1590s decade ran from
January 1, 1590, to December 31, 1599.
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This section is transcluded from 1590. (edit history)
January 11 – The Cortes of Castile approves a new subsidy, the
March – Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, takes Breda, by
concealing 68 of his best men in a peat-boat, to get through the
March 14 – Battle of Ivry:
Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France again defeats the
forces of the Catholic League, under Charles, Duke of Mayenne.
Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France unsuccessfully attempts to
besiege Paris. Henry is forced to raise the siege, when Alexander
Farnese, Duke of Parma comes to its rescue with a Spanish army.
May 17 –
Anne of Denmark
Anne of Denmark is crowned queen consort of Scotland, at
Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh.
May 21 – The Treaty of Constantinople is signed.
August 18 – John White, governor of the Colony of Roanoke, returns
from a supply-trip to
England and finds his settlement deserted. After
the unsuccessful search, he returns to
September 5 - Alexander Farnese's army forces
Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France to
lift the siege of Paris.
September 15 – Urban VII succeeds Sixtus V, as the 228th pope; he
dies of malaria twelve days later.
September 15 – The Neulengbach earthquake causes significant damage
and some loss of life, in
Lower Austria and Vienna; the effects are
felt as far as
Bohemia and Silesia.
December 5 – Gregory XIV succeeds Urban VII, as the 229th pope.
December 7 – North Berwick witch trials:
Agnes Sampson is questioned
by King James VI of Scotland, and confesses to practising witchcraft.
Meletius I of Alexandria succeeds Silvester.
Japan is united by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
The Spanish are pushed out of southern Gelderland, by the Dutch
A group of English merchants gains the right to trade in Ottoman
territory, in return for supplying the sultan with iron, steel, brass
and tin for his war with Persia.
This section is transcluded from 1591. (edit history)
March 13 – Battle of Tondibi: In Mali, forces sent by the Saadi
Dynasty ruler of Morocco, Ahmad al-Mansur, and led by Judar Pasha,
defeat the Songhai Empire, despite being outnumbered by at least five
April 10 – English merchant
James Lancaster sets off on a voyage to
the East Indies.
April 21 – Japanese tea-master
Sen no Rikyū commits seppuku, on the
order of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
May 15 – In Russia, Tsarevich Dimitri, son of the Ivan the Terrible,
is found dead in mysterious circumstances, at the palace in Uglich.
The official explanation is that he has cut his own throat during an
epileptic seizure. Many believe he has been murdered by his rival,
Boris Godunov, who becomes tsar.
May 24 – Sir John Norreys, with an expeditionary force sent by Queen
Elizabeth I of England, takes the town of
Guingamp after a brief
siege, on behalf of Henry of Navarre.
May 30 –
Timbuktu is captured by an expedition of Arma people, sent
by the Saadi ruler of Morocco, and led by Judar Pasha.
May 30 –
Zutphen is captured by the Dutch and English, under Maurice
June 10 –
Deventer is captured by the Dutch, under Maurice of
July 25 –
Maurice of Nassau and Francis Vere defeat the Duke of
Parma, outside Nijmegen.
July 22 – The Durtnell (Dartnell) Family of Brasted, Kent, England,
begin to work as building contractors. They will still be functioning
under the twelfth generation of the family, in the 21st century.
August – Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex leads an English army in
support of the
Protestant Henry IV of France, at the Siege of
During this year's Atlantic hurricane season, probably the most severe
of the pre-1600 seasons, at least eight intense hurricanes occur.
September 1 – HMS Revenge is captured by the Spanish ,following a
battle off Flores island.
September 14 –
Hulst is captured by Maurice.
October 21 –
Nijmegen is captured by Maurice.
October 26 – The Portuguese invasion of Jaffna Kingdom begins.
October 29 –
Pope Innocent IX
Pope Innocent IX succeeds
Pope Gregory XIV, as the
The city of
Hyderabad, India is founded by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah.
Rialto Bridge in Venice, designed by Antonio da Ponte, is
The first of the
Conimbricenses commentaries on Aristotle, by the
Jesuits of the University of Coimbra, is published.
This section is transcluded from 1592. (edit history)
January 30 –
Pope Clement VIII (born Ippolito Aldobrandini) succeeds
Pope Innocent IX, who died one month earlier, as the 231st pope.
