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The Info List - 1580s


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The 1580S decade ran from January
January
1, 1580, to December
December
31, 1589.

MILLENNIUM : 2nd millennium
2nd millennium

CENTURIES :

* 15th century
15th century
* 16TH CENTURY * 17th century
17th century

DECADES :

* 1560s * 1570s * 1580S * 1590s * 1600s

YEARS :

* 1580 * 1581
1581
* 1582
1582
* 1583 * 1584
1584

* 1585
1585
* 1586 * 1587 * 1588 * 1589

CATEGORIES:

*

* Births * Deaths * By country * By topic

*

* Establishments * Disestablishments

CONTENTS

* 1 Events

* 1.1 1580

* 1.1.1 January– June
June
* 1.1.2 July– December
December
* 1.1.3 Date unknown

* 1.2 1581
1581

* 1.2.1 January– June
June
* 1.2.2 July– December
December
* 1.2.3 Date unknown

* 1.3 1582
1582

* 1.3.1 January– June
June
* 1.3.2 July– December
December
* 1.3.3 Date unknown

* 1.4 1583

* 1.4.1 January– June
June
* 1.4.2 July– December
December
* 1.4.3 Date unknown

* 1.5 1584
1584

* 1.5.1 January– June
June
* 1.5.2 July– December
December
* 1.5.3 Date unknown

* 1.6 1585
1585

* 1.6.1 January– June
June
* 1.6.2 July– December
December
* 1.6.3 Date unknown

* 1.7 1586

* 1.7.1 Date unknown

* 1.8 1587

* 1.8.1 January– June
June
* 1.8.2 July– December
December
* 1.8.3 Date unknown

* 1.9 1588

* 1.9.1 January– June
June
* 1.9.2 July– December
December
* 1.9.3 Date unknown

* 1.10 1589

* 1.10.1 January– June
June
* 1.10.2 July– December
December
* 1.10.3 Date unknown

* 2 Significant people * 3 Births * 4 Deaths * 5 References

EVENTS

1580

This section is transcluded from 1580 . (edit history )

January–June

* January 31 Henry, King of Portugal
Henry, King of Portugal
dies with no direct heirs, precipitating a succession crisis . * March 1 Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays . They are published later this year. * March 25 Iberian Union
Iberian Union
: King Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
becomes King of Portugal
Portugal
under the name Philip I, following the death without heirs of King Henry of Portugal
Portugal
, in a personal union of the crowns, thus maintaining Portuguese independence (in Europe and throughout the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
). The Philippine Dynasty rule lasts until 1640 . * April 6 – The Dover Straits earthquake occurs. * June
June
England
England
signs a commercial treaty with the Ottoman Empire . * June
June
11 – Juan de Garay
Juan de Garay
founds Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
. * June
June
25 – The Book of Concord , a collection of Lutheran confessional documents, is published.

July–December

* July 12 – The Ostrog Bible , the first complete printed Bible translation into a Slavic language ( Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
), is first printed at Ostroh
Ostroh
in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
(modern-day Ukraine
Ukraine
) by Ivan Fyodorov . * August 25 – Battle of Alcântara : Spanish armies, led by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo , defending the claim of King Philip II of Spain
Spain
to the Portuguese throne
Portuguese throne
, defeat the armies of Portuguese claimant António, Prior of Crato
António, Prior of Crato
. * September 26 Francis Drake
Francis Drake
returns to Plymouth
Plymouth
, England
England
from his voyage of circumnavigation (westabout) on the Golden Hind
Golden Hind
, the second completed in a continuous voyage, and the first under its original commander.

Date Unknown

* The Billy Mitchell volcano, on the island of Bougainville, undergoes a catastrophic eruption (VEI 6). * The first session of the Jewish Vaad ( Council of Four Lands ) is held in Lublin
Lublin
, Poland
Poland
; 70 delegates of Jewish local qahals meet to discuss taxation, and other issues important to Jewish communities. * The Old City of Zamość is established in Poland, by Jan Zamoyski . * Jesuit
Jesuit
missionaries arrive at the court of Akbar
Akbar
, ruler of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
.

1581

This section is transcluded from 1581
1581
. (edit history )

January–June

* March 18 – The Parliament of England
Parliament of England
's Act against Reconciliation to Rome
Rome
imposes heavy fines, for practising Roman Catholicism . * March 25 Iberian Union
Iberian Union
: Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
is crowned Philip I of Portugal. * April 4 – Following his circumnavigation of the world, Francis Drake is knighted by Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
.

