The Info List - 1590s

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The 1590s decade ran from January
1, 1590, to December 31, 1599.

Millennium: 2nd millennium


15th century 16th century 17th century


1570s 1580s 1590s 1600s 1610s


1590 1591 1592 1593 1594

1595 1596 1597 1598 1599


Births Deaths By country By topic

Establishments Disestablishments


1 Events

1.1 1590

1.1.1 January–June 1.1.2 July–December 1.1.3 Date unknown

1.2 1591

1.2.1 January–June 1.2.2 July–December 1.2.3 Date unknown

1.3 1592

1.3.1 January–June 1.3.2 July–December 1.3.3 Date unknown

1.4 1593

1.4.1 January–December 1.4.2 Date unknown

1.5 1594

1.5.1 January–June 1.5.2 July–December 1.5.3 Date unknown

1.6 1595

1.6.1 January–June 1.6.2 July–December 1.6.3 Date unknown

1.7 1596

1.7.1 January–June 1.7.2 July–December 1.7.3 Date unknown

1.8 1597

1.8.1 January–June 1.8.2 July–December 1.8.3 Date unknown

1.9 1598

1.9.1 January–June 1.9.2 July–December 1.9.3 Date unknown

1.10 1599

1.10.1 January–June 1.10.2 July–December 1.10.3 Date unknown

2 References

Events[edit] 1590 This section is transcluded from 1590. (edit history) January–June[edit]

January 11 – The Cortes of Castile approves a new subsidy, the millones. March
– Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, takes Breda, by concealing 68 of his best men in a peat-boat, to get through the impregnable defences. March
14 – Battle of Ivry: Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
again defeats the forces of the Catholic League, under Charles, Duke of Mayenne. May–August, – Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
unsuccessfully attempts to besiege Paris. Henry is forced to raise the siege, when Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma comes to its rescue with a Spanish army. May
17 – Anne of Denmark
Anne of Denmark
is crowned queen consort of Scotland, at Holyrood Abbey
Holyrood Abbey
in Edinburgh. May
21 – The Treaty of Constantinople is signed.


August 18 – John White, governor of the Colony of Roanoke, returns from a supply-trip to England
and finds his settlement deserted. After the unsuccessful search, he returns to England
on October
24. September 5 - Alexander Farnese's army forces Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
to lift the siege of Paris. September 15 – Urban VII succeeds Sixtus V, as the 228th pope; he dies of malaria twelve days later. September 15 – The Neulengbach earthquake causes significant damage and some loss of life, in Lower Austria
Lower Austria
and Vienna; the effects are felt as far as Bohemia
and Silesia. December 5 – Gregory XIV succeeds Urban VII, as the 229th pope. December 7 – North Berwick witch trials: Agnes Sampson
Agnes Sampson
is questioned by King James VI of Scotland, and confesses to practising witchcraft.

Date unknown[edit]

Orthodox Patriarch Meletius I of Alexandria succeeds Silvester. Japan
is united by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The Spanish are pushed out of southern Gelderland, by the Dutch forces. A group of English merchants gains the right to trade in Ottoman territory, in return for supplying the sultan with iron, steel, brass and tin for his war with Persia.

1591[edit] This section is transcluded from 1591. (edit history) January–June[edit]

13 – Battle of Tondibi: In Mali, forces sent by the Saadi Dynasty ruler of Morocco, Ahmad al-Mansur, and led by Judar Pasha, defeat the Songhai Empire, despite being outnumbered by at least five to one. April 10 – English merchant James Lancaster
James Lancaster
sets off on a voyage to the East Indies.[1] April 21 – Japanese tea-master Sen no Rikyū commits seppuku, on the order of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. May
15 – In Russia, Tsarevich Dimitri, son of the Ivan the Terrible, is found dead in mysterious circumstances, at the palace in Uglich. The official explanation is that he has cut his own throat during an epileptic seizure. Many believe he has been murdered by his rival, Boris Godunov, who becomes tsar. May
24 – Sir John Norreys, with an expeditionary force sent by Queen Elizabeth I of England, takes the town of Guingamp
after a brief siege, on behalf of Henry of Navarre. May
30 – Timbuktu
is captured by an expedition of Arma people, sent by the Saadi ruler of Morocco, and led by Judar Pasha. May
30 – Zutphen
is captured by the Dutch and English, under Maurice of Nassau. June 10 Deventer
is captured by the Dutch, under Maurice of Nassau.


