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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE

* Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE

* Demotic 7 c. BCE

* Meroitic 3 c. BCE

* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE

* Ugaritic 15 c. BCE

* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

* Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

* Phoenician 12 c. BCE

* Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE

* Samaritan 6 c. BCE

* Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE

* Tifinagh
Tifinagh

* Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE

* Aramaic 8 c. BCE

* Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE

* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

* Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)

* E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE

* Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443

* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE

* Canadian syllabics 1840

* Hebrew 3 c. BCE

* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

* Avestan 4 c. CE

* Palmyrene 2 c. BCE

* Syriac 2 c. BCE

* Nabataean
Nabataean
2 c. BCE

* Arabic
Arabic
4 c. CE

* N\'Ko 1949 CE

* Sogdian 2 c. BCE

* Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

* Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

* Old Uyghur

* Mongolian 1204 CE

* Mandaic 2 c. CE

* Greek 8 c. BCE

* Etruscan 8 c. BCE

* Latin 7 c. BCE

* Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

* Runic 2 c. CE * Ogham
Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

* Coptic 3 c. CE * Gothic 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * Glagolitic 862 CE

* Cyrillic c. 940 CE

* Old Permic 1372 CE

Thaana
Thaana
18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals
Brahmi numerals
)

* v * t * e

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .

Countries that utilise the Arabic
Arabic
script: as the sole official script as a co-official script.

The ARABIC ALPHABET ( Arabic
Arabic
: الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة‎‎ al-abjadīyah al-ʻarabīyah, or الحُرُو ف العَرَبِيَّة al-ḥurūf al-ʻarabīyah) or ARABIC ABJAD is the Arabic script
Arabic script
as it is codified for writing the Arabic language
Arabic language
. It is written from right to left in a cursive style and includes 28 letters.

Originally, the alphabet was an abjad, with only consonants , but it is now considered an "impure abjad ". As with other abjads, such as the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
, scribes later devised means of indicating vowel sounds by separate vowel points.

Strikingly, both Arabic
Arabic
and Hebrew has great similarities on pronunciation in both consonants and vowels, check Semitic Languages
Semitic Languages
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Consonants

* 1.1 Alphabetical order

* 1.1.1 Abjadī * 1.1.2 Hijā’ī

* 1.2 Letter forms

* 1.2.1 Table of basic letters * 1.2.2 Alif * 1.2.3 Modified letters * 1.2.4 Ligatures * 1.2.5 Gemination * 1.2.6 Nunation

* 2 Vowels

* 2.1 Short vowels * 2.2 Long vowels * 2.3 Diphthongs * 2.4 Vowel
Vowel
omission

* 3 Additional letters

* 3.1 Regional variations * 3.2 Non-native letters * 3.3 Used in languages other than Arabic
Arabic

* 4 Numerals

* 4.1 Letters as numerals

* 5 History

* 5.1 Arabic
Arabic
printing presses

* 6 Computers

* 6.1 Unicode
Unicode
* 6.2 Keyboards * 6.3 Handwriting recognition

* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

CONSONANTS

The basic Arabic
Arabic
alphabet contains 28 letters . Adaptations of the Arabic script
Arabic script
for other languages added and removed some letters, as for Kurdish , Persian , Ottoman Turkish , Sindhi , Urdu , Malay , Pashto , Arwi
Arwi
and Malayalam
Malayalam
(Arabi Malayalam
Malayalam
), all of which have additional letters as shown below. There are no distinct upper and lower case letter forms.

Many letters look similar but are distinguished from one another by dots (i‘jām ) above or below their central part (rasm ). These dots are an integral part of a letter, since they distinguish between letters that represent different sounds. For example, the Arabic letters transliterated as b and t have the same basic shape, but b has one dot below, ب, and t has two dots above, ت.

Both printed and written Arabic
Arabic
are cursive , with most of the letters within a word directly connected to the adjacent letters.

ALPHABETICAL ORDER

There are two main collating sequences for the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet, abjad and hija.

The original abjadī order (أَبْجَدِي), used for lettering , derives from the order of the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
, and is therefore similar to the order of other Phoenician-derived alphabets, such as the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
. In this order, letters are also used as numbers, Abjad
Abjad
numerals , and possess the same alphanumeric code/cipher as Hebrew gematria and Greek isopsephy .

