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The 15TH CENTURY was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500
1500
.

In EUROPE , the 1 5th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages , the Early Renaissance , and the Early modern period . Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the " European miracle " of the following centuries. In religious history, the Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe
Europe
for decades (the so-called Western Schism ), until the Council of Constance . The division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite
Hussite
movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century.

Constantinople
Constantinople
, in what is today Turkey
Turkey
, then the capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire , falls to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks , marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages. The event forced Western Europeans to find a new trade route, adding further momentum to what was the beginning of the Age of Discovery , which would lead to the global mapping of the world. Explorations by the Spanish and Portuguese led to European sightings of the Americas (the New World ) and the sea passage along Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
to India, in the last decade of the century. These expeditions ushered in the era of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires.

The fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
's invention of the mechanical movable type began the Printing Press . These two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance
Renaissance
.

The Spanish Reconquista leads to the final fall of the Emirate of Granada
Granada
by the end of the century, ending over seven centuries of Muslim rule and returning Spain
Spain
back to Christian rulers.

The Hundred Years\' War end with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon
Battle of Castillon
. Financial troubles in England following the conflict results in the Wars of the Roses , a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. The conflicts ends with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field , establishing the Tudor dynasty in the later part of the century.

In ASIA , under the rule of the Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
, who built the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
and commanded Zheng He
Zheng He
to explore the world overseas , the Ming Dynasty 's territory reached its pinnacle. Tamerlane established a major empire in the Middle East
Middle East
and Central Asia, in order to revive the Mongol Empire .

In AFRICA , the spread of Islam leads to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia
Nubia
, by the end of the century leaving only Alodia (which was to collapse in 1504). The formerly vast Mali Empire teeters on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire .

In the AMERICAS , both the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
and the Aztec Empire reach the peak of their influence. Portrait of the founder of accounting, Luca Pacioli , by Jacopo de\' Barbari ( Museo di Capodimonte ).

CONTENTS

* 1 Events

* 2 Significant people

* 2.1 Visual artists, architects, sculptors, printmakers, illustrators * 2.2 Literature * 2.3 Musicians and Composers * 2.4 Exploration * 2.5 Science, invention and philosophy

* 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions * 4 Important personages * 5 References * 6 Sources

EVENTS

Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
, a French peasant girl, directly influenced the result of the Hundred Years\' War . Filippo Brunelleschi , regarded as one of the greatest engineers and architects of all time.

1400S

* 1401 : Dilawar Khan establishes the Malwa Sultanate in present-day central India * 1402 : Ottoman and Timurid Empires fight at the Battle of Ankara resulting in Timur's capture of Bayezid I
Bayezid I
. * 1402 : Sultanate of Malacca
Sultanate of Malacca
founded by Parameshwara . * 1403 : The Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
moves the capital of China from Nanjing to Beijing
Beijing
. * 1403 : The settlement of the Canary Islands signals the beginning of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
. * 1405 1433 : Zheng He
Zheng He
of China sails through the Indian Ocean to India, Arabia, and East Africa
Africa
to spread China's influence and sovereignty. * 1405 : Paregreg war, Majapahit
Majapahit
civil war of succession between Wikramawardhana against Wirabhumi. (to 1406) * 1405 1407 : The first voyage of Zheng He
Zheng He
, a massive Ming dynasty naval expedition visited Java, Palembang, Malacca, Aru, Samudera and Lambri. (to 1433)

1410S

* 1410 : The Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
is the decisive battle of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War leading to the downfall of the Teutonic Knights . * 1410 1413 : Foundation of St Andrews University
St Andrews University
in Scotland
Scotland
. * 1414 : Khizr Khan , deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan , takes over Delhi founding the Sayyid dynasty
Sayyid dynasty
. * 1415 : Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
leads the conquest of Ceuta from the Moors marking the beginning of the Portuguese Empire . * 1415 : Battle of Agincourt
Battle of Agincourt
fought between the Kingdom of England and France
France
. * 1415 : Jan Hus
Jan Hus
is burned at the stake as a heretic at the Council of Constance .

1420S

* 1420 : Construction of the Chinese Forbidden City
Forbidden City
is completed in Beijing. * 1420 1434 : Hussite
Hussite
Wars in Bohemia .

