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The 10th century
10th century
is the period from 901
901
to 1000
1000
in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the last century of the 1st millennium. In China
China
the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
was established. The Muslim
Muslim
World experienced a cultural zenith, especially in al-Andalus under the Caliphate of Córdoba. Additionally, it was the zenith for the Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires. Medievalist and historian of technology Lynn White said that "to the modern eye, it is very nearly the darkest of the Dark Ages", but concluded that ". . . if it was dark, it was the darkness of the womb."[1] Similarly, Helen Waddell wrote that the 10th century
10th century
was that which "in the textbooks disputes with the seventh the bad eminence, the nadir of the human intellect."[2] In the 15th century, Lorenzo Valla
Lorenzo Valla
described it as the Century
Century
of Lead and Iron and later Cardinal Baronius as the Leaden Century
Century
or Iron Century. One estimate said that the tenth century saw fewer deaths in war (as a percentage of the total population) than any other century since 3000 BC.[3]

Contents

1 Events

1.1 Africa 1.2 Americas 1.3 Eurasia

1.3.1 Asia 1.3.2 Europe

1.4 Oceania

2 Significant people

2.1 Africa 2.2 Americas 2.3 Eurasia and Eastern Roman Empire 2.4 Asia 2.5 Europe 2.6 Oceania

3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Notes 5 Further reading

Events[edit]

This statue of a yogini goddess was created in Kaveripakkam in Tamil Nadu, India, during the 10th century.

The beginning of the Medieval Warm Period The Byzantine empire
Byzantine empire
reaches the height of its military and economic strength

Africa[edit]

c. 909: The Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
arises in eastern Algeria. c. 948: The Nri Kingdom
Nri Kingdom
in what is now Southeastern Nigeria
Nigeria
starts. c. 980: Al-Azhar University
Al-Azhar University
is established in Cairo
Cairo
by the Fatimid dynasty. The Christian Nubian kingdom reaches its peak of prosperity and military power (Early history of Sudan)

Americas[edit]

Collapse of the central lowland Maya civilization. Post-Classic Maya period begins. Chichen Itza
Chichen Itza
becomes a regional capital on the Yucatán Peninsula Rise of the Toltecs in Mexico Golden age of the Ancestral Puebloans (Pueblo II Era) The Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
begins in present-day Southern United States In 987
987
Ah Mekat Tutul Xiu unified Uxmal, Mayapan, and Chichen Itza founding The League of Mayapan.

Eurasia[edit]

Khazar kingdom is attacked and defeated by Kievan Rus
Kievan Rus
(965)

Asia[edit]

Divided China, 923

Buddhist
Buddhist
temple construction commences at Bagan, Burma In 907, Zhu Quanzhong
Zhu Quanzhong
deposes Emperor Ai of Tang and establishes a new Later Liang dynasty. In 907, Sumbing volcano erupts, according to Rukam inscription. In 907, King Balitung creates the Mantyasih inscription containing the list of Medang kings, moves the capital from Mamrati to Poh Pitu, and expands Prambanan temple. In 910, Parantaka I
Parantaka I
of the Chola Dynasty
Chola Dynasty
drives out the Pandyan from southern India
India
into Lanka (now Sri Lanka), which he also eventually conquers. In 914, The Warmadewa dynasty
Warmadewa dynasty
rules Bali.[4] (to 1080) In 919, the first use of gunpowder in battle occurs with the Chinese Battle of Langshan Jiang (Wolf Mountain River), where the Wuyue
Wuyue
naval fleet under Qian Yuanguan defeats the Wu fleet. Qian had used flamethrowers ignited by gunpowder fuses to burn the Wu fleet. In 928, Ziyarid dynasty
Ziyarid dynasty
is established in northern Iran. In 928, During the reign of King Wawa, the capital of Medang Kingdom in Mataram is devastated, probably by the massive eruption of Mount Merapi. In 929, Mpu Sindok moves the seat of power of the Medang Kingdom
Medang Kingdom
from Mataram in Central Java
Central Java
to Tamwlang in East Java
East Java
and establishes Isyana Dynasty. The shift is probably as a result of the eruption of Mount Merapi
Mount Merapi
and/or invasion from Srivijaya.[5] In 930s, Persian Shia
Shia
Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
establishes and controls central and western part of Iran
Iran
as well as most of Iraq. In 936, Goryeo Dynasty
Goryeo Dynasty
unifies Later Three Kingdoms of Korea. In 937, Mpu Sindok moves the capital again from Tamwlang to Watugaluh, both near bank of Brantas River
Brantas River
in modern Jombang in East Java. In 960, Zhao Kuangyin
Zhao Kuangyin
establishes Song dynasty. In 960 Seljuks convert to Islam. In 975, Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
dynasty, as the first Turk Sultanate, was established in Central Asia. In 979, Song dynasty
Song dynasty
reunites China. In 980's, Dynastic marriage between princess Mahendradatta of Javanese Isyanas and king Udayana of Balinese Warmadewas. Coastal cities on the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
are the seed for the first recorded Malay kingdoms In 990, King Dharmawangsa of Medang kingdom launches a naval invasion on Palembang
Palembang
in an unsuccessful attempt to conquer Srivijaya. (to 1006) In 990, Airlangga, son of King Udayana and Queen Mahendradatta was born in Bali. In 996, Dharmawangsa commissioned the translation of the Mahabharata into Old Javanese.[6] In 999, Samanid dynasty
Samanid dynasty
was defeated and conquered by Ghaznavids.