The hijā’ī (هِجَائِي) or alifbā’ī (أَلِفْبَائِي) order, used where lists of names and words are sorted, as in phonebooks, classroom lists, and dictionaries, groups letters by similarity of shape.

Abjadī

The abjadī order is not a simple historical continuation of the earlier north Semitic alphabetic order, since it has a position corresponding to the Aramaic letter samekh / semkat ס, yet no letter of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet historically derives from that letter. Loss of sameḵ was compensated for by the split of shin ש into two independent Arabic
Arabic
letters, ش (shīn) and ﺱ (sīn) which moved up to take the place of sameḵ. The six other letters that do not correspond to any north Semitic letter are placed at the end.

Common abjadī sequence غ ظ ض ذ خ ث ت ش ر ق ص ف ع س ن م ل ك ي ط ح ز و ه د ج ب ا

gh ẓ ḍ dh kh th t sh r q ṣ f ‘ s n m l k y ṭ ḥ z w h d j b ā

28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01

This is commonly vocalized as follows: abjad hawwaz ḥuṭṭī kalaman sa‘faṣ qarashat thakhadh ḍaẓagh.

Another vocalization is: abujadin hawazin ḥuṭiya kalman sa‘faṣ qurishat thakhudh ḍaẓugh

Maghrebian abjadī sequence (probably older) ش غ ظ ذ خ ث ت س ر ق ض ف ع ص ن م ل ك ي ط ح ز و ه د ج ب ا

sh gh ẓ dh kh th t s r q ḍ f ‘ ṣ n m l k y ṭ ḥ z w h d j b ā

28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01

This can be vocalized as: abujadin hawazin ḥuṭiya kalman ṣa‘faḍ qurisat thakhudh ẓaghush

Hijā’ī

Modern dictionaries and other reference books do not use the abjadī order to sort alphabetically; instead, the newer hijā’ī order is used wherein letters are partially grouped together by similarity of shape. The hijā’ī order is never used as numerals.

Common hijā’ī order ي و ه ن م ل ك ق ف غ ع ظ ط ض ص ش س ز ر ذ د خ ح ج ث ت ب ا

y w h n m l k q f gh ‘ ẓ ṭ ḍ ṣ sh s z r dh d kh ḥ j th t b ā

Another kind of hijā’ī order was used widely in the Maghreb
Maghreb
until recently when it was replaced by the Mashriqi order.

Maghrebian hijā’ī order ي و ه ش س ق ف غ ع ض ص ن م ل ك ظ ط ز ر ذ د خ ح ج ث ت ب ا

y w h sh s q f gh ‘ ḍ ṣ n m l k ẓ ṭ z r dh d kh ḥ j th t b ā

LETTER FORMS

CALLIGRAPHY

* Arabic
Arabic
* Chinese * Georgian * Indian * Islamic * Japanese * Korean * Mongolian * Persian * Tibetan * Western

* v * t * e

The Arabic
Arabic
alphabet is always cursive and letters vary in shape depending on their position within a word. Letters can exhibit up to four distinct forms corresponding to an initial, medial (middle), final, or isolated position ( IMFI ). While some letters show considerable variations, others remain almost identical across all four positions. Generally, letters in the same word are linked together on both sides by short horizontal lines, but six letters (و ز ر ذ
ذ
د
د
ا) can only be linked to their preceding letter. For example, أرارا ت (Ararat ) has only isolated forms because each letter cannot be connected to its following one. In addition, some letter combinations are written as ligatures (special shapes), notably lām-alif.

Table Of Basic Letters

For other uses, see Arabic script
Arabic script
.

