ravaged the eruption of Mount Merapi. Sutawijaya and his men survived. * 1588 : Mataram into the kingdom with Sutawijaya as Sultan, titled "Senapati Ingalaga Sayidin Panatagama" means the warlord and cleric Manager Religious Life. * 1588 : England
England
repulses the Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada
. * 1589 : Spain
Spain
repulses the English Armada . * 1589 : Catherine de\' Medici dies aged 69.

1590S

* 1590
1590
: Siege of Odawara the Go-Hojo clan surrendered to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Japan
Japan
was unified (1590). * 1591 : Gazi Giray leads a huge Tatar expedition against Moscow
Moscow
. * 1591 : In Mali
Mali
, Moroccan forces of the Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur led by Judar Pasha defeat the Songhai Empire
Songhai Empire
at the Battle of Tondibi . * 1592 1593 : John Stow
John Stow
reports 10,675 plague deaths in London
London
, a city of approximately 200,000 people. * 1592 1598 : Korea, with the help of Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
China, repels two Japanese invasions . * 1593 1606
1606
: The Long War between the Habsburg
Habsburg
monarchy and the Ottoman Turks . * 1594 : St. Paul\'s College, Macau
Macau
, Alessandro Valignano * 1595 : First Dutch expedition to Indonesia
Indonesia
sets sail for the East Indies
Indies
with two hundred and forty-nine men and sixty-four cannons led by Cornelis de Houtman . * 1596 : Birth of René Descartes
René Descartes
. * 1596 : June, de Houtman’s expedition reaches Banten
Banten
the main pepper port of West Java
Java
where they clash with both the Portuguese and Indonesians. It then sails east along the north coast of Java
Java
losing twelve crew to a Javanese attack at Sidayu and killing a local ruler in Madura
Madura
. * 1597 : de Houtman’s expedition returns to the Netherlands
Netherlands
with enough spices to make a considerable profit. * 1598 : The Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
ends the French Wars of Religion . * 1598 : Abbas I moved Safavids capital from Qazvin
Qazvin
to Isfahan
Isfahan
in 1598. * 1598 1613 : Russia descends into anarchy during the Time of Troubles . * 1598 : The Portuguese require an armada of 90 ships to put down a Solorese uprising. (to 1599) * 1598 : More Dutch fleets leave for Indonesia
Indonesia
and most are profitable. * 1599 : The Mali Empire
Mali Empire
is defeated at the Battle of Jenné * 1599 : The van Neck expedition returns to Europe. The expedition makes a 400 per cent profit. (to 1600) * 1599 : March, Leaving Europe
Europe
the previous year, a fleet of eight ships under Jacob van Neck was the first Dutch fleet to reach the ‘Spice Islands’ of Maluku. * 1600
1600
: Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake for heresy in Rome
Rome
. * 1600
1600
: Battle of Sekigahara in Japan
Japan
. End of the Warring States period and beginning of the Edo period
Edo period
. * 1600
1600
: The Portuguese win a major naval battle in the bay of Ambon. Later in the year, the Dutch join forces with the local Hituese in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch would have the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu. * 1600
1600
: Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
grants a charter to the British East India Company beginning the English advance in Asia.

SIGNIFICANT PEOPLE

Sir Thomas More
Sir Thomas More
Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
Paracelsus
Paracelsus
John Calvin
John Calvin

