1591 (MDXCI ) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian
calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the
Julian calendar ,
the 1591st year of the
Common Era (CE) and
Anno Domini (AD)
designations, the 591st year of the
2nd millennium , the 91st year of
16th century , and the 2nd year of the
1590s decade. As of the
start of 1591, the
Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian
calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
* 1 Events
* 1.1 January–June
* 1.2 July–December
* 1.3 Date unknown
* 2 Births
* 2.1 January–June
* 2.2 July–December
* 2.3 Date unknown
* 3 Deaths
* 4 References
June 1 –
June 10 : Siege of
March 13 –
Battle of Tondibi : In
Mali , forces sent by the
Saadi Dynasty ruler of
Ahmad al-Mansur , and led by Judar
Pasha , defeat the
Songhai Empire , despite being outnumbered by at
least five to one.
April 10 – English merchant
James Lancaster sets off on a voyage
East Indies .
April 21 – Japanese tea-master
Sen no Rikyū commits seppuku ,
on the order of
Toyotomi Hideyoshi .
May 15 – In Russia , Tsarevich Dimitri , son of the Ivan the
Terrible , is found dead in mysterious circumstances, at the palace in
Uglich . The official explanation is that he has cut his own throat
during an epileptic seizure. Many believe he has been murdered by his
Boris Godunov , who becomes tsar.
May 24 – Sir
John Norreys , with an expeditionary force sent by
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England , takes the town of
Guingamp after a
brief siege, on behalf of Henry of Navarre .
May 30 –
Timbuktu is captured by an expedition of
Arma people ,
sent by the Saadi ruler of
Morocco , and led by
Judar Pasha .
May 30 –
Zutphen is captured by the Dutch and English, under
Maurice of Nassau .
June 10 –
Deventer is captured by the Dutch, under Maurice of
July 25 –
Maurice of Nassau and Francis Vere defeat the Duke of
Parma , outside
July 22 – The Durtnell (Dartnell) Family of
England, begin to work as building contractors. They will still be
functioning under the twelfth generation of the family, in the 21st
August – Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex leads an English army in
support of the
Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France , at the Siege of Rouen .
* During this year's
Atlantic hurricane season
Atlantic hurricane season , probably the most
severe of the pre-1600 seasons , at least eight intense hurricanes
September 1 – HMS Revenge is captured by the Spanish ,following
a battle off Flores island .
September 14 –
Hulst is captured by Maurice.
October 21 –
Nijmegen is captured by Maurice.
October 26 – The Portuguese invasion of Jaffna Kingdom begins.
October 29 –
Pope Innocent IX succeeds
Pope Gregory XIV , as the
230th pope .
* The city of
Hyderabad, India is founded by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah
Rialto Bridge in
Venice , designed by
Antonio da Ponte , is
* The first of the
Conimbricenses commentaries on
Aristotle , by the
Jesuits of the
University of Coimbra
University of Coimbra , is published.
January 3 –
Valentin de Boulogne
Valentin de Boulogne , French painter (d.
January 4 –
William Spencer, 2nd Baron Spencer of Wormleighton ,
British baron (d.
January 7 – Princess
Dorothea, Abbess of Quedlinburg (d.
January 11 –
Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex , English Civil
War general (d.
January 12 –
Jusepe de Ribera
Jusepe de Ribera , Spanish Tenebrist painter and
January 15 –
David van Goorle , Dutch theologian and theoretical
January 26 –
Matthew Boynton , English politician (d.
January 29 – Franciscus Junius , pioneer of Germanic philology
Hervey Bagot , English politician (d.
Guercino , Italian painter (d.
February 13 –
Antonio Sabino , Italian composer (d.
February 21 (or March 2) –
Girard Desargues , French
February 25 –
Friedrich von Spee , German Jesuit and poet (d.
February 28 –
Henry Clifford, 5th Earl of Cumberland , English
March 3 –
Lucas de Wael , Flemish painter (d.
March 6 –
Tommaso Tamburini , Italian theologian (d.
March 9 –
Johannes Chrysostomus vander Sterre , Dutch abbot,
ecclesiastical writer (d.
March 11 –
Isabella of Savoy , Italian noble (d.