Arabic
Arabic
letters usage in Literary Arabic
Literary Arabic
COMMON MAGHREBIAN Letter Name Letter Name in Arabic script
Arabic script
Trans- literation VALUE IN LITERARY ARABIC (IPA ) CLOSEST ENGLISH EQUIVALENT IN PRONUNCIATION CONTEXTUAL FORMS Isolated form

ABJADī HIJā\'ī ABJADī HIJā\'ī FINAL MEDIAL INITIAL

1. 1. 1. 1. ’alif أَلِفْ ā / ’ (also ʾ ) various, including /aː/ Up ـا ا
ا

2. 2. 2. 2. bā’ بَاء b /b / Barn ـب ـبـ بـ ب
ب

22. 3. 22. 3. tā’ تَاء t /t / Torn ـت ـتـ تـ ت

23. 4. 23. 4. thā’ ثَاء th (also ṯ ) /θ / THink ـث ـثـ ثـ ث
ث

3. 5. 3. 5. jīm جِيمْ j (also ǧ, g ) /d͡ʒ / Jim, Gym ـج ـجـ جـ ج
ج

8. 6. 8. 6. ḥā’ حَاء ḥ /ħ / Heart, Heap ـح ـحـ حـ ح

24. 7. 24. 7. khā’ خَاء kh (also ḫ, ḵ ) /x / psyCHe; German iCH ـخ ـخـ خـ خ

4. 8. 4. 8. dāl دَالْ d /d / Doll ـد د
د

25. 9. 25. 9. dhāl ذَال dh (also ḏ ) /ð / THat ـذ ذ
ذ

20. 10. 20. 10. rā’ رَاء r /r / Rap, wRap ـر ر

7. 11. 7. 11. zayn / zāy زَاي z /z / Zebra ـز ز

15. 12. 21. 24. sīn ِسِينْ s /s / Sin ـس ـسـ سـ س

21. 13. 28. 25. shīn شِينْ sh (also š ) /ʃ / SHin ـش ـشـ شـ ش

18. 14. 15. 18. ṣād صَادْ ṣ /sˤ / haSSle, Sap ـص ـصـ صـ ص

26. 15. 18. 19. ḍād ضَاد ḍ /dˤ / aDDer ـض ـضـ ضـ ض
ض

9. 16. 9. 12. ṭā’ طَاء ṭ /tˤ / baTTer ـط ـطـ طـ ط

27. 17. 26. 13. ẓā’ ظَاء ẓ /ðˤ / meZZanine, pizZa ـظ ـظـ ظـ ظ
ظ

16. 18. 16. 20. ‘ayn عَين ‘ (ALSO ʿ ) /ʕ / Art

(aka "heavy long stop"; similar to hamzah) ـع ـعـ عـ ع

28. 19. 27. 21. ghayn غَين gh (also ġ, ḡ ) /ɣ / Gear ـغ ـغـ غـ غ

17. 20. 17. 22. fā’ فَاء f /f / Far ـف ـفـ فـ ف

19. 21. 19. 23. qāf قَاف q /q / Queen, piCKer ـق ـقـ قـ ق
ق

11. 22. 11. 14. kāf كَاف k /k / Calf, Cap ـك ـكـ كـ ك

12. 23. 12. 15. lām لاَمْ l /l / Lamp ـل ـلـ لـ ل

13. 24. 13. 16. mīm مِيمْ m /m / Mimosa ـم ـمـ مـ م

14. 25. 14. 17. nūn نُون n /n / Nun ـن ـنـ نـ ن

5. 26. 5. 26. hā’ هَاء h /h / Hat ـه ـهـ هـ ه
ه

6. 27. 6. 27. wāw وَاو w / ū /w /, /uː / Woven ـو و
و

10. 28. 10. 28. yā’ يَاء y / ī /j /, /iː / Yacht ـي ـيـ يـ ي

(not counted as alphabet but plays an important role in Arabic grammar and lexicon, including indication and spelling) hamzah هَمْزة ʾ (on its own; and hamzated with vowels fatḥah, ḍammah, kasrah; aka “half of a fatḥah, ḍammah, kasrah” – which is EXTREMELY SHORTER than ʼalīf hamzah, wāw hamzah, yāʼ hamzah respectively as fatḥah equates to ʼalīf, ḍammah equates to wāw, kasrah equates to yāʼ) / ʼ / UH-oh

(pronounced with the lips almost fully flattened out and closed, the tip of the tongue touching between the teeth)

(aka "light short stop"; similar to ʿayn)

