l> 1570s
The Info List - 1570s

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The 1570s decade ran from January
1, 1570, to December
31, 1579.

Millennium: 2nd millennium


15th century 16th century 17th century


1550s 1560s 1570s 1580s 1590s


1570 1571 1572 1573 1574

1575 1576 1577 1578 1579


Births Deaths By country By topic

Establishments Disestablishments


1 Events

1.1 1570

1.1.1 January–June 1.1.2 July–December 1.1.3 Date unknown

1.2 1571

1.2.1 January–June 1.2.2 July–December 1.2.3 Date unknown

1.3 1572

1.3.1 January–June 1.3.2 July–December 1.3.3 Date unknown

1.4 1573

1.4.1 January–June 1.4.2 July–December 1.4.3 Date unknown

1.5 1574

1.5.1 January–June 1.5.2 July–December 1.5.3 Undated

1.6 1575

1.6.1 January–June 1.6.2 July–December 1.6.3 Date unknown

1.7 1576

1.7.1 January–June 1.7.2 July–December 1.7.3 Date unknown

1.8 1577

1.8.1 January–June 1.8.2 July–December 1.8.3 Date unknown

1.9 1578

1.9.1 January–June 1.9.2 July–December 1.9.3 Date unknown

1.10 1579

1.10.1 January–June 1.10.2 July–December 1.10.3 Date unknown

2 Significant people 3 Births 4 Deaths 5 References

Events[edit] 1570 This section is transcluded from 1570. (edit history) January–June[edit]

January 9 Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible
begins the Massacre of Novgorod. January 23 – The assassination of Scottish regent James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, by James Hamilton (the first recorded assassination using a firearm), throws Scotland
into civil war. February 8 – A magnitude 8.3 earthquake occurs in Concepción, Chile. February 15 Venus
occults Jupiter; this will next happen in 1818. February 25 Pope Pius V
Pope Pius V
excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England, with the bull Regnans in Excelsis. May 20 Abraham Ortelius
Abraham Ortelius
publishes the first modern atlas, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, in Antwerp. June 10 – The Kingdom of Livonia
Kingdom of Livonia
is established.


July 3 – The Ottoman conquest of Cyprus
begins. July 14 Pope Pius V
Pope Pius V
issues Quo primum, promulgating the 1570 edition of the Roman Missal. July 30 Battle of Anegawa
Battle of Anegawa
( Sengoku period
Sengoku period
nihongo 姉川の戦い Ane-gawa no Tatakai near Lake Biwa
Lake Biwa
in Ōmi Province, Japan): The allied forces of Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
and Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
defeat the combined forces of the Azai and Asakura clans. August 8
August 8
– The Peace of Saint-Germain ends the Third War of Religion in France. Again, the Huguenots
are promised religious freedom and political autonomy.

Date unknown[edit]

Spanish conquistador Juan de Salcedo (in the service of Miguel López de Legazpi) begins the conquest of the Kingdom of Maynila. Construction of the original Catedral Nuestra Señora de La Asunción, the oldest church in Venezuela, begins. The Whitechapel Bell Foundry
Whitechapel Bell Foundry
is known to be in existence in London. By 2017, when it closes its premises in Whitechapel, it will be the oldest manufacturing company in Great Britain. Andrea Palladio
Andrea Palladio
publishes I quattro libri dell'architettura
I quattro libri dell'architettura
in Venice. Volcanic eruption
Volcanic eruption
in the Santorini caldera
Santorini caldera
begins. The Andean
population of the Viceroyalty of Peru
Viceroyalty of Peru
reaches 1.3 million.