February 7 – George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly, sets fire to
Donibristle Castle in Scotland, and murders James Stewart, 2nd Earl of
March 3 – Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland's oldest university, is
March 14 – Ultimate Pi Day: the largest correspondence between
calendar dates and significant digits of pi, since the introduction of
the Julian calendar.
April 4 – The future Henry IV of France, King designate of Henry III
of France, announces in a declaration, so-called "Expedient," his
intention to take instruction in, and convert to, the Catholic
April 13 – The
Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)
Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) begin, with
the Siege of Busanjin.
April 24 – Battle of Sangju: The Japanese are victorious over the
April 28 – Battle of Ch'ungju:
Japan inflicts a decisive defeat on
May 7 – Battle of Okpo: The Korean navy is victorious over Japan.
May 29 – Battle of Sacheon: Korean admiral
Yi Sun-sin destroys all
13 Japanese ships taking part, using his improved turtle ship for the
first time in battle.
June 2 – Battle of Dangpo:The Korean navy is again victorious over
June 10 -
June 19 – Siege of Bihać in the Kingdom of Croatia, by
Hasan Pasha Predojević of the Ottoman Empire. Bihać is captured and
July 8 – Battle of Hansan Island: Korean admiral
Yi Sun-sin destroys
or captures around 60 Japanese ships without loss, in a battle in
which around 190 ships take part.
July 20 – The Japanese capture the Korean capital Pyongyang, causing
Seonjo to request the assistance of
Ming Dynasty Chinese forces, who
recapture the city a year later.
July 30 –
Alonso de Sotomayor
Alonso de Sotomayor petitions the viceroy of
Peru for more
troops, to help resist attacks by Indians and English pirates.
August 9 – English explorer John Davis, commander of the Desire,
probably discovers the Falkland Islands.
August 14 – Battle of Hansan Island: The Korean navy defeats the
August 15 (or 19) – The great Portuguese carrack, Madre De Deus,
captured in a fierce battle in the Azores, enters Dartmouth harbour on
7 September, and is then subjected to mass theft.
September 1 – Battle of Busan: The Korean fleet makes a surprise
attack on the Japanese, but fails to break their supply lines to
October 5 – Siege of Jinju: The Korean navy is victorious over the
November 3 - The city of
San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí is founded.
November 17 – John III is succeeded by his son Sigismund, as King of
Collegium Melitense is founded by Bishop Garagallo.
William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, chief adviser of Queen Elizabeth I
of England, is taken seriously ill.
Negotiations begin, for the dissolution of the childless marriage of
Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France and Marguerite of Valois.
The Confucian shrine of
Munmyo is destroyed by fire.
This section is transcluded from 1593. (edit history)
January – Siege of
Pyongyang (1593): A Japanese invasion is defeated
in Pyongyang, by a combined force of Korean and Ming troops.
January 18 – Siamese King Naresuan, in combat on elephant back,
kills Burmese Crown Prince
Mingyi Swa on Monday, Moon 2 Waning day 2,
Year of the Dragon,
Chulasakarat 954, reckoned as corresponding to
January 25, 1593, of the Gregorian calendar, and commemorated as Royal
Thai Armed Forces Day.
January 27 – The
Roman Inquisition opens the seven-year trial of
scholar Giordano Bruno.
February 2 - Battle of Piątek: Polish forces led by Janusz Ostrogski
February 25 - The
Uppsala Synod discontinues; the Liturgical Struggle
Swedish Reformation and Counter-Reformation ends in
February 12 - Battle of Haengju:
Korea defeats Japan.
March 14 - The Pi Day, giving the most digits of Pi when written in
mm/dd/yyyy format (Flemish mathematician
Adriaan van Roomen
Adriaan van Roomen arrived at
15 decimal places of Pi in 1593, using the polygon approximation
May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyd's accusations of heresy lead to an
arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe.
June 22 –
Battle of Sisak
Battle of Sisak in Croatia: The
Habsburgs defeat the
July 29 - The Long War breaks out in Hungary, between the Habsburgs
and the Ottomans.
Mihai Viteazul becomes prince of Walachia.
Henry Constable's Spiritual Sonnetts are written.
The book Controversiae is written by Robert Bellarmine.
1604 - According to John Warwick Montgomery, the Rosicrucian
manifestos are initially composed by Tobias Hess, in anticipation of
the opening of the vault in 1604, according to Simon Studion's
This section is transcluded from 1594. (edit history)
March 21 – Henry IV enters his capital of Paris for the first time.