Europe[edit]

The Bulgarian victory at Anchialos.

Painting of Mieszko I of Poland
Mieszko I of Poland
(by Jan Matejko).

Painting of Volodymyr I of Kiev
Volodymyr I of Kiev
and Rohnida (by Anton Losenko).

Viking
Viking
groups settle in northern France 907: Loire Vikings overrun Brittany; Breton court flees to the England of Edward the Elder. The Norse become Normans The Hungarian army destroys the Bavarian forces under duke Liutpold and king Louis the Child
Louis the Child
in the Battle of Pressburg. All the German force is annihilated. 911: Rollo
Rollo
granted County of Rouen
County of Rouen
by France: official foundation of Normandy. Foundation of Cluny, first federated monastic order Emperor Simeon the Great solidifies the First Bulgarian Empire
First Bulgarian Empire
as one of the most powerful states in Europe In 917
917
(20 August 917) the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
destroyed the Byzantine army in the Battle of Anchialus, one of the bloodiest battles in the Middle Ages 927: official recognition of the first independent national Church in Europe, the Bulgarian Patriarchate 927: Kingdom of England
England
becomes a unified state. c. 936: Gorm the Old
Gorm the Old
becomes the first recognized king of Denmark, and thus the Danish Monarchy
Monarchy
is founded. 936: Alan II, with support from Æthelstan, commences the reconquest of Brittany. 955
955
The Battle of Lechfeld (10 August 955) sees a decisive victory for Otto I
Otto I
the Great, King of the Germans, over the Hungarian harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél (Lehel) and Súr. Incursions of Magyar (Hungarian) cavalry throughout Western Europe
Europe
(47 expeditions in Germany, Italy
Italy
and France, 899–970) Mieszko I, first duke of Poland, baptised a Christian in 966 Collapse of Great Moravia The medieval Croatian state becomes a unified kingdom under King Tomislav Swedish influence extends to the Black Sea Volodymyr I, Prince of Kievan Rus', baptised a Christian in 988 Reindeer
Reindeer
and bears become extinct in Britain Lions become extinct in Europe
Europe
by this date, with the last dying in Caucasus. Second half of the 10th century
10th century
– Page with David the Psalmist, from the Paris
Paris
Psalter, is made. It is now kept at Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris. Late 10th or early 11th century
11th century
– Archangel Michail, icon, is made. It is now kept at Treasury of the Cathedral of Saint Mark, Venice

Oceania[edit]

Formation of the Tu'i Tonga Empire
Tu'i Tonga Empire
and of the Tuʻi Tonga
Tuʻi Tonga
dynasty in Tonga

Significant people[edit]

Half-section of the Night Revels of Han Xizai, by Chinese artist Gu Hongzhong, 10th century. A woman is seen entertaining guests with a pipa on the right-hand side.

Africa[edit]

Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, founder of the Fatimid
Fatimid
dynasty of Egypt in 909

Americas[edit]

Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl, semi-legendaric Toltec
Toltec
ruler, (exact years of his life are unknown)

Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl, known as Kukulkan
Kukulkan
in Yucatán.

Ah Mekat Tutul Xiu founded The League of Mayapan
Mayapan
in 987.

Eurasia and Eastern Roman Empire[edit]

Nicephorus II, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
(lived 912–969, reigned 963–969) John I Tzimisces, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
(lived 925–976, reigned 969–976) Basil II, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, (lived 958–1025, reigned 976–1025)

Asia[edit]

The HIndu god Ganesha, made of sandstone, and discovered in Cambodia. Birmingham Museum of Art.

Adikavi Pampa an early Kannada language
Kannada language
poet (born in 902) Ranna, an early Kannada language
Kannada language
poet from India, (born in 949) Huyan Zan, Chinese general (died in 1000) Li Cheng, Chinese landscape painter Tailapa II, re-established the Western Chalukya Empire
Western Chalukya Empire
of India (reigned 973–997) Zhang Sixun, Chinese astronomer and mechanical engineer Ferdowsi, Persian poet Li Fang, Chinese scholar and encyclopedist (925–996) Emperor Taizu of Song, founder of the Chinese Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(lived March 21, 927–November 14, 976, reigned 960–976) Parantaka I, ruler of the Chola Dynasty
Chola Dynasty
of India
India
– Tamil King (reigned 907–950) Raja Raja Chola I, ruler of the Chola Dynasty
Chola Dynasty
of India
India
– Tamil King Avicenna, one of the foremost physician and philosopher of Medieval Era(c. 980
980
- 1037).[7] Al-Farabi, a Muslim
Muslim
polymath and one of the greatest scientists and philosophers (c. 872
872
– between 14 December, 950
950
and 12 January, 951).[8] Alhazen, a Muslim
Muslim
scientist and mathematician, ( 965
965
in Basra - c. 1039 in Cairo) Abu Rayhan Biruni, a Muslim
Muslim
scientist, (born 5 September 973
973
in Kath, Khwarezm, died 13 December 1048 in Ghazni) Taejo of Goryeo, founder of the Korean Goryeo Dynasty
Goryeo Dynasty
(lived January 31, 877 – July 4, 943, reigned 918–943)