1571[edit] This section is transcluded from 1571. (edit history) January–June[edit]

January 11 – The Austrian nobility are granted freedom of religion. January 23 – The Royal Exchange opens in London, England. March 18 – The Order of the Knights of Saint John
Order of the Knights of Saint John
transfers the capital of Malta, from Birgu
to Valletta. May 24 Moscow
is burnt by the Crimean army, under Devlet I Giray. June 3 – Following the conquest of the Kingdom of Maynila, Spanish Conquistador
Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
makes Manila
a city, and the capital of the Philippines. June 25 – Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Horncastle, is founded in Lincolnshire, England. June 27 – Jesus College is established "within the City and University of Oxford of Queen Elizabeth's foundation" in England, by Welsh cleric and lawyer Hugh Price.[1]


July 25 St Olave's Grammar School
St Olave's Grammar School
is founded in Tooley Street, London. August 1 – The Ottoman conquest of Cyprus
is concluded, by the surrender of Famagusta. Cyprus
is established as an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, and the first Turkish colony moves into the island. August 29 – Liliw, Laguna, Philippines
is founded by Gat Tayaw, followers and residents as a municipality of Laguna. September 28 – The House of Commons of England
House of Commons of England
introduces the first pro forma bill, symbolizing its authority over its own affairs.[2] October 7 – Battle of Lepanto: Spanish, Venetian, and Papal naval forces, under Don John of Austria, defeat the Turkish fleet of Ali Monizindade Pasha.

Date unknown[edit]

Using mercury in the silver extraction process dramatically increases the output of the Potosí mine; thus begins the great silver flow that links the New and Old Worlds.[3]

1572[edit] This section is transcluded from 1572. (edit history) January–June[edit]

January 16 – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, is tried for treason, for his part in the Ridolfi plot
Ridolfi plot
to restore Catholicism in England. He is executed on June 2.[4] February
Harrow School
Harrow School
is founded, with a royal charter from Queen Elizabeth I of England.[5] February
13 – Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
issues a proclamation which revokes all commissions, on account of the frauds which they had fostered. April 1 – Capture of Brielle: The Sea Beggars, Netherlandish Calvinist
rebels, capture the port city of Brielle. This leads to a wave of uprisings in Holland
and Zealand
against Spanish Habsburg rule, leaving most of those provinces (with the exception of Amsterdam) under rebel control. May 13 Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII
succeeds Pope
Pius V, as the 226th pope. June 25 – The Sea Beggars
Sea Beggars
capture the city of Gorkum; several Roman Catholic priests are imprisoned.


July 9 – The Sea Beggars
Sea Beggars
hang 19 previously imprisoned Roman Catholic priests (the Martyrs of Gorkum) at Brielle. July 11 Humphrey Gilbert
Humphrey Gilbert
leads 1,500 volunteers from England, on an expedition to assist the Sea Beggars.[4] July 19 Wanli Emperor
Wanli Emperor
of China
ascends the throne at the age of nine; he will rule for 48 years. July 29 August 2 – Battle of Molodi: A large Crimean Tatar–Ottoman army which invaded Russia is routed. August 18 Huguenot
King Henry III of Navarre marries Margaret of Valois, sister of King Charles and daughter of Catherine de' Medici, in a supposed attempt to reconcile Protestants
and Catholics in France. August 24 – St. Bartholomew's Day massacre: Catholics in Paris murder thousands of Protestants, including Gaspard de Coligny and Petrus Ramus, at the order of King Charles IX, with Catherine de Medici's connivance. Henry of Navarre and the Prince of Condé barely escape the same fate. This brings about the Fourth War of Religion
Fourth War of Religion
in France. October 20 Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
– Relief of Goes: Soldiers of the Spanish Tercios wade across the estuary of the Scheldt, to relieve the siege of Goes
in the Spanish Netherlands. November

Siege of Sancerre: Catholic forces of the king lay siege to Sancerre, a Huguenot
stronghold in central France. The fortified city holds out for nearly eight months, without bombard artillery. This is one of the last times that slings are used in European warfare. Supernova SN 1572
is first observed in the constellation Cassiopeia, by Cornelius Gemma. Tycho Brahe, who notes it two days later, will use it to challenge the prevailing view that stars do not change.[6] The supernova remnant remains visible through 1574.

– The Siege of Haarlem
Siege of Haarlem
is begun by the Duke of Alva, Spanish commander in the Netherlands. December
23 - Theologian Johann Sylvan
Johann Sylvan
is executed in Heidelberg for his heretical Antitrinitarian beliefs.

