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1600
1600
(MDC ) was a century leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar , the 1600th year of the Common Era
Common Era
(CE) and Anno Domini
Anno Domini
(AD) designations, the 600th year of the 2nd millennium
2nd millennium
, the 100th and last year of the 16th century
16th century
, and the 1st year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1600, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

EVENTS

JANUARY–JUNE

* January 1 – Scotland adopts January 1 as New Year\'s Day . * January
January
Sebald de Weert makes the first definite sighting of the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
. * February 17 Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake for heresy in Rome. * February 19 Huaynaputina volcano in Peru
Peru
undergoes a catastrophic eruption, the worst to be recorded in South America. * March 20 Linköping Bloodbath : Five Swedish nobles are publicly executed by decapitation , and Polish–Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
is de facto deposed, as ruler of Sweden
Sweden
. * April 19 - The first Dutch ship ever to arrive in Japan, called "Liefde" ("Love"), anchors in Sashifu, in the Bungo area (nowadays Usuki in Oita Prefecture).

JULY–DECEMBER

* July 2 – Eighty Years\' War – Battle of Nieuwpoort
Battle of Nieuwpoort
: (Dutch War of Independence) The Dutch gain a tactical victory over the Spanish . * August 5 – The brothers Alexander Ruthven and John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie , are killed during a failed attempt to kidnap or murder King James VI of Scotland at their home. * October 6 – Première of Jacopo Peri
Jacopo Peri
's Euridice , the earliest known fully surviving work of modern opera, produced by Emilio de\' Cavalieri for the wedding of Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
and Maria de\' Medici in Florence
Florence
. * October 21 Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara
in Japan: Tokugawa Ieyasu gains nominal control over the whole country. * December 31 – The East India Company
East India Company
is granted a Royal Charter in the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
, on trades in Asia.

DATE UNKNOWN

* Sumo
Sumo
wrestling becomes a professional sport in Japan
Japan
. * William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
's A Midsummer Night\'s Dream is first performed, and his play The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice
is published. * William Gilbert publishes De Magnete , which describes the Earth's magnetic field , and is the beginning of modern geomagnetism . * Fabritio Caroso 's Nobiltà de dame is published. * Ulster
Ulster
chieftains, with the lead of Hugh O\'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone , resist the English reconquest of Ireland. * A Persian embassy arrives in Prague
Prague
, and meets with Rudolf II . * Martin Möller is appointed chief pastor of Görlitz
Görlitz
. * The Lutheran orthodox campaign intensifies, to reinforce the Book of Concord (approximate date). * Thessaly Rebellion (1600) . * The Caister Castle falls into ruin.

BIRTHS

John Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Weimar Charles I of England

JANUARY–MARCH

* January 1 Friedrich Spanheim
Friedrich Spanheim
, Calvinistic theology professor at the University of Leiden (d. 1649
1649
) * January
January
17 – Pedro Calderón de la Barca , Spanish playwright (d. 1681 ) * January
January
22 – Elisabet Juliana Banér , Swedish noble (d. 1640
1640
) * January
January
23 – Alexander Keirincx , Flemish painter (d. 1652 ) * January
January
28 – Pope Clement IX
Pope Clement IX
(d. 1669 ) * February
February
Edmund Calamy the Elder , English Presbyterian (d. 1666 ) * February
February
1 – Johan Evertsen , Dutch admiral (d. 1666 ) * February
February
2 – Gabriel Naudé , French librarian and scholar (d. 1653 ) * February
February
6 – Matthew Brend , English landowner (d. 1659 ) * February
February
9 – Jean-Joseph Surin , French Jesuit writer (d. 1665
1665
) * February
February
24 – Manuel António of Portugal , Dutch-Portuguese nobleman (d. 1666 ) * February
February
26 – Matsudaira Norinaga , Japanese daimyo (d. 1654 )

* March 3

* George Ghica , Prince of Wallachia
Wallachia
(d. 1664
1664
) * Robert Roberthin , German poet (d. 1648 )

* March 19 Anders Bille , Danish general (d. 1657 ) * March 26 Matthew Marvin, Sr. , Connecticut settler (d. 1678
1678
)