* Manuel I , King of Portugal. Ruler of the first global empire. He also used the motto Manuel Rex Orbis est, meaning Manuel King of the Globe ( 1469 1521 ). * Abbas I , the strongest king of Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
( 1571 1629 ). * Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi , Somali Imam and general ( 1507 –1543 ). * Akbar
Akbar
the Great, third Mughal emperor , who led the Mughal Empire to its zenith ( 1542 1605
1605
) * Alberico Gentili
Alberico Gentili
, the "Father of international law", considered to be one of the greatest lawyers of all time ( 1552 1608 ) * Andrea Amati , (c. 1520
1520
– c. 1578) was the earliest maker of violins whose instruments still survive today. * Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
, second wife of King Henry VIII . She was the first Queen of England
England
to be executed, and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
. (c. 1501 1536 ) * John Calvin
John Calvin
, theologian, and reformer. Founder of Calvinism
Calvinism
(1509 – 1564 ). * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and the first to reign as King of Spain
Spain
. Involved in almost constant conflict with France
France
and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
while promoting the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Americas
( 1500
1500
1558 ). * Cuauhtémoc , the last Tlatoani of the Aztec
Aztec
, led the native resistance against the Conquistadores ( 1502 1525
1525
). * Edward VI of England
Edward VI of England
, notable for further differentiating Anglicanism
Anglicanism
from the practices of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
(1537 – 1553 ). * Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
, Queen of England
England
( 1533 1603
1603
). * Francis I of France
France
, considered the first Renaissance
Renaissance
monarch of his Kingdom ( 1494 1547 ). * Lady Jane Grey , Queen regnant
Queen regnant
of England
England
and Ireland
Ireland
. Notably deposed by popular revolt ( 1537 1554 ). * Gustav I of Sweden
Sweden
, restored Swedish sovereignty and introduced Protestantism
Protestantism
in Sweden
Sweden
( 1496
1496
1560
1560
). * György Dózsa
György Dózsa
, leader of the peasants' revolt in Hungary
Hungary
(1470 – 1514 ) * Henry IV of France
France
and Navarre
Navarre
, ended the French Wars of Religion and reunited the kingdom under his command ( 1553 1610 ). * Henry VII of England
England
, king ( 1457 - 1509 ) * Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII of England
, founder of Anglicanism
Anglicanism
( 1491 1547 ). * Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
, founder of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
( 1491 –1556 ). * Ismail I
Ismail I
( 1487 - 1524 ) reunified Persia
Persia
, established Safavid dynasty and declared Shia Islam
Shia Islam
as the state religion. * Ivan IV of Russia , first Russian tsar ( 1533 1584
1584
). * St. John of the Cross
John of the Cross
, Spanish mystic ( 1542 – 1591). * Jeanne d\'Albret led the Huguenots in the French Wars of Religion ( 1528 - 1572). * John Knox
John Knox
(c. 1510 1572
1572
) was a Scottish clergyman and leader of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination. * Martin Luther
Martin Luther
, German religious reformer ( 1483 1546 ). * Michael the Brave , ruler of Walachia , national symbol of Romanians
Romanians
for uniting the three provinces under his rule in 1600
1600
(1558 – 1601
1601
) * Michel Nostradamus , French astrologer and doctor, author of Les Propheties , a book of world prophecies ( 1503 1566 ). * Mary I of England
Mary I of England
. Attempted to counter the Protestant Reformation
Reformation
in her domains. Nicknamed Bloody Mary for her Religious persecution ( 1516 1558 ). * Mary, Queen of Scots , First female head of the House of Stuart ( 1542 1587 ). * Manus O\'Donnell , King of Tír Chonaill in Ulster
Ulster
. Irish Renaissance
Renaissance
prince (died 1564 ). * Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
, daimyō of the Sengoku period
Sengoku period
of Japanese civil war . First ruler of the Azuchi-Momoyama period
Azuchi-Momoyama period
( 1534
1534
1582 ). * Johan van Oldenbarnevelt
Johan van Oldenbarnevelt
, Dutch politician and Grand Pensionary , played a pivotal role in organizing the Dutch revolt
Dutch revolt
against Spain ( 1542 1619 ). * Paracelsus
Paracelsus
(11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland
Switzerland
– 24 September 1541
1541
in Salzburg, Austria), Renaissance physician, botanist, alchemist, astrologer, and general occultist. * Philip II of Spain
Spain
. It was first said of his empire that "the sun did not set" . Strong defender of Catholicism
Catholicism
and self-proclaimed leader of Counter- Reformation
Reformation
( 1527
1527
1598 ). * Giovanni Battista Ramusio (20 July 1485 – 10 July 1557), diplomat and secretary of council of Ten of Venice
Venice
Italy
Italy
, author of Delle Navigationi et Viaggi . Third volume (terzo volume) containing plan "La Terra de Hochelaga" showing the village of Hochelaga. * Matteo Ricci
Matteo Ricci
, Italian Jesuit
Jesuit
who traveled to Macau
Macau
, China
China
in 1582, and died in Beijing
Beijing
, ( 1552 1610 ) * Ruy López de Segura (c. 1530
1530
– c. 1580), Spanish bishop and chess player. * Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
, the first and only monarch of the Polish–Swedish union ; his long reign in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth coincided with the apex of the Commonwealth's prestige, power and economic influence ( 1566 1632 ). * Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. Conqueror and legal reformer ( 1494 1566 ). * St. Teresa of Ávila , Spanish mystic ( 1515 - 1582 ). * Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
, daimyō of the Sengoku period
Sengoku period
of Japan
Japan
. Second ruler of the Azuchi-Momoyama period
Azuchi-Momoyama period
( 1536 1598 ). * Andreas Vesalius
Andreas Vesalius
, anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body).(1514–1564) * Wanli Emperor , Emperor of China
China
during the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
, aided Korea in the Imjin War , ( 1563 1620 ) * William the Silent
William the Silent
, William I of Orange-Nassau , main leader of the Dutch revolt
Dutch revolt
against the Spanish ( 1533 1584
1584
). * Yi Sun-sin
Yi Sun-sin
, Korean admiral, respected as one of the greatest admirals in world history. ( 1545 1598 ). * Nikola Šubić Zrinski , Ban (Viceroy) of Croatia and military leader, stopped the invading Ottoman army at the Battle of Szigetvar in 1566 . * Zygmunt I the Old , King of Poland, established a conscription army and the bureaucracy needed to finance it ( 1467
1467
1548 ).