March 15 or
Alexandre de Rhodes , French Jesuit
March 19 –
Dirck Hals , Dutch painter (d.
March 28 –
William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury , English earl
April 5 – Prince Frederick Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
April 11 –
Bartholomeus Strobel , Silezian painter (d.
April 25 –
Marcos de Torres y Rueda , interim viceroy of New
May 2 – Prince
Francis Charles of Saxe-Lauenburg (d.
May 5 –
Frederick Achilles, Duke of Württemberg-Neuenstadt (d.
May 26 –
Olimpia Maidalchini , Italian noblewoman (d.
June 16 –
Joseph Solomon Delmedigo , Italian physician,
mathematician, and music theorist (d.
July 4 – Jonathan Rashleigh , English politician (d.
July 9 –
Jean Bagot , French theologian (d.
July 20 –
Anne Hutchinson , English Puritan preacher (d.
August 6 – George William, Count Palatine of
August 12 –
Louise de Marillac , French co-founder of the
Daughters of Charity (d.
August 24 – Robert Herrick , English poet (d.
August 28 –
John Christian of Brieg , Duke of Brzeg
September 8 –
Marie Angélique Arnauld , French abbess of the
Abbey of Port-Royal (d.
Michael de Sanctis
September 29 –
Michael de Sanctis , Spanish saint (d.
October 2 – Margherita Gonzaga, Duchess of Lorraine
October 7 –
Pierre Le Muet , French architect (d.
October 22 – Alfonso III d\'Este, Duke of Modena , Italian noble
November 20 –
George Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg (d. 1615
November 29 –
Bernhard von Mallinckrodt , German bibliophile (d.
December 22 –
Tommaso Dingli , Maltese architect and sculptor
December 30 –
Joseph Furttenbach , German architect (d.
David Blondel , French
Protestant clergyman (d.
Andrew Bobola , Polish Jesuit missionary and martyr (d.
Thomas Goffe , English dramatist (d.
William Lenthall , English politician of the Civil War period (d.
Pope Gregory XIV
John of the Cross
February 6 –
Anna Sophia of Prussia , Duchess of Prussia and
Duchess of Mecklenburg (b.
February 26 –
Vespasiano I Gonzaga , Italian noble and diplomat
March 17 –
Jost Amman , Swiss printmaker (b.
April 9 –
Emilie of Saxony , German noble (b.
April 21 –
Sen no Rikyu
Sen no Rikyu , Japanese exponent of the tea ceremony
May 19 –
Elizabeth Cecil, 16th Baroness de Ros , English
noblewoman (b. c.
May 15 – Tsarevich Dimitri , of Russia (b.
June 21 –
Aloysius Gonzaga , Italian Jesuit and saint (b.
July 2 –
Vincenzo Galilei , Italian composer (b.
July 10 –
Anna of Hesse , Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken (b.
July 18 –
Jacobus Gallus Carniolus , Slovenian composer (b. 1550
August 23 –
Luis Ponce de León , Spanish lyric poet (b.
August 27 –
Katheryn of Berain , Welsh noblewoman (b.
September 7 –
Heinrich Sudermann , German politician (b.
September 10 –
Richard Grenville , English soldier and explorer
September 19 –
Alonso de Orozco Mena , Spanish Catholic priest
September 25 –
Christian I, Elector of Saxony
Christian I, Elector of Saxony (b.
September 29 – Count
Johan II of East Frisia (b.
October 15 –
Duke Otto Henry of Brunswick-Harburg , Hereditary
Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Harburg (b.
October 16 –
Pope Gregory XIV (b.
November 20 –
Christopher Hatton , English politician (b.
December 14 – Saint
John of the Cross , Spanish Carmelite friar
and poet (b.
December 18 –
Marigje Arriens , Dutch woman executed for
witchcraft (b. c.
December 30 –
Pope Innocent IX (b.
* date unknown
Crispin van den Broeck , Flemish painter (b.
John Erskine of Dun , Scottish religious reformer (b.
Toyotomi Hidenaga , Japanese nobleman (b.
John Stubbs , English pamphleteer (b.
Veronica Franco , Italian poet and courtesan (b.