July–December

* July 26

* The Northern Netherlands
Netherlands
( Union of Utrecht ) proclaim their independence from Spain
Spain
in the Act of Abjuration
Act of Abjuration
, abjuring loyalty to Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
as their sovereign, and appointing Francois, Duke of Anjou , as the new sovereign of the Netherlands; public practice of Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
is forbidden. * Capture of Breda
Breda
: Spanish troops take Breda
Breda
by surprise. * A meteorite makes landfall in Thuringia
Thuringia
, Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
.

* August 28 – The army of King Stefan Batory
Stefan Batory
of Poland
Poland
begins its siege of the Russian garrison of Pskov * Summer (probable) – Yermak begins the Russian conquest of the Khanate of Sibir , with a band of 1,636 men. * September
September
– A mercenary army of Sweden
Sweden
, under Pontus De la Gardie , captures Narva
Narva
from Russia
Russia
. * October 15 Ballet Comique de la Reine , the first narrative ballet , devised by Louise of Lorraine , wife of Henry III of France
Henry III of France
, and choreographed by Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx
Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx
, opens in its first performance at the court of Catherine de\' Medici , in the Louvre Palace in Paris, as part of the wedding celebrations for Marguerite of Lorraine . * November 4 Jean de la Cassière
Jean de la Cassière
is restored as Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
, by Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII
. * December 1 – Execution in England
England
of the Jesuit
Jesuit
priest Edmund Campion for treason.

Date Unknown

* The Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
depose Jean de la Cassière
Jean de la Cassière
as Grandmaster, and appoint Mathurin Romegas . * The Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
Chancellor of China , Chief Grand Secretary Zhang Juzheng , imposes the Single Whip Reform, by which taxes are assessed on properties recorded in the land census, and paid in silver , as the accepted medium of exchange . * Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
invades the Iga Province
Iga Province
. * The Trier witch trials
Trier witch trials
begin. * John Dee practices angel magic with Barnabas Saul, but with no success. * Guru Arjan Dev
Guru Arjan Dev
becomes the fifth Guru of Sikhs , succeeding his father Guru Ram Das . * The last Bishop of Meissen , John IX of Haugwitz , resigns his office in the wake of the Reformation .

1582

This section is transcluded from 1582
1582
. (edit history )

January–June

* January 15 Russia
Russia
cedes Livonia and southern Estonia
Estonia
, to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
. * February 10 François, Duke of Anjou , arrives in the Netherlands, where he is personally welcomed by William the Silent . * February 24 Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII
implements the Gregorian Calendar . * March 9 Edward Kelley
Edward Kelley
arrives at John Dee 's house. * April 3 Battle of Temmokuzan
Battle of Temmokuzan
: Unable to reverse the collapse of Takeda clan
Takeda clan
, Takeda Katsuyori
Takeda Katsuyori
and his household commit suicide. * April 14 – King James VI
James VI
of Scotland
Scotland
signs a charter creating the Tounis College, now the University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh
. * April 16 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Lerma founds the settlement of Salta
Salta
, Argentina
Argentina
. * April
April
– Hashiba Hideyoshi begins the siege of Takamatsu Castle . * May
May
–August – Robert Browne and his Brownist congregationalist companions are obliged to leave England
England
, and go to Middelburg
Middelburg
in the Netherlands
Netherlands
. * June
June
21 – The Incident at Honnō-ji occurs in Kyoto
Kyoto
, Japan
Japan
.

July–December

* July 2 Battle of Yamazaki : Counterattacking forces led by Hashiba Hideyoshi decisively defeat Akechi Mitsuhide
Akechi Mitsuhide
's smaller army; Akechi is killed while retreating to his domain. * July 26 Battle of Ponta Delgada (War of the Portuguese Succession ): Spanish admiral Santa Cruz decisively defeats a larger mercenary fleet from France
France
, England
England
, supporters of the Portuguese claimant António, Prior of Crato
António, Prior of Crato
, and the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
, under Filippo di Piero Strozzi (who is killed) off the Azores
Azores
, the first engagement between large fleets of galleons , operating at any great distance from the mainland. * August 22 Raid of Ruthven in Scotland
Scotland
: A political conspiracy of Presbyterian
Presbyterian
nobles abduct King James VI
James VI
. * October 4 of Julian calendar
Julian calendar
(Thursday) – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15 . * October 4 – Saint Teresa of Ávila dies. She is buried the next day, October 15 . * November 29 – Future English playwright William Shakespeare marries Anne Hathaway . * December 9 of Julian calendar
Julian calendar
(Sunday) – France
France
makes the next day Monday, December 20
December 20
of the Gregorian Calendar
Gregorian Calendar
.

