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(i) (i)

The 1610S decade ran from January
January
1, 1610, to December 31, 1619.

MILLENNIUM : 2nd millennium
2nd millennium

CENTURIES :

* 16th century
16th century
* 17TH CENTURY * 18th century
18th century

DECADES :

* 1590s * 1600s * 1610S * 1620s
1620s
* 1630s
1630s

YEARS :

* 1610 * 1611 * 1612
1612
* 1613 * 1614
1614

* 1615 * 1616 * 1617 * 1618 * 1619

CATEGORIES:

*

* Births * Deaths * By country * By topic

*

* Establishments * Disestablishments

CONTENTS

* 1 Events

* 1.1 1610

* 1.1.1 January– June
June
* 1.1.2 July– December * 1.1.3 Date unknown

* 1.2 1611

* 1.2.1 January– June
June
* 1.2.2 July– December * 1.2.3 Date unknown

* 1.3 1612
1612

* 1.3.1 January– June
June
* 1.3.2 July– December * 1.3.3 Date unknown

* 1.4 1613

* 1.4.1 January– June
June
* 1.4.2 July– December * 1.4.3 Date unknown

* 1.5 1614
1614

* 1.5.1 January– June
June
* 1.5.2 July– December * 1.5.3 Date unknown

* 1.6 1615

* 1.6.1 January– June
June
* 1.6.2 July– December * 1.6.3 Date unknown

* 1.7 1616

* 1.7.1 January– June
June
* 1.7.2 July– December * 1.7.3 Date unknown

* 1.8 1617

* 1.8.1 January– June
June
* 1.8.2 July– December * 1.8.3 Date unknown

* 1.9 1618

* 1.9.1 January– June
June
* 1.9.2 July– December * 1.9.3 Date unknown

* 1.10 1619

* 1.10.1 January– June
June
* 1.10.2 July– December * 1.10.3 Date unknown

* 2 Significant people * 3 Births * 4 Deaths * 5 References

EVENTS

1610

This section is transcluded from 1610 . (edit history )

January–June

* January 6 Nossa Senhora da Graça incident : A Portuguese carrack sinks near Nagasaki, after fighting Japanese samurai for four nights. * January 7 Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
first observes the four Galilean moons of Jupiter
Jupiter
: Ganymede , Callisto , Europa and Io , but is unable to distinguish the latter two until the following day. * May 14 François Ravaillac
François Ravaillac
assassinates Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
. * May 23 Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
: Acting as temporary Governor, Thomas Gates , along with John Rolfe, Captain Ralph Hamor , Sir George Somers, and other survivors from the Sea Venture (wrecked at Bermuda
Bermuda
) arrive at Jamestown; they find that 60 have survived the "starving time" (winter), the fort palisades and gates have been torn down, and empty houses have been used for firewood, in fear of attacks by natives outside the fort area. * May 24 Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
: The temporary Governor, Thomas Gates , issues The Divine, Moral, and Martial Laws. * May 27 – Regicide François Ravaillac
François Ravaillac
is executed by being pulled apart by horses in the Place de Grève
Place de Grève
, Paris. * June 7 – Jamestown : Temporary Governor Gates decides to abandon Jamestown. * June 8 – Jamestown : Temporary Governor Gates' convoy meets the ships of Governor Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr ( Delaware
Delaware
) at Mulberry Island . * June 10 – Jamestown : The convoy of temporary Governor Gates, and the ships of Governor Lord De La Warr, land at Jamestown.

July–December

* July 4 – Polish–Muscovite War – Battle of Klushino : The outnumbered forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth defeat the combined Russian and Swedish armies; Polish troops go on to occupy Moscow
Moscow
. * July 5 – John Guy sets sail from Bristol
Bristol
, with 39 other colonists, for Newfoundland . * July 9 Lady Arbella Stuart , a claimant to the throne of England, is imprisoned for clandestinely marrying William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset , another claimant, without royal permission on June 22 . * August 2 Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson
sails into what is now known as Hudson Bay , thinking he has made it through the Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage
and reached the Pacific Ocean. * August 9 Anglo-Powhatan Wars : The English launch a major attack on the Paspahegh
Paspahegh
village, capturing and executing the native queen and her children, burning houses and chopping down the corn fields; the subsequent use of the term "Paspahegh" in documents refers to their former territory. * August 21 – The Tuscans fight the Turks . * October 10 – The Tuscans fight the Turks again. * October 17 Louis XIII of France is crowned. * Winter – Dr. Bonham\'s Case is decided by Edward Coke
Edward Coke
, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas of England. Coke affirms the supremacy of the common law , which limits the power of Parliament as well as the king.

Date Unknown

* The Manchu tribal leader Nurhaci
Nurhaci
breaks his relations with the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
of China, then under the aloof and growingly negligent Wanli Emperor ; Nurhaci's line later becomes the emperors of the Qing Dynasty , which overthrows the short-lived Shun dynasty in 1644 , and the remnants of the Ming throne in 1662 . * The Orion Nebula
Orion Nebula
is discovered by Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc . * Publication is completed of the Douay–Rheims Bible (The Holie Bible
Bible
Faithfully Translated into English), a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate
Vulgate
into English made by members of the English College, Douai
Douai
, in the service of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. * Jakob Böhme
Jakob Böhme
experiences another inner vision, in which he believes that he further understands the unity of the cosmos, and that he has received a special vocation from God. * Work starts on the Wignacourt Aqueduct
Wignacourt Aqueduct
, in Malta
Malta
. * Santa Fe, New Mexico is founded as the oldest city in the state.

1611

This section is transcluded from 1611 . (edit history ) May
May
: King James Version
King James Version
of the Bible
Bible
.