Date unknown[edit]

The Neo-Inca State
Neo-Inca State
in Vilcabamba, Peru, the last independent remnant of the Inca Empire, is conquered by Spain. Girolamo Mercuriale
Girolamo Mercuriale
from Forlì
(Italy) writes the work De morbis cutaneis ("On the diseases of the skin"), the first scientific tract on dermatology. Imaginary numbers are defined by Rafael Bombelli. Portugal's national epic Os Lusíadas
Os Lusíadas
by Luís de Camões
Luís de Camões
is first published.[7] Georg Braun
Georg Braun
begins publication of his urban atlas, Civitates orbis terrarum, in Cologne.

1573[edit] This section is transcluded from 1573. (edit history) January–June[edit]

– Articles of the Warsaw Confederation
Warsaw Confederation
are signed, sanctioning religious freedom in Poland. January
25 – Japan
– Battle of Mikatagahara: Takeda Shingen defeats Tokugawa Ieyasu. January
28 – The Croatian–Slovene peasant revolt
Croatian–Slovene peasant revolt
breaks out against the oppressive nobility; the revolt is quelled violently by February
15; Matija Gubec, leader of the rebellion, is publicly executed in Zagreb. February– March
– The Siege of Noda Castle takes place in Japan. March 7 – The Ottoman–Venetian War (1570–1573)
Ottoman–Venetian War (1570–1573)
is ended by a peace treaty, confirming the transfer of control of Cyprus
from the Republic of Venice
to the Ottoman Empire, and also confirming Turkish occupation of the more fertile region of Dalmatia. May 11–16 – The Duke of Anjou is elected to the throne of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, by the Polish nobility. May 26 – Battle of Haarlemmermeer: Geuzen
ships, attempting to break the Siege of Haarlem, are defeated by a combined Spanish and Amsterdam fleet.


July 6 – Córdoba, in the Viceroyalty of Peru, is founded by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera. July 12 – Siege of Haarlem: Spanish forces under the Duke of Alva capture Haarlem, after a seven-month siege. July
– The Edict of Boulogne
Edict of Boulogne
is signed by Charles IX of France, granting limited rights to Huguenots, and ending the Fourth War of Religion in France. August
– Alva begins to besiege Alkmaar
in North Holland. August
27 – Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
drives the 15th Ashikaga shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaki out of Kyoto, effectively destroying the Ashikaga shogunate, and historically ending the Muromachi and Sengoku periods. The Azuchi–Momoyama period
Azuchi–Momoyama period
of Japan
begins. September
8– September 16 – Siege of Hikida Castle, Siege of Ichijōdani Castle in Japan: The Asakura clan
Asakura clan
is eliminated by Oda Nobunaga. September
22– September 26 Siege of Odani Castle in Japan: The Azai clan
Azai clan
is eliminated by Oda Nobunaga. October 8 – The Spanish abandon the siege of the city of Alkmaar. November 15
November 15
– Santa Fe, Argentina, is founded by Juan de Garay. November
– Alva resigns as Spanish Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief in the Netherlands, and is succeeded by Luis de Requesens, who attempts to pursue a more conciliatory policy.

Date unknown[edit]

Sarsa Dengel, emperor of Ethiopia, defeats the Oromo in a battle near Lake Zway. The first Spanish galleon, laden with silver for the porcelain and silk trade with the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
of China, lands at Manila
in the Philippines. This occasion marks the beginning of the Spanish silver trade to China, that will trump that of the Portuguese, the latter of whom acted as an intermediary between the silver mines of Japan, and the luxury items in China
to be purchased with that silver. Most of the silver entering China
comes from what is now Mexico, Bolivia, and Peru
in the New World. The Portuguese are expelled from the Maldives. The Turkish New Hammam (Török Fürdö) is built in Çorum
Province. Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School for Boys, Barnet, England, is formed.

1574[edit] This section is transcluded from 1574. (edit history) January–June[edit]

23 – The fifth War of Religion against the Huguenots
begins in France. April 14 – Battle of Mookerheyde: Spanish forces under Sancho de Avila defeat the rebel forces of Louis of Nassau, who is killed. May 30 – On the death of King Charles IX of France, he is succeeded by his brother King Henry of Poland, who becomes King Henry III of France. His mother, Catherine de' Medici, acts as Regent, until Henry arrives from Poland. June 10 – Manila, Philippines
gains cityhood.