Date Unknown

* Kumbum is founded in Tibet
Tibet
.

* In Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
China
China
:

* Jesuit
Jesuit
Matteo Ricci is allowed to enter the country. * The earliest reference is made to the publishing of private newspapers in Beijing
Beijing
.

* The sultanate of Morocco
Morocco
begins to press southward, in search of a greater share of the trans-Saharan trade. * The Cagayan Battles in the Philippines, the only recorded clashes between European regular soldiers against samurai warriors. * The Douai-Rheims Bible New Testament
New Testament
is published. * John Dee practices angelic magic with scryer Edward Kelley
Edward Kelley
, and develops the Enochian
Enochian
language.

1583

This section is transcluded from 1583 . (edit history )

January–June

* January 18 François, Duke of Anjou , attacks Antwerp
Antwerp
. * February 4 Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg , newly converted to Calvinism
Calvinism
, formally marries Agnes von Mansfeld-Eisleben , a former canoness of Gerresheim , while retaining his position as Archbishop-Elector of Cologne . * March 10 – The Queen Elizabeth\'s Men troupe of actors is ordered to be founded in England
England
. * May
May
Battle of Shizugatake in Japan
Japan
: Shibata Katsuie
Shibata Katsuie
is defeated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
, who goes on to commence construction of Osaka Castle
Osaka Castle
. * May
May
22 – Ernest of Bavaria
Ernest of Bavaria
is elected as Roman Catholic Archbishop of Cologne
Archbishop of Cologne
, in opposition to Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg . The opposition rapidly turns into armed struggle, the Cologne War within the Electorate of Cologne
Electorate of Cologne
, beginning with the Destruction of the Oberstift .

July–December

* July 25 Cuncolim Revolt : The first documented battle of India 's independence against a European colonial ruler is fought by the Desais of Cuncolim in Goa
Goa
, against the Portuguese . * August 5 – Sir Humphrey Gilbert , on the site of the modern-day city of St John\'s, Newfoundland , claims the island of Newfoundland on behalf of England
England
, marking the beginning of the British Empire
British Empire
. * August 19 Petru Cercel enters Bucharest
Bucharest
, and becomes Prince of Wallachia
Wallachia
. * December 17 Cologne War : The Siege of Godesberg (begun on November 18 ) concludes, when Catholic forces under Prince-elector-archbishop Ernest of Bavaria
Ernest of Bavaria
capture the strategic position, from defenders of the Calvinist
Calvinist
convert Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg .

Date Unknown

* The world's oldest, intact, still-surviving amusement park, Dyrehavsbakken , is founded north of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
. * The Bunch Of Grapes Pub is built on Narrow Street, London. Referred to by Charles Dickens in Our Mutual Friend
Our Mutual Friend
as "The Six Jolly Fellowship Porters", it still stands in the 21st century, much rebuilt and renamed The Grapes .

1584

This section is transcluded from 1584
1584
. (edit history )

January–June

* January
January
–March – Archangelsk is founded as New Kholmogory in northern Russia
Russia
, by Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible
. * January
January
11 – Sir Walter Mildmay is given a royal licence to found Emmanuel College, Cambridge . * March 18 (N.S. March 28 ) – Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible
, ruler of Russia since 1533 , dies; he is succeeded as Tsar by his son, Feodor . * May
May
17 – The conflict between Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
and Tokugawa Ieyasu culminates in the Battle of Nagakute . * June
June
1 – With the death of the Duc d\'Anjou , the Huguenot
Huguenot
Henry of Navarre becomes heir-presumptive to the throne of France. * June
June
4 – Walter Raleigh
Walter Raleigh
sends Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to explore the Outer Banks
Outer Banks
of Virginia
Virginia
(now North Carolina
North Carolina
), with a view to establishing an English colony ; they locate Roanoke Island . * June
June
11 – Walk (modern-day Valka and Valga , towns in Latvia
Latvia
and Estonia
Estonia
respectively), receive city rights from Polish king Stefan Bathory .