EXPLORATION

See also: Exploration
Exploration
Vasco de Gama Francisco Pizarro

* Vasco Núñez de Balboa
Vasco Núñez de Balboa
(c. 1475
1475
– 1519) – Spanish explorer. The first European to cross the Isthmus of Panama and view the Pacific Ocean from American shores. * Gaspar (1450–1501) and Miguel Corte-Real (1448–1502). Portuguese explorers. Among the first modern explorers (with João Fernandes Lavrador ) in the coasts of the far Northeast of Northern America , including the Labrador peninsula . They also rediscovered Greenland
Greenland
(1499-1501/1502). * Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
(c. 1467
1467
1520
1520
), Portuguese navigator. The first European to arrive in Brazil
Brazil
, on 22 April 1500. Led the first expedition that united Europe, Africa, America, and Asia. * Afonso de Albuquerque (c. 1467
1467
1520
1520
), Portuguese explorer and statesman. Earlier geostrategist and explorer of the Indian Ocean. Leading builder of the Portuguese empire in Asia
Asia
and the Far East. * António de Abreu (c. 1480 – c. 1514) and Francisco Serrão (died 1521) - Portuguese explorers. Led the first European fleet into the edges of the Pacific Ocean, in 1511-1512, through Indonesia
Indonesia
, reaching the Banda Sea and the Moluccas . * João de Lisboa (c.1470–1525) - Portuguese explorer, pilot, cosmographer and cartographer. Explored the Río de La Plata
Río de La Plata
and the San Matias Gulf . * Jacques Cartier (1491–1557) – French explorer. Discovered Canada
Canada
. * Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
(c. 1510 – 1554) – Spanish explorer. Searched for the Seven Cities of Gold and discovered the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
in the process. * Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
, Spanish Conquistador
Conquistador
( 1485 1547 ). * Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
(c. 1488/ 1490 – c. 1557/1558)., Spanish explorer. Crossed North America
North America
through the US south, southwest, and Mexico * Andrés de Urdaneta
Andrés de Urdaneta
(c. 1498 – 1568) was a Spanish Basque navigator, friar and circumnavigator. In 1565
1565
he discovered the maritime path from Asia
Asia
to the Americas
Americas
across the Pacific. * Sir Francis Drake
Sir Francis Drake
( 1540 – 1596) – English explorer. The first English captain to sail around the world and survive. * Juan Sebastián Elcano (1476–1526) – Spanish Basque explorer. Completed the first circumnavigation of the globe in a single expedition after its captain, Magellan, was killed. * Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
(c. 1469 1524 ), Portuguese navigator. Discovered the ocean route to Asia
Asia
around the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
. Explored and crossed the Atlantic and Indian oceans. * Juan Ponce de León
Juan Ponce de León
(c. 1460 – 1521) – Spanish explorer. He explored Florida
Florida
while attempting to locate a Fountain of Youth . * Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
, Portuguese navigator who sailed around the world ( 1480 1521 ). Explored and crossed the Pacific Ocean. * António Mota , Portuguese trader and explorer who reached Japan in 1542-43. * Francisco de Orellana (1511–1546) – Spanish explorer in 1541 –42 sails the length of the Amazon River
Amazon River
. * Francisco Pizarro (c. 1475
1475
– 1541) – Spanish explorer and conquistador. Conquered the Inca
Inca
Empire. * Hernando de Soto (c. 1496
1496
– 1542) – Spanish explorer. Explored Florida
Florida
, mainly northwest Florida
Florida
, and discovered the Mississippi River . * Fernão Mendes Pinto
Fernão Mendes Pinto
(c. 1509 – 8 July 1583) – Portuguese . Explored Asia
Asia
and the Indies
Indies
. Supposedly Reached Japan
Japan
in 1542-43. * Yermak Timofeyevich
Yermak Timofeyevich
(c. 1532–1585) – Russian cossack ataman . Conquered the Khanate of Siberia . * Luis Váez de Torres (c. 1565–1607) Spanish or Portuguese navigator. Explored the Pacific for the Spanish crown and crossed the strait that bears his name in northern Australia
Australia
. * Giovanni da Verrazzano
Giovanni da Verrazzano
(c. 1485–1528) – Italian explorer for France
France
. Explored the northeast coast of America, from about present-day South Carolina
South Carolina
to Newfoundland .