30 – Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das
becomes the fourth of the Sikh gurus. September
– A plot to assassinate John III of Sweden
John III of Sweden
is discovered, headed by Charles de Mornay and implicating Charles Dancay, Hogenskild Bielke, Gustaf Banér, Pontus De la Gardie, Princess Elizabeth of Sweden, Princess Cecilia of Sweden, and Duke Charles.[8] October 3 – The city of Leiden, besieged by the Spanish, is relieved by a Sea Beggars
Sea Beggars
fleet under Louis Boisot. November
22 – The Juan Fernández Islands
Juan Fernández Islands
in the South Pacific Ocean are discovered, by Spanish sailor Juan Fernández. November
29 – Limahong and Juan de Salcedo quarrel during the Battle of Manila. December
Murad III
Murad III
succeeds Selim II, as Ottoman Emperor.


Prince El-Mirza of Kakheti is defeated in his bid for the throne by his half-brother, Alexander II. The Liturgical Battle
Liturgical Battle
between the Reformation and Counter Reformation begins in Sweden, and continues until the Uppsala Synod
Uppsala Synod
of 1593. La Alameda, Seville, is laid out in Spain, as Europe's first public garden.[9]

1575[edit] This section is transcluded from 1575. (edit history) January–June[edit]

21 – Queen Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
grants a monopoly on producing printed sheet music, to Thomas Tallis
Thomas Tallis
and William Byrd.[10] February 8 William I of Orange
William I of Orange
founds Leiden
University. February
13 – Henry III of France
Henry III of France
is crowned at Reims. February
14 – Henry III of France
Henry III of France
marries Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont. June 24 William I of Orange
William I of Orange
marries Charlotte of Bourbon. June 28 – Battle of Nagashino: Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
defeats Takeda Katsuyori in Japan's first modern battle.


7 – Raid of the Redeswire: Sir John Carmichael defeats Sir John Forster, in the last battle between England
and Scotland. July
26 – Edmund Grindal
Edmund Grindal
succeeds Matthew Parker, as Archbishop of Canterbury. August
5 – Henry Sidney
Henry Sidney
is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. October 10 – Battle of Dormans: Catholic forces under Henry I, Duke of Guise defeat the Protestants, capturing Philippe de Mornay
Philippe de Mornay
among others. October 22 – The city of Villa de la Asunsion (today Aguascalientes (Aguascalientes) is founded in New Spain, by permission from Philip II of Spain. December
15 – Stephen Báthory
Stephen Báthory
becomes king of Poland. December
16 – An earthquake hits Valdivia.

Date unknown[edit]

occupy Pernau in western Estonia, and the fortress of Weissenstein. Portugal
founds the city of Luanda, Angola. The seat of the Audiencia Real
Audiencia Real
in Chile
moves from Concepción to Santiago. Abraham Ortelius
Abraham Ortelius
becomes geographer to Philip II of Spain. The bubonic plague decimates Venice. Gaspar da Cruz, a Portuguese Dominican friar, writes about his travels to the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
of China, including the Chinese civil service handbook The Bureaucratic System of the Ming Dynasty, and how the Chinese draw lots, to determine which days of the year are most auspicious or most ill-fated to travel upon.

1576[edit] This section is transcluded from 1576. (edit history) January–June[edit]

20 – Viceroy Martín Enríquez de Almanza founds the settlement of León, Guanajuato
León, Guanajuato
in New Spain
(modern-day Mexico). January
25 – Portuguese explorer Paulo Dias de Novais founds the settlement of São Paulo da Assumpção de Loanda on the western coast of Africa, which becomes Luanda. May 5 – The Edict of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after "Monsieur", the Duke of Anjou, brother of the King, Henry III of France, who negotiated it) ends the Fifth War of Religion
Fifth War of Religion
in France. Protestants
are again granted freedom of worship.