July–December

* July
July
- The Siege of Antwerp
Antwerp
begins. * July
July
5 – The Maronite College is established in Rome
Rome
, Papal States . * July
July
10 – William I of Orange
William I of Orange
is assassinated. * September
September
17 – Ghent
Ghent
falls into the hands of Alexander Farnese , governor of the Spanish Netherlands
Netherlands
. * December
December
– The Treaty of Joinville is signed secretly between the French Catholic League and Spain
Spain
.

Date Unknown

* Ratu Hijau becomes queen regnant of the once Malay Pattani Kingdom . * Belgian cartographer and geographer Abraham Ortelius
Abraham Ortelius
features Ming Dynasty -era Chinese carriages with masts and sails , in his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum; concurrent and later Western writers also take note of this peculiar Chinese invention. * This year, according to Italian heretic Jacopo Brocardo , is regarded as an apocalyptic inauguration of a major new cycle.

1585

This section is transcluded from 1585
1585
. (edit history )

January–June

* January
January
12 – The Netherlands
Netherlands
adopts the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. * February
February
– The Spanish seize Brussels
Brussels
. * April
April
24 – Pope Sixtus V
Pope Sixtus V
succeeds Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII
, as the 227th pope. * May
May
19 – Spain
Spain
seizes English ships in Spanish ports, precipitating the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) .

July–December

* July
July
7 – The Treaty of Nemours forces King Henry III of France to capitulate to the demands of the Catholic League , triggering the Eighth War of Religion (also known as the War of the Three Henrys ) in France. * August 8 – English explorer John Davis enters Cumberland Sound in Baffin Island
Baffin Island
, in his quest for the Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage
. * August 14 – Queen Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
agrees to establish a protectorate over the Netherlands.

* August 17

* Antwerp
Antwerp
is captured by Spanish forces under the Prince of Parma, who orders Protestants to leave the city. As a result, over half of the 100,000 inhabitants flee to the northern provinces. Furthermore, upon hearing of the capture of Antwerp, a relief fleet sent to raise the siege instead blockades the Scheldt
Scheldt
River, preventing any and all ships from reaching Antwerp
Antwerp
for two centuries. This effectively destroys Antwerp's position as an important trade city and de facto capital of the Dutch provinces. Its position is taken over by various northern cities, most prominently Amsterdam
Amsterdam
. * A first group of colonists sent by Sir Walter Raleigh
Walter Raleigh
, under the charge of Ralph Lane , lands in the New World to create Roanoke Colony on Roanoke Island , off the coast of North Carolina
North Carolina
. This group will depart the following June.

* August 20 – The Treaty of Nonsuch is signed, committing England to support the Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
, thus entering the Eighty Years\' War .

Date Unknown

* Invasion of Shikoku
Shikoku
: Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
seizes the island Shikoku from Chōsokabe Motochika . * Chocolate
Chocolate
is introduced to Europe commercially. * The Kingdom of Luba is founded.

1586

This section is transcluded from 1586 . (edit history )

* June
June
16 – Mary, Queen of Scots , recognizes Philip II of Spain as her heir. * July
July
6 – The Treaty of Berwick is signed between Queen Elizabeth I of England
England
and King James VI
James VI
of Scotland
Scotland
. * July
July
21 – English explorer Thomas Cavendish
Thomas Cavendish
begins the first deliberately planned circumnavigation of the globe. * September
September
20 –21 – Execution of the Babington Plotters : The 14 men convicted of a plot (uncovered on July
July
17) to murder Queen Elizabeth and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots, are hanged, drawn and quartered (the first seven being disembowelled before death) in St Giles Field, London. * September
September
22 – Battle of Zutphen : Spanish troops defeat the Dutch rebels and their English allies. English poet and courtier Sir Philip Sidney is mortally wounded. * October 15 –25 – Mary, Queen of Scots , is placed on treason trial at Fotheringhay Castle
Fotheringhay Castle
in England
England
for complicity in the Babington Plot
Babington Plot
and sentenced to death. * November 19 – English Separatist Puritan Henry Barrowe is imprisoned. * December 17 – The reign of Emperor Ōgimachi
Emperor Ōgimachi
of Japan
Japan
ends, and Emperor Go-Yōzei
Emperor Go-Yōzei
ascends to the throne.