The renaissance king Matthias Corvinus of Hungary . His mercenary standing army (the Black Army ) had the strongest military potential of its era.

* 1424 : James I returns to Scotland
Scotland
after being held hostage under three Kings of England since 1406 . * 1424 : Deva Raya II succeeds his father Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya as monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire . * 1425 : Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium) founded by Pope Martin V. * 1429 : Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
ends the Siege of Orléans
Siege of Orléans
and turns the tide of the Hundred Years\' War . * 1429 : Queen Suhita
Suhita
succeeds Wikramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit .

1430S

* 1431

* January 9 – Pretrial investigations for Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
begin in Rouen
Rouen
, France
France
under English occupation. * March 3 Pope Eugene IV
Pope Eugene IV
succeeds Pope Martin V , to become the 207th pope . * March 26 – The trial of Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
begins. * May 30 – Nineteen-year-old Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
is burned at the stake . * June 16 – the Teutonic Knights and Švitrigaila sign the Treaty of Christmemel , creating anti-Polish alliance * September – Battle of Inverlochy : Donald Balloch defeats the Royalists. * October 30 – Treaty of Medina del Campo , consolidating peace between Portugal
Portugal
and Castille . * December 16 – Henry VI of England
England
is crowned King of France.

* 1438 : Pachacuti
Pachacuti
founds the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
.

1440S

* 1440 : Eton College founded by Henry VI. * 1440s : The Golden Horde breaks up into the Siberia Khanate , the Khanate of Kazan
Khanate of Kazan
, the Astrakhan Khanate , the Crimean Khanate , and the Great Horde . * 1440 1469 : Under Moctezuma I
Moctezuma I
, the Aztecs become the dominant power in Mesoamerica . * 1440 : Oba Ewuare
Oba Ewuare
comes to power in the West African
West African
city of Benin , and turns it into an empire. * 1441 : Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
, Flemish painter, dies. * 1441 : Portuguese navigators cruise West Africa and reestablish the European slave trade with a shipment of African slaves sent directly from Africa
Africa
to Portugal
Portugal
. * 1441 : A civil war between The Tutul Xiues and Cocom breaks out in The League of Mayapan . As a consequence the league begins to disintegrate. * 1443 : Abdur Razzaq visits India. * 1443 : King Sejong the Great publishes the hangul , the native phonetic alphabet system for the Korean language . * 1444 : The Albanian league is established in Lezha, Skanderbeg is elected leader. A war begins against Ottoman empire
Ottoman empire
. An Albanian state is set up and lasts until 1479 . * 1444 : Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Sultan
Sultan
Murad II
Murad II
defeats the Polish and Hungarian armies under Władysław III of Poland
Poland
and János Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna . * 1445
1445
: The Kazan Khanate
Kazan Khanate
defeats the Grand Duchy of Moscow at the Battle of Suzdal . * 1446 : Mallikarjuna Raya succeeds his father Deva Raya II as monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire . * 1447 : Wijaya Parakrama Wardhana, succeeds Suhita
Suhita
as ruler of Majapahit. * 1449 : Saint Srimanta Sankardeva was born. * 1449 : Esen Tayisi leads an Oirat Mongol invasion of China which culminate in the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor at Battle of Tumu Fortress .

1450S Modern painting of Mehmed II marching on Constantinople in 1453
1453
Detail of The Emperor's Approach showing the Xuande Emperor 's royal carriage. Ming Dynasty of China.

* 1450s : Machu Picchu constructed. * 1451 : Bahlul Khan Lodhi ascends the throne of the Delhi sultanate starting the Lodhi dynasty * 1451 : Rajasawardhana, born Bhre Pamotan, styled Brawijaya II succeeds Wijayaparakramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit. * 1453
1453
: The Fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
marks the end of the Byzantine Empire and the death of the last Roman Emperor Constantine XI
Constantine XI
and the beginning of the Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. * 1453
1453
: The Battle of Castillon
Battle of Castillon
is the last engagement of the Hundred Years\' War and the first battle in European history where cannons were a major factor in deciding the battle. * 1453
1453
: Reign of Rajasawardhana ends. * 1454 1466 : After defeating the Teutonic Knights in the Thirteen Years\' War , Poland
Poland
annexes Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
. * 1455 1485 : Wars of the Roses – English civil war between the House of York and the House of Lancaster. * 1456 : Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
is posthumously acquitted of heresy by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, redeeming her status as the heroine of France
France
.