July 11 – English navigator Martin Frobisher
Martin Frobisher
sights Greenland. August
11 – English navigator Martin Frobisher, on his search for the Northwest Passage, enters the bay now named after him. October
– the Siege of Takabaru occurs in Japan, when the forces of Shimazu Takahisa besiege and take the fortress of Takabaru, which belonged to the Itō clan. November
2 – Rudolf II
Rudolf II
becomes Holy Roman Emperor. November
4 – Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
– Sack of Antwerp: In the Low Countries, mutinous Spanish soldiers sack Antwerp; after three days the city is nearly destroyed. November
8 – Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
– Pacification of Ghent: The States General of the Netherlands meet and unite to oppose pillaging Spanish mutineers. December

The States-General of Blois
declares itself against the Edict of Beaulieu, beginning the Sixth War of Religion
Sixth War of Religion
in France. James Burbage
James Burbage
opens London's first permanent public playhouse, The Theatre.[11]

14 – Hungarian Transylvanian Prince Stephen Báthory
Stephen Báthory
is elected king of Poland.

Date unknown[edit]

The 1576
Cocoliztli epidemic causes millions of deaths in the territory of New Spain, in modern-day Mexico. An early example of autobiography is written in English, by Thomas Whythorne. The Loci Communes of Peter Martyr Vermigli
Peter Martyr Vermigli
(d. 1562), edited by Robert le Maçon, are published in London. The following schools are founded in England:

Dartford Grammar School, by William d'Aeth, Edward Gwyn and William Vaughn. Sutton Valence School, by William Lambe.

Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski
Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski
founds Ostroh Academy, the first university-level school in Eastern Europe.

1577[edit] This section is transcluded from 1577. (edit history) January–June[edit]

January 9 – The second Union of Brussels
Union of Brussels
is formed, first without the Protestant counties of Holland
and Zeeland
(which is accepted by King Philip II of Spain), later with the Protestants, which means open rebellion of the whole of the Netherlands. March 17 – The Cathay Company is formed, to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World
New World
for more gold. May 28 – The Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran
confessional writings, is published. The earlier version, known as the Torgau Book (1576), had been condensed into an Epitome; both documents are part of the 1580 Book of Concord.


17 – The Treaty of Bergerac is signed between Henry III of France
and the Huguenots. November
– The Great Comet of 1577
is observed from Earth. December
13 – Francis Drake
Francis Drake
leaves Plymouth, England, aboard the Pelican, with four other ships and 164 men, on an expedition against the Spanish, along the Pacific coast
Pacific coast
of the Americas, which will become a circumnavigation.

Date unknown[edit]

Supposed massacre of the MacDonald inhabitants of the Scottish island of Eigg, by the Clan MacLeod. The church in San Pedro de Atacama
San Pedro de Atacama
is built, in the Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert
in Chile.

1578[edit] This section is transcluded from 1578. (edit history) January–June[edit]

31 – Battle of Gembloux: Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch; Farnese begins to recover control of the French-speaking Southern Netherlands. April 27 – The Duel of the Mignons
Duel of the Mignons
claims the lives of two favorites of Henry III of France, and two favourites of Henry I, Duke of Guise. May 26 – The Alteratie
in Amsterdam
ends Catholic rule, and open Catholic worship there. May 31 Martin Frobisher
Martin Frobisher
sails from Harwich, England
to Frobisher Bay, Canada, on his third expedition.


Martin Frobisher
Martin Frobisher
holds the first Thanksgiving
celebration by Europeans in North America, on Newfoundland. He ships ore, which proves to be valueless fool's gold, which can only be used as road metal in London. August
4 – Battle of Alcácer Quibir
Battle of Alcácer Quibir
in North Africa: The Moors defeat King Sebastian of Portugal, who is killed, leaving his elderly uncle, Cardinal Henry, as his heir, initiating a succession crisis in Portugal. August
20– September
6 – Francis Drake, during his circumnavigation of the globe, passes through the Strait of Magellan
Strait of Magellan
in his ship, the newly renamed Golden Hind.[12] October
1 – Alessandro Farnese succeeds Don John, as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands. October
21 - Battle of Wenden: The Russians
are defeated by the Swedes, who proceed to take Polotsk.