Europe[edit]

Almanzor
Almanzor
of Córdoba

Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, united Norway
Norway
in 872
872
and remained its ruler until 933. One of the most powerful lords of Europe
Europe
at the time. Vladimir I, Prince of Kievan Rus
Kievan Rus
(lived 958–1015) Tomislav, king of Croatia, united the medieval Croatian state into the Kingdom of Croatia, crowned in 925 Abd-ar-Rahman III
Abd-ar-Rahman III
of Cordoba Almanzor, ruler of Cordoba (lived c. 938
938
– August 8 1002, reigned 978–1002) Simeon the Great, Emperor of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(reigned 893–927) Otto I
Otto I
the Great, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
(lived 23 November 912
912
– 7 May 973, reigned 936–973) King Edmund I of England
England
(lived 921–946, reigned 939–946) Hugh Capet
Hugh Capet
(lived 938–996), first Capetian King of France Géza of Hungary, ruler of the Magyars
Magyars
(lived 940–997, reigned 970–997) Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
(lived 955–983, reigned 973–983) Theophanu, wife of Otto II, mother and Regent
Regent
of Otto III, (lived 956–991, reigned 983–991) Tsar
Tsar
Samuil of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(lived 958–1014, reigned 976–1014) Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
(lived 980–1002, reigned 983–1002) Erik the Red
Erik the Red
(born c. 950
950
- died c. 1003), Norwegian explorer, founded Greenland Leif Eiriksson, Norwegian explorer, son of Erik the Red, made the first European attempt to settle in America. Olav Tryggvason
Olav Tryggvason
becomes the first king to try to Christianize Norway, dies at the Battle of Svolder
Battle of Svolder
in 1000.

Oceania[edit]

'Aho'eitu (early 10th century), first king of the Tuʻi Tonga

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

Earliest known representation of a gun (a fire lance) and a grenade (upper right), from the cave murals of Dunhuang, China, 10th century.

List of 9th-10th centuries inventions 10th century- 12th century
12th century
- Seated Guaryin Bodhisattva, is made. Liao dynasty. It is now kept at The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. Construction begins on the Brihadeeswarar Temple
Brihadeeswarar Temple
of India, during the reign of Rajaraja Chola I The first pound lock is invented by the Chinese engineer Qiao Weiyo, improving the canal lock system. Fire arrows are invented by the Chinese. Earliest known occurrence in Mexico
Mexico
of Lost-wax casting. Three of the Four Great Books of Song are published (the last one in 1013), which were enormous Chinese encyclopedias having millions of written Chinese characters each. Hops
Hops
first mentioned in connection with beer brewing Zhang Sixun of China
China
uses for the first time liquid mercury (element) instead of water to power the escapement mechanism rotating an armillary sphere, since liquid mercury does not freeze easily like water during winter, and does not rust metal parts

Notes[edit]

^ Quoted in The Tenth Century: How Dark the Dark Ages?, edited by Robert Sabatino Lopez. Holt, Rinehart and Winston: 1959. ^ The Wandering Scholars. Constable and Co: London, 1927. ^ democraticpeace.wordpress.com/2009/01/27/why-the-20th-century-was-the-bloodiest-of-all/ ^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1 988
988
p.52 ^ Spuler, Bertold; F.R.C Bagley. The Muslim
Muslim
world : a historical survey, Part 4. Brill Archive. p. 252. ISBN 978-90-04-06196-5.  ^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1 988
988
p.51 ^ "Avicenna", in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Version 2006". Iranica.com. Retrieved 2010-01-19.  ^ Corbin, Henry; Nasr, Hossein; Yahya, Utman (2001). History of Islamic Philosophy. Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-7103-0416-2. 

Further reading[edit]

Heinrich Fichtenau: Living in the Tenth century: Mentalities and Social Orders (transl. Patrick J. Geary; Chicago cool London: 1991).

Millennia Centuries Decades Years

v t e

Decades and years

10th century 8th century ← 9th century ← ↔ → 11th century → 12th century

890s 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899

900s 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909

910s 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919

920s 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929

930s 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939

940s 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949

950s 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959

960s 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969

970s 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979

980s 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989

990s 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999

1000s 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009

v t e

Centuries and millennia

Millennium Century

BC (BCE)

4th 40th 39th 38th 37th 36th 35th 34th 33rd 32nd 31st

3rd 30th 29th 28th 27th 26th 25th 24th 23rd 22nd 21st

2nd 20th 19th 18th 17th 16th 15th 14th 13th 12th 11th

1st 10th 9th 8th 7th 6th 5th 4th 3rd 2nd 1st

AD (CE)

1st 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th

2nd 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th

3rd 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 2

.