April 16 –
Ferdinando Stanley, 5th Earl of Derby
Ferdinando Stanley, 5th Earl of Derby is found poisoned.
At the time of his death, he was, after his mother, second in line to
the throne of England.
April 17 –
Hyacinth of Poland
Hyacinth of Poland is canonized.
The Banat Rebellion of
Serbs against Ottoman rule ends with the public
burning of Saint Sava's bones in Belgrade, Serbia.
Nine Years' War: In Ireland,
Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone
Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Hugh
Roe O'Donnell form an alliance to try to overthrow English
June 5 – First voyage of
Willem Barents in the Arctic Ocean in
search of the Northeast Passage.
June 11 – Philip II of
Spain recognizes the rights and privileges of
the local nobles and chieftains in the Philippines, which paves the
way for the stabilization of the rule of the Principalía.
July 1 – Action of San Mateo Bay: English privateer
Richard Hawkins in the Dainty is attacked and captured by a Spanish
squadron off Esmeraldas, Ecuador.
July 3 – The
Ayutthayan–Cambodian War (1591–1594) concludes when
Naresuan, ruler of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, sacks Longvek, capital of
July 22 – After a 2-month siege, the city of
Groningen submits to
Dutch troops, bringing the whole northern
Netherlands under the Dutch
October 9 – The Campaign of Danture, which began on
July 5 as part
of the Sinhalese–Portuguese War, concludes with a decisive victory
by forces of the
Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy over the Portuguese Empire,
reversing near-total control of
Sri Lanka by Portugal.
St. Paul's College, Macau
St. Paul's College, Macau is founded in
Macau by Jesuits, being the
first western style university in the far east.
In Amsterdam, the
Compagnie van Verre is created, with the goal of
breaking the Portuguese monopoly on spice trade.
Tulip bulbs planted by
Carolus Clusius in the Hortus Botanicus Leiden,
Holland, first flower.
This section is transcluded from 1595. (edit history)
Mehmed III succeeds Murad III, as sultan of the Ottoman
January 17 - During the French Wars of Religion, Henry IV of France
declares war on Spain.
April 8 (
March 29 O.S.) – Combined Taungoo–
Lan Na armies break the
rebel Thado Dhamma Yaza's siege of Taungoo, in modern-day Myanmar.
May 18 – The
Treaty of Teusina
Treaty of Teusina brings to an end the Russo-Swedish
May 24 – The Nomenclator of
Leiden University Library
Leiden University Library appears, the
first printed catalog of an institutional library.
June 9 – Battle of Fontaine-Française:
Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France defeats
the Spanish, but is nearly killed due to his rashness.
July 21 – A Spanish expedition led by navigator and explorer Álvaro
de Mendaña de Neira makes the first European landing in Polynesia, on
the Marquesas Islands.
July 23 – The Spanish raid Cornwall, England.
August 23 – Battle of Calugareni: The Wallachians, led by Michael
the Brave, accomplish a great tactical victory against the vast army
of the Turks, numbering over 150,000 men, led by Sinan Pasha.
August 28 – Sir
Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins depart from
England, on their final voyage to the Spanish Main, which ends in both
of their deaths.
September 2 –
Battle of the Lippe
Battle of the Lippe (Eighty Years' War): Spanish
cavalry, led by
Cristóbal de Mondragón (aged over 80), defeat
combined forces of the
Dutch Republic and
England led by Philip of
Nassau (who dies of wounds received), on the banks of the river Lippe
October 26 – Battle of Giurgiu: Michael the Brave, led by
Transylvanian Prince Sigismund Báthory, again defeats the Turkish
army led by Sinan Pasha, pushing them on the east side of the Danube.
December 9 – Probable first performance of William Shakespeare's
Richard II in London.
December 14 –
Sultan Murad, 4th son of Emperor
Akbar of the Mughal
Ahmednagar Sultanate which is bravely defended by Chand
The Austrians incite a rebellion against the
Ottomans in Bulgaria.
Riksdag of the Estates
Riksdag of the Estates at
Sweden elects the
Lutheran Duke Charles as the country's regent, in place of Sigismund
III Vasa, King of
Poland and Sweden.
Walter Raleigh travels up the
Orinoco River, in search of the
fabled city of El Dorado.