Date unknown[edit]

Battle of the Spoiling Dyke
Battle of the Spoiling Dyke
at Trumpan
in northwest Scotland: the Clan MacLeod are victorious over the MacDonalds of Uist. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
conquers Abkhazia. Sarsa Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia, kills Bahr negus Yeshaq, finally ending his rebellion. Sonam Gyrso receives from Prince Atlan Khan the title of Talaï, and becomes the third Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
of Tibet. The last outbreak of sweating sickness occurs in England. The Portuguese assist Lord Ōmura Sumitada, the first Christian Japanese diamyo, in repulsing an assault on Nagasaki
by the Ryūzōji clan.

1579[edit] This section is transcluded from 1579. (edit history) January–June[edit]

6 – The Union of Atrecht
Union of Atrecht
unites the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. January 23 – The Union of Utrecht
Union of Utrecht
unites the northern Netherlands in a confederation called the United Provinces. William I of Orange becomes Stadtholder, and the Duc d'Anjou, younger brother of Henry III of France, is invited to become hereditary sovereign. March
is captured by the Spanish under Parma. May 25 Japan
– Battle of Mimaomote: Doi Kiyonaga defeats the forces of Kumu Yorinobu. June 17 – Francis Drake, during his circumnavigation of the world, lands in what is now California, which he claims for Queen Elizabeth I. With an English claim here and in Newfoundland, it becomes the basis for English colonial charters which will claim all land from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from "sea to sea." Drake's claim is called "Nova Albion" (New England), and subsequent maps will show all lands north of New Spain
and New Mexico
under this name. July
16 – James FitzMaurice FitzGerald lands with a small force of Irish, Spanish, and Italian troops at Smerwick, on the Dingle Peninsula in south-western Ireland, and commences the Second Desmond Rebellion against the rule in Ireland of Elizabeth I of England.


13 – Karlovac, Croatia is founded.

Date unknown[edit]

abolishes jizya. The municipality of Boac in Marinduque, Philippines
is founded. The Bible of Kralice
Bible of Kralice
begins publication. The first complete translation of the Bible into the Czech language
Czech language
(with notes), it is prepared by the Unity of the Brethren, and published at Kralice nad Oslavou, Bohemia.

Significant people[edit]

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. ( March


Abbas I, the strongest king of Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
(1571-1629) Thomas Wintour, conspirator of the failed Gunpowder Plot
Gunpowder Plot
( 1571
or 1572-1606) Mateo Romero, Baroque composer (1575-1647)


This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. ( March


^ Hibbert, Christopher, ed. (1988). The Encyclopædia of Oxford. London: Macmillan. p. 198. ISBN 0-333-39917-X.  ^ "The Library of Parliament's research tool for finding information on legislation". Library of Parliament. 2010-01-28. Archived from the original on February
2, 2010. Retrieved 28 January
2010.  ^ "Epic World History: Potosí ( Silver
Mines of Colonial Peru)". epicworldhistory.blogspot.com. 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015. In 1571, after numerous trials, the Spanish perfected the techniques for refining Potosí’s silver ore with Huancavelica's mercury, prompting Viceroy Francisco de Toledo to gush that the union of the two mines would create the world’s greatest marriage.  ^ a b Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 226–229. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.  ^ Tyerman, Christopher (2000). A History of Harrow School. Oxford University Press. pp. 8–17. ISBN 0-19-822796-5.  ^ University of Otago
University of Otago
Library exhibition note for The Earth
& Beyond; Allen, R. H. Star
Names: their Lore and Meaning, Bill Thayer's edition at LacusCurtius, "Cassiopeia." ^ "The Lusiads". World Digital Library. 1800–1882. Retrieved 2013-08-31.  ^ Karin Tegenborg Falkdalen (2010). Vasadöttrarna ['The Vasa Daughters']. Falun: Historiska Media. ISBN 978-91-85873-87-6 (In Swedish) ^ Albardonedo Freire, Antonio José (2002). El urbanismo de Sevilla durante el reinado de Felipe II. Sevilla: Guadalquivir. pp. 191–208. ISBN 84-8093-115-9.  ^ "Thomas Tallis". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.  ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 156–159. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.  ^ "Voyage of the Golden Hind". The Golden Hind. Brixham. 2012. Retrieved


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