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The 1 5th century
5th century
was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500. In Europe, the 1 5th century
5th century
is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period. Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the "European miracle" of the following centuries. In religious history, the Roman Papacy
Papacy
was split in two parts in Europe
Europe
for decades (the so-called Western Schism), until the Council of Constance. The division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite
Hussite
movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the following century. Constantinople, in what is today Turkey, then the capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire, falls to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages.[1] The event forced Western Europeans to find a new trade route, adding further momentum to what was the beginning of the Age of Discovery, which would lead to the global mapping of the world. Explorations by the Portuguese and Spanish led to European sightings of the Americas (the New World) and the sea passage along Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
to India, in the last decade of the century. These expeditions ushered in the era of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires. The fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the mechanical movable type began the Printing
Printing
Press. These two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance.[2][3] The Spanish Reconquista
Reconquista
leads to the final fall of the Emirate of Granada
Granada
by the end of the century, ending over seven centuries of Muslim rule and returning Spain
Spain
back to Christian rulers. The Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
end with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon. Financial troubles in England following the conflict results in the Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. The conflicts end with the defeat of Richard III
Richard III
by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth
Battle of Bosworth
Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty
Tudor dynasty
in the later part of the century. In Asia, under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zheng He
Zheng He
to explore the world overseas, the Ming Dynasty's territory reached its pinnacle. Tamerlane
Tamerlane
established a major empire in the Middle East
Middle East
and Central Asia, in order to revive the Mongol Empire. In Africa, the spread of Islam leads to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia, by the end of the century leaving only Alodia
Alodia
(which was to collapse in 1504). The formerly vast Mali Empire teeters on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire. In the Americas, both the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
and the Aztec Empire
Aztec Empire
reach the peak of their influence.

Portrait of the founder of accounting, Luca Pacioli, by Jacopo de' Barbari (Museo di Capodimonte).

Contents

1 Events 2 Significant people

2.1 Visual artists, architects, sculptors, printmakers, illustrators 2.2 Literature 2.3 Musicians and Composers 2.4 Exploration 2.5 Science, invention and philosophy

3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Important personages 5 References 6 Sources

Events[edit]

Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl, directly influenced the result of the Hundred Years' War.

Filippo Brunelleschi, regarded as one of the greatest engineers and architects of all time.

1400s

1401: Dilawar Khan
Dilawar Khan
establishes the Malwa Sultanate
Malwa Sultanate
in present-day central India 1402: Ottoman and Timurid Empires fight at the Battle of Ankara resulting in Timur's capture of Bayezid I. 1402: Sultanate of Malacca
Sultanate of Malacca
founded by Parameshwara. 1403: The Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
moves the capital of China from Nanjing
Nanjing
to Beijing. 1403: The settlement of the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
signals the beginning of the Spanish Empire. 1405–1433: Zheng He
Zheng He
of China sails through the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to India, Arabia, and East Africa
Africa
to spread China's influence and sovereignty. 1405: Paregreg war, Majapahit
Majapahit
civil war of succession between Wikramawardhana against Wirabhumi. (to 1406) 1405–1407: The first voyage of Zheng He, a massive Ming dynasty naval expedition visited Java, Palembang, Malacca, Aru, Samudera and Lambri.[4] (to 1433)

1410s

1410: The Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
is the decisive battle of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
leading to the downfall of the Teutonic Knights. 1410–1413: Foundation of St Andrews University
St Andrews University
in Scotland. 1414: Khizr Khan, deputised by Timur
Timur
to be the governor of Multan, takes over Delhi founding the Sayyid dynasty. 1415: Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
leads the conquest of Ceuta from the Moors marking the beginning of the Portuguese Empire. 1415: Battle of Agincourt
Battle of Agincourt
fought between the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
and France. 1415: Jan Hus
Jan Hus
is burned at the stake as a heretic at the Council of Constance.

1420s

1420: Construction of the Chinese Forbidden City
Forbidden City
is completed in Beijing. 1420–1434: Hussite
Hussite
Wars in Bohemia.

The renaissance king Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. His mercenary standing army (the Black Army) had the strongest military potential of its era.