January–June

* February 27 – Sunspots are observed by telescope , by Frisian astronomers Johannes Fabricius and David Fabricius , and Johannes publishes the results of these observations, in De Maculis in Sole observatis in Wittenberg
Wittenberg
, later this year. Such early discoveries are overlooked, however, and the first sighting is claimed a few months later, by Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
and Christoph Scheiner
Christoph Scheiner
. * March 4 – George Abbot is enthroned as Archbishop
Archbishop
of Canterbury . * March 9 – Battle of Segaba in Begemder : Yemana Kristos, brother of Emperor of Ethiopia
Emperor of Ethiopia
Susenyos I , ends the rebellion of Melka Sedeq. * April 4 Denmark
Denmark
declares war on Sweden
Sweden
, then captures Kalmar . * April 28 – The Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario is established in Manila
Manila
, the Philippines
Philippines
(later renamed Colegio de Santo Tomas, now known as the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
). * May
May
2 – The Authorized King James Version
King James Version
of the Bible
Bible
is published for the first time in London, England, printed by Robert Barker . * May
May
9 – In Japan, sixteen-year-old Emperor Go-Mizunoo succeeds Emperor Go-Yōzei . * June 22 – English explorer and sea captain Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson
, his teenage son John, and six crewmen are set adrift in or near Hudson Bay , after a mutiny on his ship Discovery . They are never seen again.

July–December

* August 2 – Jamestown: Deputy Governor Sir Thomas Gates returns to Virginia
Virginia
with 280 people, provisions and cattle on 6 ships and assumes control, ruling that the fort must be strengthened. * September
September
– Jamestown: Thomas Dale
Thomas Dale
, with 350 men, starts building Henricus
Henricus
. * October 30 – Gustavus Adolphus succeeds his father Charles IX as King of Sweden
Sweden
. * November 1 – At Whitehall Palace
Whitehall Palace
in London, William Shakespeare 's last solo play The Tempest is performed, perhaps for the first time.

Date Unknown

* An uprising occurs in Moscow
Moscow
, Russia
Russia
against occupying Polish forces, resulting in a major fire. * Jamestown: John Rolfe imports tobacco seeds from the island of Trinidad
Trinidad
( Nicotiana tabacum ); the native tobacco is Nicotiana rustica . * The Aix-en-Provence possessions takes place in France. * Thomas Dale
Thomas Dale
founds the city of Henricus
Henricus
on the James River , a few miles south of present day Richmond, Virginia
Virginia
. * Construction begins on Naqsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan
Isfahan
, Persia
Persia
. * Thomas Sutton founds Charterhouse School
Charterhouse School
, on the site of the old Carthusian monastery in Charterhouse Square , Smithfield, London .

1612

This section is transcluded from 1612
1612
. (edit history )

January–June

* January 6 Axel Oxenstierna becomes Lord High Chancellor of Sweden
Sweden
. He persuades the Riksdag of the Estates to grant the Swedish nobility the right and privilege to hold all higher offices of government. * January 20 – Matthias becomes Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
, upon the death of Rudolf II . * January 20 November 4 – An uprising in Moscow
Moscow
expels Polish troops. * March 2
March 2
False Dmitry III is recognised as tsar by the Cossacks . * April 11 Edward Wightman , a radical Anabaptist , is the last person to be executed for heresy in England, by burning at the stake in Lichfield
Lichfield
. * May
May
10 – Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
marries Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal
. * May 23 May
May
25 – A Sicilian –Neapolitan galley fleet defeats the Tunisians at La Goulette. * June 13 Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor
Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor
, is formally elected.

July–December

* July 22 – Four women and one man are hanged, following the Northamptonshire witch trials
Northamptonshire witch trials
in Northampton
Northampton
, England. * August 20 – Ten Pendle witches
Pendle witches
are hanged, having been found guilty of practising witchcraft in Lancashire
Lancashire
, England. * August 26 Battle of Kringen : A Scottish mercenary force is destroyed in Norway. * November 29 – The Treaty of Nasuh Pasha is signed, between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Safavid Empire
Safavid Empire
. * November 30 Battle of Swally : Forces of the British East India Company and Portugal engage off the coast of India, resulting in a British victory. * December 15 Simon Marius
Simon Marius
is the first to observe the Andromeda Galaxy through a telescope. * December 28 Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
becomes the first astronomer to observe the planet Neptune
Neptune
when in conjunction with Jupiter
Jupiter
, yet he mistakenly catalogues it as a fixed star , because of its extremely slow motion along the ecliptic . Neptune
Neptune
is not truly discovered until 1846
1846
, about 234 years after Galileo
Galileo
first sights it with his telescope .

Date Unknown

* Jamestown: John Rolfe exports the first crop of improved tobacco (seeds from Trinidad
Trinidad
). * The Nagoya Castle
Nagoya Castle
is completed in Japan
Japan
. * Thomas Shelton 's English translation of the first half of Don Quixote is published. It is the first translation of the Spanish novel into any language.

1613

This section is transcluded from 1613 . (edit history )

January–June

* 11 January – Workers in a sandpit, in the Dauphiné
Dauphiné
region of France
France
, discover the skeleton of what is alleged to be a 30-foot tall man (the remains, it is supposed, of the giant Teutobochus , a legendary Gallic king who fought the Romans). * January 20 – King James I of England
James I of England
successfully mediates the Treaty of Knäred between Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden
Sweden
. * February 14 – Elizabeth , daughter of King James I of England
James I of England
, marries Frederick V, Elector Palatine . * March 3 – An assembly of the Russian Empire elects Mikhail Romanov Tsar
Tsar
of Russia
Russia
, and establishes the Romanov Dynasty , ending the Time of Troubles . * March 27 – The first English child is born in Canada
Canada
at Cuper\'s Cove , Newfoundland to Nicholas Guy . * March 29 Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain
becomes the first unofficial Governor of New France
France
. * April 13 Samuel Argall captures Algonquian princess Pocahontas in Passapatanzy, Virginia
Virginia
, to ransom her for some English prisoners held by her father . She is brought to Henricus
Henricus
as an hostage. * June
June
– At Jamestown , John Rolfe makes the first shipment of West Indian tobacco grown in Virginia
Virginia
to England. * June
June
29 – Fire destroys London
London
's famed Globe Theatre .