Probable first performance of William Shakespeare's plays Romeo and
A Midsummer Night's Dream
A Midsummer Night's Dream in London.
This section is transcluded from 1596. (edit history)
February 14 – Archbishop
John Whitgift begins building his hospital
April 9 – Siege of Calais: Spanish troops capture Calais.
May 18 –
Willem Barents leaves Vlie, on his third and final Arctic
June – Sir
John Norreys and Sir
Geoffrey Fenton travel to Connaught,
to parley with the local Irish lords.
June 10 –
Willem Barents and
Jacob van Heemskerk
Jacob van Heemskerk discover Bear
June 17 –
Willem Barents discovers Spitsbergen.
June 24 –
Cornelis de Houtman
Cornelis de Houtman arrives in Banten, the first Dutch
sailor to reach Indonesia.
July 5 – An English fleet, commanded by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of
Essex, and Lord Howard of Effingham, sacks Cádiz.
July 14 – King
Dominicus Corea (Edirille Bandara) is beheaded by the
Portuguese in Colombo, Ceylon.
David Fabricius discovers the star Mira.
September 17 – The Spanish capture Amiens.
September 20 –
Diego de Montemayor founds the city of Monterrey,
October 10 – The Union of Brest: The Ukrainian Church
west of the Dnieper becomes known as the Ukrainian Rite of
Catholicism, whereas the East officially renounces the authority of
October 18 – The Second Armada, a Spanish fleet sent to attack
England in revenge for the raid on Cadiz, is wrecked in storms between
Corcubion and Cape Finisterre; 2,000 men are lost.
October 19 – The Spanish galleon San Felipe founders in Japan,
leading to 26 Christians being martyred the next year.
October 26 – Battle of Keresztes: The Turks defeat a
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England decrees that all Africans should be removed
from the British realm, in reaction to the food crisis.
The first water closet, by Sir John Harington, is installed in a manor
Kelston in England.
Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa moves the capital of
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, is founded.
Black Death hits parts of Europe.
Dutch ships, commanded by Frederick de Houtman, reach
Sumatra and Java
for the first time.
The 4th of a 5 year run of poor harvests, largely caused by the
weather, a pattern typical of the last third of the century. This
causes famine throughout Europe, which leads to food riots in
This section is transcluded from 1597. (edit history)
January 24 – Battle of Turnhout:
Maurice of Nassau defeats a Spanish
force under Jean de Rie of Varas, in the Netherlands.
Bali is discovered by the Dutch explorer Cornelis
February 5 – In Nagasaki, Japan, 26 people are martyred by
crucifixion. They practiced Catholicism, and were taken captive after
all forms of
Christianity were outlawed the previous year.
February 8 – Sir Anthony Shirley, England's "best-educated pirate",
March 11 –
Amiens is taken by Spanish forces.
March 18 – Tycho Brahe's stipend is stopped.
March 29 –
Tycho Brahe leaves Ven and moves to Copenhagen
April 4 – Christian Friis and Axel Brahe go to Ven to check
complaints, and a commission is established to investigate Tycho
April 10 –
Serb uprising of 1596–97
Serb uprising of 1596–97 ends with defeat of the
rebels at the field of
Gacko (Gatačko Polje).
April 22 – The vicar of Ven is dismissed: he had followed Tycho's
orders not to perform an exorcism.
April 23 – Probable first performance of William Shakespeare's The
Merry Wives of Windsor.
April 27 –
Johannes Kepler marries Barbara Muhleck.
Tycho Brahe is not allowed to make observations from The
Watermill Tower, and he is not allowed to perform chemical experiments
at his house in Farvergade.
June 1 – Tycho writes a recommendation supporting Longomontanus, who
is planning to study in Germany.
June 2 – Tycho leaves
Copenhagen and goes to Rostock.
June 10 – Tycho is removed from his job working at Epiphany Chapel
June 16 – Tycho flees, and becomes a servant of the king of Spain.
Thomas Nashe and Ben Jonson's satirical play The Isle of
Dogs is performed at the Swan Theatre in London; it is immediately
suppressed by the authorities and no copy survives.
July 10 – Tycho Brahe's famous letter to King Christian IV is sent
July 14 – Scottish poet
Alexander Montgomerie is declared an outlaw,
after the collapse of a Catholic plot.
August 13 – The
Siege of Namwon begins.