1424: James I returns to Scotland
Scotland
after being held hostage under three Kings of England
Kings of England
since 1406. 1424: Deva Raya II
Deva Raya II
succeeds his father Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya as monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire. 1425: Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium) founded by Pope
Pope
Martin V. 1429: Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
ends the Siege of Orléans
Siege of Orléans
and turns the tide of the Hundred Years' War. 1429: Queen Suhita
Suhita
succeeds Wikramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[5]

1430s

1431

January 9 – Pretrial investigations for Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
begin in Rouen, France
France
under English occupation. March 3 Pope Eugene IV
Pope Eugene IV
succeeds Pope
Pope
Martin V, to become the 207th pope. March 26 – The trial of Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
begins. May 30 – Nineteen-year-old Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
is burned at the stake. June 16 – the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
and Švitrigaila
Švitrigaila
sign the Treaty of Christmemel, creating anti-Polish alliance September – Battle of Inverlochy: Donald Balloch defeats the Royalists. October 30 – Treaty of Medina del Campo, consolidating peace between Portugal
Portugal
and Castille. December 16 – Henry VI of England
England
is crowned King of France.

1438: Pachacuti
Pachacuti
Yupanqui founds the Inca Empire.

1440s

1440: Eton College
Eton College
founded by Henry VI. 1440s: The Golden Horde
Golden Horde
breaks up into the Siberia Khanate, the Khanate of Kazan, the Astrakhan Khanate, the Crimean Khanate, and the Great Horde. 1440–1469: Under Moctezuma I, the Aztecs become the dominant power in Mesoamerica. 1440: Oba Ewuare
Oba Ewuare
comes to power in the West African
West African
city of Benin, and turns it into an empire. 1441: Jan van Eyck, Flemish painter, dies. 1441: Portuguese navigators cruise West Africa
West Africa
and reestablish the European slave trade with a shipment of African slaves sent directly from Africa
Africa
to Portugal. 1441: A civil war between The Tutul Xiues and Cocom breaks out in The League of Mayapan. As a consequence the league begins to disintegrate. 1443: Abdur Razzaq visits India. 1443: King Sejong the Great publishes the hangul, the native phonetic alphabet system for the Korean language. 1444: The Albanian league is established in Lezha, Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
is elected leader. A war begins against Ottoman empire. An Albanian state is set up and lasts until 1479. 1444: Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Sultan
Sultan
Murad II
Murad II
defeats the Polish and Hungarian armies under Władysław III of Poland
Poland
and János Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna. 1445: The Kazan Khanate
Kazan Khanate
defeats the Grand Duchy of Moscow
Grand Duchy of Moscow
at the Battle of Suzdal. 1446: Mallikarjuna Raya succeeds his father Deva Raya II
Deva Raya II
as monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire. 1447: Wijaya Parakrama Wardhana, succeeds Suhita
Suhita
as ruler of Majapahit.[5] 1449: Saint Srimanta Sankardeva
Sankardeva
was born. 1449: Esen Tayisi
Esen Tayisi
leads an Oirat Mongol invasion of China which culminate in the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor
Zhengtong Emperor
at Battle of Tumu Fortress.

1450s

Modern painting of Mehmed II
Mehmed II
marching on Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453

Detail of The Emperor's Approach showing the Xuande Emperor's royal carriage. Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
of China.

1450s: Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
constructed. 1451: Bahlul Khan Lodhi
Bahlul Khan Lodhi
ascends the throne of the Delhi sultanate starting the Lodhi dynasty 1451: Rajasawardhana, born Bhre Pamotan, styled Brawijaya II succeeds Wijayaparakramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[5] 1453: The Fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
marks the end of the Byzantine Empire and the death of the last Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Constantine XI
Constantine XI
and the beginning of the Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire. 1453: The Battle of Castillon
Battle of Castillon
is the last engagement of the Hundred Years' War and the first battle in European history where cannons were a major factor in deciding the battle. 1453: Reign of Rajasawardhana ends.[5] 1454–1466: After defeating the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in the Thirteen Years' War, Poland
Poland
annexes Royal Prussia. 1455–1485: Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
– English civil war between the House of York and the House of Lancaster. 1456: Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
is posthumously acquitted of heresy by the Catholic Church, redeeming her status as the heroine of France.