Richard III of England
England
King Henry VII , ( 1457 –1509), the founder of the royal house of Tudor

* 1456 : The Siege of Belgrade halts the Ottomans' advance into Europe. * 1456 : Girishawardhana, styled Brawijaya III, becomes ruler of Majapahit.

1460S

* 1461 : The League of Mayapan disintegrates.

The seventeen Kuchkabals of Yucatán after The League of Mayapan in 1461.

* 1461

* February 2
February 2
– Battle of Mortimer\'s Cross : Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York
Duke of York
defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales
Wales
. * February 17 Second Battle of St Albans , England
England
: The Earl of Warwick 's army is defeated by a Lancastrian force under Queen Margaret , who recovers control of her husband. * March 4 – The Duke of York
Duke of York
seizes London and proclaims himself King Edward IV of England
England
. * March 5 - Henry VI of England
England
is deposed by the Duke of York during war of the Roses . * March 29 Battle of Towton : Edward IV defeats Queen Margaret to make good his claim to the English throne (thought to be the bloodiest battle ever fought in England). * June 28 – Edward, Richard of York's son, is crowned as Edward IV , King of England
England
(reigns until 1483 ). * July – Byzantine general Graitzas Palaiologos honourably surrenders Salmeniko Castle , last garrison of the Despotate of the Morea , to invading forces of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
after a year-long siege. * July 22 Louis XI
Louis XI
of France
France
succeeds Charles VII of France
France
as king (reigns until 1483 ).

* 1462 : Sonni Ali Ber , the ruler of the Songhai (or Songhay) Empire , along the Niger River , conquers Mali in the central Sudan
Sudan
by defeating the Tuareg contingent at Tombouctou (or Timbuktu
Timbuktu
) and capturing the city. He develops both his own capital, Gao
Gao
, and the main centres of Mali, Timbuktu
Timbuktu
and Djenné
Djenné
, into major cities. Ali Ber controls trade along the Niger River with a navy of war vessels. * 1462 : Mehmed the Conqueror is driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula
Vlad III Dracula
at The Night Attack . * 1464 : Edward IV of England
England
secretly marries Elizabeth Woodville * 1465 : The 1465 Moroccan revolt ends in the murder of the last Marinid
Marinid
Sultan
Sultan
of Morocco Abd al-Haqq II * 1466 : Singhawikramawardhana, succeeds Girishawardhana as ruler of Majapahit. * 1467
1467
: Uzun Hasan
Uzun Hasan
defeats the Black Sheep Turkoman leader Jahān Shāh . * 1467
1467
–1615: The Sengoku period is one of civil war in Japan.

The Siege of Rhodes ( 1480 ). Ships of the Hospitaliers in the forefront, and Turkish camp in the background.

* 1469 : The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile leads to the unification of Spain
Spain
. * 1469 : Matthias Corvinus of Hungary conquers some parts of Bohemia . * 1469 : Birth of Guru Nanak Dev
Guru Nanak Dev
. Beside followers of Sikhism , Guru Nanak is revered by Hindus and Muslim Sufis across the Indian subcontinent .

1470S

* 1470 : The Moldavian forces under Stephen the Great defeat the Tatars of the Golden Horde at the Battle of Lipnic . * 1471 : The kingdom of Champa suffers a massive defeat by the Vietnamese king Lê Thánh Tông . * 1472 : Abu Abd Allah al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya becomes the first Wattasid Sultan
Sultan
of Morocco. * 1474
1474
1477
1477
: Burgundy Wars
Burgundy Wars
of France, Switzerland
Switzerland
, Lorraine and Sigismund II of Habsburg against the Charles the Bold , Duke of Burgundy .

Charles the Bold

* 1478 : Muscovy conquers Novgorod
Novgorod
. * 1478 : Reign of Singhawikramawardhana ends. * 1478 : The Great Mosque of Demak is the oldest mosque in Java, built by the Wali Songo during the reign of Sultan
Sultan
Patah. * 1479 : Battle of Breadfield , Matthias Corvinus of Hungary defeated the Turks.

1480S

* 1480 : After the Great standing on the Ugra river , Muscovy gained independence from the Great Horde.