VISUAL ARTISTS

See also: Artists of the Tudor court , Renaissance
Renaissance
painting , Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
painting , and Renaissance
Renaissance
sculpture Raphael
Raphael
Albrecht Dürer Titian
Titian
El Greco
El Greco

* Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Buonarroti , Italian painter and sculptor (1475 – 1564 ). * Bronzino
Bronzino
(1503–1572), Italian painter * Pieter Bruegel the Elder
Pieter Bruegel the Elder
, (c. 1525
1525
– September 9, 1569) * Jan Brueghel the Elder
Jan Brueghel the Elder
(1568–1625) * Caravaggio
Caravaggio
, Italian artist (1571–1610) * Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach the Elder
(1472–1553) * Lucas Cranach the Younger (1515–1586) * Albrecht Dürer , German artist, ( 1471 1528 ) * Rosso Fiorentino (1494–1540), Italian painter * Domenico Fontana (1543–1607), Italian architect * El Greco
El Greco
(1541–1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance * Hans Holbein the Younger
Hans Holbein the Younger
, German artist, ( 1497 1543 ) * Andrea Palladio
Andrea Palladio
(1508–1580), Italian architect * Parmigianino
Parmigianino
(1503–1540), Italian painter * Pontormo
Pontormo
(1494–1557), Italian painter. * Raphael
Raphael
, Italian painter, ( 1483 1520
1520
) * Andrea del Sarto
Andrea del Sarto
(1486–1530), Italian painter. * Titian
Titian
, Italian painter, (c. 1485 1576 ) * Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
(1511–1574), Italian painter, architect, writer and historian. * Paolo Veronese
Paolo Veronese
, Italian painter, ( 1528 – April 19, 1588) * Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
famous artist and inventor and scientist (1452 – 1519 ). * Qiu Ying , Chinese painter who belonged to the Wu School and used gongbi brush style ( 1494 1552 ) * Tintoretto
Tintoretto
(Italian painter, real name Jacopo Comin; September 29, 1518 – May 31, 1594) * Mimar Sinan
Mimar Sinan
(1489–1588) was a civil engineer and chief architect of the Ottoman Empire * Juan de Herrera , Spanish architect ( 1530
1530
1597 )

MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS

See also: List of Baroque composers Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