Richard III
Richard III
of England

King Henry VII, (1457–1509), the founder of the royal house of Tudor

1456: The Siege of Belgrade halts the Ottomans' advance into Europe. 1456: Girishawardhana, styled Brawijaya III, becomes ruler of Majapahit.[5]

1460s

1461: The League of Mayapan
League of Mayapan
disintegrates.

The seventeen Kuchkabals of Yucatán after The League of Mayapan
League of Mayapan
in 1461.

1461

February 2
February 2
– Battle of Mortimer's Cross: Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York
Duke of York
defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor
Owen Tudor
and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke
Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke
in Wales. February 17 – Second Battle of St Albans, England: The Earl of Warwick's army is defeated by a Lancastrian force under Queen Margaret, who recovers control of her husband. March 4 – The Duke of York
Duke of York
seizes London and proclaims himself King Edward IV of England. March 5 - Henry VI of England
England
is deposed by the Duke of York
Duke of York
during war of the Roses. March 29 – Battle of Towton: Edward IV defeats Queen Margaret to make good his claim to the English throne (thought to be the bloodiest battle ever fought in England). June 28 – Edward, Richard of York's son, is crowned as Edward IV, King of England
England
(reigns until 1483). July – Byzantine general Graitzas Palaiologos honourably surrenders Salmeniko Castle, last garrison of the Despotate of the Morea, to invading forces of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
after a year-long siege. July 22 Louis XI
Louis XI
of France
France
succeeds Charles VII of France
France
as king (reigns until 1483).

1462: Sonni Ali
Sonni Ali
Ber, the ruler of the Songhai (or Songhay) Empire, along the Niger River, conquers Mali in the central Sudan
Sudan
by defeating the Tuareg contingent at Tombouctou (or Timbuktu) and capturing the city. He develops both his own capital, Gao, and the main centres of Mali, Timbuktu
Timbuktu
and Djenné, into major cities. Ali Ber controls trade along the Niger River
Niger River
with a navy of war vessels. 1462: Mehmed the Conqueror
Mehmed the Conqueror
is driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula at The Night Attack. 1464: Edward IV of England
England
secretly marries Elizabeth Woodville 1465: The 1465
1465
Moroccan revolt ends in the murder of the last Marinid Sultan
Sultan
of Morocco Abd al-Haqq II 1466: Singhawikramawardhana, succeeds Girishawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[5] 1467: Uzun Hasan
Uzun Hasan
defeats the Black Sheep Turkoman leader Jahān Shāh. 1467–1615: The Sengoku period
Sengoku period
is one of civil war in Japan.

The Siege of Rhodes (1480). Ships of the Hospitaliers
Hospitaliers
in the forefront, and Turkish camp in the background.

1469: The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
and Isabella I of Castile leads to the unification of Spain. 1469: Matthias Corvinus of Hungary
Matthias Corvinus of Hungary
conquers some parts of Bohemia. 1469: Birth of Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
Dev. Beside followers of Sikhism, Guru Nanak is revered by Hindus
Hindus
and Muslim Sufis
Muslim Sufis
across the Indian subcontinent.

1470s

1470: The Moldavian forces under Stephen the Great
Stephen the Great
defeat the Tatars of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
at the Battle of Lipnic. 1471: The kingdom of Champa
Champa
suffers a massive defeat by the Vietnamese king Lê Thánh Tông. 1472: Abu Abd Allah al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya becomes the first Wattasid Sultan
Sultan
of Morocco. 1474–1477: Burgundy Wars
Burgundy Wars
of France, Switzerland, Lorraine and Sigismund II of Habsburg against the Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy.

Charles the Bold

1478: Muscovy
Muscovy
conquers Novgorod. 1478: Reign of Singhawikramawardhana ends.[5] 1478: The Great Mosque of Demak is the oldest mosque in Java, built by the Wali Songo during the reign of Sultan
Sultan
Patah. 1479: Battle of Breadfield, Matthias Corvinus of Hungary
Matthias Corvinus of Hungary
defeated the Turks.