ء

(used mainly in medial and final position, which is an unlinked letter)

ʼalīf hamzah /ʾa/ pAt ﺄ ﺄ

أ

WāW HAMZAH /ʾU/ PUt

ؤ

Yāʼ HAMZAH /ʾI/ PIt ﺊ

ئ

NOTES

* ^ Alif can represent many phonemes. See the section on alif . * ^ A B C D E F G H See the section on non-native letters and sounds ; the letters ⟨ ك ⟩ ,⟨ ق
ق
⟩ ,⟨ غ ⟩ ,⟨ ج
ج
⟩ are sometimes used to transcribe the phoneme /g / in loanwords, ⟨ ب
ب
⟩ to transcribe /p / and ⟨ ف ⟩ to transcribe /v /. Likewise the letters ⟨ و
و
⟩ and ⟨ ي ⟩ are used to transcribe the vowels /oː / and /eː / respectively in loanwords and dialects. * ^ ج
ج
is pronounced differently depending on the region. See Arabic phonology#Consonants . * ^ A B C See the section on regional variations in letter form.

* See the article Romanization of Arabic for details on various transliteration schemes; however, Arabic language
Arabic language
speakers do not follow a standardized scheme when transcribing names. Also names are regularly transcribed as pronounced locally, not as pronounced in Literary Arabic
Literary Arabic
(if they were of Arabic
Arabic
origin). * Regarding pronunciation, the phonemic values given are those of Modern Standard Arabic, which is taught in universities. In practice, pronunciation may vary considerably from region to region. For more details concerning the pronunciation of Arabic, consult the articles Arabic phonology and varieties of Arabic
Arabic
. * The names of the Arabic
Arabic
letters can be thought of as abstractions of an older version where they were meaningful words in the Proto-Semitic
Proto-Semitic
language. Names of Arabic
Arabic
letters may have quite different names popularly. * Six letters ( و
و
ز ر ذ
ذ
د
د
ا) don't have a distinct medial form and have to be written with their final form without being connected to the next letter. Their initial form matches the isolated form. * The letter alif originated in the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
as a consonant-sign indicating a glottal stop. Today it has lost its function as a consonant, and, together with ya’ and wāw, is a mater lectionis , a consonant sign standing in for a long vowel (see below), or as support for certain diacritics (maddah and hamzah ).

* Arabic
Arabic
currently uses a diacritic sign, ﺀ, called hamzah, to denote the glottal stop , written alone or with a carrier:

* alone: ء * with a carrier: إ أ (above or under a alif), ؤ (above a wāw), ئ (above a dotless yā’ or yā’ hamzah).

In academic work, the hamzah (ء) is transliterated with the modifier letter right half ring (ʾ), while the modifier letter left half ring (ʿ) transliterates the letter ‘ayn (ع), which represents a different sound, not found in English.

* Letters lacking an initial or medial version are never linked to the letter that follows, even within a word. The hamzah has a single form, since it is never linked to a preceding or following letter. However, it is sometimes combined with a wāw, yā’, or alif, and in that case the carrier behaves like an ordinary wāw, yā’, or alif.

Alif

CONTEXT FORM VALUE CLOSEST ENGLISH EQUIVALENT

Without diacritics ا

* initially: a, i /a, i/ or sometimes silent in the definite article ا ل (a)l- * medially or finally: ā /aː/

Initial position: a - Up; i - hIp

Medial/ Final position: a - Up

With hamzah over أ

* initially: ʾa, ʾu /ʔa, ʔu/ * medially or finally: aʾ /ʔa/

Initial position: ʾa - hEArt; ʾu - pOUr

Medial/ Final position: UH-oh (on its own); with vowels: pronounced same as initial position

With hamzah under إ

* initially: ʾi /ʔi/ * doesn't appear medially or finally (see hamza )

Initial position: ʾi - Inn

With maddah آ ʾā /ʔaː/ Initial/ Medial/ Final position: AArdvark

Modified Letters

The following are not individual letters, but rather different contextual variants of some of the Arabic
Arabic
letters.

