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Ḍād
Ḍād
(ض), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
(the others being ṯāʾ, ḫāʾ, ḏāl, ẓāʾ, ġayn). In name and shape, it is a variant of ṣād. Its numerical value is 800 (see Abjad numerals). The sound it represented at the time of the introduction of the Arabic alphabet is somewhat uncertain, likely a pharyngealized voiced alveolar lateral fricative  [ɮˤ] (help·info) or a similar affricated sound [d͡ɮˤ] or [dˡˤ].[1] In contemporary Arabic, it may represent a pharyngealized voiced alveolar stop  [dˤ] (help·info), pharyngealized voiced dental stop [d̪ˤ] or velarized voiced dental stop [d̪ˠ].[2]

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial

Glyph form: ض‬ ـض‬ ـضـ‬ ضـ‬

Contents

1 Origin 2 Pronunciation 3 Transliteration 4 Unicode 5 See also 6 References

Origin[edit] Based on ancient descriptions of this sound, it is clear that in Qur'anic Arabic
Arabic
ḍ was some sort of unusual lateral sound.[2][1][3][4][5] Sibawayh, author of the first book on Arabic grammar, explained the letter as being articulated from "between the first part of the side of the tongue and the adjoining molars". It is reconstructed by modern linguists as having been either a pharyngealized voiced alveolar lateral fricative  [ɮˤ] (help·info) or a similar affricated sound [d͡ɮˤ] or [dˡˤ].[1][3] The affricated form is suggested by loans of ḍ into Akkadian as ld or lṭ and into Malaysian as dl.[2] However, not all linguists agree on this; the French orientalist André Roman supposes that the letter was actually a voiced emphatic alveolo-palatal sibilant /ʑˤ/, similar to the Polish ź.[1][3][6] This is an extremely unusual sound, and led the early Arabic grammarians to describe Arabic
Arabic
as the لغة الضاد lughat aḍ-ḍād "the language of the ḍād", since the sound was thought to be unique to Arabic.[2] The emphatic lateral nature of this sound is possibly inherited from Proto-Semitic, and is compared to a phoneme in South Semitic languages such as Mehri (where it is usually an ejective lateral fricative). The corresponding letter in the South Arabian alphabet is ṣ́, and in Ge'ez alphabet
Ge'ez alphabet
Ṣ́appa ፀ), although in Ge'ez it merged early on with ṣ. The reconstruction of Proto-Semitic
Proto-Semitic
phonology includes an emphatic voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬʼ] or affricate [t͡ɬʼ] for ṣ́. This sound is considered to be the direct ancestor of Arabic ḍād, while merging with ṣād in most other Semitic languages. The letter itself is distinguished a derivation, by addition of a diacritic dot, from ص ṣād (representing /sˤ/). Pronunciation[edit]

The main pronunciations of written ⟨ض⟩ in Arabic
Arabic
dialects.

The standard pronunciation of this letter in modern Standard Arabic
Standard Arabic
is the "emphatic" /d/: pharyngealized voiced alveolar stop  [dˤ] (help·info), pharyngealized voiced dental stop [d̪ˤ] or velarized voiced dental stop [d̪ˠ].[2] In most Bedouin influenced Arabic
Arabic
vernaculars ض ḍād and ظ ẓāʾ have been merged quite early.[1] like in the varieties (such as Bedouin and Iraqi), where the dental fricatives are preserved, both the letters are pronounced /ðˤ/.[1][3][5] However, there are dialects in South Arabia and in Mauritania where both the letters are kept different but not in all contexts.[1] In other vernaculars such as Egyptian the distinction between ض ḍād and ظ ẓāʾ is most of the time made; but Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
ẓāʾ often becomes /zˤ/, e.g. ʿaẓīm (< Classical عظيم ʿaḏ̣īm) "great".[1][3][7] "De-emphaticized" pronunciation of the both letters in the form of the plain /z/ entered into other non- Arabic
Arabic
languages such as Persian, Urdu, Turkish.[1] However, there do exist Arabic
Arabic
borrowings into Ibero-Romance languages
Ibero-Romance languages
as well as Hausa and Malay, where ḍād and ẓāʾ are differentiated.[1] Transliteration[edit] ض is transliterated as ḍ (D with underdot) in romanization. When transliterating Arabic
Arabic
in the Hebrew alphabet, it is either written as ד‬ (the letter for /d/) or as צ׳‬ (tsadi with geresh). Unicode[edit]