1480s

1480: After the Great standing on the Ugra river, Muscovy
Muscovy
gained independence from the Great Horde.

Ivan III, Grand Duke of Moscow.

1481: Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
begins in practice with the first auto-da-fé. 1485: Matthias Corvinus of Hungary
Matthias Corvinus of Hungary
captured Vienna, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
ran away. 1485: Henry VII defeats Richard III
Richard III
at the Battle of Bosworth. and becomes King of England. 1485: Ivan III
Ivan III
of Russia conquered Tver. 1485: Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya drives out Praudha Raya ending the Sangama Dynasty. 1486: Sher Shah Suri, is born in Sasaram, Bihar. 1488: Portuguese Navigator
Navigator
Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
sails around the Cape of Good Hope.

1490s-1500

1492: The death of Sunni Ali Ber left a leadership void in the Songhai Empire, and his son was soon dethroned by Mamadou Toure who ascended the throne in 1493 under the name Askia (meaning "general") Muhammad. Askia Muhammad made Songhai the largest empire in the history of West Africa. The empire went into decline, however, after 1528, when the now-blind Askia Muhammad was dethroned by his son, Askia Musa. 1492: Boabdil's surrender of Granada
Granada
marks the end of the Spanish Reconquista
Reconquista
and Al-Andalus. 1492: Jews
Jews
expelled from Spain. 1492: Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
landed in the Americas
Americas
from Spain. 1494: Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
sign the Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas
and agree to divide the World outside of Europe
Europe
between themselves. 1494–1559: The Italian Wars
Italian Wars
lead to the downfall of the Italian city-states. 1497–1499: Vasco da Gama's first voyage from Europe
Europe
to India
India
and back. 1499: Ottoman fleet defeats Venetians at the Battle of Zonchio. 1499: Michelangelo's Pietà
Pietà
in St. Peter's Basilica is made in Rome 1500: Islam becomes Indonesia's dominant religion.[citation needed] 1500: Around late 1 5th century
5th century
Bujangga Manik manuscript was composed, tell the story of Jaya Pakuan Bujangga Manik, a Sundanese Hindu hermit journeys throughout Java and Bali.[6]

Significant people[edit]