July 25 Maurice of Nassau and Francis Vere defeat the Duke of Parma, outside Nijmegen. July 22 – The Durtnell (Dartnell) Family of Brasted, Kent, England, begin to work as building contractors. They will still be functioning under the twelfth generation of the family, in the 21st century.[2] August
– Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex leads an English army in support of the Protestant
Henry IV of France, at the Siege of Rouen.[1] August–September

During this year's Atlantic hurricane season, probably the most severe of the pre-1600 seasons, at least eight intense hurricanes occur.

September 1 – HMS Revenge is captured by the Spanish ,following a battle off Flores island. September 14 Hulst
is captured by Maurice. October 21 Nijmegen
is captured by Maurice. October 26 – The Portuguese invasion of Jaffna Kingdom begins. October 29 Pope Innocent IX
Pope Innocent IX
succeeds Pope
Gregory XIV, as the 230th pope.

Date unknown[edit]

The city of Hyderabad, India
Hyderabad, India
is founded by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah. The Rialto Bridge
Rialto Bridge
in Venice, designed by Antonio da Ponte, is completed. The first of the Conimbricenses commentaries on Aristotle, by the Jesuits
of the University of Coimbra, is published.[3]

1592[edit] This section is transcluded from 1592. (edit history) January–June[edit]

January 30 Pope
Clement VIII (born Ippolito Aldobrandini) succeeds Pope
Innocent IX, who died one month earlier, as the 231st pope. February 7 – George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly, sets fire to Donibristle
Castle in Scotland, and murders James Stewart, 2nd Earl of Moray. March
3 – Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland's oldest university, is founded. March
14 – Ultimate Pi Day: the largest correspondence between calendar dates and significant digits of pi, since the introduction of the Julian calendar. April 4 – The future Henry IV of France, King designate of Henry III of France, announces in a declaration, so-called "Expedient," his intention to take instruction in, and convert to, the Catholic religion. April 13 – The Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)
Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)
begin, with the Siege of Busanjin. April 24 – Battle of Sangju: The Japanese are victorious over the Koreans (Joseon). April 28 – Battle of Ch'ungju: Japan
inflicts a decisive defeat on Korea. May
7 – Battle of Okpo: The Korean navy is victorious over Japan. May
29 – Battle of Sacheon: Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin
Yi Sun-sin
destroys all 13 Japanese ships taking part, using his improved turtle ship for the first time in battle. June 2 – Battle of Dangpo:The Korean navy is again victorious over Japan. June 10 - June 19 – Siege of Bihać in the Kingdom of Croatia, by Hasan Pasha Predojević of the Ottoman Empire. Bihać is captured and lost for Croatia


July 8 – Battle of Hansan Island: Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin
Yi Sun-sin
destroys or captures around 60 Japanese ships without loss, in a battle in which around 190 ships take part. July 20 – The Japanese capture the Korean capital Pyongyang, causing Seonjo to request the assistance of Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
Chinese forces, who recapture the city a year later. July 30 Alonso de Sotomayor
Alonso de Sotomayor
petitions the viceroy of Peru
for more troops, to help resist attacks by Indians and English pirates. August
9 – English explorer John Davis, commander of the Desire, probably discovers the Falkland Islands. August
14 – Battle of Hansan Island: The Korean navy defeats the Japanese. August
15 (or 19) – The great Portuguese carrack, Madre De Deus, captured in a fierce battle in the Azores, enters Dartmouth harbour on 7 September, and is then subjected to mass theft. September 1 – Battle of Busan: The Korean fleet makes a surprise attack on the Japanese, but fails to break their supply lines to Busan. October 5 – Siege of Jinju: The Korean navy is victorious over the Japanese. November 3 - The city of San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí
is founded. November 17 – John III is succeeded by his son Sigismund, as King of Sweden.