Ivan III , Grand Duke of Moscow
Grand Duke of Moscow
.

* 1481 : Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
begins in practice with the first auto-da-fé . * 1485 : Matthias Corvinus of Hungary captured Vienna
Vienna
, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor ran away. * 1485 : Henry VII defeats Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth . and becomes King of England. * 1485 : Ivan III of Russia conquered Tver . * 1485 : Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya drives out Praudha Raya ending the Sangama Dynasty . * 1486 : Sher Shah Suri , is born in Sasaram , Bihar . * 1488 : Portuguese Navigator Bartolomeu Dias sails around the Cape of Good Hope .

1490S - 1500
1500

* 1492 : The death of Sunni Ali Ber left a leadership void in the Songhai Empire , and his son was soon dethroned by Mamadou Toure who ascended the throne in 1493 under the name Askia (meaning "general") Muhammad. Askia Muhammad made Songhai the largest empire in the history of West Africa. The empire went into decline, however, after 1528, when the now-blind Askia Muhammad was dethroned by his son, Askia Musa . * 1492 : Boabdil 's surrender of Granada
Granada
marks the end of the Spanish Reconquista and Al-Andalus . * 1492 : Jews
Jews
expelled from Spain
Spain
. * 1492 : Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
landed in the Americas from Spain
Spain
. * 1494 : Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
sign the Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas
and agree to divide the World outside of Europe
Europe
between themselves. * 1494 –1559: The Italian Wars lead to the downfall of the Italian city-states . * 1497 1499 : Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
's first voyage from Europe
Europe
to India and back. * 1499 : Ottoman fleet defeats Venetians at the Battle of Zonchio
Battle of Zonchio
. * 1499 : Michelangelo's Pietà
Pietà
in St. Peter's Basilica is made in Rome * 1500
1500
: Islam becomes Indonesia's dominant religion. * 1500
1500
: Around late 1 5th century Bujangga Manik manuscript was composed, tell the story of Jaya Pakuan Bujangga Manik, a Sundanese Hindu hermit journeys throughout Java and Bali.

SIGNIFICANT PEOPLE

Lorenzo de\' Medici Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia
Maximilian I Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile

* Abu Sa\'id al-Afif , a Samaritan physician. * Pachacuti
Pachacuti
( 1438 -1471/72) was the ninth Sapa Inca , likely builder of Machu Picchu and founder of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
. * Afonso de Albuquerque ( 1453
1453
–1515) was a Portuguese nobleman, naval general officer whose military and administrative activities conquered and established the Portuguese colonial empire in the Indian Ocean . Generally considered as a world conquest military genius by means of his successful strategy. * Ah Xiu Xupan last ruler Uxmal * Matthias Corvinus of Hungary , Renaissance
Renaissance
ruler ( 1443 1490 ). * George Kastrioti , Skenderbeg
Skenderbeg
– Albanian Prince
Prince
who resisted the Ottomans for almost 30 years ( 1443 1468 ). * Ferdinand II of Aragon , co-ruler of Spain
Spain
with Isabella I of Castile and responsible with her for the unification of Spain
Spain
(1452 –1516). * Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
, European inventor of printing with movable type (c.  1398
1398
1468 ) * Constantine XI
Constantine XI
, the last Byzantine Emperor and Roman Emperor . He lived from 1404–1453. * Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
Infante
Infante
Henrique, Duke of Viseu (1394–1460 ); infante (prince ) of the Portuguese House of Aviz and an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire , being responsible for the beginning of the European worldwide explorations. * Henry V of England
England
, the English King who won the famous Battle of Agincourt in 1415 ( 1387 1422 ). * Henry VI of England
England
, English King ( 1421
1421
- 1471 ) * Henry VII of England , English King and founder the Tudor dynasty ( 1457 1509 ). * The Princes in the Tower , Edward V of England
England
( 1470 1483 ?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York
Duke of York
( 1473 –1483 ?), two sons of Edward IV of England
England
and Elizabeth Woodville . * John Hunyadi
John Hunyadi
, Regent of Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
, won the Siege of Belgrade in 1456 (1387– 1456 ) * Jan Hus
Jan Hus
, Bohemian religious thinker and reformer (c. 1369–1415 ). * Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
, co-ruler of Spain
Spain
with Ferdinand II of Aragon and responsible for the unification of Spain
Spain
and the discovery of the New World ( 1451 –1504). * Ivan III of Russia , Grand Duke of Moscow
Grand Duke of Moscow
who ended the dominance of the Golden Horde over the Rus ( 1440 - 1505 ) * Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
, military commander and national heroine of France ( 1412 1431 ). * Kazimierz IV Jagiellon King of Poland
Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania ( 1427 1492 ). * Louis XI
Louis XI
, King of France
France
( 1423 1483 ). * Mehmed II , Sultan
Sultan
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Conqueror of Constantinople
Constantinople
( 1432 1481 ). * Babur
Babur
, the founder of the Mughal empire ( 1483 - 1530
1530
). * Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
, Vaishnav saint and important social reformer ( 1486 - 1534
1534
). * Guru Nanak , founder of the Sikh
Sikh
Religion ( 1469 ). * Srimanta Sankardeva , founder of Ekasarana Religion preacher of Vaishnavism, creator of Sattriya
Sattriya
Dance , Ankiya Nat , Satras etc. * Sejong the Great of Joseon , a Korean monarch who developed hangul , the native Korean alphabet (1397– 1450 ). * Stephen III of Moldavia , also known as Stephen the Great, ruler of Moldavia, national hero of Romanians for long resistance to the Ottomans ( 1437
1437
–1504) * Richard III of England
England
, last English King of the House of York , last of the House of Plantagenet ( 1452 1485 ). * Mir Chakar Khan Rind ( 1468 –1565), a Baloch king. * Vlad III Dracula
Vlad III Dracula
, Prince
Prince
of Wallachia who led the defense of his territory against the expanding Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
( 1431 1476 ). * Oba Ewuare
Oba Ewuare
, transformed the city state of Benin into the Benin Empire .

