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Year 1000
1000
(M) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. In the proleptic Gregorian calendar, it was a non-leap century year starting on Wednesday (like 1800). It was also the last year of the 10th century
10th century
as well as the last year of the 1st millennium
1st millennium
of the Dionysian era
Dionysian era
ending on December 31st, but the first year of the 1000s decade. The year falls well into the period of Old World
Old World
history known as the Middle Ages; in Europe, it is sometimes and by convention considered the boundary date between the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the High Middle Ages. The Muslim world
Muslim world
was in its Golden Age. China
China
was in its Song dynasty, Japan
Japan
was in its classical Heian period. India
India
was divided into a number of lesser empires, such as the Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Pala Empire (Kamboja Pala dynasty; Mahipala), Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
(Raja Raja Chola I), Yadava dynasty, etc. Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
was still in the prehistoric period, although Arab slave trade
Arab slave trade
was beginning to be an important factor in the formation of the Sahelian kingdoms. The pre-Columbian New World
New World
was in a time of general transition in many regions. Wari and Tiwanaku
Tiwanaku
cultures receded in power and influence while Chachapoya
Chachapoya
and Chimú
Chimú
cultures rose toward florescence in South America. In Mesoamerica, the Maya Terminal Classic period saw the decline of many grand polities of the Petén like Palenque
Palenque
and Tikal yet a renewed vigor and greater construction phases of sites in the Yucatán region
Yucatán region
like Chichén Itzá
Chichén Itzá
and Uxmal. Mitla, with Mixtec influence, became the more important site of the Zapotec, overshadowing the waning Monte Albán. Cholula flourished in central Mexico, as did Tula, the center of Toltec
Toltec
culture. World population
World population
is estimated to have been between c. 250 and 310 million.[1]

Contents

1 Events

1.1 Christendom 1.2 Muslim world

2 Largest cities 3 Births 4 Deaths 5 References 6 See also

Events[edit] Christendom[edit] Main article: Europe in AD 1000

Europe in 1000

In continental Europe, the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
established itself as the most powerful state. Otto III
Otto III
made a pilgrimage from Rome
Rome
to Aachen and Gniezno
Gniezno
(Gnesen), stopping at Regensburg, Meissen, Magdeburg, and Gniezno. The Congress of Gniezno
Gniezno
(with Bolesław I Chrobry) was part of his pilgrimage. In Rome, he built the basilica of San Bartolomeo all'Isola, to host the relics of St. Bartholomew. In France, Robert II, the son of Hugh Capet, was the first of the Capetian kings. The Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty
Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty
was engaged in a long and hard war with the First Bulgarian Empire. In the year 1000, the Byzantine generals Theodorokanos
Theodorokanos
and Nikephoros Xiphias
Nikephoros Xiphias
captured the former Bulgarian capitals of Pliska
Pliska
and Great Preslav, along with Little Preslav, extending Byzantine control over the northeastern portion of the Bulgarian state ( Mysia
Mysia
and Scythia Minor). At the same time, Byzantium was instrumental in the Christianization of the Kievan Rus' and of other medieval Slavic states. In Great Britain, a unified Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
had developed out of the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. In Scandinavia, Christianization was in its early stages, with the Althingi
Althingi
of the Icelandic Commonwealth embracing Christianity in the year 1000. On September 9, King Olaf Tryggvason
Olaf Tryggvason
was defeated by an alliance of his enemies in the Battle of Svolder. Sweyn I established Danish control over part of Norway. Oslo, Norway, was founded (the exact year is debatable, but the 1,000 year anniversary was held in the year 2000). The Papacy
Papacy
during this time was in a period of decline, in retrospect known as the saeculum obscurum ("Dark Age") or "pornocracy" ("rule of harlots"), a state of affairs that would result in the Great Schism later in the 11th century. Hungary
Hungary
was established in 1000
1000
as a Christian state. In the next centuries, the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
became the pre-eminent cultural power in the Central European region. On December 25, Stephen I was crowned as the first King of Hungary
Hungary
in Esztergom. Sancho III of Navarre
Sancho III of Navarre
became King of Aragon and Navarre. The Reconquista
Reconquista
was gaining some ground, but the southern Iberian peninsula would still be dominated by Islam for centuries to come; Córdoba at this time was the world's largest city with 450,000 inhabitants. It is known that in or around this year, Norse explorer Leif Ericson became the first European to land in the Americas, at L'Anse aux Meadows in modern-day Newfoundland.

The Château de Goulaine
Château de Goulaine
vineyard was founded in France. The Diocese
Diocese
of Kołobrzeg
Kołobrzeg
was founded. The archdiocese in Gniezno
Gniezno
was founded; the first archbishop was Gaudentius (Radim), from Slavník's dynasty. The Bell foundry was founded in Italy
Italy
by Pontificia Fonderia Marinelli.