July–December

* July
July
– Algonquian princess Pocahontas
Pocahontas
meets English colonist John Rolfe in Henricus, Virginia
Virginia
during her captivity. Reverend Alexander Whitaker converts her to Christianity. She adopts the name Rebecca. * July
July
28 – Gregor Richter, the chief pastor of Görlitz
Görlitz
, denounces Jacob Boehme as a heretic, in his Sunday sermon. * August 29 – The Sicilians under de Aragon defeat the trade fleet of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, ending the Battle of Cape Corvo . * September
September
29 – The New River is opened, to supply London
London
with drinking water from Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
. * October 28 Keichō
Keichō
embassy: Hasekura Tsunenaga
Hasekura Tsunenaga
sets out in the Date Maru with a Japanese diplomatic mission to the Holy See
Holy See
, first traveling to Acapulco
Acapulco
in New Spain
New Spain
; this follows soon after an agreement between Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
and the East India Company
East India Company
, permitting English merchants to live and trade in Japan. * November 3 – English royal favourite Robert Carr is created 1st Earl of Somerset . * December 26 – The Earl of Somerset marries Frances Howard , occasioning John Donne 's Eclogue.

Date Unknown

* James I of England
James I of England
condemns duels , in his proclamation Against Private Challenges and Combats. * The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
invades Hungary
Hungary
. * A locust swarm destroys La Camarque, France
France
. * The territory of Kuwait
Kuwait
is founded. * Sultan Agung of Mataram takes the throne of the kingdom of Mataram on Java
Java
. * Near Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
, Sir Thomas Dale
Thomas Dale
starts a settlement called Bermuda
Bermuda
City, which later becomes part of Hopewell, Virginia
Virginia
.

1614

This section is transcluded from 1614
1614
. (edit history ) December 4 : Start of the Siege of Osaka
Siege of Osaka

January–June

* April 5 Pocahontas
Pocahontas
marries English colonist John Rolfe in Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
.

July–December

* July
July
6 – Raid of Żejtun
Raid of Żejtun
: Ottoman forces make a final attempt to conquer the island of Malta
Malta
, but are beaten back by the Knights Hospitaller . * August 23 – The University of Groningen
University of Groningen
is established in the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
. * September
September
1 – In England, Sir Julius Caesar becomes Master of the Rolls . * October 11 Adriaen Block
Adriaen Block
and a group of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
merchants petition the States General of the Northern Netherlands
Netherlands
for exclusive trading rights, in the area he explored and named " New Netherland
New Netherland
". * November 16 – The Treaty of Xanten ends the War of the Jülich Succession . * November 19 – Hostilities resulting from an attempt by Toyotomi Hideyori to restore Osaka Castle
Osaka Castle
begin. Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
, father of the Shogun
Shogun
, is outraged at this act, and leads three thousand men across the Kizu River, destroying the fort there. * December 4 – The Siege of Osaka
Siege of Osaka
begins.

Date Unknown

* The French Estates General meets for the last time before the era of the French Revolution
French Revolution
. In the interim, the Kingdom of France
France
will be governed as an absolute monarchy . * Scottish mathematician John Napier publishes Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio (Description of the Admirable Table of Logarithms), outlining his discovery of logarithms , and incorporating the decimal mark . Astronomer Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
soon begins to employ logarithms, in his description of the Solar System
Solar System
. * Tisquantum, a Native American of the Wampanoag Nation, is kidnapped and enslaved by Thomas Hunt, an English sea captain working with Captain John Smith. Freed in Spain, Tisquantum (a.k.a. Squanto) will travel for five years in Europe and North America, before returning to his home in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Twenty months later, he will be able to teach the Pilgrims the basics of farming and trade in the New World. * The Rosicrucian Order
Rosicrucian Order
is instituted in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, according to Fraternitas Rosae Crucis . * Christianity is banned throughout Japan
Japan
.

1615

This section is transcluded from 1615 . (edit history )

January–June

* January 1 – The New Netherland
New Netherland
Company is granted a 3-year monopoly in North American trade, between the 40th and 45th parallels . * February
February
– Sir Thomas Roe sets out to become the first ambassador from the court of the King of England to the Mughal Emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
, sailing in the Lyon, under the command of captain Christopher Newport . * March 10 – John Ogilvie , a Catholic priest, is hanged in Glasgow
Glasgow
, Scotland . * April 21 – The Wignacourt Aqueduct
Wignacourt Aqueduct
is inaugurated in Malta
Malta
. * May
May
6 – The Peace of Tyrnau is signed between Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor , and Gábor Bethlen . * June
June
2 – The first Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City , from Rouen
Rouen
, France
France
. * June
June
3 – The Eastern Army of Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
and the Osaka
Osaka
Army of Toyotomi Hideyori
Toyotomi Hideyori
clash during the Battle of Dōmyōji and the Battle of Tennōji . * June
June
4 – Forces under shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
take Osaka
Osaka
Castle in Japan
Japan
, beginning a period of peace which lasts nearly 250 years. Bands of Christian samurai support Ieyasu's enemies at the Battle of Osaka
Osaka
. * June
June
21 – The Peace of Asti is concluded between the Spanish Empire and Savoy
Savoy
.

July–December

* October
October
Spánverjavígin : 31 Spanish Basque whalers are killed, after a conflict with the people of Iceland
Iceland
, in the Westfjords
Westfjords
Peninsula.

* November
November

* The Mughals under Jahangir
Jahangir
launch the first offensive against Kajali , a border post of the Ahom kingdom
Ahom kingdom
. * Hasekura Tsunenaga
Hasekura Tsunenaga
visits Pope Paul V in Rome
Rome
, to request a trade treaty between Japan
Japan
and Mexico
Mexico
.

* December 6 – In England
England
, John Winthrop , later governor of the future Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
, marries his second wife (of four), Thomasine Clopton, daughter of William Clopton of Castleins, near Groton, Suffolk .

Date Unknown

* Persian hordes led by Shah-Abbas kill all the monks at the David Gareja monastery complex in Georgia , and set fire to its collection of manuscripts and works of art. * Mary Talbot, Countess of Shrewsbury , is released from the Tower of London
London
, in recognition of her role in helping to discover the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury . * The Somers Isles Company is founded to administer Bermuda
Bermuda
. * John Browne is created the first King's Gunfounder. * Austrian merchants receive economic privileges in the Ottoman Empire . * The Perse School in Cambridge
Cambridge
, England, is founded by Dr Stephen Perse . * Wilson\'s School in Wallington , England, is founded by Royal Charter. * The Grolsch Brewery is founded in Groenlo , Netherlands
Netherlands
. * Konoike Shinroku opens an office in Osaka
Osaka
, and begins shipping tax-rice from western Japan
Japan
to Osaka. * Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
publishes Dissertatio cum Nuncio Sidereo, in response to Galileo
Galileo
's discovery of Jupiter
Jupiter
's moons. * Manuel Dias (Yang MaNuo) , a Portuguese Jesuit
Jesuit
missionary , introduces for the first time in China
China
the telescope , in his book Tian Wen Lüe (Explicatio Sphaerae Coelestis). * The second volume of Miguel Cervantes ' Don Quixote
Don Quixote
("El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha") is published, and is as successful as the first. Don Quixote
Don Quixote
eventually becomes the only truly famous work its author ever wrote.