VISUAL ARTISTS, ARCHITECTS, SCULPTORS, PRINTMAKERS, ILLUSTRATORS

Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
See also: Thematic development of Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
painting , Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
painting , Renaissance sculpture , and Renaissance
Renaissance
painting

* Bartolomé Bermejo (c.  1440 1498 ), Spanish painter who adopted Dutch painting techniques and conventions. * Pedro Berruguete (c.  1450 - 1504 ), Spanish painter. * Hieronymus Bosch
Hieronymus Bosch
(c.  1450 – 1516), Early Netherlandish painter . Many of his works depict sin and human moral failings. * Sandro Botticelli
Sandro Botticelli
(c.  1445
1445
– 1510), Italian painter. * Dirk Bouts (c.  1410 / 1420 1475
1475
), Early Netherlandish painter . * Filippo Brunelleschi (1377– 1446 ), invents one-point perspective, leads innovation in Italian architecture. * Robert Campin
Robert Campin
(c. 1375 – 1444 ), the Master of Flémalle, first great master of Early Netherlandish painting . * Petrus Christus
Petrus Christus
(c.  1410 / 1420 1475
1475
/ 1476 ), Early Netherlandish painter. * Gerard David
Gerard David
(c.  1460
1460
– 1523), Early Netherlandish painter and manuscript illuminator known for his brilliant use of color. * Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
( 1471 –1528) was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg
Nuremberg
, Germany. * Barthélemy d\'Eyck ; (c.  1420 – after 1470 ) was an Early Netherlandish artist who worked in France
France
and probably in Burgundy Early Netherlandish painter and manuscript illuminator . He was active between about 1440 to about 1469 . * Dionisius
Dionisius
(c.  1440 1502 ), Russian painter * Hubert van Eyck (c. 1366 – 1426 ), Flemish painter and older brother of Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
. * Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
(before c.  1395 – before 1441 ), Early Netherlandish painter , considered one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century. * Juan de Flandes
Juan de Flandes
( 1460
1460
–1519), Early Netherlandish painter who was active in Spain
Spain
from 1496
1496
to 1519 at the court of Isabella I of Castile . * Jean Fouquet
Jean Fouquet
( 1420 1481 ) French painter of both panel painting and manuscript illumination , inventor of the portrait miniature . * Piero della Francesca
Piero della Francesca
(c. 1415 1492 ) Italian painter * Nicolas Froment (c.  1435 – c.  1486 ), French painter. * Lorenzo Ghiberti
Lorenzo Ghiberti
(1378– 1455 ) was an Italian artist of the early Renaissance
Renaissance
best known for works in sculpture and metalworking . * Hugo van der Goes
Hugo van der Goes
(c.  1440 1482 or 1483 ), Early Netherlandish painter . * Jean Hey (c.  1475
1475
– c. 1505), now generally identified with the artist formerly known as the Master of Moulins, Early Netherlandish painter . * Hans Holbein the Elder
Hans Holbein the Elder
(c.  1460
1460
– 1524), German painter, woodcut artist, illustrator of books and church window designer. He and his brother Sigismund Holbein painted religious works in the late Gothic style. * Limbourg brothers
Limbourg brothers
, (Herman, Paul, and Johan; 1385– 1416 ), Dutch Renaissance
Renaissance
miniature painters from the city of Nijmegen . * Simon Marmion (c.  1425 1489 ) French , or Burgundian, painter of panels and illuminated manuscripts . * Masaccio
Masaccio
, (c.  1401 1428 ), Italian painter. * Hans Memling
Hans Memling
(c.  1430 1494 ), Early Netherlandish painter , born in Germany
Germany
. * Michelozzo (1396–1472), Italian architect and sculptor. * Andrei Rublev
Andrei Rublev
(c.  1360 – c.  1430 ), Russian painter . * Enguerrand Quarton (c.  1410 – c.  1466 ) was a French painter and manuscript illuminator . * Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
, ( 1452 –1519), Italian polymath , scientist , mathematician , engineer , inventor , anatomist , painter, sculptor , architect , botanist , musician and writer . * Rogier van der Weyden
Rogier van der Weyden
(1399/ 1400
1400
1464 ), considered one of the greatest exponents of Early Netherlandish painting .