Muslim world[edit] The Islamic world
Islamic world
was in its Golden Age; still organised in caliphates, it was still dominated by the Abbasid Caliphate, with the Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba to the west, and ongoing campaigns in Africa and in India. Persia was a period of instability, with various polities seceding from Abassid rule, among whom the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
would emerge as the most powerful. The Islamic world
Islamic world
was reaching the peak of its historical scientific achievements. Important scholars and scientists who flourished in the year 1000
1000
include Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), Ibn Yunus (publishes his astronomical treatise Al-Zij al-Hakimi al-Kabir in Cairo
Cairo
in c. 1000), Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi), Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, Abu Nasr Mansur, Abu al-Wafa, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Al-Muqaddasi, Ali Ibn Isa, and al-Karaji (al-Karkhi). Ibn al-Haytham
Ibn al-Haytham
(Book of Optics), Avicenna, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, and Abu al-Qasim (Al-Tasrif), who all flourished around the year 1000, are considered to be among the greatest scientists of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
altogether.[citation needed] The Turkic migration
Turkic migration
by this time had reached Eastern Europe, and most of the Turkic tribes (Khazars, Bulghars, Pechenegs
Pechenegs
etc.) had been Islamized. Largest cities[edit]

Córdoba, Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba – 450,000 Kaifeng, Song Dynasty (China) – 400,000 Constantinople, Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
– 300,000 Angkor, Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
(Vietnam) – 200,000 Kyoto, Heian Period (Japan) – 175,000 Cairo, Fatimid Caliphate
Caliphate
– 135,000 Baghdad, Buyid Dynasty (Iraq) – 125,000 Nishapur, Ghaznavid Dynasty (Iran) – 125,000 Al-Hasa, Qarmatian
Qarmatian
State (Arabia) – 110,000 Patan, Chaulukya Dynasty (India) – 100,000[2]

Births[edit]

June 22 – Robert I, duke of Normandy (d. 1035) Adalbert, duke of Upper Lorraine (d. 1048) Adalbert, archbishop of Hamburg (d. 1072) Argyrus, Byzantine general (approximate date) Berthold II, duke of Carinthia (approximate date) Constantine IX, Byzantine emperor (d. 1055) Dominic of Silos, Spanish abbot (d. 1073) Duthac, patron saint of Tain
Tain
(Scotland) (d. 1065) Gilbert, Norman nobleman (approximate date) Guigues I, French nobleman (approximate date) Irmgardis, German noblewoman and saint John Mauropous, Byzantine hymnographer Kyiso, Burmese king of the Pagan Dynasty (d. 1038) Liudolf, German nobleman (approximate date) Lý Thái Tông, Vietnamese emperor (d. 1054) Michael I, Byzantine patriarch (approximate date) Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi, Fatimid scholar (d. 1078) Otto Bolesławowic, Polish prince (d. 1033) Qawam al-Dawla, Buyid governor (d. 1028) Robert de Turlande, French priest (d. 1067) Rotho, bishop of Paderborn (approximate date) Sylvester III, pope of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(d. 1063) Uta von Ballenstedt, margravine of Meissen William V, count of Auvergne (d. 1064) Yi Yuanji. Chinese painter (approximate date)

Deaths[edit]

May 17 – Ramwold, German Benedictine monk and abbot September 9 Olaf Tryggvason
Olaf Tryggvason
(or Olaf I), king of Norway Abu'l Haret Ahmad, Farighunid ruler (approximate date) Abu-Mahmud Khojandi, Persian astronomer and mathematician Abū Sahl al-Qūhī, Persian physician, mathematician and astronomer Abu Sahl 'Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi, Persian physician Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Arab traveller and writer (approximate date) Ælfthryth, English queen and wife of Edgar I (approximate date) Barjawan, vizier and regent of the Fatimid Caliphate Fantinus
Fantinus
(the Younger), Italian hermit and abbot García Sáchez II, king of Pamplona (approximate date) Gosse Ludigman, governor (potestaat) of Friesland Huyan Zan, Chinese general of the Song Dynasty Ivar of Waterford, Norse Viking king of Dublin Jacob ibn Jau, Andalusian-Jewish silk-manufacturer Judah ben David Hayyuj, Moroccan-Jewish linguist Malfrida, Russian Grand Princess consort of Kiev Manfred I, Frankish nobleman (approximate date) Masako, Japanese empress consort (b. 950) Minamoto no Shigeyuki, Japanese waka poet Shahriyar III, Bavand ruler of Tabaristan Tyra of Denmark, queen consort of Norway Ukhtanes of Sebastia, Armenian historian Wulfhilda of Barking, English nun and abbess

References[edit]

^ 310 million: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 254 million: Jean-Noël Biraben, 1980, "An Essay Concerning Mankind's Evolution", Population, Selected Papers, Vol. 4, pp. 1–13. ^ "Top 10 Cities of the Year 1000". About.com Geography. About.com. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. 

Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger The Year 1000: What Life Was Like at the Turn of the First Millennium (1999) ISBN 0-316-55840-0 John Man Atlas of the Year 1000
1000
(1999) ISBN 0-14-051419-8

See also[edit]

Years portal History portal

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