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ḎāL (ذ, also be transcribed as dhāl) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being ṯāʾ , ḫāʾ , ḍād , ẓāʾ , ġayn ). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents /ð /. In name and shape, it is a variant of dāl (د). Its numerical value is 700 (see abjad numerals ). The Arabic
Arabic
letter ذ is named ذال ḏāl. It is written is several ways depending in its position in the word:

POSITION IN WORD: ISOLATED FINAL MEDIAL INITIAL

GLYPH FORM: ذ‎ ـذ‎ ـذ‎ ذ‎

The South Arabian alphabet retained a symbol for ḏ, .

When representing this sound in transliteration of Arabic
Arabic
into Hebrew, it is written as ד׳‎.

This sound is found in English, as in the words "THose" or "THen". In English the sound is normally rendered "dh " when transliterated from foreign languages, but when it occurs in English words it is one of the pronunciations occurring for the letters "th ".

PRONUNCIATIONS

Between and within contemporary varieties of Arabic
Arabic
, pronunciation of the letter ḏāl differs:

* The Gulf , Iraqi , Tunisian dialects use the Classical and Modern Standard sound of . * In Maghrebi Arabic , it is consistently pronounced as the voiced dental plosive . * In Hejazi Arabic , it merges with /d / or /z / depending on the word. Furthermore it keeps its classical value /ð / in some Classical Arabic
Arabic
words. * In the Mashriq (in the broad sense, including Egyptian , Sudanese and Levantine dialects), it becomes a sibilant voiced alveolar fricative . Furthermore, in words fully assimilated into a Mashriq dialect, the sound has merged with /d / ( د
د
).

Regardless of these regional differences, the pattern of the speaker's variety of Arabic
Arabic
frequently intrudes into otherwise Modern Standard speech; this is widely accepted, and is the norm when speaking the mesolect known alternately as lugha wusṭā ("middling/compromise language") or ʿAmmiyyat/Dārijat al-Muṯaqqafīn ("Educated/Cultured Colloquial") used in the informal speech of educated Arabs of different countries. (cf. Arabic dialect#Formal vs. vernacular speech )

SEE ALSO

* Arabic phonology
Arabic phonology

* v * t * e

Arabic
Arabic
language

OVERVIEWS

* Language * Alphabet * History * Romanization * Numerology * Influence on other languages

ALPHABET

* Nabataean alphabet * Perso- Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
* Ancient North Arabian

* Ancient South Arabian script
Ancient South Arabian script

* Zabūr script

* Arabic
Arabic
numerals * Eastern numerals

* Arabic
Arabic
Braille

* Algerian

* Diacritics * i‘jām * Tashkil * Harakat * Tanwin * Shaddah * Hamza * Tāʾ marbūṭah

LETTERS

* ʾAlif * Bāʾ * Tāʾ * Ṯāʾ * Ǧīm * Ḥāʾ * Ḫāʾ * Dāl * Ḏāl * Rāʾ * Zāy * Sīn * Šīn * Ṣād * Ḍād
Ḍād
* Ṭāʾ * Ẓāʾ
Ẓāʾ
* ʿAyn * Ġayn * Fāʾ * Qāf * Kāf * Lām * Mīm * Nūn * Hāʾ * Wāw * Yāʾ

NOTABLE VARIETIES

ANCIENT

* Proto- Arabic
Arabic
* Old Arabic
Arabic
* Ancient North Arabian * Old South Arabian

STANDARDIZED

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

REGIONAL

* Nilo-Egyptian * Levantine

* Maghrebi

* Pre-Hilalian dialects * Hilalian dialects * Moroccan Darija
Moroccan Darija
* Tunisian Arabic * Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Mesopotamian

* Peninsular

* Yemeni Arabic
Arabic
* Tihamiyya Arabic
Arabic

* Sudanese * Chadian * Modern South Arabian

ETHNIC / RELIGIOUS

* Judeo- Arabic
Arabic

PIDGINS/CREOLES

* Juba Arabic
Arabic
* Nubi language * Babalia Creole Arabic
Arabic
* Maridi Arabic
Arabic
* Maltese

ACADEMIC

* Literature * Names

LINGUISTICS

* Phonology * Sun and moon letters * ʾIʿrāb (inflection) * Grammar * Triliteral root * Mater lectionis * IPA * Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

* Calligraphy * Script

* Diwani * Jawi script * Kufic
Kufic
* Rasm * Mashq * Hijazi script * Muhaqqaq * Thuluth
Thuluth
* Naskh (script)
Naskh (script)
* Ruqʿah script * Taʿlīq script * Nastaʿlīq script * Shahmukhī script * Sini (script)
Sini (script)

TECHNICAL

* Arabic
Arabic
keyboard * Arabic
Arabic
script in Unicode * ISO/IEC 8859-6 * Windows-1256

* MS-DOS codepages

* 708 * 709 * 710 * 711 * 720 * 864

* Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

* v * t * e

The Northwest Semitic abjad

ʾ

b

g

d

h

w

z

y

k

l

m

n

s

ʿ

p

q

r

š

t

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400

* History

* Phoenician

* Paleo-Hebrew

* Hebrew * Aramaic * Syriac

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Ḏāl
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