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Ga is the third consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, ga is derived from the Brahmi
Brahmi
letter , which is probably derived from the Aramaic (gimel, /g/) after having gone through the Gupta letter .

Contents

1 Āryabhaṭa numeration 2 History

2.1 Brahmi
Brahmi
Ga

2.1.1 Tocharian Ga

2.2 Kharoshthi Ga

3 Devanagari
Devanagari
script

3.1 Devanagari
Devanagari
Gga 3.2 Devanagari
Devanagari
Ġa

4 Bengali script 5 Gurmukhi script 6 Gujarati script 7 Thai script

7.1 Kho Khwai 7.2 Kho Khon

8 See also 9 References

Āryabhaṭa numeration[edit] Further information: Āryabhaṭa numeration Aryabhata
Aryabhata
used Devanagari
Devanagari
letters for numbers, very similar to the Greek numerals, even after the invention of Indian numerals. The values of the different forms of are:[1]

[gə] = 3 (३) [gɪ] = 300 (३००) गु [gʊ] = 30,000 (३० ०००) गृ [gri] = 3,000,000 (३० ०० ०००) गॣ [glə] = 3×108 (३०८) गे [ge] = 3×1010 (३०१०) गै [gɛː] = 3×1012 (३०१२) गो [goː] = 3×1014 (३०१४) गौ [gɔː] = 3×1016 (३०१६)

History[edit] The original Indic letter Ga is attested in three different forms. The first is in standard Brahmi, , the second in the Brahmi
Brahmi
variant Tocharian, also known as slanting Brahmi. The third form of Ga, in Kharoshthi (𐨒) was probably derived from Aramaic separately from the Brahmi
Brahmi
letter. Brahmi
Brahmi
Ga[edit] The Brahmi
Brahmi
letter , ga, is derived from the Aramaic , G, and is related to the modern Latin G and archaic Greek Gamma.

Tocharian Ga[edit] The Tocharian, also called slanting Brahmi, letter is a variant of the Brahmi
Brahmi
.

Tocharian Ga with vowel marks

Ga Gā Gi Gī Gu Gū Gr Gr̄ Ge Gai Go Gau Gä

Kharoshthi Ga[edit] Like its Brahmi
Brahmi
counterpart, the Kharoshthi letter 𐨒 is also derived from the Aramaic , and is thus related to G and Gamma, as well as the Brahmi
Brahmi
ga. Devanagari
Devanagari
script[edit]

Devanāgarī

Abugida Brahmic scripts Inherent vowel

Languages

Hindi Marathi Nepali Pali Konkani Bodo Maithili Sindhi Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and more

Transliteration

IAST Hunterian NLK ISO 15919 Harvard-Kyoto ITRANS Velthuis SLP1 WX notation (ISCII)

Vowels and syllabic consonants

a ॲ æ ऄ
(का) ā


(कि) i


(की) ī


(कु) u


(कू) ū

ॶ (कॖ)

ॷ (कॗ)


(कृ) r̥


(कॄ) r̥̄


(कॢ) l̥


(कॣ) l̥̄


(के) ē ऍ (कॅ) ê
(कॆ) e
(कै) ai

(कॕ)

(कॎ)


(को) ō
(कॉ) ô
(कॊ) o
(कौ) au

ॳ (कऺ)

ॴ (कऻ)

ॵ (कॏ)

(Schwa deletion)

Consonants


k क़ q

kh ख़ k̲h̲

g ग़ ġ ॻ gg

gh

c

ch

j ज़ z ॼ jj ॹ ž jh झ़ zh ñ


ṭh


ḍ ड़ ṛ ॾ ḍḍ ॸ ḍ
ḍh ढ़ ṛh

t


th


d


dh


n ऩ ṉ


p


ph फ़ f

b

ॿ bb


bh


m


y य़ ẏ


r ऱ ṟ
ḷ ऴ ḻ


l


v


ś
s


h

(Conjuncts)

Diacritics, punctuation, symbols

अं
अं
ṁ अः ḥ अँ m̐ अऀ ऽ ’

क़ क् ३ 3 ᳵ ẖ ᳶ ḫ

अ॑ ` अ॒ _ अ॓ अ॔ ॐ aum̐

। ॥ ॰ ॱ ₹ INR

and more ( Devanagari
Devanagari
( Unicode
Unicode
block) Devanagari
Devanagari
Extended Vedic Extensions)