Character ض

Unicode
Unicode
name ARABIC LETTER DAD

Encodings decimal hex

Unicode 1590 U+0636

UTF-8 216 182 D8 B6

Numeric character reference &#1590; &#x636;

See also[edit]

Arabic
Arabic
phonology Sat Śawt Ḍ

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j Versteegh, Kees (1999). "Loanwords from Arabic and the merger of ḍ/ḏ̣". In Arazi, Albert; Sadan, Joseph; Wasserstein, David J. Compilation and Creation in Adab and Luġa: Studies in Memory of Naphtali Kinberg (1948–1997). pp. 273–286.  ^ a b c d e Versteegh, Kees (2003) [1997]. The Arabic
Arabic
language (Repr. ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 89. ISBN 9780748614363.  ^ a b c d e Versteegh, Kees (2000). "Treatise on the pronunciation of the ḍād". In Kinberg, Leah; Versteegh, Kees. Studies in the Linguistic Structure of Classical Arabic. Brill. pp. 197–199. ISBN 9004117652.  ^ Ferguson, Charles (1959). "The Arabic
Arabic
koine". Language. 35 (4): 630. doi:10.2307/410601.  ^ a b Ferguson, Charles Albert (1997) [1959]. "The Arabic
Arabic
koine". In Belnap, R. Kirk; Haeri, Niloofar. Structuralist studies in Arabic linguistics: Charles A. Ferguson's papers, 1954–1994. Brill. pp. 67–68. ISBN 9004105115.  ^ Roman, André (1983). Étude de la phonologie et de la morphologie de la koiné arabe. 1. Aix-en-Provence: Université de Provence. pp. 162–206.  ^ Retsö, Jan (2012). "Classical Arabic". In Weninger, Stefan. The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 785–786. ISBN 978-3-11-025158-6. 

v t e

Arabic
Arabic
language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Romanization Numerology Influence on other languages

Alphabet

Nabataean alphabet Perso- Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Ancient North Arabian Ancient South Arabian script

Zabūr script

Arabic
Arabic
numerals Eastern numerals Arabic
Arabic
Braille

Algerian

Diacritics

i‘jām Tashkil Harakat Tanwin Shaddah

Hamza Tāʾ marbūṭah

Letters

ʾAlif Bāʾ Tāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Ṯāʾ Ǧīm Ḥāʾ Ḫāʾ Dāl Ḏāl Rāʾ Zāy Sīn Šīn Ṣād Ḍād Ṭāʾ Ẓāʾ ʿAyn Ġayn Fāʾ Qāf Kāf Lām Mīm Nūn Hāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Wāw Yāʾ Hamza

Notable varieties

Ancient

Proto-Arabic Old Arabic Ancient North Arabian Old South Arabian

Standardized

Classical Modern Standard Maltese[a]

Regional

Nilo-Egyptian Levantine Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian dialects Hilalian dialects Moroccan Darija Tunisian Arabic Sa'idi Arabic

Mesopotamian Peninsular

Yemeni Arabic Tihamiyya Arabic

Sudanese Chadian Modern South Arabian

Ethnic / religious

Judeo-Arabic

Pidgins/Creoles

Juba Arabic Nubi language Babalia Creole Arabic Maridi Arabic Maltese

Academic

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Technical

Arabic
Arabic
keyboard Arabic
Arabic
script in Unicode ISO/IEC 8859-6 Windows-1256 MS-DOS codepages

708 709 710 711 720 864

Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

aSociolinguistically not Arabic

v t e

The Northwest Semitic abjad

ʾ

b

g

d

h

w

z

y

k

l

m

n

s

ʿ

p

q

r

š

t

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History Phoenician

Paleo-Hebrew

Heb

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