CONDITIONAL FORMS NAME TRANSLIT. PHONEMIC VALUE (IPA)

ISOLATED FINAL MEDIAL INITIAL

آ ـآ آ alif maddah ā /ʔaː/

ة ـة

tā’ marbūṭah h or t / h / ẗ /at/, /ah/

ى ـى

alif maqṣūrah ā / á / ỳ /aː/

Ligatures

Components of a ligature for "Allah": 1. alif 2. hamzat waṣl (همزة وصل) 3. lām 4. lām 5. shadda (شدة) 6. dagger alif (أل ف خنجرية) 7. hāʾ

The use of ligature in Arabic
Arabic
is common. There is one compulsory ligature, that for lām + alif, which exists in two forms. All other ligatures (yā’ + mīm, etc.) are optional.

CONTEXTUAL FORMS NAME TRANS. VALUE

FINAL MEDIAL INITIAL ISOLATED

ﻼ ﻻ lām + alif laa /lā/

A more complex ligature that combines as many as seven distinct components is commonly used to represent the word Allāh
Allāh
.

The only ligature within the primary range of Arabic script
Arabic script
in Unicode
Unicode
(U+06xx) is lām + alif. This is the only one compulsory for fonts and word-processing. Other ranges are for compatibility to older standards and contain other ligatures, which are optional.

* lām + alif ل ا
ا

Note: Unicode
Unicode
also has in its Presentation Form B FExx range a code for this ligature. If your browser and font are configured correctly for Arabic, the ligature displayed above should be identical to this one, U+FEFB ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH ALEF ISOLATED FORM: ﻻ

* U+0640 ARABIC TATWEEL + lām + alif ـل ا
ا

Note: Unicode
Unicode
also has in its Presentation Form B U+FExx range a code for this ligature. If your browser and font are configured correctly for Arabic, the ligature displayed above should be identical to this one:

* U+FEFC ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH ALEF FINAL FORM ﻼ

Another ligature in the Unicode
Unicode
Presentation Form A range U+FB50 to U+FDxx is the special code for glyph for the ligature Allāh
Allāh
("God"), U+FDF2 ARABIC LIGATURE ALLAH ISOLATED FORM: ﷲ

This is a work-around for the shortcomings of most text processors, which are incapable of displaying the correct vowel marks for the word Allāh
Allāh
in Koran
Koran
. Because Arabic script
Arabic script
is used to write other texts rather than Koran
Koran
only, rendering lām + lām + hā’ as the previous ligature is considered faulty: If one of a number of fonts (Noto Naskh Arabic, mry_KacstQurn, KacstOne, DejaVu Sans, Harmattan, Scheherazade, Lateef, Iranian Sans) is installed on a computer (Iranian Sans is supported by Wikimedia web-fonts), the word will appear without diacritics.

* lām + lām + hā’ لل ه
ه
or لل ه
ه
* alif + lām + lām + hā’ الل ه
ه
or الل ه
ه
* alif + lām + lām + U+0651 ARABIC SHADDA + U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF + hā’ اللّٰ ه
ه
(DejaVu Sans and KacstOne don't show the added superscript Alef)

An attempt to show them on the faulty fonts without automatically adding the gemination mark and the superscript alif, although may not display as desired on all browsers, is by adding the U+200d (Zero width joiner) after the first or second lām

* (alif +) lām + lām + U+200d ZERO WIDTH JOINER + hā’ الل‍ ه
ه
‎ لل‍ ه
ه

Gemination

Further information: Shadda
Shadda

Gemination is the doubling of a consonant. Instead of writing the letter twice, Arabic
Arabic
places a W-shaped sign called shaddah, above it. Note that if a vowel occurs between the two consonants the letter will simply be written twice. The diacritic only appears where the consonant at the end of one syllable is identical to the initial consonant of the following syllable. (The generic term for such diacritical signs is ḥarakāt ).

General Unicode
Unicode
NAME NAME IN ARABIC SCRIPT TRANSLITERATION

0651 ّ ‎ ّ shaddah شَدَّة (consonant doubled)

Nunation

Main article: Nunation

Nunation ( Arabic
Arabic
: تنوين‎‎ tanwīn) is the addition of a final -n to a noun or adjective . The vowel before it indicates grammatical case . In written Arabic
Arabic
nunation is indicated by doubling the vowel diacritic at the end of the word.