1616

This section is transcluded from 1616 . (edit history )

January–June

* January
January

* 6-year-old António Vieira arrives from Portugal, with his parents, in Bahia
Bahia
(present-day Salvador ) in Colonial Brazil
Colonial Brazil
, where he will become a diplomat , noted author, leading figure of the Church , and protector of Brazilian indigenous peoples , in an age of intolerance. * Officials in Württemberg charge astronomer Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
with practicing "forbidden arts" (witchcraft ). His mother had also been so charged and spent 14 months in prison.

* January 1 – King James I of England
James I of England
attends the masque The Golden Age Restored , a satire by Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
on fallen court favorite the Earl of Somerset . The king asks for a repeat performance on January 6 . * January 3 – In the court of James I of England
James I of England
, the king's favorite George Villiers becomes Master of the Horse (encouraging development of the thoroughbred horse ); on April 24 he receives the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
; and on August 27 is created Viscount Villiers and Baron Waddon, receiving a grant of land valued at £80,000. In 1617 , he will be made Earl of Buckingham . After the Earl of Pembroke , he is the 2nd richest nobleman in England
England
. * January 10 – English diplomat Sir Thomas Roe presents his credentials to the Mughal Emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
, in Ajmer
Ajmer
Fort, opening the door to the British presence in India . Roe sailed in the Lyon under the command of captain Christopher Newport , best known for his role in the Virginia
Virginia
colonies . * January 12 – The city of Belém , Brazil
Brazil
is founded on the Amazon River
Amazon River
delta, by Portuguese captain Francisco Caldeira Castelo Branco , who had previously taken the city of São Luís in Maranhão from the French. * January 15 – After overwintering with the Huron Indians , Samuel de Champlain and Recollect Father Joseph Le Caron visit the Petun and Ottawa Indians of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
. This is Champlain's last trip in North America
North America
before returning to France. Having secured Canada, he helps create French America , New France
France
, or L\'Acadie . * January 29 – Dutch captain Willem Schouten , in the Eendracht, rounds the southern tip of South America, and names it Kaap Hoorn , after his birthplace in Holland
Holland
. * February
February
– English merchants of the East India Company
East India Company
complain that the great troubles and wars in Japan
Japan
since their arrival have put them to much pains and charges. Two great cities, Osaka
Osaka
and Sakaii, have been burned to the ground, each one almost as big as London, and not one house left standing, and it is reported above 300,000 men have lost their lives, “yet the old Emperor Ogusho Same hath prevailed and Fidaia Same either been slain or fled secretly away, that no news is to be heard of him.” Jesuits
Jesuits
, priests, and friars are banished by the emperor and their churches and monasteries pulled down; they put the fault on the arrival of the English; it is said if Fidaia Same had prevailed against the emperor, he promised them entrance again, when without doubt all the English would have been driven out of Japan. * February
February
1 – James I of England
James I of England
grants Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
an annual pension of 100 marks , making him de facto poet laureate . * February
February
19 – First recorded eruption of Mayon Volcano
Mayon Volcano
, the Philippines
Philippines
' most active volcano . * February
February
24 – A commission of Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
theologians, the "Qualifiers," reports that the idea that the Sun is stationary is "foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical since it explicitly contradicts in many places the sense of Holy Scripture...". * February
February
28 – In the aftermath of the 1613 1614
1614
anti-Jewish pogrom called the Fettmilch Uprising in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, Germany, mob leader Vincenz Fettmilch is beheaded, but the Jews, who had been expelled from the city on August
August
23, 1614, following the plundering of the Judengasse , can only return as a result of direct intervention by Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Matthias . After long negotiations, the Jews are left without any compensation for their plundered belongings. * March
March
– Action of 1616 , La Goulette, Tunisia
Tunisia
: A Spanish squadron under Francisco de Ribera defeats a Tunisian fleet. * March
March
5 – Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
' De revolutionibus orbium coelestium ( 1543 ) is placed on the Index of Forbidden Books , by the Congregation of the Index
Congregation of the Index
of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
"until corrected".

* March
March
11

* Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
meets Pope Paul V in person, to discuss his position as a defender of Copernicus' heliocentrism . * English Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
priest , Thomas Atkinson , is hanged, drawn, and quartered at York
York
, at age 70 (he will be beatified by Pope John Paul II on November
November
22, 1987).

* March
March
19

* Sir Walter Ralegh , English explorer of the New World
New World
, is released from prison in the Tower of London
London
, where he has been imprisoned for treason, in order to conduct a second (ill-fated) expedition, in search of El Dorado
El Dorado
in South America. * The Scornful Lady , a comedy stage play written by Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher , is published.

* March
March
26 – August 30 – English explorer William Baffin , as pilot to Robert Bylot on the Discovery , makes a detailed exploration of Baffin Bay
Baffin Bay
, whilst searching for the Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage
. The expedition also discovers Smith Sound , Lancaster Sound and Devon Island , and reaches latitude 77° 45' North, a record which holds for 236 years. * April 25 – Sir John Coke , in the Court of King\'s Bench (England) , holds the King's actions in a case of In commendam
In commendam
to be illegal. * May
May
25 – King James I of England
James I of England
's former favourite, the Earl of Somerset , and his wife Frances , are convicted of the murder of Thomas Overbury in 1613 . They are spared death, and are sentenced to imprisonment in the Tower of London
London
(until 1622 ). Although the King has ordered the investigation of the poet's murder and allowed his former court favorite to be arrested and tried, his court, now under the influence of George Villiers , gains the reputation of being corrupt and vile. The sale of peerages (beginning in July) and the royal visit of James's brother-in-law, Christian IV of Denmark
Denmark
, a notorious drunkard, add further scandal. * May
May
3 – The Treaty of Loudun is signed, ending a series of rebellions in France. * June
June
12 – Pocahontas
Pocahontas
(now Rebecca) arrives in England, with her husband, John Rolfe , their infant son, Thomas Rolfe , her half-sister Matachanna (alias Cleopatra) and brother-in-law Tomocomo , the shaman also known as Uttamatomakkin (having set out in May). Ten Powhatan Indians are brought by Sir Thomas Dale
Thomas Dale
, the colonial governor, at the request of the Virginia
Virginia
Company , as a fund-raising device. Dale, having been recalled under criticism, writes A True Relation of the State of Virginia, Left by Sir Thomas Dale, Knight, in May
May
last, 1616, in a successful effort to redeem his leadership. Neither Pocahontas
Pocahontas
or Dale see Virginia
Virginia
again.