APRIL–JUNE

* April 11 Jacques Buteux , French missionary (d. 1652 ) * April 13 Duke Johann Wilhelm of Saxe-Altenburg , colonel in the Saxon Army (d. 1632 ) * April 22 Alessandro dal Borro , Austrian Field Marshal (d. 1656 ) * May 25 Thomas Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Haddington , Scottish noble (d. 1640
1640
) * May 31 Empress Xiaoduanwen of the Qing Dynasty (d. 1649
1649
) * June 26 Juan de Palafox y Mendoza , Spanish politician, clergyman (d. 1659 ) * June 29 – Maria Maddalena de\' Medici , Italian princess (d. 1633 )

JULY–SEPTEMBER

Eleonore Marie of Anhalt-Bernburg

* July 1 George Gobat , French theologian (d. 1679 ) * July 15 Jan Cossiers , Flemish painter (d. 1671
1671
) * July 20 Sir Edward Acton, 1st Baronet , Sheriff of Shropshire (d. 1659 )

* July 22

* Sir Hugh Cholmeley, 1st Baronet , English politician (d. 1657 ) * Michel de Marolles , French translator and churchman (d. 1681 )

* August 7 Eleonore Marie of Anhalt-Bernburg , Duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (d. 1657 ) * August 16 Maria Celeste , Italian nun, daughter of Galileo Galilei (d. 1634
1634
) * August 24 Antoine de Laloubère , French Jesuit mathematician (d. 1664
1664
) * August 29 John Stawell , English Member of Parliament and governor of Taunton
Taunton
(d. 1662 ) * September 5 Loreto Vittori , Italian singer and composer (d. 1670 )

* September 19

* Hermann Busenbaum , German Jesuit theologian (d. 1668
1668
) * John Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (d. 1628 )

* September 29 Sir Thomas Aston, 1st Baronet , English politician (d. 1645 ) * September 30 – Francis Bacon , English politician and Ipswich MP (d. 1663 )

OCTOBER–DECEMBER

* October 1 Dirk Graswinckel , Dutch jurist (d. 1666 ) * October 2 Petronio Veroni , Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
prelate, Bishop of Boiano (1652–1653) (d. 1653 ) * October 4 Giovanni Paolo Oliva , Italian Jesuit (d. 1681 ) * November
November
John Ogilby
John Ogilby
, English writer and cartographer (d. 1676 ) * November
November
15 – Aniello Falcone , Italian Baroque painter (d. 1665 )

* November
November
19

* Lieuwe van Aitzema , Dutch historian and statesman (d. 1669 ) * Charles I of England
Charles I of England
(d. 1649
1649
)

* December 12 Denis of the Nativity , French sailor and cartographer (d. 1638 ) * December 14 Anna Magdalene of Hanau , German countess (d. 1673 ) * December 15 Selius Marselis , Dutch/Norwegian tradesman (d. 1663 ) * December 20
December 20
Nicolas Sanson
Nicolas Sanson
, French cartographer (d. 1667 ) * December
December
Marie de Rohan , French courtier and political activist (d. 1679 )

DATE UNKNOWN

* Marin le Roy de Gomberville , French poet and novelist (d. 1674 ) * Sir Richard Grenville, 1st Baronet , English Royalist leader (d. 1658 ) * Peter Heylin
Peter Heylin
, English ecclesiastical writer (d. 1662 ) * Claude Lorrain
Claude Lorrain
, French Baroque painter, draughtsman and engraver (d. 1682 ) * Anna Alojza Ostrogska , Polish noblewoman (d. 1654 ) * William Prynne , English Puritan politician (d. 1669 ) * Brian Walton , English divine and scholar (d. 1661 ) * Martine Bertereau , French mineralogist

PROBABLE

* Jonas Bronck
Jonas Bronck
, Swedish colonist in America (d. 1643 ) * Dud Dudley , first Englishman to smelt iron ore with coke (d. 1684 ) * Piaras Feiritéar , Irish language poet (d. 1653 ) * Samuel Hartlib , British scholar (d. 1662 ) * Samuel Rutherford , Scottish theologian and controversialist (d. 1660 )