See links above for Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
painting and Renaissance sculpture .

LITERATURE

Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti
Pico della Mirandola

* Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti
( 1404 1472 ) was an Italian author, artist, architect , poet , linguist , philosopher , and cryptographer , and general Renaissance
Renaissance
humanist polymath . * Joseph Albo (c. 1380 – 1444 ) was a Jewish philosopher and rabbi who lived in Spain
Spain
. * John Argyropoulos ( 1415 – 1487), Greek lecturer, philosopher and humanist. * Antonio Beccadelli (1394–1471), Italian poet, canon lawyer, scholar, diplomat, and chronicler. * Vespasiano da Bisticci (1421–1498), Italian humanist and librarian. * Matteo Maria Boiardo (1440/1 – 1494), Italian poet. * Poggio Bracciolini
Poggio Bracciolini
(1380 – 1459), Italian writer and humanist. * Leonardo Bruni (c. 1370 – 1444), Italian humanist, historian and statesman. * Laonikos Chalkokondyles ( 1423 – 1490), Greek scholar. * Pal Engjëlli ( 1416 - 1470 ) was an Albanian Catholic clergyman , Archbishop
Archbishop
of Durrës
Durrës
and Cardinal of Albania
Albania
. * Marsilio Ficino ( 1433 – 1499), Italian humanist and writer. * Constantine Lascaris ( 1434 – 1501), Greek scholar and grammarian. * Antonio de Lebrija ( 1441 — 1522), Spanish scholar, historian, teacher, astronomer and poet. * John Lydgate
John Lydgate
(c.1370 – c.1451), English monk and poet. * Sir Thomas Malory
Thomas Malory
( 1405 – 1471), English writer. * Jorge Manrique (c. 1440 – 1479), Spanish poet. * Count Giovanni Pico della Mirandola ( 1463 1494 ), Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
philosopher . * Iñigo López de Mendoza ( 1398
1398
- 1458 ) Castilian (Spanish) politician and poet. * Afanasy Nikitin (? - 1472 ), Russian merchant, traveler and writer. * Thomas Occleve (c. 1368 – 1426 ), English poet . * Reginald Pecock (c.  1395 1460
1460
), was an English prelate and writer. * Christine de Pizan , French writer (1364– 1430 ). * Poliziano ( 1454 – 1494), Italian classical scholar and poet. * Giovanni Pontano ( 1426 – 1503), Italian humanist and poet. * Luigi Pulci ( 1432 – 1484), Italian poet. * Bartolomeo Sacchi
Bartolomeo Sacchi
( 1421
1421
– 1481), Italian humanist writer and gastronomist. * Lorenzo Valla (c. 1407 – 1457), Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator. * Gil Vicente
Gil Vicente
(c.  1465 – c. 1536), Portuguese poet. * François Villon
François Villon
(c. 1431 1474
1474
), French poet .

MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS

Johannes Ockeghem
Johannes Ockeghem
See also: List of Renaissance
Renaissance
composers , Franco-Flemish School , Burgundian School
Burgundian School
, Renaissance
Renaissance
music , and Medieval music
Medieval music

* Juan de Anchieta ( 1462 - 1523 , Spanish composer of the Renaissance
Renaissance
. * Adrien Basin (c.  1457 1476 ; died after 1498 ), Franco-Flemish composer, singer, and diplomat of the Burgundian school of the early Renaissance
Renaissance
. * Gilles Binchois , (c.  1400
1400
1460
1460
), Franco-Flemish composer, one of the earliest members of the Burgundian School
Burgundian School
. * Antoine Busnois
Antoine Busnois
(c.  1430 1492 ), French composer and poet of the early Renaissance
Renaissance
Burgundian School
Burgundian School
. * Guillaume Dufay , (c.  1397 1474
1474
), Franco-Flemish composer and music theorist . * John Dunstaple
John Dunstaple
(c.  1390 1453
1453
), English composer of polyphonic music . * Juan del Encina ( 1468 - 1530
1530
), Spanish composer, poet and playwright. * Hayne van Ghizeghem (c.  1445
1445
1472 or possibly later; New Grove says he died between 1472 and 1497 ), Flemish composer of the early Renaissance
Renaissance
Burgundian School
Burgundian School
. * Nicolas Grenon (c. 1375 – 1456 ), French composer of the early Renaissance
Renaissance
. * Robert Morton (c.  1430 1479 ), English composer of the early Renaissance
Renaissance
. * Johannes Ockeghem
Johannes Ockeghem
, (c.  1410 1497 ), Flemish composer. * Francisco de Peñalosa (c.  1470 1528 ), Spanish composer of the middle Renaissance
Renaissance
.. * Leonel Power (c. 1370 to 1385 – 1445
1445
), English composer of the late Medieval and early Renaissance
Renaissance
eras. * Johannes Tapissier (c. 1370 – 1408 to 1410 ), French composer and teacher of the late Middle Ages . * Jacobus Vide (c.  1405 1433 ), Franco-Flemish composer of the transitional period between the medieval period and early Renaissance
Renaissance
. * Josquin des Prez (c.  1450 1521 ), Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance
Renaissance
.

EXPLORATION

Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
See also: Exploration , Exploration of Asia , and List of explorers

* Johann Schiltberger (1381 – c.  1440 ), German traveller throughout the Middle East
Middle East
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. * Diogo de Azambuja ( 1432 –1518) Portuguese explorer of the African coast. * John Cabot (c.  1450 1499 ) – Italian explorer for England . Claimed Newfoundland for the Kingdom of England . * Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
(c.  1467
1467
– c. 1520), Portuguese navigator and explorer . * Pêro Vaz de Caminha (c.  1450 – 1500), Portuguese explorer that accompanied Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
in the discovery of Brazil
Brazil
. * Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
( 1451 –1506) – Italian explorer for Spain . Sailed in 1492 and arrived in (hailed with the discovery of) the " New World " of the Americas. * Niccolò Da Conti (1395– 1469 ), Venetian merchant and explorer, born in Chioggia , who traveled to India
India
and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. * Bartolomeu Dias (c.  1450 – 1500) – Portuguese explorer. He sailed from Portugal
Portugal
and reached the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
. * Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
reaches India
India
for Portugal
Portugal
, creating the first maritime alternative for the Silk Road (c.  1469 – 1524) * Zheng He
Zheng He
, Chinese eunuch admiral and explorer (1371– 1433 ). * João Fernandes Lavrador ( 1445
1445
?–1501) – Portuguese explorer. One of the first European's to reach Newfoundland and Labrador . * João da Nova (c.  1460
1460
– 1509), Portuguese explorer of the Atlantic
Atlantic
and Indian Ocean . * Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
(c.  1454 – 1512) – Italian explorer for Spain
Spain
. Sailed in 1499 and 1502. He explored the east coast of South America .

