HOME
The Info List - 1000


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i)

Year 1000
1000
(M ) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
. In the proleptic Gregorian calendar , it was a non-leap century year starting on Wednesday (like 1800
1800
). It was also the last year of the 10th century
10th century
as well as the last year of the 1st millennium
1st millennium
of the Dionysian era ending on December 31st , but the first year of the 1000s decade.

The year falls well into the period of Old World
Old World
history known as the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
; in Europe, it is sometimes and by convention considered the boundary date between the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the High Middle Ages . The Muslim world
Muslim world
was in its Golden Age . China was in its Song dynasty , Japan was in its classical Heian period
Heian period
. India was divided into a number of lesser empires , such as the Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Rashtrakuta Dynasty
, Pala Empire
Pala Empire
( Kamboja Pala dynasty ; Mahipala ), Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
(Raja Raja Chola I ), Yadava dynasty , etc. Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
was still in the prehistoric period, although Arab slave trade
Arab slave trade
was beginning to be an important factor in the formation of the Sahelian kingdoms . The pre-Columbian New World
New World
was in a time of general transition in many regions. Wari and Tiwanaku
Tiwanaku
cultures receded in power and influence while Chachapoya and Chimú cultures rose toward florescence in South America. In Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
, the Maya Terminal Classic period saw the decline of many grand polities of the Petén like Palenque
Palenque
and Tikal yet a renewed vigor and greater construction phases of sites in the Yucatán region like Chichén Itzá
Chichén Itzá
and Uxmal
Uxmal
. Mitla , with Mixtec influence, became the more important site of the Zapotec, overshadowing the waning Monte Albán . Cholula flourished in central Mexico, as did Tula , the center of Toltec
Toltec
culture.

World population
World population
is estimated to have been between c. 250 and 310 million.

CONTENTS

* 1 Events

* 1.1 Christendom * 1.2 Muslim world
Muslim world

* 2 Largest cities * 3 Births * 4 Deaths * 5 References * 6 See also

EVENTS

CHRISTENDOM

Main article: Europe in AD 1000 Europe in 1000
1000

In continental Europe, the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
established itself as the most powerful state. Otto III
Otto III
made a pilgrimage from Rome
Rome
to Aachen
Aachen
and Gniezno
Gniezno
( Gnesen ), stopping at Regensburg
Regensburg
, Meissen
Meissen
, Magdeburg
Magdeburg
, and Gniezno. The Congress of Gniezno
Gniezno
(with Bolesław I Chrobry ) was part of his pilgrimage . In Rome
Rome
, he built the basilica of San Bartolomeo all\'Isola , to host the relics of St. Bartholomew
Bartholomew
.

In France
France
, Robert II , the son of Hugh Capet
Hugh Capet
, was the first of the Capetian kings .

The Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty was engaged in a long and hard war with the First Bulgarian Empire
First Bulgarian Empire
. In the year 1000, the Byzantine
Byzantine
generals Theodorokanos and Nikephoros Xiphias captured the former Bulgarian capitals of Pliska
Pliska
and Great Preslav , along with Little Preslav , extending Byzantine
Byzantine
control over the northeastern portion of the Bulgarian state ( Mysia
Mysia
and Scythia Minor ). At the same time, Byzantium was instrumental in the Christianization of the Kievan Rus\' and of other medieval Slavic states.

In Great Britain, a unified kingdom of England had developed out of the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms . In Scandinavia, Christianization was in its early stages, with the Althingi of the Icelandic Commonwealth embracing Christianity in the year 1000.

On September 9 , King Olaf Tryggvason was defeated by an alliance of his enemies in the Battle of Svolder . Sweyn I established Danish control over part of Norway
Norway
. Oslo
Oslo
, Norway
Norway
, was founded (the exact year is debatable, but the 1,000 year anniversary was held in the year 2000
2000
).

The Papacy during this time was in a period of decline, in retrospect known as the saeculum obscurum ("Dark Age") or "pornocracy " ("rule of harlots"), a state of affairs that would result in the Great Schism later in the 11th century.

Hungary
Hungary
was established in 1000
1000
as a Christian state. In the next centuries, the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
became the pre-eminent cultural power in the Central European region. On December 25 , Stephen I was crowned as the first King of Hungary
Hungary
in Esztergom
Esztergom
.