Lorenzo de' Medici

Cesare Borgia

Maximilian I

Isabella I of Castile

Abu Sa'id al-Afif, a Samaritan
Samaritan
physician. Pachacuti
Pachacuti
(1438-1471/72) was the ninth Sapa Inca, likely builder of Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
and founder of the Inca Empire. Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
(1453–1515) was a Portuguese nobleman, naval general officer whose military and administrative activities conquered and established the Portuguese colonial empire in the Indian Ocean. Generally considered as a world conquest military genius by means of his successful strategy. Ah Xiu Xupan
Ah Xiu Xupan
last ruler Uxmal Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, Renaissance
Renaissance
ruler (1443–1490). George Kastrioti, Skenderbeg
Skenderbeg
– Albanian Prince
Prince
who resisted the Ottomans for almost 30 years (1443–1468). Ferdinand II of Aragon, co-ruler of Spain
Spain
with Isabella I of Castile and responsible with her for the unification of Spain
Spain
(1452–1516). Johannes Gutenberg, European inventor of printing with movable type (c.  1398
1398
– 1468) Constantine XI, the last Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
and Roman Emperor. He lived from 1404–1453. Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
Infante
Infante
Henrique, Duke of Viseu (1394–1460); infante (prince) of the Portuguese House of Aviz
House of Aviz
and an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire, being responsible for the beginning of the European worldwide explorations. Henry V of England, the English King who won the famous Battle of Agincourt in 1415
1415
(1387–1422). Henry VI of England, English King (1421-1471) Henry VII of England, English King and founder the Tudor dynasty (1457–1509). The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England
England
(1470–1483?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York
Duke of York
(1473–1483?), two sons of Edward IV of England
England
and Elizabeth Woodville. John Hunyadi, Regent of Kingdom of Hungary, won the Siege of Belgrade in 1456 (1387–1456) Jan Hus, Bohemian religious thinker and reformer (c. 1369–1415). Isabella I of Castile, co-ruler of Spain
Spain
with Ferdinand II of Aragon and responsible for the unification of Spain
Spain
and the discovery of the New World
New World
(1451–1504). Ivan III
Ivan III
of Russia, Grand Duke of Moscow
Grand Duke of Moscow
who ended the dominance of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
over the Rus (1440-1505) Joan of Arc, military commander and national heroine of France (1412–1431). Kazimierz IV Jagiellon
Kazimierz IV Jagiellon
King of Poland
Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1427–1492). Louis XI, King of France
France
(1423–1483). Mehmed II, Sultan
Sultan
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Conqueror of Constantinople
Constantinople
(1432–1481). Babur, the founder of the Mughal empire ( 1483
1483
- 1530). Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Vaishnav saint and important social reformer ( 1486 - 1534). Guru Nanak, founder of the Sikh
Sikh
Religion (1469). Srimanta Sankardeva, founder of Ekasarana Religion preacher of Vaishnavism, creator of Sattriya
Sattriya
Dance, Ankiya Nat, Satras
Satras
etc. Sejong the Great of Joseon, a Korean monarch who developed hangul, the native Korean alphabet (1397–1450). Stephen III of Moldavia, also known as Stephen the Great, ruler of Moldavia, national hero of Romanians
Romanians
for long resistance to the Ottomans (1437–1504) Richard III
Richard III
of England, last English King of the House of York, last of the House of Plantagenet
House of Plantagenet
(1452–1485). Mir Chakar Khan Rind
Mir Chakar Khan Rind
(1468–1565), a Baloch king. Vlad III Dracula, Prince
Prince
of Wallachia
Wallachia
who led the defense of his territory against the expanding Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1431–1476). Oba Ewuare, transformed the city state of Benin into the Benin Empire.

Visual artists, architects, sculptors, printmakers, illustrators[edit]

Jan van Eyck

See also: Thematic development of Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
painting, Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
painting, Renaissance
Renaissance
sculpture, and Renaissance painting