SCIENCE, INVENTION AND PHILOSOPHY

See also: Scientific Revolution and History of science in the Renaissance
Renaissance

* Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
(c.  1400
1400
1468 ) was a German goldsmith and printer who is credited with inventing movable type printing in Europe
Europe
around 1439
1439
, and mechanical printing globally. * Pietro Pomponazzi ( 1462 – 1525), Italian philosopher. * Georg von Peuerbach ( 1423 1461 ), German /Austrian astronomer and mathematician . * Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
( 1473 - 1543 ), Father of modern astronomy

INVENTIONS, DISCOVERIES, INTRODUCTIONS

LIST OF 15TH CENTURY INVENTIONS

* Renaissance
Renaissance
affects philosophy , science and art . * Age of Discovery begins. * Rise of Modern English language from Middle English . * Introduction of the noon bell in the Catholic world. * Public banks * Yongle Encyclopedia —over 22,000 volumes * Hangul alphabet in Korea
Korea
* Scotch whisky
Scotch whisky
* Psychiatric hospitals * Development of the woodcut for printing between 1400
1400
1450 * Movable type first used by King Taejong of Joseon 1403 (Movable type, which allowed individual characters to be arranged to form words, was invented in China by Bi Sheng between 1041 and 1048.) * Although pioneered earlier in Korea
Korea
and by the Chinese official Wang Zhen (with tin ), bronze metal movable type printing is created in China by Hua Sui in 1490 . * Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
advances the printing press in Europe (c.  1455 ) * Linear perspective drawing perfected by Filippo Brunelleschi 1410 – 1415 * Invention of the harpsichord c.  1450 * Arrival of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
to the Americas by 1492

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

IMPORTANT PERSONAGES

*

Constantine XI
Constantine XI
*

Domenico Ghirlandaio
Domenico Ghirlandaio
, Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
, part of the Madonna della Misericordia at the Ognissanti church in Florence, c. late 15th century

REFERENCES

* ^ Crowley, Roger (2006). Constantinople: The Last Great Siege, 1453. Faber. ISBN 0-571-22185-8 . (reviewed by Foster, Charles (22 September 2006). "The Conquestof Constantinople
Constantinople
and the end of empire". Contemporary Review. Archived from the original on 22 August 2009. It is the end of the Middle Ages * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Renaissance, 2008, O.Ed. * ^ McLuhan 1962 ; Eisenstein 1980 ; Febvre Man 2002 * ^ Modern interpretation of the place names recorded by Chinese chronicles can be found e.g. in Some Southeast Asian Polities Mentioned in the MSL by Geoffrey Wade * ^ A B C D E F G Ricklefs (1991), page 18. * ^ Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV Press. p. 437. * ^ Mueller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Durers, Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012815-2 . * ^ Also sometimes in contemporary documents Barthélemy de Cler, der Clers, Deick d'Ecle, d'Eilz – Harthan, John, The Book of Hours, p. 93, 1977, Thomas Y Crowell Company, New York, ISBN 0-690-01654-9 * ^ Unterkircher, Franz (1980). King René's Book of Love (Le Cueur d'Amours Espris). New York: G. Braziller. ISBN 0-8076-0989-7 . * ^ Tolley * ^ Brigstocke, 2001, p. 338 * ^ "Hans Holbein". Catholic Encyclopedia . Archived from the original on 6 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-18.

SOURCES

* Tolley, Thomas (2001). "Eyck, Barthélemy d'". In Hugh Brigstocke. The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866203-3 .

* Millennia * Centuries * Decades * Years

* v * t * e

Decades and years

15TH CENTURY 13th century
13th century
 ←  14th century  ← ↔ → 16th century  →  17th century

1390S 1390 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398
1398
1399

1400S 1400
1400
1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409

1410S 1410 1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419

1420S 1420 1421
1421
1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429

1430S 1430 1431 1432 1433 1434 1435 1436 1437
1437
1438 1439
1439

1440S 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445
1445
1446 1447 1448
1448
1449

1450S 1450 1451 1452 1453
1453
1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1459

1460S 1460
1460
1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467
1467
1468 1469

1470S 1470 1471 1472 1473 1474
1474
1475
1475
1476 1477
1477
1478 1479

1480S 1480 1481 1482