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The 10th millennium BC spanned the years 10000 through 9001 BC. It marks the beginning of the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
and Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
periods, which is the first part of the Holocene
Holocene
epoch. Agriculture, based on the cultivation of primitive forms of millet and rice, occurred in Southwest Asia.[1][page needed] Although agriculture was being developed in the Fertile Crescent, it would not be widely practiced for another 2,000 years.[citation needed] The world population was between one and ten million people,[2] most of whom were hunter-gatherer communities scattered over all continents except Antarctica
Antarctica
and Zealandia. The Würm glaciation
Würm glaciation
ended, and the beginning interglacial, which endures to this day, allowed the re-settlement of northern regions.

Contents

1 Events

1.1 Old World 1.2 Americas

1.2.1 North America

1.3 Australasia

1.3.1 Australia

2 Environmental changes 3 Chronological studies 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 References

Events[edit]

Göbekli Tepe, Şanlıurfa, 2011

The Stone Age

↑ before Homo
Homo
(Pliocene)

Paleolithic

Lower Paleolithic Late Stone Age

Homo Control of fire Stone tools

Middle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age

Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humans

Upper Paleolithic Late Stone Age

Behavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dog

Epipaleolithic Mesolithic

Microliths, Bow, Canoe

Natufian Khiamian Tahunian Heavy Neolithic Shepherd Neolithic Trihedral Neolithic Pre- Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic

Neolithic

Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution, Domestication

Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic

Pottery

↓ Chalcolithic

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c. 10,000 BC: First cave drawings of the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
period are made, with war scenes and religious scenes. c. 10,000 BC: Bottle Gourd
Bottle Gourd
is domesticated and used as a carrying vessel. c. 10,000 BC: The end of the most recent glaciation. c. 9700 BC: Younger Dryas
Younger Dryas
cold period and the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch ends, start of the Holocene
Holocene
epoch. c. 9500 BC: There is evidence of harvesting, though not necessarily cultivation, of wild grasses in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
about this time. c. 9500 BC: First building phase of the temple complex at Göbekli Tepe. c. 9300 BC: Figs were apparently cultivated in the Jordan River valley.[3] c. 9100 BC: Oldest known megaliths are created at the Göbekli Tepe temple complexes, some up to 20 tons c. 9000 BC: Neolithic
Neolithic
culture began in Ancient Near East. c. 9000 BC: Near East: First stone structures at Jericho
Jericho
are built.

Old World[edit]

Asia: Cave sites near the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
are inhabited by humans. Africa: Wall paintings found in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Eritrea
Eritrea
depict human activity; some of the older paintings are thought to date back to around 10,000 BC.[4] Europe: Azilian
Azilian
(Painted Pebble Culture) people occupy northern Spain and Southern France. Europe: Magdalenian
Magdalenian
culture flourishes and creates cave paintings in France. Europe: Solutrean
Solutrean
culture begins horse hunting. Egypt: Early sickle blades and grain grinding stones appear [5] Jordan: Wadi Faynan (WF16): large, oval-shaped building. Early farmers lived here between 9,600 and 8,200 BC, cultivating wild plants such as wild barley, pistachio, and fig trees, and hunting or herding wild goats, cattle, and gazelle.[6] Kurdistan region in Iran: Zagros mountains near Kermanshah: very early agriculture (wheat, barley).[7] Syria: Jerf el-Ahmar, occupied between 9200 and 8700 BC. Japan: The Jōmon
Jōmon
people use pottery, fish, hunt and gather acorns, nuts and edible seeds. There are 10,000 known sites. Mesopotamia: People begin to collect wild wheat and barley probably to make malt then beer. Norway: First traces of population in Randaberg. Persia: The goat is domesticated. Sahara: Bubalus Period.