Bartolomé Bermejo
Bartolomé Bermejo
(c.  1440 – 1498), Spanish painter who adopted Dutch painting techniques and conventions. Pedro Berruguete
Pedro Berruguete
(c.  1450
1450
- 1504), Spanish painter. Hieronymus Bosch
Hieronymus Bosch
(c.  1450
1450
– 1516), Early Netherlandish painter. Many of his works depict sin and human moral failings. Sandro Botticelli
Sandro Botticelli
(c.  1445 – 1510), Italian painter. Dirk Bouts
Dirk Bouts
(c. 1410/ 1420 – 1475), Early Netherlandish painter. Filippo Brunelleschi
Filippo Brunelleschi
(1377–1446), invents one-point perspective, leads innovation in Italian architecture. Robert Campin
Robert Campin
(c. 1375 – 1444), the Master of Flémalle, first great master of Early Netherlandish painting. Petrus Christus
Petrus Christus
(c. 1410/ 1420 – 1475/1476), Early Netherlandish painter. Gerard David
Gerard David
(c.  1460
1460
– 1523), Early Netherlandish painter
Early Netherlandish painter
and manuscript illuminator known for his brilliant use of color. Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
(1471–1528)[7] was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany. Barthélemy d'Eyck;[8] (c.  1420 – after 1470)[9] was an Early Netherlandish artist who worked in France
France
and probably in Burgundy Early Netherlandish painter
Early Netherlandish painter
and manuscript illuminator. He was active between about 1440 to about 1469.[10] Dionisius
Dionisius
(c.  1440 – 1502), Russian painter Hubert van Eyck
Hubert van Eyck
(c. 1366 – 1426), Flemish painter and older brother of Jan van Eyck. Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
(before c.  1395 – before 1441), Early Netherlandish painter, considered one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century. Juan de Flandes
Juan de Flandes
(1460–1519), Early Netherlandish painter
Early Netherlandish painter
who was active in Spain
Spain
from 1496 to 1519 at the court of Isabella I of Castile. Jean Fouquet
Jean Fouquet
(1420–1481) French painter of both panel painting and manuscript illumination, inventor of the portrait miniature. Piero della Francesca
Piero della Francesca
(c. 1415–1492) Italian painter Nicolas Froment
Nicolas Froment
(c.  1435
1435
– c. 1486), French painter. Lorenzo Ghiberti
Lorenzo Ghiberti
(1378–1455) was an Italian artist of the early Renaissance
Renaissance
best known for works in sculpture and metalworking. Hugo van der Goes
Hugo van der Goes
(c.  1440 1482 or 1483), Early Netherlandish painter. Jean Hey
Jean Hey
(c.  1475
1475
– c. 1505),[11] now generally identified with the artist formerly known as the Master of Moulins, Early Netherlandish painter. Hans Holbein the Elder (c.  1460
1460
– 1524), German painter, woodcut artist, illustrator of books and church window designer.[12] He and his brother Sigismund Holbein painted religious works in the late Gothic style. Limbourg brothers, (Herman, Paul, and Johan; 1385–1416), Dutch Renaissance
Renaissance
miniature painters from the city of Nijmegen. Simon Marmion
Simon Marmion
(c.  1425 – 1489) French, or Burgundian, painter of panels and illuminated manuscripts. Masaccio, (c.  1401 – 1428), Italian painter. Hans Memling
Hans Memling
(c.  1430
1430
– 1494), Early Netherlandish painter, born in Germany. Michelozzo
Michelozzo
(1396–1472), Italian architect and sculptor. Andrei Rublev
Andrei Rublev
(c.  1360 – c. 1430), Russian painter. Enguerrand Quarton
Enguerrand Quarton
(c.  1410
1410
– c. 1466) was a French painter and manuscript illuminator. Leonardo da Vinci, (1452–1519), Italian polymath, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, botanist, musician and writer. Rogier van der Weyden
Rogier van der Weyden
(1399/ 1400
1400
– 1464), considered one of the greatest exponents of Early Netherlandish painting.

See links above for Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
painting and Renaissance sculpture. Literature[edit]

Leon Battista Alberti

Pico della Mirandola

Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti
(1404–1472) was an Italian author, artist, architect, poet, linguist, philosopher, and cryptographer, and general Renaissance
Renaissance
humanist polymath. Joseph Albo (c. 1380 – 1444) was a Jewish philosopher and rabbi who lived in Spain. John Argyropoulos
John Argyropoulos
( 1415
1415
– 1487), Greek lecturer, philosopher and humanist. Antonio Beccadelli (1394–1471), Italian poet, canon lawyer, scholar, diplomat, and chronicler. Vespasiano da Bisticci (1421–1498), Italian humanist and librarian. Matteo Maria Boiardo
Matteo Maria Boiardo
(1440/1 – 1494), Italian poet. Poggio Bracciolini
Poggio Bracciolini
(1380 – 1459), Italian writer and humanist. Leonardo Bruni
Leonardo Bruni
(c. 1370 – 1444), Italian humanist, historian and statesman. Laonikos Chalkokondyles
Laonikos Chalkokondyles
( 1423 – 1490), Greek scholar. Pal Engjëlli (1416-1470) was an Albanian Catholic clergyman, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Durrës
Durrës
and Cardinal of Albania. Marsilio Ficino
Marsilio Ficino
( 1433 – 1499), Italian humanist and writer. Constantine Lascaris
Constantine Lascaris
( 1434 – 1501), Greek scholar and grammarian. Antonio de Lebrija ( 1441 — 1522), Spanish scholar, historian, teacher, astronomer and poet. John Lydgate
John Lydgate
(c.1370 – c.1451), English monk and poet. Sir Thomas Malory
Thomas Malory
( 1405 – 1471), English writer. Jorge Manrique
Jorge Manrique
(c. 1440 – 1479), Spanish poet. Count Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
Pico della Mirandola
(1463–1494), Italian Renaissance philosopher. Iñigo López de Mendoza ( 1398
1398
- 1458) Castilian (Spanish) politician and poet. Afanasy Nikitin
Afanasy Nikitin
(? - 1472), Russian merchant, traveler and writer. Thomas Occleve
Thomas Occleve
(c. 1368 – 1426), English poet. Reginald Pecock
Reginald Pecock
(c.  1395 – 1460), was an English prelate and writer. Christine de Pizan, French writer (1364–1430). Poliziano
Poliziano
( 1454 – 1494), Italian classical scholar and poet. Giovanni Pontano
Giovanni Pontano
( 1426 – 1503), Italian humanist and poet. Luigi Pulci ( 1432
1432
– 1484), Italian poet. Bartolomeo Sacchi
Bartolomeo Sacchi
( 1421
1421
– 1481), Italian humanist writer and gastronomist. Lorenzo Valla
Lorenzo Valla
(c. 1407 – 1457), Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator. Gil Vicente
Gil Vicente
(c.  1465
1465
– c. 1536), Portuguese poet. François Villon
François Villon
(c. 1431 – 1474), French poet .