August 14 – First Dutch Expedition to Indonesia: A Dutch expedition
Frederick de Houtman
Frederick de Houtman returns to Amsterdam, after having
successfully reached the Spice Islands. This achievement opens the
Spice trade, which had until then been monopolised by the Portuguese,
to the Dutch, who in the next years launch several more expeditions to
August 17 – Islands Voyage: Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and
Walter Raleigh set sail on an expedition to the Azores.
August 19 – Rheinberg capitulates to forces led by Maurice of
August 24 –
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV of Denmark refuses to let Tycho Brahe
return to Denmark.
August 28 – Imjin War:
Battle of Chilcheollyang – The Japanese
fleet defeats the Koreans, in their only naval victory of the war.
Tycho Brahe leaves Rostock, where plague is spreading,
and travels to Wandsbæk.
September 25 –
Amiens is retaken from the Spanish by Anglo-French
forces, led by Henry IV of France, after a four-month siege.
October – John Gerard, a
Jesuit priest, escapes from the Tower of
November – The
3rd Spanish Armada
3rd Spanish Armada is dispersed by a storm; a
number of Spanish ships are captured off the coasts of Wales, Cornwall
October 20 – Tycho starts new observations in Wandsbæk, where he
writes his famous elegy.
October 26 – Battle of Myeongnyang: The Koreans, commanded by Yi
Sunsin, are victorious over a Japanese invasion fleet.
November 12 – Lingen capitulates to forces led by Maurice of Nassau.
December 15 –
Johannes Kepler writes a letter to Tycho about his
book, Mysterium Cosmographicum.
December 31 – Tycho writes his preface to the Emperor Rudolf II in
his book, Mecanica.
Abbas I ends the Uzbek raids on his lands.
Yaqob succeeds his father Sarsa Dengel, as Emperor of
Ethiopia at the
age of 7.
Jacopo Peri writes Dafne, now recognised as the first opera.
The first edition of Francis Bacon's Essays is published.
Andreas Libavius publishes Alchemia, a pioneering chemistry
12 million pesos of silver cross the Pacific. Although it is
unknown just how much silver flowed from the Spanish base of
Philippines to the
Ming Dynasty of China, it is known that the
main port for the Mexican silver trade—Acapulco—shipped out
150,000 to 345,000 kg (4 to 9 million taels) of silver
annually from this year to 1602.
Tobias Hess corresponds with
Simon Studion and agrees with him that
Papacy must fall in 1604.
This section is transcluded from 1598. (edit history)
February 21 –
Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia, following
the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I; the Time of Troubles
April 13 – Edict of Nantes:
Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France grants French
Huguenots equal rights with Catholics; this is considered the end of
the French Wars of Religion.
April 30 – Spanish conquistador Don
Juan de Oñate
Juan de Oñate holds America's
first Thanksgiving celebration.
May – Tycho Brahe's star catalogue Astronomiæ instauratæ
mechanica, listing the positions of 1,004 stars, is published.
May 2 – The
Peace of Vervins ends the war between France and Spain.
August 14 –
Battle of the Yellow Ford in Ireland: Hugh O'Neill, Earl
of Tyrone, gains victory over an English expeditionary force under
Henry Bagenal, in the Nine Years' War against English rule.
September 13 – Philip III of
Spain starts to rule, on the death of
September 25 –
Battle of Stångebro
Battle of Stångebro at
Linköping in Sweden: The
Catholic King Sigismund of
Poland is defeated in his
attempt to resume control of
Sweden by the
Protestant forces of his
uncle, Charles. Sigismund is deposed shortly thereafter.
Autumn – Second Dutch Expedition to Indonesia: After being separated
from the main Dutch fleet of Admiral Wybrand Van Warwyck, three ships
Jacob Corneliszoon van Neck
Jacob Corneliszoon van Neck land on the island which they name
Mauritius, after Maurice, Prince of Orange, and sight the dodo.
December 16 (
November 19 (lunar calendar)) – Battle of Noryang: An
allied Korean and Chinese fleet under Korean Admiral
Yi Sun-sin and
Chinese Admiral Chen Lin defeats the Japanese navy, ending the
Japanese invasions of
December 21 – Battle of Curalaba: The revolting Mapuche, led by
cacique Pelantaro, inflict a major defeat on Spanish troops in
southern Chile; all Spanish cities south of the Bío Bío River
eventually fall victim to the
Destruction of the Seven Cities
Destruction of the Seven Cities by the
Mapuches, and all conquest of
Mapuche territories by Europeans
practically ceases, until the later 19th century Occupation of
Carnival – Jacopo Peri's Dafne, the earliest known modern opera, is
premièred at the Palazzo Corsini, Florence.