Sancho III of Navarre became King of Aragon and Navarre . The Reconquista
Reconquista
was gaining some ground, but the southern Iberian peninsula would still be dominated by Islam for centuries to come; Córdoba at this time was the world's largest city with 450,000 inhabitants.

It is believed that in or around this year, Norse explorer Leif Ericson became the first European to land in the Americas
Americas
, at L\'Anse aux Meadows in modern-day Newfoundland
Newfoundland
.

* The Château de Goulaine vineyard was founded in France
France
. * The Diocese
Diocese
of Kołobrzeg
Kołobrzeg
was founded. * The archdiocese in Gniezno
Gniezno
was founded; the first archbishop was Gaudentius (Radim) , from Slavník\'s dynasty . * The Bell foundry was founded in Italy
Italy
by Pontificia Fonderia Marinelli .

MUSLIM WORLD

The Islamic World
Islamic World
was in its Golden Age ; still organised in Caliphates , it was still dominated by the Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
, with the Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba to the west, and ongoing campaigns in Africa and in India . Persia
Persia
was a period of instability, with various polities seceding from Abassid rule, among whom the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
would emerge as the most powerful.

The Islamic world was reaching the peak of its historical scientific achievements . Important scholars and scientists who flourished in the year 1000
1000
include Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), Ibn Yunus (publishes his astronomical treatise Al-Zij al-Hakimi al-Kabir in Cairo
Cairo
in c. 1000), Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi), Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi , Abu Nasr Mansur , Abu al-Wafa , Ahmad ibn Fadlan , Al-Muqaddasi
Al-Muqaddasi
, Ali Ibn Isa , and al-Karaji (al-Karkhi). Ibn al-Haytham
Ibn al-Haytham
( Book of Optics
Book of Optics
), Avicenna
Avicenna
, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni , and Abu al-Qasim ( Al-Tasrif ), who all flourished around the year 1000, are considered to be among the greatest scientists of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
altogether.

The Turkic migration by this time had reached Eastern Europe, and most of the Turkic tribes ( Khazars
Khazars
, Bulghars , Pechenegs
Pechenegs
etc.) had been Islamized.

LARGEST CITIES

* Córdoba , Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba 450,000 * Kaifeng, China 400,000 * Constantinople
Constantinople
, Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
300,000 * Angkor
Angkor
, Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
200,000 * Kyoto, Japan 175,000 * Cairo, Egypt
Cairo, Egypt
135,000 * Baghdad, Iraq 125,000 * Nishapur
Nishapur
, Persia
Persia
125,000 * Al-Hasa , Qarmatian State 110,000 * Patan, Gujarat 100,000

BIRTHS

* Adalbert, Duke of Lorraine (d. 1048 ) * Lý Thái Tông , Emperor of Vietnam
Vietnam
(d. 1054
1054
) * Qawam al-Daula , ruler of Kerman
Kerman
(d. 1028 ) * Yi Yuanji – Chinese Northern Song painter famous for his realistic paintings of animals (d. 1064 ) * Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
, a Byzantine
Byzantine
emperor (d. 1055 ) * Saint Irmgardis * Uta von Ballenstedt , Margravine of Meissen.

DEATHS

* September 9 – Olaf I of Norway
Norway
(killed at the Battle of Svold ) * Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi , Persian astronomer and mathematician (b. 940 ) * Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi), Persian physicist , mathematician and astronomer * Ahmad ibn Fadlan , Arab
Arab
writer and traveller * Ælfthryth , queen, second or third wife of Edgar of England
Edgar of England
* Barjawan , regent of the Fatimid Caliphate
Caliphate
* David III of Tao
David III of Tao
(murdered by his nobles) * Huyan Zan , Chinese general

REFERENCES

* ^ 310 million: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 254 million: Jean-Noël Biraben, 1980, "An Essay Concerning Mankind's Evolution", Population, Selected Papers, Vol. 4, pp. 1–13. * ^ "Top 10 Cities of the Year 1000". About.com Geography. About.com. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013.

* Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger The Year 1000: What Life Was Like at the Turn of the First Millennium (1999) ISBN 0-316-55840-0 * John Man Atlas of the Year 1000
1000
(1999) ISBN 0-14-051419-8

SEE ALSO

* Years portal * History portal

* Mill

.