July–December

* July
July
6 – First recorded eruption of Manam Volcano
Volcano
(erupting frequently since), forming a 10-km-wide island in the Bismarck Sea , 13 km off coast of Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, in the southwestern part of the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
. * July
July
20 – Hugh O\'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone , dies in Rome, thus concluding the Flight of the Earls
Flight of the Earls
from Ireland. * August 8 – The Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
( Bakufu
Bakufu
) in Japan
Japan
forbids foreigners other than Chinese from traveling freely, or trading outside of the ports of Nagasaki
Nagasaki
and Hirado
Hirado
. * September
September
Sakazaki Naomori of Iwami Tsuwano han fails to kidnap Princess Sen , and commits suicide. * September
September
15 – The first non-aristocratic, free public school in Europe is opened in Frascati
Frascati
, Italy.

* October
October

* John Donne is appointed as Reader in Divinity, at his old inn of court in London, Lincoln\'s Inn . * King James\'s School at Knaresborough in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is founded by Dr. Robert Chaloner, and the charter is signed by King James I of England.

* October
October
/ November
November
- Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
's satirical five-act comedy, The Devil is an Ass , is produced at the Blackfriars Theatre
Blackfriars Theatre
in London
London
by the King\'s Men , poking fun at contemporary credence in witchcraft and Middlesex
Middlesex
juries. * October
October
25 – Dirk Hartog makes the second recorded landfall by a European on Australian soil, at Dirk Hartog Island , off the Western Australian coast. The pewter Hartog Plate , left to mark the landfall of the Dutch ship Eendracht , is now in the Rijksmuseum
Rijksmuseum
in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
.

* November
November

* Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
begins work on classical tapestries , when a contract is signed in Antwerp
Antwerp
with cloth dyers Jan Raes and Frans Sweerts in Brussels, and the Genoese merchant Franco Cattaneo. * René Descartes , at age 20, graduates in civil and canon law at the University of Poitiers , where he becomes disillusioned with books, preferring to seek truths from "le grand livre du monde." His thesis defense may have been written in December. * With small profits to show, the Virginia
Virginia
Company decides to distribute land in Virginia
Virginia
to shareholders according to the number of shares owned. Each stockholder can set up a "particular" plantation and pay associated expenses, receiving 100 acres (0.40 km2) of land for each share and 50 acres (200,000 m2) for each person transported (the "headrights" system). * Author Richard Burton is made vicar of St. Thomas in the west suburbs of London.

* November 4 – Prince Charles (15-year-old surviving son of James I of England
England
and Anne of Denmark
Denmark
) is invested as Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
at Whitehall
Whitehall
in London, the last such investiture until 1911
1911
. * November
November
5 – Bishop Lancelot Andrewes preaches the annual Gunpowder Treason
Treason
sermon before King James I of England
James I of England
at Whitehall (both were intended victims). * November
November
6 – November
November
25 – Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
's works are published in a collected folio edition (the first of any English playwright). * November
November
6 – Captain William Murray is granted a royal patent , giving him the sole privilege of importing tobacco to Scotland for a period of 21 years. Continuing from the reign of Elizabeth I of England
England
, the creation of grants and patents reaches a new highwater mark from 1614
1614
to 1621 , during the reign of James I of England
James I of England
. * November
November
13 – Italian artist Guido Reni
Guido Reni
's famous Pietà, commissioned by the Senate of Bologna
Bologna
, is placed on the greater altar of the church of Santa Maria della Pietà. * November
November
14 – In England, Sir Edward Coke
Edward Coke
is dismissed as Chief Justice of the King\'s Bench by royal prerogative. * November 16 Marco Antonio de Dominis , Roman Catholic Archbishop
Archbishop
of the See of Spalato and Primate of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
, having run afoul of Pope Paul V over secular matters relating to Venice
Venice
, submits to King James I of England
James I of England
and later becomes Dean of Windsor. * November 30 Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
, Armand-Jean du Plessis, is named French Secretary of State by young king Louis XIII
Louis XIII
. Richelieu will change France
France
into a unified centralised state, able to resist both England
England
and the Habsburg Empire
Habsburg Empire
. * December – In the Middle East, traveller Pietro Della Valle marries Jowaya, daughter of a Nestorian Christian father and an Armenian mother, in Baghdad
Baghdad
. The couple then sets off ( 1617 ) to find the Shah in Isfahan
Isfahan
. * December 10 – An ordinance establishes parish schools in Scotland. The same act of the Privy Council commends the abolition of Gaelic . * December 18 – A widely reported earthquake occurs in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany (also dated December 22 ). * December 22 – An Indian youth (called one of "the first fruits of India") is baptized with the name "Peter" in London
London
at the St. Dionis Backchurch, in a ceremony attended by the Lord Mayor , the Privy Council , city aldermen, and officials of the Honourable East India Company . Peter thus becomes the first convert to the Anglican Church in India. He returns to India as a missionary, schooled in English and Latin.

* December 25

* " Father Christmas " is a main character of Christmas, His Masque
Masque
, written by Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
and presented at the court of King James I of England
England
. Father Christmas is considered a papist symbol by Puritans
Puritans
, and later banished from England
England
until the English Restoration
English Restoration
. The traditional, comical costume for this jolly figure, as well as regional names, indicate that he is descended from the presenter of the medieval Feast of Fools . * Captain Nathaniel Courthope reaches the nutmeg -rich island of Run in the Moluccas , to defend it against the Dutch East India Company
East India Company
. A contract with the inhabitants, accepting James I of England
James I of England
as their sovereign, makes it part of the English colonial empire .