Date unknown[edit]

The Collegium Melitense
Collegium Melitense
is founded by Bishop Garagallo. William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, chief adviser of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is taken seriously ill. Negotiations begin, for the dissolution of the childless marriage of Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
and Marguerite of Valois. The Confucian shrine of Munmyo
is destroyed by fire.

1593[edit] This section is transcluded from 1593. (edit history) January–December[edit]

– Siege of Pyongyang
(1593): A Japanese invasion is defeated in Pyongyang, by a combined force of Korean and Ming troops.[4] January
18 – Siamese King Naresuan, in combat on elephant back, kills Burmese Crown Prince Mingyi Swa
Mingyi Swa
on Monday, Moon 2 Waning day 2, Year of the Dragon, Chulasakarat 954, reckoned as corresponding to January
25, 1593, of the Gregorian calendar, and commemorated as Royal Thai Armed Forces Day. January
27 – The Roman Inquisition
Roman Inquisition
opens the seven-year trial of scholar Giordano Bruno. February 2
February 2
- Battle of Piątek: Polish forces led by Janusz Ostrogski are victorious. February 25 - The Uppsala Synod
Uppsala Synod
discontinues; the Liturgical Struggle between the Swedish Reformation
Swedish Reformation
and Counter-Reformation ends in Sweden. February 12 - Battle of Haengju: Korea
defeats Japan. March
14 - The Pi Day, giving the most digits of Pi when written in mm/dd/yyyy format (Flemish mathematician Adriaan van Roomen
Adriaan van Roomen
arrived at 15 decimal places of Pi in 1593, using the polygon approximation method). May
18 - Playwright Thomas Kyd's accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. June 22 Battle of Sisak
Battle of Sisak
in Croatia: The Habsburgs
defeat the Ottoman Empire. July 29 - The Long War breaks out in Hungary, between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans.

Date unknown[edit]

Mihai Viteazul
Mihai Viteazul
becomes prince of Walachia. Henry Constable's Spiritual Sonnetts are written. The book Controversiae is written by Robert Bellarmine. c. 1593- 1604
- According to John Warwick Montgomery, the Rosicrucian manifestos are initially composed by Tobias Hess, in anticipation of the opening of the vault in 1604, according to Simon Studion's apocalyptic timetable.

1594[edit] This section is transcluded from 1594. (edit history) January–June[edit]

21 – Henry IV enters his capital of Paris for the first time. April 16 Ferdinando Stanley, 5th Earl of Derby
Ferdinando Stanley, 5th Earl of Derby
is found poisoned. At the time of his death, he was, after his mother, second in line to the throne of England. April 17 Hyacinth of Poland
Hyacinth of Poland
is canonized. May

The Banat Rebellion of Serbs
against Ottoman rule ends with the public burning of Saint Sava's bones in Belgrade, Serbia. Nine Years' War: In Ireland, Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone
Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone
and Hugh Roe O'Donnell form an alliance to try to overthrow English domination.[1]

June 5 – First voyage of Willem Barents
Willem Barents
in the Arctic Ocean in search of the Northeast Passage. June 11 – Philip II of Spain
recognizes the rights and privileges of the local nobles and chieftains in the Philippines, which paves the way for the stabilization of the rule of the Principalía. June
24– July 1 – Action of San Mateo Bay: English privateer Richard Hawkins
Richard Hawkins
in the Dainty is attacked and captured by a Spanish squadron off Esmeraldas, Ecuador.


July 3 – The Ayutthayan–Cambodian War (1591–1594) concludes when Naresuan, ruler of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, sacks Longvek, capital of Cambodia. July 22 – After a 2-month siege, the city of Groningen
submits to Dutch troops, bringing the whole northern Netherlands
under the Dutch Republic. October 9 – The Campaign of Danture, which began on July 5 as part of the Sinhalese–Portuguese War, concludes with a decisive victory by forces of the Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy
over the Portuguese Empire, reversing near-total control of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
by Portugal.