Calvinist congregations in
Zürich introduce music into
Tommaso Campanella organizes an uprising in Calabria
against the rule of the Spanish viceroy; he is captured, tortured and
sentenced to 27 years in jail.
The Parliament of
England passes the Vagabonds Act, that allows
transportation of convicts to colonies.
Illustrations of Ottoman Turkish and European riflemen, with detailed
illustrations of their firearms, appear in Zhao Shizhen's book
Shenqipu in this year, during the
Ming Dynasty of China.
This section is transcluded from 1599. (edit history)
January 8 – The
Jesuit educational plan, known as the Ratio
Studiorum, is issued.
March 12 – Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, is appointed Lord
Lieutenant of Ireland, by Queen Elizabeth I of England.
April – The Italian city of
Pompeii is rediscovered more than 1,500
years after its burial following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79.
April 23 – The Earl of Essex arrives in
Dublin at the head of 16,000
troops, the largest army ever seen in Ireland.
May 16 – The
Kalmar Bloodbath takes place in Kalmar, Sweden.
May 29 – Essex takes Cahir Castle, supposedly the strongest in
Ireland, after a short siege.
June 20 – The
Synod of Diamper
Synod of Diamper is convened.
July – Second Dutch Expedition to Indonesia: A Dutch fleet returns
to Amsterdam, carrying 600,000 pounds of pepper and 250,000 pounds of
cloves and nutmeg.
July 24 – Swedish King
Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa is dethroned by his uncle
Duke Charles, who takes over as regent of the realm until 1604, when
he becomes King Charles IX.
August 15 – First Battle of Curlew Pass: Irish forces defeat the
September 21 – The first reported performance at the Globe Theatre
London (erected over Spring/Summer), a presentation of
Shakespeare's Julius Caesar (probably new this year), is recorded by
Swiss traveller Thomas Platter the Younger.
September 28 – The Earl of Essex arrives back in England, disobeying
the Queen's strict orders.
October 18 – Battle of Sellenberk: Michael the Brave, Prince of
Wallachia, defeats the army of
Andrew Báthory near Șelimbăr,
leading to the first recorded unification of the Romanians.
November 10 – The
Åbo Bloodbath takes place in Åbo, Swedish
November – Persian embassy to
Europe (1599–1602): A Persian
embassy arrives in Moscow.
December 19 – The forces of
Minye Thihathu II of Toungoo
Minye Thihathu II of Toungoo and his
Min Razagyi of the
Kingdom of Mrauk U
Kingdom of Mrauk U end the First Toungoo
Empire by capturing
Pegu (modern-day Bago, Myanmar).
Capuchin friar is entombed in the Catacombe dei Cappuccini
^ a b c d e Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World
History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 233–238.
^ "R. Durtnell & Sons Ltd - History". Durtnell. Retrieved April
^ Commentarii Collegii Conimbricensis Societatis Jesu in octo libros
physicorum Aristotelis Stagyritæ.
^ "Historical Events for Year
1593 OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com.
^ a b Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British
History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 163–165.
^ Emily C. Bartels (April 2006). "Too Many Blackamoors: Deportation,
Discrimination, and Elizabeth I". Studies in English Literature,
1500–1900. 46 (2). Rice University: 305–322. JSTOR 3844644.
In 1596, Queen Elizabeth issued an 'open letter' to the Lord Mayor of
London, announcing that 'there are of late divers black-moores brought
into this realme, of which kinde of people there aire allready here to
manie,' and ordering that they be deported from the country.
^ Stratton, J.M. (1969). Agricultural Records. John Baker.
^ "Historical Events for Year
1597 OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com.
^ "From liquid to vapor and back: origins".
Department. University of Delaware Library. Retrieved
^ Turnbull, Stephen (2002). Samurai Invasion: Japan's Korean War.
London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-304-35948-6.
^ Ottavio Rinuccini's libretto survives complete but only fragments of
the music are known.
^ MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2013). Silence: A Christian History. London:
Allen Lane. ISBN 9781846144264.
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