Date Unknown

* Abbas I\'s Kakhetian and Kartlian campaigns occur as progressive combats. Abbas I of Persia
Persia
captures Tbilisim following a conflict with the Georgian soldiers and the general populace. After the capture of Tbilisi, Abbas I confronts an Ottoman army. The battle takes place near Lake Gökçe , and results in a Safavid victory. * Nurhaci
Nurhaci
declares himself khan (emperor) of China, and founds the Later Jin Dynasty . * Manchurian leader Qing Tai Zu crowns himself king. * In the Edo period
Edo period
of Japan, Hideyori's forces are defeated during the Summer Battle of 1616, he commits suicide, and the house of Toyotomi is ended. * The Tepehuán Revolt in Nueva Vizcaya tests the limits of Spanish and Jesuit
Jesuit
colonialism , in western and northwestern Durango
Durango
and southern Chihuahua , Mexico. * Oorsprong en voortgang der Nederlandtscher beroerten (Origin and progress of the disturbances in the Netherlands), by Johannes Gysius , is published. * The Collegium Musicum is founded in Prague
Prague
. * Physician Aleixo de Abreu is granted a pension of 16,000 reis, for services to the crown in Angola
Angola
and Brazil
Brazil
, by Philip III of Spain
Philip III of Spain
, who also appoints him physician of his chamber. * Ngawang Namgyal
Ngawang Namgyal
arrives in Bhutan
Bhutan
, having escaped Tibet
Tibet
. * The Swiss Guard
Swiss Guard
is appointed part of the household guard of King Louis XIII of France . * Week-long festivities in honor of the Prince of Urbano , of the Barberini family , occur in Florence
Florence
, Italy. * Richard Steel and John Crowther complete their journey from Ajmeer in the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
, to Ispahan in Persia
Persia
. * Captain John Smith publishes his book A description of New England in London. Smith relates one voyage to the coast of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Maine
Maine
, in 1614
1614
, and an attempted voyage in 1615 , when he was captured by French pirates and detained for several months before escaping. * The New England
New England
Indian smallpox epidemic of 1616– 1619 begins to depopulate the region, killing an estimated 90% of the coastal native peoples. * A slave ship carries smallpox from the Kingdom of Kongo to Salvador , Brazil. * In England, louse -borne epidemic typhus ravages the poor and crowded. * A fatal disease of cattle, probably rinderpest , spreads through the Italian provinces of Padua
Padua
, Udine
Udine
, Treviso
Treviso
, and Vicenza
Vicenza
, introduced most likely from Dalmatia
Dalmatia
or Hungary. Great numbers of cattle die in Italy, as they had in previous years ( 1559 , 1562 , 1566 , 1590
1590
, 1598 ) in other European regions when harvest failure also drives people to the brink of starvation (for example, 1595 1597 in Germany). The consumption of beef and veal is prohibited, and Pope Paul V issues an edict prohibiting the slaughter of draught oxen that were suitable for plowing. Calves are also not slaughtered for a some time afterwards, so that Italy's cattle herds can be replenished. * At the behest of Sir Ferdinando Gorges , Dr. Richard Vines, a physician, passes the winter of 1616–17 at Biddeford, Maine
Maine
, at the mouth of the Saco River
Saco River
, that he calls Winter Harbor. This is the site of the earliest permanent settlement in Maine, of which there is a conclusive record. Maine
Maine
will become an important refuge for religious dissenters persecuted by the Puritans
Puritans
. * In Spanish Florida
Spanish Florida
, the Cofa Mission at the mouth of the Suwannee River disappears. * The first African slaves are brought to Bermuda
Bermuda
, an English colony , by Captain George Bargrave to dive for pearls , because of their reputed skill in this activity. Harvesting pearls off the coast proves unsuccessful, and the slaves are put to work planting and harvesting the initial large crops of tobacco and sugarcane . At the same time, some English refuse to purchase Brazilian sugar because it is produced by slave labour. * Italian natural philosopher Giulio Cesare Vanini publishes a radically heterodox book in France, after his English interlude De admirandis naturae reginae deaeque mortalium arcanis, for which he is condemned and forced to flee Paris. For his opinion that the world is eternal and governed by immanent laws, as expressed in this book, he is executed in 1619 . * Francesco Albani
Francesco Albani
paints the ceiling frescoes of Apollo and the Seasons, at the Palazzo Verospi in Via del Corso , for Cardinal Fabrizio Verospi. * Elizabethan
Elizabethan
polymath and alchemist Robert Fludd publishes Apologia Compendiaria, Fraternitatem de Rosea Cruce suspicionis … maculis aspersam, veritatis quasi Fluctibus abluens at Leiden
Leiden
, countering the arguments of Andreas Libavius . Fludd later becomes a cult figure, being linked with Rosicrucians and the Family of Love , without any historical evidence. * Johannes Valentinus Andreae claims to be the author of Chymische Hochzeit Christiani Rosencreutz Anno 1459 published in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
.

* Witch
Witch
trials :

* John Cotta writes his influential book The Triall of Witch-craft. * Elizabeth Rutter is hanged as a witch in Middlesex
Middlesex
, England, Agnes Berrye in Enfield , and nine women in Leicester
Leicester
on the testimony of a raving 13-year-old named John Smith, under the Witchcraft
Witchcraft
Act 1604 . In Orkney
Orkney
, Elspeth Reoch is tried. In France
France
Leger (first name unknown) is condemned for witchcraft on May
May
6 , Sylvanie de la Plaine is burned at Pays de Labourde as a witch, and in Orléans eighteen witches are killed. * A second witch-hunt breaks out in Biscay
Biscay
, Spain. An Edict of Silence is issued by the Inquisition
Inquisition
, but the king overturns the Edict, and 300 accused witches are burned alive.