Americas[edit] North America[edit]

Paleo-Indian
Paleo-Indian
hunter-gatherer societies live nomadically in the countryside Blackwater Draw
Blackwater Draw
forms in eastern New Mexico, evincing human activity Folsom people flourish throughout the Southwestern United States Settlement at the Tanu site in the Queen Charlotte Islands
Queen Charlotte Islands
of modern-day British Columbia
British Columbia
begins, starting the longest continual occupation in territory now belonging to Canada[citation needed] Petroglyphs at Winnemucca Lake in what is today northwest Nevada
Nevada
were carved by this time, possibly as early as 12.8 kya to as late as 8,500 BC[8]

Australasia[edit] Australia[edit]

Indigenous Australian peoples hunter-gather societies live nomadically in the countryside Arnhem land-bridge floods over and Northern Australia
Northern Australia
is separated from Papua New Guinea Aboriginal diet and land shift after great flooding, many Aboriginal people shift from land hunting such as the staple kangaroo and begin to fish on the new accessible coasts. Fish and turtles enter into indigenous art The multi-purpose boomerang disappears from use in Arnhem Land
Arnhem Land
and northern indigenous communities

Environmental changes[edit] c. 10,000 BC:

North America: Dire wolf, Smilodon, giant beaver, ground sloth, giant Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi), woolly mammoth, mastodons, giant short-faced bear, American cheetah, scimitar cats (Homotherium), American camels, American horses, and American lions all become extinct

Long Island
Long Island
becomes an island when waters break through on the western end to the interior lake

Bering Sea: Bering land bridge
Bering land bridge
from Siberia
Siberia
to North America
North America
covered in water Europe: Permanent ecological change. The savannah-dwelling reindeer, bison, and Paleolithic
Paleolithic
hunters withdraw to the sub-Arctic, leaving the rest to forest animals like deer, aurochs, and Mesolithic
Mesolithic
foragers (1967 McEvedy) World: Allerod oscillation brings transient improvement in climate; sea levels rise abruptly and massive inland flooding occurs due to glacier melt

c. 9700 BC: Lake Agassiz
Lake Agassiz
forms c. 9700 BC: Younger Dryas
Younger Dryas
cold period ends; Pleistocene
Pleistocene
ends and Holocene
Holocene
begins; Paleolithic
Paleolithic
ends and Mesolithic
Mesolithic
begins; Large amounts of previously glaciated land become habitable again Chronological studies[edit]

The Holocene
Holocene
calendar, devised by Cesare Emiliani in 1993, places its epoch at 10,000 BC (with the year 2018 being rendered as 12018 HE).

See also[edit]

Quaternary extinction event

Footnotes[edit]

^ Roberts (1994) ^ Data from History Database of the Global Environment. K. Klein Goldewijk, A. Beusen and P. Janssen, "HYDE 3.1: Long-term dynamic modeling of global population and built-up area in a spatially explicit way" in the Abstract (With a total global population increase from 2 to 6145 million people over that time span [10,000BC to 2,000AD]), Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP), Bilthoven, The Netherlands. ^ Kislev et al. (2006a, b), Lev-Yadun et al. (2006) ^ Pankhurst, Richard (1998). The Ethiopians. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-631-18468-3.  ^ Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers ^ "First Buildings May Have Been Community Centers", Science, 2 May 2011. ^ "Farming Got Hip In Iran Some 12,000 Years Ago, Ancient Seeds Reveal", 5 July 2013 ^ Ker Than (15 August 2013). "Oldest North American Rock Art May Be 14,800 Years Old". National Geographic. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 

References[edit]

Kislev, Mordechai E.; Hartmann, Anat & Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2006a): "Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley". Science 312(5778): 1372. doi:10.1126/science.1125910 PMID 16741119 (HTML abstract) Supporting Online Material Kislev, Mordechai E.; Hartmann, Anat & Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2006b): "Response to Comment on 'Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley'". Science 314(5806): 1683b. doi:10.1126/science.1133748 PDF fulltext Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Abbo, Shahal & Flaishman, Moshe A. (2006): "Comment on 'Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley'". Science 314(5806): 1683a. doi:10.1126/science.1132636 PDF fulltext Roberts, J. (1994): History of the World. Penguin.

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Millennia

CE / AD

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th and beyond

BCE / BC

201st and prior 200th to 11th 10th 9th 8th 7th 6th 5

.