Musicians and Composers[edit]

Johannes Ockeghem

See also: List of Renaissance
Renaissance
composers, Franco-Flemish School, Burgundian School, Renaissance
Renaissance
music, and Medieval music

Juan de Anchieta
Juan de Anchieta
( 1462 - 1523, Spanish composer of the Renaissance. Adrien Basin (c.  1457 – 1476; died after 1498), Franco-Flemish composer, singer, and diplomat of the Burgundian school
Burgundian school
of the early Renaissance. Gilles Binchois, (c.  1400
1400
– 1460), Franco-Flemish composer, one of the earliest members of the Burgundian School. Antoine Busnois
Antoine Busnois
(c.  1430
1430
– 1492), French composer and poet of the early Renaissance
Renaissance
Burgundian School. Guillaume Dufay, (c.  1397 – 1474), Franco-Flemish composer and music theorist. John Dunstaple
John Dunstaple
(c.  1390 – 1453), English composer of polyphonic music. Juan del Encina
Juan del Encina
( 1468
1468
- 1530), Spanish composer, poet and playwright. Hayne van Ghizeghem (c.  1445 1472
1472
or possibly later; New Grove says he died between 1472
1472
and 1497), Flemish composer of the early Renaissance
Renaissance
Burgundian School. Nicolas Grenon (c. 1375 – 1456), French composer of the early Renaissance. Robert Morton (c.  1430
1430
– 1479), English composer of the early Renaissance. Johannes Ockeghem, (c.  1410
1410
– 1497), Flemish composer. Francisco de Peñalosa (c.  1470
1470
– 1528), Spanish composer of the middle Renaissance.. Leonel Power
Leonel Power
(c. 1370 to 1385 – 1445), English composer of the late Medieval and early Renaissance
Renaissance
eras. Johannes Tapissier (c. 1370 – 1408 to 1410), French composer and teacher of the late Middle Ages. Jacobus Vide (c.  1405 – 1433), Franco-Flemish composer of the transitional period between the medieval period and early Renaissance. Josquin des Prez
Josquin des Prez
(c.  1450
1450
– 1521), Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance.

Exploration[edit]