Date Unknown

* Flemish
Flemish
mathematician Simon Stevin publishes a study showing that two objects of different weight fall with the same speed. * St. Augustine, Florida , and Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
(modern day Dominican Republic ) are plundered and burned by English sea captain Sir Francis Drake . * Jacobus Gallus composes his motet O magnum mysterium. * English topographer William Harrison becomes canon of Windsor . * English ship Vanguard , the first Royal Navy
Royal Navy
vessel to bear this name, is launched at Woolwich
Woolwich
. * The cities of Voronezh
Voronezh
, Samara , and Tyumen
Tyumen
in Russia
Russia
are founded.

1587

This section is transcluded from 1587 . (edit history )

January–June

* February
February
1 – Queen Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
signs the death warrant of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots , after Mary is implicated in a plot to murder Elizabeth. Seven days later, on the orders of Elizabeth's privy council, Mary is beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle
Fotheringhay Castle
. * April
April
29 – Singeing the King of Spain\'s Beard : On an expedition against Spain, English privateer Sir Francis Drake
Francis Drake
leads a raid in the Bay of Cádiz
Bay of Cádiz
, sinking at least 23 ships of the Spanish fleet.

July–December

* July
July
22 – Roanoke Colony
Colony
: A group of English settlers arrive on Roanoke Island off of North Carolina
North Carolina
, to re-establish the deserted colony. * August 18 – According to legend, Saul Wahl is named king of Poland.

* August 19

* According to legend, Saul Wahl is deposed. * Polish and Lithuanian nobles elect Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
as their king.

* August 27 – Governor John White leaves the Roanoke Colony
Colony
to get more supplies from England
England
. * October 1 – Shāh ‘Abbās I "The Great" succeeds as Shahanshah of Iran
Iran
. * October 20 Battle of Coutras : Huguenot
Huguenot
forces under Henry of Navarre defeat Royalist forces under Anne de Joyeuse , favorite of King Henry ; Joyeuse is killed. * October 31 Leiden University Library
Leiden University Library
opens its doors, after its founding in 1575 .

Date Unknown

* Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
becomes Daijō-daijin
Daijō-daijin
of Japan
Japan
and concludes the Kyūshū Campaign
Kyūshū Campaign
with the Siege of Kagoshima at which most of Kyushu
Kyushu
is surrendered to him; he banishes European Christian missionaries from the province. * A severe famine breaks out in Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
China. * The first Filipinos in North America land in Morro Bay, near San Luis Obispo, California. * The Rose (theatre) is founded in London by Philip Henslowe . * The chapbook Historia von D. Johann Fausten , printed by Johann Spies in Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, is the first published version of the Faust story. * Everard Digby 's De Arte Natandi, the first treatise on swimming in England, is published. * St. Dominic\'s Church, Macau is established.

1588

This section is transcluded from 1588 . (edit history )

January–June

* February
February
– The Sinhalese abandon the siege of Colombo
Colombo
, capital of Portuguese Ceylon . * February
February
9 – The sudden death of Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz , in the midst of preparations for the Spanish Armada, forces King Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
to re-allocate the command of the fleet. * April 4 – Christian IV becomes king of Denmark–Norway , upon the death of his father, Frederick II . * May
May
12 – Day of the Barricades
Day of the Barricades
in Paris: Henry I, Duke of Guise seizes the city, forcing King Henry III to flee. * May
May
28 – The Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada
, with 130 ships and 30,000 men, begins to set sail from the Tagus
Tagus
estuary, heading for the English Channel (it will take until May
May
30 for all of the ships to leave port).