* Latest probable date of Thomas Middleton composition of The Witch , a tragicomedy that may have entered into the present-day text of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
's Macbeth
Macbeth
. * "Drink to me only with thine eyes" comes from Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
's love poem, To Celia . Jonson's poetic lamentation On my first Sonne is also from this year. * Francis de Sales ' literary masterpiece Treatise on the Love of God
God
is published, while he is Bishop of Geneva
Geneva
. * Orlando Gibbons ' anthem See, the Word is Incarnate is written. * Italian naturalist Fabio Colonna states that "tongue stones" (glossopetrae) are shark teeth, in his treatise De glossopetris dissertatio. * An important English dictionary is published by Dr. John Bullokar with the title An English Expositor : teaching the interpretation of the hardest words used in our language, with sundry explications, descriptions and discourses. * English mathematician Henry Briggs goes to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, to show John Napier his efficient method of finding logarithms , by the continued extraction of square roots . * Moralist writer John Deacon publishes a quarto entitled Tobacco Tortured in the Filthy Fumes of Tobacco
Tobacco
Refined (supporting the views of James I of England
James I of England
). Deacon writes the same year that syphilis is a "Turkished", "Spanished", or "Frenchized" disease that the English contract by "trafficking with the contagious courruptions." * Fortunio Liceti publishes De Monstruorum Natura in Italy, which marks the beginning of studies into malformations of the embryo . * Dutch traders smuggle the coffee plant out of Mocha , a port in Yemen
Yemen
on the Red Sea
Red Sea
, and cultivate it at the Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Botanical Gardens . The Dutch later introduce it to Java
Java
. * Muhammad Baqir Majlisi , known as Allameh Majlesi, is born in the city of Isfahan
Isfahan
. * Fort San Diego, in Acapulco
Acapulco
Bay, Mexico, is completed by the Spanish as a defence against their erstwhile vassals , the Dutch. * Anti-Christian persecutions break out in Nanking
Nanking
, China, and Nagasaki
Nagasaki
, Japan. The Jesuit
Jesuit
-lead Christian community in Japan
Japan
at this time is over 3,000,000 strong. * Master seafarer Henry Mainwaring , Oxford graduate and lawyer turned successful Newfoundland pirate , returns to England, is pardoned after rescuing a Newfoundland trading fleet near Gibraltar, and begins to write a revealing treatise on piracy . * The first Thai embassy to Japan
Japan
arrives. * William Harvey gives his views on the circulation of blood , as Lumleian Lecturer at the Royal College of Physicians
Royal College of Physicians
. It is not until 1628 that he gives his views in print. * The Dutch establish their colony of Essequibo , in the region of the Essequibo River , in northern South America (present-day Guyana
Guyana
), for sugar and tobacco production. The colony is protected by Fort Kyk-Over-Al , now in ruins. The Dutch also map the Delaware
Delaware
River in North America. * The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
attempts landings at the shoreline between Cádiz and Lisbon
Lisbon
. * Croatian mathematician Faustus Verantius publishes his book Machinae novae, a book of mechanical and technological inventions, some of which are applicable to the solutions of hydrological problems, and others concern the construction of clepsydras , sundials , mills , presses bridges and boats for widely different uses. * John Speed
John Speed
publishes an edition of his Atlas
Atlas
of Britain, with descriptive text in Latin. * Pierre Vernier is employed, with his father, in making fine-scale maps of France
France
( Franche-Comté area). * Danish natural philosopher Ole Worm collects materials that will later be incorporated into his museum in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
. His museum is the nucleus of the University of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Zoological Museum . * Isaac Beeckman , Dutch intellectual and future friend of René Descartes , leaves his candle factory in Zierikzee , to return to Middelburg
Middelburg
to study medicine. * In Sardinia
Sardinia
, the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Sassari
University of Sassari
is founded. * Gian Lorenzo Bernini sculpts Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children, at the age of 18 years. This work is now in New York, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
. * The States of Holland
Holland
set up a commission to advise them on the problem of Jewish residency and worship. One of the members of the commission is Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius
, a highly regarded jurist and one of the most important political thinkers of his day. * Marie Venier (called Laporte) is the first female actress to appear on the stage in Paris. * Jesuit
Jesuit
astronomer Christoph Scheiner
Christoph Scheiner
becomes the advisor to Archduke Maximilian, brother of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
in Vienna
Vienna
. A lifelong enemy of Galileo, following a dispute over the nature of sunspots , Scheiner is credited with reopening the 1616 accusations against Galileo
Galileo
in 1633. * Tommaso Campanella
Tommaso Campanella
's book In Defence of Galileo
Galileo
is written. * Istanbul
Istanbul
's Sultan Ahmed Mosque
Sultan Ahmed Mosque
(also known as the Blue Mosque) is completed during the rule of Ahmed I
Ahmed I
. * In Tunis
Tunis
, the mosque of Youssef Deyis is built. Today it has an octagonal minaret crowned with a miniature green-tiled pyramid for a roof. * Inigo Jones designs the Queen\'s House at Greenwich
Greenwich
, near London.

* Ambrose Barlow , recently graduated from the College of Saint Gregory, Douai
Douai
, France, and the Royal College of Saint
Saint
Alban in Valladolid
Valladolid
, Spain, enters the Order of Saint
Saint
Benedict . In 1641 he will be martyred in England. * John Vaughan, 1st Earl of Carbery is appointed to the post of comptroller , in the newly formed household of Prince Charles in England; Vaughan later claims that serving the Prince has cost him £20,000.

1617

This section is transcluded from 1617 . (edit history )

January–June

* February 27 – The Treaty of Stolbovo ends the Ingrian War between Sweden
Sweden
and Russia
Russia
. Sweden
Sweden
gains Ingria and Kexholm . * April 14 – Second Battle of Playa Honda : The Spanish navy defeats a Dutch fleet in the Philippines
Philippines
. * April 24 – Encouraged by Charles d\'Albert , seventeen-year-old Louis XIII
Louis XIII
, king of France, forces his mother Marie de Medici
Marie de Medici
, who has held de facto power, into retirement and has her favourite, Concino Concini , assassinated. * June
June
5 – Ferdinand II , Archduke of Inner Austria, is elected King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
. Ferdinand's forceful Catholic counter-reformation causes great unrest, amongst the Protestants and moderates in Bohemia.

July–December

* September
September
1 – The weighing ceremony of Jahangir
Jahangir
is described by the first English ambassador to the Mughal court, Sir Thomas Roe . * September
September
23 – The Treaty of Busza is signed, between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth . * October
October
9 – The Treaty of Pavia is signed between Spain
Spain
and Savoy, under which Savoy
Savoy
returns Monferrato to Mantua
Mantua
. * November
November
17 – A naval battle between the Sicilians and Venetians ends inconclusively. * November
November
22 – Mustafa I
Mustafa I
succeeds Ahmed I
Ahmed I
, as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
.