Date unknown[edit]

St. Paul's College, Macau
St. Paul's College, Macau
is founded in Macau
by Jesuits, being the first western style university in the far east. In Amsterdam, the Compagnie van Verre is created, with the goal of breaking the Portuguese monopoly on spice trade. Tulip
bulbs planted by Carolus Clusius
Carolus Clusius
in the Hortus Botanicus Leiden, Holland, first flower.

1595[edit] This section is transcluded from 1595. (edit history) January–June[edit]

Mehmed III
Mehmed III
succeeds Murad III, as sultan of the Ottoman Empire. January
17 - During the French Wars of Religion, Henry IV of France declares war on Spain. April 8 ( March
29 O.S.) – Combined Taungoo– Lan Na
Lan Na
armies break the rebel Thado Dhamma Yaza's siege of Taungoo, in modern-day Myanmar. May
18 – The Treaty of Teusina
Treaty of Teusina
brings to an end the Russo-Swedish War (1590–95). May
24 – The Nomenclator of Leiden University Library
Leiden University Library
appears, the first printed catalog of an institutional library. June 9 – Battle of Fontaine-Française: Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
defeats the Spanish, but is nearly killed due to his rashness.


July 21 – A Spanish expedition led by navigator and explorer Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira makes the first European landing in Polynesia, on the Marquesas Islands. July 23 – The Spanish raid Cornwall, England.[5] August
23 – Battle of Calugareni: The Wallachians, led by Michael the Brave, accomplish a great tactical victory against the vast army of the Turks, numbering over 150,000 men, led by Sinan Pasha. August
28 – Sir Francis Drake
Francis Drake
and Sir John Hawkins depart from England, on their final voyage to the Spanish Main, which ends in both of their deaths.[1] September 2 Battle of the Lippe
Battle of the Lippe
(Eighty Years' War): Spanish cavalry, led by Cristóbal de Mondragón (aged over 80), defeat combined forces of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
and England
led by Philip of Nassau (who dies of wounds received), on the banks of the river Lippe in Germany. October 26 – Battle of Giurgiu: Michael the Brave, led by Transylvanian
Prince Sigismund Báthory, again defeats the Turkish army led by Sinan Pasha, pushing them on the east side of the Danube. December 9 – Probable first performance of William Shakespeare's Richard II in London. December 14 Sultan
Murad, 4th son of Emperor Akbar
of the Mughal Empire invades Ahmednagar Sultanate
Ahmednagar Sultanate
which is bravely defended by Chand Bibi.

Date unknown[edit]

The Austrians incite a rebellion against the Ottomans in Bulgaria. The Riksdag of the Estates
Riksdag of the Estates
at Söderköping
in Sweden
elects the Lutheran Duke Charles as the country's regent, in place of Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland
and Sweden. Sir Walter Raleigh
Walter Raleigh
travels up the Orinoco
River, in search of the fabled city of El Dorado.[1] Probable first performance of William Shakespeare's plays Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Night's Dream
A Midsummer Night's Dream
in London.[5]

1596[edit] This section is transcluded from 1596. (edit history) January–June[edit]

February 14 – Archbishop John Whitgift begins building his hospital at Croydon. April 9 – Siege of Calais: Spanish troops capture Calais. May
18 – Willem Barents
Willem Barents
leaves Vlie, on his third and final Arctic voyage. June
– Sir John Norreys
John Norreys
and Sir Geoffrey Fenton travel to Connaught, to parley with the local Irish lords. June 10 Willem Barents
Willem Barents
and Jacob van Heemskerk
Jacob van Heemskerk
discover Bear Island. June
17 – Willem Barents
Willem Barents
discovers Spitsbergen. June 24 Cornelis de Houtman
Cornelis de Houtman
arrives in Banten, the first Dutch sailor to reach Indonesia.