* Andrea Amati (c. 1520
1520
– c. 1578) * Felice Anerio (c. 1560
1560
– 1614) * Adriano Banchieri (c. 1557
1557
– 1634) * Giovanni Bassano (c. 1558 – 1617) * William Brade (1560–1630) * John Bull (c. 1562 – 1628) * Antonio de Cabezón (c. 1510 – 1566) * Giulio Caccini (c. 1545 – 1618) * Dario Castello (c. 1560
1560
– c. 1640) * Emilio de\' Cavalieri (c. 1550 – March 11, 1602) * Jacques Champion (before 1555
1555
– 1642) * Manuel Rodrigues Coelho (c. 1555
1555
– c. 1635) * John Dowland
John Dowland
(1563–1626) * Giles Farnaby (1565–1640) * Alfonso Fontanelli (1557–1622) * Hans Leo Hassler
Hans Leo Hassler
(1562–1612) * Sebastian Aguilera de Heredia (1565–1627) * Giovanni Gabrieli
Giovanni Gabrieli
(1557–1612) * Joseph Lupo * Peter Lupo (c. 1535 – 1608) * Thomas Lupo (c. 1571 – c. 1627) * Ascanio Mayone (1565–1627) * Cristóbal de Morales (c. 1500
1500
– 1553) * Giovanni Bernardino Nanino (c. 1560
1560
– 1623) * Johannes Nucius (c. 1556 – 1620) * Claudio Merulo
Claudio Merulo
(1533–1604) * Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
, ( 1525
1525
1594 ) * Jacopo Peri
Jacopo Peri
(1561–1633) * Peter Philips (c. 1560
1560
– 1628) * Hieronymus Praetorius (1560–1629) * Cipriano de Rore
Cipriano de Rore
(1516–1565) * Paolo Quagliati
Paolo Quagliati
(c. 1555
1555
– 1628) * Francisco de Salinas
Francisco de Salinas
(1513–1590) * Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck
Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck
(1562–1621) * Jean Titelouze (1563–1633) * Lodovico Grossi da Viadana (1564–1627) * Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548–1611)

LITERATURE

See also: Renaissance
Renaissance
, 16th century in literature , 1 6th century in poetry , Elizabethan literature , Renaissance
Renaissance
literature , Early Modern literature , and Dutch Renaissance
Renaissance
and Golden Age literature Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes
Lope de Vega
Lope de Vega
William Shakespeare Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne

* Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar , Spanish poet and painter, ( 1483 1541
1541
) * Mateo Alemán , Spanish novelist and writer ( 1547 – c. 1615
1615
) * Ludovico Ariosto
Ludovico Ariosto
, Italian poet, ( 1474
1474
1533 ) * Bâkî , Ottoman Turkish poet. He was known as "Sultan of poets" ( 1526
1526
1600
1600
) * Luís de Camões
Luís de Camões
, Portuguese poet (c. 1524 1580 ). * Baldassare Castiglione
Baldassare Castiglione
, Italian author ( 1478 1529 ) * Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes
, Spanish author ( 1547 1616 ) * John Donne , English metaphysical poet ( 1572
1572
1631
1631
) * Alonso de Ercilla , Spanish poet ( 1533 1594 ) * Luis de Góngora
Luis de Góngora
, Spanish poet ( 1561
1561
1627 ) * Thomas Heywood
Thomas Heywood
, English dramatist (c. early 1570s 1641 ) * Malaye Jaziri , Kurdish poet and mystic ( 1570 1640 ) * Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
, English dramatist (c. 1572
1572
1637 ) * Jan Kochanowski
Jan Kochanowski
, Polish poet ( 1530
1530
1584
1584
) * Fuzûlî , Azerbaijani poet ( 1483 1556 ) * Thomas Kyd
Thomas Kyd
, English dramatist ( 1558 1594 ) * Luis de León
Luis de León
, Spanish poet ( 1527
1527
1591 ) * Thomas Lodge , English dramatist ( 1558 1625
1625
) * Niccolò Machiavelli
Machiavelli
, Italian author ( 1469 1527
1527
) * Christopher Marlowe
Christopher Marlowe
, English poet and dramatist ( 1564 1593 ). * Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne
, French essayist ( 1533 1592 ). * Thomas More
Thomas More
, English politician and author ( 1478 1535 ). * Miyamoto Musashi
Miyamoto Musashi
, famous warrior in Japan
Japan
, author of The Book of Five Rings , a treaty on strategy and martial combat. ( 1584
1584
1645
1645
) * François Rabelais , French author (c. 1493 1553 ). * Mikołaj Rej , Polish writer ( 1505 1569
1569
). * Pierre de Ronsard
Pierre de Ronsard
, French poet. Called the "Prince of poets" of his generation. ( 1524 1585 ). * William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
, English playwright ( 1564 1616 ). * Edmund Spenser
Edmund Spenser
, English poet (c. 1552 1599 ) * Gian Giorgio Trissino
Gian Giorgio Trissino
, Italian humanist, poet, dramatist, diplomat, and grammarian (1478–1550) * Garcilaso de la Vega , Spanish poet ( 1501 1536 ) * Lope de Vega
Lope de Vega
, Spanish dramatist ( 1562 1635
1635
). * Benedetto Varchi
Benedetto Varchi
, Italian humanist, a historian and poet (1502/ 1503 – 1565) * Sharaf Khan Bidlisi , Kurdish politician , historian and poet ( 1543 1603
1603
)

SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY

See also: Scientific revolution
Scientific revolution
Niccolò Machiavelli
Machiavelli
Erasmus of Rotterdam
Erasmus of Rotterdam
Miguel Servet

* Mulla Sadra
Mulla Sadra
, ( 1571 1641 ), the single most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world
Muslim world
in the last four hundred years who introduced Transcendent Theosophy or al-hikmah al-muta'liyah * Sir Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
, ( 1561
1561
1626
1626
) was an English philosopher , statesman , and essayist . * Pietro Bembo
Pietro Bembo
(1470–1547), Italian scholar, poet, literary theorist and a cardinal. * Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
, ( 1546 1601
1601
), Danish astronomer . * Giordano Bruno , Italian philosopher and astronomer/astrologer ( 1548 1600
1600
). * Tommaso Campanella
Tommaso Campanella
(1568–1639), Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet. * Demetrios Chalkokondyles , (1423–1511), Greek humanist, scholar. * Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
, ( 1473 1543 ) astronomer , developed the heliocentric ( Sun
Sun
-centered) theory using scientific methods. * Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (sometimes known as Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, 1466/1469, Rotterdam – July 12, 1536, Basel was a Dutch Renaissance
Renaissance
humanist and Catholic Christian theologian. * Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
( 1564 1642 ) was a Tuscan (Italian ) physicist , mathematician , astronomer , and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution . * Konrad Gessner ( 1516 1565
1565
) was a Swiss naturalist , bibliographer , Botanist
Botanist
, His three-volume Historiae animalium (1551–1558) is considered the beginning of modern zoology * William Gilbert , also known as Gilberd, ( 1544 1603
1603
) was an English physician and a natural philosopher. * Francesco Guicciardini
Francesco Guicciardini
, (1483–1540) Italian historian and statesman. * Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
, ( 1571 1630 ), German mathematician , astronomer , and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution . * Niccolò Machiavelli
Machiavelli
(1469–1527), Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. * Gerardus Mercator
Gerardus Mercator
(5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594), famous cartographer. * Michael Servetus
Michael Servetus
( 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance
Renaissance
humanist. * Francisco Suarez
Francisco Suarez
(1548–1617), Spanish philosopher and theologian. * Andreas Vesalius
Andreas Vesalius
(Brussels, December 31, 1514 – Zakynthos, October 15, 1564) was an anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body). Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. * Edward Wright , (baptized 1561
1561
; died 1615
1615
), English mathematician and cartographer who determined the mathematical basis of the Mercator projection
Mercator projection
and produced the first maps in England according to this method

INVENTIONS, DISCOVERIES, INTRODUCTIONS

Related article: List of 1 6th century inventions .