Date Unknown

* At least seven women are sentenced to death by burning for witchcraft , at the Finspång witch trial in Sweden. * Giambattista Andreini 's play The Penitent Magdalene is published in Mantua
Mantua
.

1618

This section is transcluded from 1618 . (edit history )

January–June

* March
March
8 – Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made, but on May
May
15 confirms the discovery). * May 23 – The Second Defenestration of Prague
Prague
– Protestant noblemen hold a mock trial, and throw two direct representatives of Ferdinand II of Germany (Imperial Governors) and their scribe out of a window into a pile of manure, exacerbating a low-key rebellion into the Bohemian Revolt (1618–1621) , precipitating the Thirty Years\' War into armed conflict, and further polarizing Europe on religious grounds. * June
June
14 – Joris Veseler prints the first Dutch newspaper Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, ">

* ^ A B C Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 170–172. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2 . * ^ Pope, Hugh (July– October
October
1910). "The Origin of the Douay Bible". The Dublin Review . London. 147 (294-295). * ^ Thony, C. (2011-01-08). "Spotting the spots". The Renaissance Mathematicus. Archived from the original on July
July
21, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-09. * ^ A B C Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 244. ISBN 0-304-35730-8 . * ^ Squanto * ^ Pilgrim Fathers
Pilgrim Fathers
* ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 243–248. ISBN 0-304-35730-8 . * ^ Strachan, Michael (2004). "Roe, Sir Thomas (1581–1644)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
. Oxford University Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/23943 . Retrieved 2012-10-09. (subscription or UK public library membership required) * ^ Randall Lesaffer, ed., Peace Treaties and International Law in European History: From the Late Middle Ages to World War One ( Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 2004) p39 * ^ Jehângïr's period of stay at Ajmer
Ajmer
was from 5 Shawwäl 1022 to 1 Zil-qä'da 1025 equivalent to November
November
8, 1613, to October
October
31, 1616. * ^ Strachan, Michael (2004). "Roe, Sir Thomas (1581–1644)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
. Oxford University Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/23943 . Retrieved 2012-10-09. (subscription or UK public library membership required) * ^ "East Indies: February
February
1616". Calendar of State Papers Colonial, East Indies, China
China
and Japan: 1513-1616. 2. 1864. pp. 457–461. Retrieved 2008-03-01. * ^ Donaldson, Ian (2004). "Jonson, Benjamin (1572–1637)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography . Oxford University Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/15116 . Retrieved 2012-10-09. * ^ A B Event dated with reference to historical documents. "Global Volcanism Program". Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
. Retrieved 2008-03-12. * ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0 . * ^ A B Everett, Jason M., ed. (2006). "1616". The People's Chronology. Thomson Gale. * ^ Bellany, Alastair (2004). "Carr, Robert, earl of Somerset (1585/6?–1645)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/4754 . Retrieved 2012-10-09. * ^ Arano, Yasunori (2005). "The Formation of a Japanocentric World Order". International Journal of Asian Studies. 2 (2): 201. doi :10.1017/s1479591405000094 . * ^ Kellett, Arnold (2003). King James's School, 1616-2003. Knaresborough: King James's School. ISBN 0-9545195-0-7 . * ^ Published 1631
1631
. * ^ Bland, M. (1998). "William Stansby and the production of the Workes of Beniamin Jonson, 1615–16". The Library. Bibliographical Society . 20: 10. doi :10.1093/library/20.1.1 . * ^ "A Basic European Earthquake Catalogue and a Database for the evaluation of long-term seismicity and seismic hazard (BEECD)" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-03-05. * ^ Visram, Rozina (2002). Asians in Britain: 400 Years of History. London: Pluto
Pluto
Press. ISBN 0-7453-1373-6 . * ^ Ratnikas, Algirdas J. "Timeline Indonesia". Timelines.ws. Archived from the original on July
July
10, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-12. * ^ Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg: Or the True and Incredible Adventures of the Spice Trader Who Changed the Course of History. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-21936-9 .

* ^ "Mirror of the Cruel and Horrible Spanish Tyranny Perpetrated in the Netherlands, by the Tyrant, the Duke of Alba, and Other Commanders of King Philip II". World Digital Library
World Digital Library
. 1620. Retrieved 2013-08-25. * ^ From an etching in the Guerre de Beauté, a series of six etchings depicting a celebration which took place in Florence
Florence
in the year 1616 in honor of the prince of Urbino. * ^ Bratton, Timothy (1988). "Identity of the New England
New England
Indian Epidemic of 1616-1619". Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 62 (3): 352–383. * ^ Dobyns , Henry F. (1993). "Disease Transfer at Contact". Annual Review of Anthropology. 22: 273–291. doi :10.1146/annurev.anthro.22.1.273 . * ^ Spinage, Clive A. (2003). Cattle plague: a history. New York: Springer. ISBN 0-306-47789-0 . * ^ Bernhard, Virginia
Virginia
(1999). Slaves
Slaves
and Slaveholders in Bermuda, 1616-1782. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. * ^ Mintz, Sidney W. (1986). Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar
Sugar
in Modern History. New York: Penguin. ISBN 0140092331 . * ^ Robbins, Russell Hope (1959). The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology. New York: Bonanza Books. * ^ Logan, Terence P.; Smith, Denzell S., eds. (1975). The Popular School: A Survey and Bibliography of Recent Studies in English Renaissance Drama. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. p. 69. * ^ Sluiter, Engel (1949). "The Fortification of Acapulco, 1615-1616". The Hispanic American Historical Review. 29 (1): 69–80. doi :10.2307/2508294 . Today the fort houses the Acapulco
Acapulco
Historical Museum. * ^ His notebooks, not fully published until the 20th century, reveal a coherent mechanical philosophy of nature with incipient atomism, a force of inertia, and mathematical interpretations of natural philosophy are present. van Berkel, K. (1983). Isaac Beeckman (1588–1637) en de mechanisering van het wereldbeeld. Amsterdam. * ^ Searles, Colbert (1925). "Allusions to the Contemporary Theater of 1616 by Francois Rosset". Modern