Numerals

० 0 १ 1 २ 2 ३ 3 ४ 4 ५ 5 ६ 6 ७ 7 ८ 8 ९ 9

Āryabhaṭa Akṣarapallī Bhūtasaṃkhyā Kaṭapayādi

v t e

Ga (ग) is the third consonant of the Devanagari
Devanagari
abugida. In all languages, is pronounced as [gə] or [g] when appropriate. Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter ગ and the Modi letter 𑘐. Devanagari
Devanagari
Gga[edit] Gga (ॻ) is the character with an underbar to represent the voiced velar implosive [ɠ] that occurs in Sindhi. This underbar is distinct from the Devanagari
Devanagari
stress sign anudātta. The underbar is fused to the stem of the letter while the anudātta is a stress accent applied to the entire syllable. This underbar used for Sindhi implosives does not exist as a separate character in Unicode. When the ु or ू vowel sign is applied to jja (ॻ), the ु and ू vowel signs are drawn beneath jja. When the
( ु) vowel sign or
( ू) vowel sign is applied to ja with an anudātta (ग॒), the
( ु) vowel sign or
( ू) vowel sign is first placed under ja (ग) and then the anudātta is placed underneath the
( ु) vowel sign or
( ू) vowel sign.[2]

Character Name
( ु) vowel sign
( ू) vowel sign

ॻ (Implosive ga) ॻु ॻू

ग॒ (Ga with anudātta) ग॒ु ग॒ू

An example of a Sindhi word that uses gga (ॻ) is ॻुड़ु (ڳُڙُ), which is of the masculine grammatical gender and means jaggery.[3] Devanagari
Devanagari
Ġa[edit] Ġa (ग़) is the character with a single dot underneath. It is used in Devanagari
Devanagari
transcriptions of Urdu (غ) and other languages to denote the voiced velar fricative [ɣ]. Bengali script[edit] গ is used as a basic consonant character in all of the major Bengali script orthographies, including Bengali and Assamese. Gurmukhi script[edit] Gagaa [gəgːɑ] (ਗ) is the eighth letter of the Gurmukhi alphabet. Its name is [gəgːɑ] and is pronounced as /g/ when used in words. It is derived from the Laṇḍā
Laṇḍā
letter ga, and ultimately from the Brahmi
Brahmi
ga. Gurmukhi gagaa does not have a special pairin or addha (reduced) form for making conjuncts, and in modern Punjabi texts do not take a half form or halant to indicate the bare consonant /g/, although Gurmukhi Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts may use an explicit halant. Gujarati script[edit] Ga (ગ) is the third consonant of the Gujarati script. It is derived from 16th century Devanagari
Devanagari
letter ga (ग) with the top bar (shiro rekha) removed. Like most Gujarati letters, it forms conjunct clusters with a half-form, where the vertical stem on the right is dropped and the remaining letter body appended to the following letter. Thai script[edit] Kho khwai (ค) and kho khon (ฅ) are the fourth and fifth letters of the Thai script. They fall under the low class of Thai consonants. In IPA, kho khwai and kho khon are pronounced as [kʰ] at the beginning of a syllable and are pronounced as [k̚] at the end of a syllable. The previous two letters of the alphabet, kho khai (ข) and kho khuat (ฃ), are also named kho, however, they all fall under the high class of Thai consonants. The next letter of the alphabet, kho ra-khang (ฆ), correspond to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
letter ‘घ’. Unlike many Indic scripts, Thai consonants do not form conjunct ligatures, and use the pinthu—an explicit virama with a dot shape—to indicate bare consonants. Kho Khwai[edit] In the acrophony of the Thai script, khwai (ควาย) means ‘water buffalo’. Kho khwai corresponds to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
character ‘ग’. Kho Khon[edit] In the acrophony of the Thai script, khon (คน) means ‘person’. Kho khon (ฅ) represents the voiced velar fricative sound /ɣ/ that existed in Old Thai at the time the alphabet was created but no longer exists in Modern Thai. When the Thai script
Thai script
was developed, the voiceless velar fricative sound did not have a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Pali counterpart so the character kho khwai was slightly modied to create kho khon. During the Old Thai period, this sounds merged into the stop /ɡ/, and as a result the use of this letters became unstable. Although kho khon is now obsolete, it remains in dictionaries, preserving the traditional count of 44 letters in the Thai alphabet. When the first Thai typewriter was developed by Edwin Hunter McFarland in 1892, there was simply no space for all characters, thus kho khon was one of the two letters left out along with kho khuat.[4] Although kho khuat does not appear in modern Thai orthography, some writers and publishers are trying to reintroduce its usage. See also[edit]