July 5 – An English fleet, commanded by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and Lord Howard of Effingham, sacks Cádiz. July 14 – King Dominicus Corea
Dominicus Corea
(Edirille Bandara) is beheaded by the Portuguese in Colombo, Ceylon. August
- David Fabricius discovers the star Mira. September 17 – The Spanish capture Amiens. September 20 Diego de Montemayor founds the city of Monterrey, Mexico. October
8– October 10 – The Union of Brest: The Ukrainian Church west of the Dnieper becomes known as the Ukrainian Rite of Catholicism, whereas the East officially renounces the authority of the Pope. October 18 – The Second Armada, a Spanish fleet sent to attack England
in revenge for the raid on Cadiz, is wrecked in storms between Corcubion and Cape Finisterre; 2,000 men are lost. October 19 – The Spanish galleon San Felipe founders in Japan, leading to 26 Christians being martyred the next year. October
24– October 26 – Battle of Keresztes: The Turks defeat a combined Habsburg– Transylvanian

Date unknown[edit]

Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
decrees that all Africans should be removed from the British realm, in reaction to the food crisis.[6] The first water closet, by Sir John Harington, is installed in a manor near Kelston
in England. King Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
moves the capital of Poland
from Kraków
to Warsaw. Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, is founded. The Black Death
Black Death
hits parts of Europe. Dutch ships, commanded by Frederick de Houtman, reach Sumatra
and Java for the first time. The 4th of a 5 year run of poor harvests, largely caused by the weather, a pattern typical of the last third of the century. This causes famine throughout Europe, which leads to food riots in Britain.[7]

1597[edit] This section is transcluded from 1597. (edit history) January–June[edit]

24 – Battle of Turnhout: Maurice of Nassau defeats a Spanish force under Jean de Rie of Varas, in the Netherlands. February – Bali
is discovered by the Dutch explorer Cornelis Houtman. February 5 – In Nagasaki, Japan, 26 people are martyred by crucifixion. They practiced Catholicism, and were taken captive after all forms of Christianity
were outlawed the previous year. February 8 – Sir Anthony Shirley, England's "best-educated pirate", raids Jamaica. March
11 – Amiens
is taken by Spanish forces. March
18 – Tycho Brahe's stipend is stopped. March
29 – Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
leaves Ven and moves to Copenhagen (Farvergården). April 4 – Christian Friis and Axel Brahe go to Ven to check complaints, and a commission is established to investigate Tycho Brahe's leadership. After April 10 Serb uprising of 1596–97
Serb uprising of 1596–97
ends with defeat of the rebels at the field of Gacko
(Gatačko Polje). April 22 – The vicar of Ven is dismissed: he had followed Tycho's orders not to perform an exorcism. April 23 – Probable first performance of William Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. April 27 Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
marries Barbara Muhleck. June
Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
is not allowed to make observations from The Watermill Tower, and he is not allowed to perform chemical experiments at his house in Farvergade. June
1 – Tycho writes a recommendation supporting Longomontanus, who is planning to study in Germany. June 2 – Tycho leaves Copenhagen
and goes to Rostock. June 10 – Tycho is removed from his job working at Epiphany Chapel in Roskilde. June
16 – Tycho flees, and becomes a servant of the king of Spain.