July–December

* July
July
– King Henry III of France
Henry III of France
capitulates to the Duke of Guise, and returns to Paris. * July
July
31 – The first engagement between the English and Spanish fleets (off of Plymouth
Plymouth
) results in a victory for the English, under command of Lord Howard of Effingham and Sir Francis Drake
Francis Drake
. * August 2 – The English fleet defeats the Spanish fleet, off the Isle of Portland
Isle of Portland
. * August 6 ( July
July
29 Old Style ) – Battle of Gravelines
Gravelines
: The Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada
is defeated by the English naval force off the coast of Gravelines
Gravelines
, in the Spanish Netherlands
Netherlands
(modern France). * August 7 – The English fleet defeats the Spanish fleet off the coast of Flanders. * August 8 August 9 – The Spanish are unable to reach the coast of Flanders, to meet up with the army of the Duke of Parma . The Duke of Medina Sidonia decides to return to Spain. * August 12 – The fleeing Spanish fleet sails past the Firth of Forth , and the English call off their pursuit. Much of the Spanish fleet is destroyed by storms, as it sails for home around Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland . * October 7 – The first biography of Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
(d. 1543 ) is completed by Bernardino Baldi . * December
December
5 – The Order of Augustinian Recollects is formally recognised as a separate province from the Order of Saint Augustine, an event later known as the Día de la Recolección or Day of Recollection. * December
December
23 – Henry III of France
Henry III of France
strikes his ultra-Catholic enemies, having the Duke of Guise and his brother, Louis II, Cardinal of Guise , killed, and holding the Cardinal de Bourbon a prisoner. As a result, large parts of France
France
reject Henry III as their king, forcing him to side with Henry of Navarre .

Date Unknown

* William Morgan\'s Welsh translation of the Bible is published. * The Armada Portrait of Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
is created, to celebrate the English defeat of the Spanish Armada, and to assert the strength of Elizabeth herself.

1589

This section is transcluded from 1589 . (edit history )

January–June

* War of the Three Henrys : In France, the Catholic League is in rebellion against King Henry III , in revenge for his murder of Henry I, Duke of Guise in December
December
1588 . The King makes peace with his old rival, the Huguenot
Huguenot
Henry of Navarre , his designated successor, and together they besiege Paris. * January
January
26 – Job is elected as the first Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia
Russia
. * February
February
26 – Valkendorfs Kollegium is founded in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
, Denmark
Denmark
. * April
April
13 – An English Armada
English Armada
, led by Sir Francis Drake
Francis Drake
and Sir John Norreys
John Norreys
, and largely financed by private investors, sets sail to attack the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
's Atlantic coast, but fails to achieve any naval advantage.

July–December

* August 1 – King Henry III of France
Henry III of France
is stabbed by the fanatical Dominican friar Jacques Clément
Jacques Clément
(who is immediately killed). * August 2 Henry III of France
Henry III of France
dies. His army is thrown into confusion and an intended attack to retake Paris is abandoned. Henry of Navarre succeeds to the throne as King Henry IV of France
France
, but is not recognized by the Catholic League , who acclaim the imprisoned Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon
Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon
, as the rightful King of France, Charles X. * August 20 – King James VI
James VI
of Scotland
Scotland
, the future James I of England, contracts a proxy marriage with the 14-year-old Anne of Denmark
Denmark
at Kronborg
Kronborg
. The formal ceremony takes place on November 23 at the Old Bishop\'s Palace in Oslo . * September
September
21 – Battle of Arques : King Henry IV of France
France
's forces defeat those of the Catholic League , under Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne (younger brother of Henry I, Duke of Guise ). * November 1 – Henry IV of France
France
is repulsed in an attempt to capture Paris from the Catholic League. * December
December
25 ( Christmas Day
Christmas Day
) – The monks of the Pechenga Monastery , the northernmost in the world, are massacred by Swedes , led by a Finnish peasant chief, in the course of the Russo-Swedish War .

Date Unknown

* San Luigi dei Francesi
San Luigi dei Francesi
, Rome, is completed by Domenico Fontana
Domenico Fontana
. * Hiroshima
Hiroshima
is founded, by the Japanese warlord Mōri Terumoto
Mōri Terumoto
. * The Hofbräuhaus is founded, by William V, Duke of Bavaria , in Munich
Munich
.

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REFERENCES

* ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 160–162. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2 . * ^ A B Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 230–233. ISBN 0-304-35730-8 . * ^ A B Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0 . * ^ Roberts, J. (1994). History of the World. Penguin. * ^ A B C D Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 160–162. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2 . * ^ "Catalogue of aërolites and Bolides, from A.D. 2 to A.D. 1860". Meteoritehistory.info. Retrieved 2012-03-26. * ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 230–233. ISBN 0-304-35730-8 . * ^ Moody, Michael E. (2004). "Browne, Robert (1550?–1633)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
. Oxford University Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/3695 . Retrieved 2011-10-10. (subscription or UK public library membership required) * ^ Walton, Timothy (2002). The Spanish Treasure Fleets. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press. p. 80. ISBN 1-56164-049-2 . * ^ "MS. Sloane 3188". The Magickal Review. Archived from the original on April