Gimel

References[edit]

^ Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 447–450. ISBN 0-471-39340-1.  ^ Everson, Michael (30 March 2005). "Proposal to add four characters for Sindhi to the BMP of the UCS" (PDF). Unicode.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2015.  ^ Lekhwani, Kanhaiyalal. 1987 (1909). An intensive course in Sindhi. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages; [New York]: Hippocrene Books. OCLC 18986594 ^ "The origins of the Thai typewriter". Archived from the original on December 5, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011. 

Kurt Elfering: Die Mathematik des Aryabhata
Aryabhata
I. Text, Übersetzung aus dem Sanskrit
Sanskrit
und Kommentar. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, München, 1975, ISBN 3-7705-1326-6 Georges Ifrah: The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000, ISBN 0-471-39340-1. B. L. van der Waerden: Erwachende Wissenschaft. Ägyptische, babylonische und griechische Mathematik. Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel Stuttgart, 1966, ISBN 3-7643-0399-9 Fleet, J. F. (January 1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 109–126. ISSN 0035-869X. JSTOR 25189823.  Fleet, J. F. (1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 43: 109–126. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00040995. JSTOR 25189823. 

v t e

Devanāgarī

Abugida Brahmic scripts Inherent vowel

Languages

Hindi
Hindi
(Hindustani) Marathi Nepali Pali Konkani Bodo Maithili Sindhi Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and more

Transliteration

IAST Hunterian National Library at Kolkata ISO 15919 Harvard-Kyoto ITRANS Velthuis SLP1 WX notation (ISCII)

Vowels and syllabic consonants

a ॲ æ ऄ
(का) ā


(कि) i


(की) ī


(कु) u


(कू) ū ॶ (कॖ) ॷ (कॗ)


(कृ) r̥


(कॄ) r̥̄


(कॢ) l̥


(कॣ) l̥̄


(के) ē ऍ (कॅ) ê
(कॆ) e
(कै) ai (कॕ) (कॎ)


(को) ō
(कॉ) ô
(कॊ) o
(कौ) au ॳ (कऺ) ॴ (कऻ) ॵ (कॏ)

Schwa deletion in Indo-Aryan languages

Consonants


k क़ q

kh ख़ k̲h̲

g ग़ ġ ॻ gg

gh

c

ch

j ज़ z ॼ jj ॹ ž jh झ़ zh ñ


ṭh


ḍ ड़ ṛ ॾ ḍḍ ॸ ḍ
ḍh ढ़ ṛh

t


th


d


dh


n ऩ ṉ


p


ph फ़ f

b

ॿ bb


bh


m


y य़ ẏ


r ऱ ṟ
ḷ ऴ ḻ
l


v


ś


s


h

Consonant
Consonant
conjuncts

Diacritics, punctuation and other symbols

अं
अं
ṁ (anusvāra) अः ḥ (visarga) अँ m̐ (candrabindu) अऀ (inverted candrabindu) ऽ ’ (avagraha)

क़ (nuqta) क् (virāma) ३ 3 (pluta) ᳵ ẖ (jihvāmūlīya) ᳶ ḫ (upadhmānīya)

अ॑ ` (svarita) अ॒ (anudātta) अ॓ (grave) अ॔ (acute) ॐ aum̐

। (daṇḍa) ॥ (double daṇḍa) (lāghava cihna) ॱ (high spacing dot) ₹ INR (Indian rupee sign)

Devanagari
Devanagari
( Unicode
Unicode
block) Devanagari
Devanagari
Extended Vedic Extensions

Numerals

० 0 १ 1 २ 2 ३ 3 ४ 4 ५ 5 ६ 6 ७ 7 ८ 8 ९ 9

Āryabhaṭa numeration Akṣarapallī Bhūtasaṃkhyā system Ka

.