Vasco da Gama

Christopher Columbus

See also: Exploration, Exploration
Exploration
of Asia, and List of explorers

Johann Schiltberger (1381 – c. 1440), German traveller throughout the Middle East
Middle East
and Central Asia. Diogo de Azambuja
Diogo de Azambuja
(1432–1518) Portuguese explorer of the African coast. John Cabot
John Cabot
(c.  1450
1450
– 1499) – Italian explorer for England. Claimed Newfoundland for the Kingdom of England. Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
(c.  1467
1467
– c. 1520), Portuguese navigator and explorer. Pêro Vaz de Caminha
Pêro Vaz de Caminha
(c.  1450
1450
– 1500), Portuguese explorer that accompanied Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
in the discovery of Brazil. Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
(1451–1506) – Italian explorer for Spain. Sailed in 1492
1492
and arrived in (hailed with the discovery of) the "New World" of the Americas. Niccolò Da Conti
Niccolò Da Conti
(1395–1469), Venetian merchant and explorer, born in Chioggia, who traveled to India
India
and Southeast Asia. Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
(c.  1450
1450
– 1500) – Portuguese explorer. He sailed from Portugal
Portugal
and reached the Cape of Good Hope. Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
reaches India
India
for Portugal, creating the first maritime alternative for the Silk Road
Silk Road
(c.  1469 – 1524) Zheng He, Chinese eunuch admiral and explorer (1371–1433). João Fernandes Lavrador (1445?–1501) – Portuguese explorer. One of the first European's to reach Newfoundland and Labrador. João da Nova
João da Nova
(c.  1460
1460
– 1509), Portuguese explorer of the Atlantic
Atlantic
and Indian Ocean. Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
(c.  1454 – 1512) – Italian explorer for Spain. Sailed in 1499 and 1502. He explored the east coast of South America.

Science, invention and philosophy[edit] See also: Scientific Revolution
Scientific Revolution
and History of science in the Renaissance

Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
(c.  1400
1400
– 1468) was a German goldsmith and printer who is credited with inventing movable type printing in Europe around 1439, and mechanical printing globally. Pietro Pomponazzi ( 1462 – 1525), Italian philosopher. Georg von Peuerbach (1423–1461), German/Austrian astronomer and mathematician. Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
(1473-1543), Father of modern astronomy Regiomontanus
Regiomontanus
(1436-1476), Mathematician
Mathematician
and astronomer

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit] List of 1 5th century
5th century
inventions

Renaissance
Renaissance
affects philosophy, science and art. Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
begins. Rise of Modern English language from Middle English. Introduction of the noon bell in the Catholic world. Public banks Yongle Encyclopedia—over 22,000 volumes Hangul
Hangul
alphabet in Korea Scotch whisky Psychiatric hospitals[clarification needed] Development of the woodcut for printing between 1400–1450 Movable type
Movable type
first used by King Taejong of Joseon— 1403 (Movable type, which allowed individual characters to be arranged to form words, was invented in China by Bi Sheng between 1041 and 1048.) Although pioneered earlier in Korea
Korea
and by the Chinese official Wang Zhen (with tin), bronze metal movable type printing is created in China by Hua Sui
Hua Sui
in 1490. Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
advances the printing press in Europe
Europe
(c. 1455) Linear perspective
Linear perspective
drawing perfected by Filippo Brunelleschi 1410–1415 Invention of the harpsichord c. 1450 Arrival of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
to the Americas
Americas
by 1492

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Important personages[edit]

Constantine XI

References[edit]

^ Crowley, Roger (2006). Constantinople: The Last Great Siege, 1453. Faber. ISBN 0-571-22185-8.  (reviewed by Foster, Charles (22 September 2006). "The Conquestof Constantinople
Constantinople
and the end of empire". Contemporary Review. Archived from the original on 22 August 2009. It is the end of the Middle Ages  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Renaissance, 2008, O.Ed. ^ McLuhan 1962; Eisenstein 1980; Febvre & Martin 1997; Man 2002 ^ Modern interpretation of the place names recorded by Chinese chronicles can be found e.g. in Some Southeast Asian Polities Mentioned in the MSL by Geoffrey Wade ^ a b c d e f g Ricklefs (1991), page 18. ^ Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV Press. p. 437.  ^ Mueller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Durers, Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012815-2. ^ Also sometimes in contemporary documents Barthélemy de Cler, der Clers, Deick d'Ecle, d'Eilz – Harthan, John, The Book of Hours, p. 93, 1977, Thomas Y Crowell Company, New York, ISBN 0-690-01654-9 ^ Unterkircher, Franz (1980). King René's Book of Love (Le Cueur d'Amours Espris). New York: G. Braziller. ISBN 0-8076-0989-7.  ^ Tolley ^ Brigstocke, 2001, p. 338 ^ "Hans Holbein". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 6 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-18. 

Sources[edit]

Tolley, Thomas (2001). "Eyck, Barthélemy d'". In Hugh Brigstocke. The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866203-3. 

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