* The Columbian Exchange
Columbian Exchange
introduces many plants, animals and diseases to the Old and New Worlds . * Introduction of the spinning wheel revolutionizes textile production in Europe. * The letter J is introduced into the English alphabet . * 1500
1500
: First portable watch is created by Peter Henlein of Germany . * 1513
1513
: Juan Ponce de León
Juan Ponce de León
sights Florida
Florida
and Vasco Núñez de Balboa sights the eastern edge of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. * 1519 –22 : Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
and Juan Sebastián Elcano lead the first circumnavigation of the World. * 1519 1540 : In America, Hernando de Soto expeditions map the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
coastline and bays. * 1525
1525
: Modern square root symbol (√) * 1540 : Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
sights the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
. * 1541
1541
–42 : Francisco de Orellana sails the length of the Amazon River . * 1542 -43 : Firearms
Firearms
are introduced into Japan
Japan
by the Portuguese . * 1543 : Copernicus publishes his theory that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun * 1545 : Theory of complex numbers is first developed by Gerolamo Cardamo of Italy. * 1558 : Camera obscura
Camera obscura
is first used in Europe
Europe
by Giambattista della Porta of Italy
Italy
. * 1559 1562 : Spanish settlements in Alabama
Alabama
/ Florida
Florida
and Georgia confirm dangers of hurricanes and local native warring tribes. * 1565
1565
: Spanish settlers outside New Spain
Spain
(Mexico) colonize Florida
Florida
's coastline at St. Augustine . * 1565
1565
: Invention of the graphite pencil (in a wooden holder) by Conrad Gesner
Conrad Gesner
. Modernized in 1812
1812
. * 1568
1568
: Gerardus Mercator
Gerardus Mercator
creates the first Mercator projection map. * 1572
1572
: Supernova
Supernova
SN 1572 is observed by Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
in the Milky Way . * 1582 : Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is introduced in Europe
Europe
by Pope
Pope
Gregory XIII and adopted by catholic countries. * c. 1583 : Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
of Pisa
Pisa
, Italy
Italy
identifies the constant swing of a pendulum , leading to development of reliable timekeepers. * 1585 : earliest known reference to the 'sailing carriage ' in China
China
. * 1589 : William Lee invents the stocking frame . * 1591 : First flush toilet is introduced by Sir John Harrington of England
England
, the design published under the title 'The Metamorphosis of Ajax'. * 1593 : Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
invents a thermometer . * 1596 : William Barents discovers Spitsbergen
Spitsbergen
. * 1597 : Opera
Opera
in Florence
Florence
by Jacopo Peri
Jacopo Peri
.

SEE ALSO

* Entertainment in the 16th century

REFERENCES

* ^ Modern reference works on the period tend to follow the introduction of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
for the sake of clarity; thus NASA\'s lunar eclipse catalogue states "The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is used for all dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used." For dates after 15 October 1582, care must be taken to avoid confusion of the two styles. * ^ Ekelund & Tollison 1981 , p. 9. * ^ Polybius: "The Rise Of The Roman Empire", Page 36, Penguin, 1979. * ^ "16th Century
Century
Timeline ( 1501 to 1600)". fsmitha.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. * ^ "History of Smallpox
Smallpox
Smallpox
Smallpox
Through the Ages". Texas Department of State Health Services. * ^ Ricklefs (1991), p.23 * ^ "A LIST OF NATIONAL EPIDEMICS OF PLAGUE IN ENGLAND 1348-1665". Archived from the original on 2009-05-04. Retrieved 2009-04-25. * ^ A B Ricklefs (1991), page 24 * ^ The Sweating Sickness. Story of London.. Accessed 2009-04-25. Archived 2009-05-03. * ^ Sandra Arlinghaus. "Life Span of Suleiman the Magnificent 1494-1566". Personal.umich.edu. Retrieved 2013-05-05. * ^ A B C D E Ricklefs (1991), page 25 * ^ "La Terra De Hochelaga - Jaques Cartier a Hochelaga". jacquescarter.org. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. * ^ "The Lusiads". World Digital Library
World Digital Library
. 1800–1882. Retrieved 2013-08-31. * ^ Miller, George (ed.) (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. xv. ISBN 967-65-3099-9 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). "Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective". PUQ. p.308. ISBN 2-7605-1588-5 * ^ A B C D E F Ricklefs (1991), page 27 * ^ A B Ricklefs (1991), page 28 * ^ Stoica, Vasile (1919). The Roumanian Question: The Roumanians and their Lands. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Printing Company. p. 18. * ^ Drake (1978, p.1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
, which was then in force throughout the whole of Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy
Italy
and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Media related to 1 6th century at Wikimedia Commons * Timelines of 1 6th century events, science, culture and persons

* Millennia * Centuries * Decades * Years

* v * t * e

Decades and years

16TH CENTURY 14th century  ←  15th century
15th century
 ← ↔ → 17th century  →  18th century

1490S 1490 1491 1492 1493 1494 1495 1496
1496
1497 1498 1499

1500S 1500
1500
1501 1502 1503 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508
1508
1509

1510S 1510 1511 1512 1513
1513
1514 1515 1516

.