10th millennium BC spanned the years 10000 through 9001 BC. It
marks the beginning of the
which is the first part of the
Holocene epoch. Agriculture, based on
the cultivation of primitive forms of millet and rice, occurred in
Southwest Asia.[page needed] Although agriculture was being
developed in the Fertile Crescent, it would not be widely practiced
for another 2,000 years.
The world population was between one and ten million people, most
of whom were hunter-gatherer communities scattered over all continents
Antarctica and Zealandia. The
Würm glaciation ended, and the
beginning interglacial, which endures to this day, allowed the
re-settlement of northern regions.
1.1 Old World
1.2.1 North America
2 Environmental changes
3 Chronological studies
4 See also
Göbekli Tepe, Şanlıurfa, 2011
The Stone Age
Late Stone Age
Control of fire
Middle Stone Age
Recent African origin of modern humans
Late Stone Age
Behavioral modernity, Atlatl,
Origin of the domestic dog
Microliths, Bow, Canoe
c. 10,000 BC: First cave drawings of the
Mesolithic period are made,
with war scenes and religious scenes.
c. 10,000 BC:
Bottle Gourd is domesticated and used as a carrying
c. 10,000 BC: The end of the most recent glaciation.
c. 9700 BC:
Younger Dryas cold period and the
Pleistocene epoch ends,
start of the
c. 9500 BC: There is evidence of harvesting, though not necessarily
cultivation, of wild grasses in
Asia Minor about this time.
c. 9500 BC: First building phase of the temple complex at Göbekli
c. 9300 BC: Figs were apparently cultivated in the Jordan River
c. 9100 BC: Oldest known megaliths are created at the Göbekli Tepe
temple complexes, some up to 20 tons
c. 9000 BC:
Neolithic culture began in Ancient Near East.
c. 9000 BC: Near East: First stone structures at
Jericho are built.
Asia: Cave sites near the
Caspian Sea are inhabited by humans.
Africa: Wall paintings found in
Eritrea depict human
activity; some of the older paintings are thought to date back to
around 10,000 BC.
Azilian (Painted Pebble Culture) people occupy northern Spain
and Southern France.
Magdalenian culture flourishes and creates cave paintings in
Solutrean culture begins horse hunting.
Egypt: Early sickle blades and grain grinding stones appear 
Jordan: Wadi Faynan (WF16): large, oval-shaped building. Early farmers
lived here between 9,600 and 8,200 BC, cultivating wild plants such as
wild barley, pistachio, and fig trees, and hunting or herding wild
goats, cattle, and gazelle.
Kurdistan region in Iran: Zagros mountains near Kermanshah: very early
agriculture (wheat, barley).
Syria: Jerf el-Ahmar, occupied between 9200 and 8700 BC.
Jōmon people use pottery, fish, hunt and gather acorns,
nuts and edible seeds. There are 10,000 known sites.
Mesopotamia: People begin to collect wild wheat and barley probably to
make malt then beer.
Norway: First traces of population in Randaberg.
Persia: The goat is domesticated.
Sahara: Bubalus Period.
Paleo-Indian hunter-gatherer societies live nomadically in the
Blackwater Draw forms in eastern New Mexico, evincing human activity
Folsom people flourish throughout the Southwestern United States
Settlement at the Tanu site in the
Queen Charlotte Islands
Queen Charlotte Islands of
British Columbia begins, starting the longest continual
occupation in territory now belonging to Canada
Petroglyphs at Winnemucca Lake in what is today northwest
carved by this time, possibly as early as 12.8 kya to as late as 8,500
Indigenous Australian peoples hunter-gather societies live nomadically
in the countryside
Arnhem land-bridge floods over and
Northern Australia is separated
from Papua New Guinea
Aboriginal diet and land shift after great flooding, many Aboriginal
people shift from land hunting such as the staple kangaroo and begin
to fish on the new accessible coasts. Fish and turtles enter into
The multi-purpose boomerang disappears from use in
Arnhem Land and
northern indigenous communities
c. 10,000 BC:
North America: Dire wolf, Smilodon, giant beaver, ground sloth, giant
Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi), woolly mammoth, mastodons,
giant short-faced bear, American cheetah, scimitar cats (Homotherium),
American camels, American horses, and American lions all become
Long Island becomes an island when waters break through on the western
end to the interior lake
Bering land bridge
Bering land bridge from
North America covered
Europe: Permanent ecological change. The savannah-dwelling reindeer,
Paleolithic hunters withdraw to the sub-Arctic, leaving the
rest to forest animals like deer, aurochs, and
Allerod oscillation brings transient improvement in climate;
sea levels rise abruptly and massive inland flooding occurs due to
c. 9700 BC:
Lake Agassiz forms
c. 9700 BC:
Younger Dryas cold period ends;
Pleistocene ends and
Paleolithic ends and
Mesolithic begins; Large amounts
of previously glaciated land become habitable again
Holocene calendar, devised by
Cesare Emiliani in 1993, places its
epoch at 10,000 BC (with the year 2018 being rendered as 12018 HE).
Quaternary extinction event
^ Roberts (1994)
^ Data from History Database of the Global Environment. K. Klein
Goldewijk, A. Beusen and P. Janssen, "HYDE 3.1: Long-term dynamic
modeling of global population and built-up area in a spatially
explicit way" in the Abstract (With a total global population increase
from 2 to 6145 million people over that time span [10,000BC to
2,000AD]), Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP),
Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
^ Kislev et al. (2006a, b), Lev-Yadun et al. (2006)
^ Pankhurst, Richard (1998). The Ethiopians. Oxford: Blackwell
Publishers Ltd. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-631-18468-3.
^ Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First
Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers
^ "First Buildings May Have Been Community Centers", Science, 2 May
^ "Farming Got Hip In Iran Some 12,000 Years Ago, Ancient Seeds
Reveal", 5 July 2013
^ Ker Than (15 August 2013). "Oldest North American Rock Art May Be
14,800 Years Old". National Geographic. Retrieved 16 August
Kislev, Mordechai E.; Hartmann, Anat & Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2006a):
"Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley". Science 312(5778):
1372. doi:10.1126/science.1125910 PMID 16741119 (HTML abstract)
Supporting Online Material
Kislev, Mordechai E.; Hartmann, Anat & Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2006b):
"Response to Comment on 'Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan
Valley'". Science 314(5806): 1683b. doi:10.1126/science.1133748 PDF
Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Abbo, Shahal & Flaishman, Moshe
A. (2006): "Comment on 'Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley'".
Science 314(5806): 1683a. doi:10.1126/science.1132636 PDF fulltext
Roberts, J. (1994): History of the World. Penguin.
CE / AD
11th and beyond
BCE / BC
201st and prior
200th to 11th