DEATHS

Sebastian de Aparicio Sebastiano Montelupi Shima Sakon Richard Hooker
Richard Hooker
Margrave Andrew of Burgau

JANUARY–MARCH

* January
January
9 – John Spencer , English landowner and politician (b. 1549 ) * January
January
21 – Jerzy Radziwiłł , Polish–Lithuanian nobleman (szlachcic) from the Radziwiłł family (b. 1556 ) * February
February
9 – John Frederick, Duke of Pomerania , Protestant Bishop of Cammin (1567–1574) and ruling Duke of Pomerania (1569–1600) (b. 1542 ) * February
February
15 – José de Acosta , Spanish Jesuit missionary and naturalist (b. 1540
1540
) * February 17 Giordano Bruno , Italian philosopher (burned at the stake) (b. 1548 ) * February
February
25 – Sebastian de Aparicio , Spanish colonial industrialist, Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
priest and blessed in Mexico (b. 1502
1502
) * February
February
29 – Caspar Hennenberger
Caspar Hennenberger
, German historian and cartographe (b. 1529 ) * March 6 Johann Major , German poet and theologian (b. 1533 ) * March 20 Gustaf Banér , Swedish noble (b. 1547 ) * April – Thomas Deloney , English writer (b. 1543 )

APRIL–JUNE

* May 17 – Thomas Leighton , English politician (b. 1554 )

* May 18

* Nicolaus Olai Bothniensis , Swedish archbishop (b. 1550 ) * Fulvio Orsini
Fulvio Orsini
, Italian humanist, historian, and archaeologist (b. 1529 )

* May 19 Abe Masakatsu , Japanese nobleman (b. 1541
1541
) * June 3 Juan Grande Román , Spanish Catholic saint (b. 1546 ) * June 8 Edward Fortunatus , German nobleman (b. 1565
1565
) * June 25 David Chytraeus , German historian and theologian (b. 1530
1530
) * June 19 – Christopher Layer , English politician (b. 1531 )

JULY–SEPTEMBER

* July 5 Jean Kincaid , Scottish murderer (b. 1579 ) * July 7 Thomas Lucy , English politician (b. 1532 ) * July 20 – William More , English courtier (b. 1520
1520
) * July 27 – John Glanville , English politician (b. 1542 )

* August 5

* Alexander Ruthven , Scottish earl (b. 1580 ) * John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie , Scottish conspirator (b. 1577 ) * Queen Uiin , Korean royal consort (b. 1555 )

* August 18 Sebastiano Montelupi , Italian businessman (b. 1516 ) * August 22 Nicasius de Sille , Dutch diplomat (b. 1543 ) * August 25 Hosokawa Gracia
Hosokawa Gracia
, Japanese noblewoman (b. 1563 ) * August 27 Mizuno Tadashige , Japanese nobleman (b. 1541
1541
) * September 1 Tadeáš Hájek , Czech physician and astronomer (b. 1525
1525
) * September 25 Antoine du Verdier , French politician (b. 1544 ) * September 26 Claude Le Jeune , French composer (b. 1530
1530
)

OCTOBER–DECEMBER

* October 12
October 12
Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
, Spanish Jesuit priest, philosopher (b. 1535 ) * October 16 Nicolaus Reimers , German astronomer (b. 1551 ) * October 17 Cornelis de Jode , Belgian cartographer, engraver, publisher (b. 1568
1568
)

* October 21

* Toda Katsushige , Japanese warlord (b. 1557 ) * Shima Sakon , Japanese samurai (b. 1540
1540
) * Shimazu Toyohisa , Japanese samurai (b. 1570 ) * Ōtani Yoshitsugu
Ōtani Yoshitsugu
, Japanese samurai (b. 1558 )

* November
November
3 – Richard Hooker
Richard Hooker
, Anglican theologian (b. 1554 )

* November
November
6

* Ishida Mitsunari
Ishida Mitsunari
, Japanese feudal lord (decapitated) (b. 1560 ) * Konishi Yukinaga