c. July
Thomas Nashe
Thomas Nashe
and Ben Jonson's satirical play The Isle of Dogs is performed at the Swan Theatre in London; it is immediately suppressed by the authorities and no copy survives. July
10 – Tycho Brahe's famous letter to King Christian IV is sent from Rostock.[8] July 14 – Scottish poet Alexander Montgomerie
Alexander Montgomerie
is declared an outlaw, after the collapse of a Catholic plot. August
13 – The Siege of Namwon begins. August
14 – First Dutch Expedition to Indonesia: A Dutch expedition commanded by Frederick de Houtman
Frederick de Houtman
returns to Amsterdam, after having successfully reached the Spice Islands. This achievement opens the Spice trade, which had until then been monopolised by the Portuguese, to the Dutch, who in the next years launch several more expeditions to the Indies. August
17 – Islands Voyage: Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and Sir Walter Raleigh
Walter Raleigh
set sail on an expedition to the Azores. August
19 – Rheinberg capitulates to forces led by Maurice of Naussau. August
24 – Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV of Denmark
refuses to let Tycho Brahe return to Denmark. August
28 – Imjin War: Battle of Chilcheollyang – The Japanese fleet defeats the Koreans, in their only naval victory of the war. September
Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
leaves Rostock, where plague is spreading, and travels to Wandsbæk. September
25 – Amiens
is retaken from the Spanish by Anglo-French forces, led by Henry IV of France, after a four-month siege. October
– John Gerard, a Jesuit
priest, escapes from the Tower of London. October/ November
– The 3rd Spanish Armada
3rd Spanish Armada
is dispersed by a storm; a number of Spanish ships are captured off the coasts of Wales, Cornwall and Devon. October
20 – Tycho starts new observations in Wandsbæk, where he writes his famous elegy. October 26 – Battle of Myeongnyang: The Koreans, commanded by Yi Sunsin, are victorious over a Japanese invasion fleet. November 12 – Lingen capitulates to forces led by Maurice of Nassau. December 15 Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
writes a letter to Tycho about his book, Mysterium Cosmographicum. December 31 – Tycho writes his preface to the Emperor Rudolf II in his book, Mecanica.

Date unknown[edit]

Abbas I ends the Uzbek raids on his lands. Yaqob succeeds his father Sarsa Dengel, as Emperor of Ethiopia
at the age of 7. Jacopo Peri
Jacopo Peri
writes Dafne, now recognised as the first opera. The first edition of Francis Bacon's Essays is published. Andreas Libavius
Andreas Libavius
publishes Alchemia, a pioneering chemistry textbook.[9] 12 million pesos of silver cross the Pacific. Although it is unknown just how much silver flowed from the Spanish base of Manila
in the Philippines
to the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
of China, it is known that the main port for the Mexican silver trade—Acapulco—shipped out 150,000 to 345,000 kg (4 to 9 million taels) of silver annually from this year to 1602. Tobias Hess corresponds with Simon Studion
Simon Studion
and agrees with him that the Papacy
must fall in 1604.

1598[edit] This section is transcluded from 1598. (edit history) January–June[edit]

February 21 Boris Godunov
Boris Godunov
seizes the throne of Russia, following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I; the Time of Troubles starts. April 13 – Edict of Nantes: Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics; this is considered the end of the French Wars of Religion. April 30 – Spanish conquistador Don Juan de Oñate
Juan de Oñate
holds America's first Thanksgiving celebration. May
– Tycho Brahe's star catalogue Astronomiæ instauratæ mechanica, listing the positions of 1,004 stars, is published. May
2 – The Peace of Vervins ends the war between France and Spain.


14 – Battle of the Yellow Ford in Ireland: Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, gains victory over an English expeditionary force under Henry Bagenal, in the Nine Years' War against English rule. September
13 – Philip III of Spain
starts to rule, on the death of his father. September
25 – Battle of Stångebro
Battle of Stångebro
at Linköping
in Sweden: The Catholic King Sigismund of Sweden
and Poland
is defeated in his attempt to resume control of Sweden
by the Protestant
forces of his uncle, Charles. Sigismund is deposed shortly thereafter. Autumn – Second Dutch Expedition to Indonesia: After being separated from the main Dutch fleet of Admiral Wybrand Van Warwyck, three ships under Jacob Corneliszoon van Neck
Jacob Corneliszoon van Neck
land on the island which they name Mauritius, after Maurice, Prince of Orange, and sight the dodo. December 16 ( November 19 (lunar calendar)) – Battle of Noryang: An allied Korean and Chinese fleet under Korean Admiral Yi Sun-sin
Yi Sun-sin
and Chinese Admiral Chen Lin defeats the Japanese navy, ending the Japanese invasions of Korea
(1592–98).[10] December 21 – Battle of Curalaba: The revolting Mapuche, led by cacique Pelantaro, inflict a major defeat on Spanish troops in southern Chile; all Spanish cities south of the Bío Bío River eventually fall victim to the Destruction of the Seven Cities
Destruction of the Seven Cities
by the Mapuches, and all conquest of Mapuche
territories by Europeans practically ceases, until the later 19th century Occupation of Araucanía.

Date unknown[edit]

Carnival – Jacopo Peri's Dafne, the earliest known modern opera, is premièred at the Palazzo Corsini, Florence.[11] Pentecost
congregations in Zürich
introduce music into their services.[12] Philosopher Tommaso Campanella
Tommaso Campanella
organizes an uprising in Calabria against the rule of the Spanish viceroy; he is captured, tortured and sentenced to 27 years in jail. The Parliament of England
passes the Vagabonds Act, that allows transportation of convicts to colonies. Illustrations of Ottoman Turkish and European riflemen, with detailed illustrations of their firearms, appear in Zhao Shizhen's book Shenqipu in this year, during the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
of China.

1599[edit] This section is transcluded from 1599. (edit history) January–June[edit]

8 – The Jesuit
educational plan, known as the Ratio Studiorum, is issued. March
12 – Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, by Queen Elizabeth I of England. April – The Italian city of Pompeii
is rediscovered more than 1,500 years after its burial following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79. April 23 – The Earl of Essex arrives in Dublin
at the head of 16,000 troops, the largest army ever seen in Ireland. May
16 – The Kalmar
Bloodbath takes place in Kalmar, Sweden. May
29 – Essex takes Cahir Castle, supposedly the strongest in Ireland, after a short siege. June
20 – The Synod of Diamper
Synod of Diamper
is convened.


– Second Dutch Expedition to Indonesia: A Dutch fleet returns to Amsterdam, carrying 600,000 pounds of pepper and 250,000 pounds of cloves and nutmeg. July
24 – Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
is dethroned by his uncle Duke Charles, who takes over as regent of the realm until 1604, when he becomes King Charles IX. August
15 – First Battle of Curlew Pass: Irish forces defeat the English. September
21 – The first reported performance at the Globe Theatre in London
(erected over Spring/Summer), a presentation of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar (probably new this year), is recorded by Swiss traveller Thomas Platter the Younger. September
28 – The Earl of Essex arrives back in England, disobeying the Queen's strict orders. October 18 – Battle of Sellenberk: Michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia, defeats the army of Andrew Báthory
Andrew Báthory
near Șelimbăr, leading to the first recorded unification of the Romanians. November 10 – The Åbo Bloodbath
Åbo Bloodbath
takes place in Åbo, Swedish Finland. November
– Persian embassy to Europe
(1599–1602): A Persian embassy arrives in Moscow. December 19 – The forces of Minye Thihathu II of Toungoo
Minye Thihathu II of Toungoo
and his ally Min Razagyi
Min Razagyi
of the Kingdom of Mrauk U
Kingdom of Mrauk U
end the First Toungoo Empire by capturing Pegu
(modern-day Bago, Myanmar).

Date unknown[edit]

The first Capuchin friar
Capuchin friar
is entombed in the Catacombe dei Cappuccini in Palermo


^ a b c d e Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 233–238. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.  ^ "R. Durtnell & Sons Ltd - History". Durtnell. Retrieved April 26, 2014.  ^ Commentarii Collegii Conimbricensis Societatis Jesu in octo libros physicorum Aristotelis Stagyritæ. ^ "Historical Events for Year 1593
OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 2018-04-05.  ^ a b Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 163–165. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.  ^ Emily C. Bartels (April 2006). "Too Many Blackamoors: Deportation, Discrimination, and Elizabeth I". Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900. 46 (2). Rice University: 305–322. JSTOR 3844644. In 1596, Queen Elizabeth issued an 'open letter' to the Lord Mayor of London, announcing that 'there are of late divers black-moores brought into this realme, of which kinde of people there aire allready here to manie,' and ordering that they be deported from the country.  ^ Stratton, J.M. (1969). Agricultural Records. John Baker. ISBN 0-212-97022-4.  ^ "Historical Events for Year 1597
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