VOWELS

Users of Arabic
Arabic
usually write long vowels but omit short ones, so readers must utilize their knowledge of the language in order to supply the missing vowels. However, in the education system and particularly in classes on Arabic
Arabic
grammar these vowels are used since they are crucial to the grammar. An Arabic
Arabic
sentence can have a completely different meaning by a subtle change of the vowels. This is why in an important text such as the Qur’ān the three basic vowel signs (see below) are mandated, like the ḥarakāt and all the other diacritics or other types of marks, for example the cantillation signs .

SHORT VOWELS

Further information: Arabic diacritics

In the Arabic
Arabic
handwriting of everyday use, in general publications, and on street signs, short vowels are typically not written. On the other hand, copies of the Qur’ān cannot be endorsed by the religious institutes that review them unless the diacritics are included. Children's books, elementary school texts, and Arabic-language grammars in general will include diacritics to some degree. These are known as "vocalized " texts.

Short vowels may be written with diacritics placed above or below the consonant that precedes them in the syllable, called ḥarakāt. All Arabic
Arabic
vowels, long and short, follow a consonant; in Arabic, words like "Ali" or "alif", for example, start with a consonant: ‘Aliyy, alif.

Short vowels (fully vocalized text) NAME NAME IN ARABIC SCRIPT TRANS. VALUE

064E َ ‎ fatḥah فَتْحَة a /a/

064F ُ ‎ ḍammah ضَمَّة u /u/

0650 ِ ‎ kasrah كَسْرَة i /i/

LONG VOWELS

In the fully vocalized Arabic
Arabic
text found in texts such as Quran
Quran
, a long ā following a consonant other than a hamzah is written with a short a sign (fatḥah) on the consonant plus an alif after it; long ī is written as a sign for short i (kasrah) plus a yā’; and long ū as a sign for short u (ḍammah) plus a wāw. Briefly, ᵃa = ā, ⁱy = ī and ᵘw = ū. Long ā following a hamzah may be represented by an alif maddah or by a free hamzah followed by an alif.

The table below shows vowels placed above or below a dotted circle replacing a primary consonant letter or a shaddah sign. For clarity in the table, the primary letters on the left used to mark these long vowels are shown only in their isolated form. Please note that most consonants do connect to the left with alif, wāw and yā’ written then with their medial or final form. Additionally, the letter yā’ in the last row may connect to the letter on its left, and then will use a medial or initial form. Use the table of primary letters to look at their actual glyph and joining types.

Long vowels (fully vocalized text) NAME TRANS. VALUE

064E 0627 ـَا‎ fatḥah alif ā /aː/

064E 0649 ـَى‎ fatḥah alif maqṣūrah ā / á / ỳ

064F 0648 ـُو‎ ḍammah wāw ū /uː/

0650 064A ـِي‎ kasrah yā’ ī /iː/

In unvocalized text (one in which the short vowels are not marked), the long vowels are represented by the vowel in question: alif ṭawīlah/maqṣūrah, wāw, or yā’. Long vowels written in the middle of a word of unvocalized text are treated like consonants with a sukūn (see below) in a text that has full diacritics. Here also, the table shows long vowel letters only in isolated form for clarity.

Combinations و ا
ا
and ي ا
ا
are always pronounced wā and yā respectively. The exception is when و ا
ا
is the verb ending, where alif is silent, resulting in ū, or even aw.

Long vowels (unvocalized text) NAME TRANS. VALUE

0627 ا
ا
(implied fatḥah) alif ā /aː/

0649 ى
ى
(implied fatḥah) alif maqṣūrah ā / á / ỳ

0648 و
و
(implied ḍammah) wāw ū / uw /uː/

064A ي (implied kasrah) yā’ ī / iy /iː/

In addition, when transliterating names and loanwords, Arabic language speakers write out most or all the vowels as long (ā with ا alif, ē and ī with ي ya’, and ō and ū with و
و
wāw), meaning it approaches a true alphabet.

DIPHTHONGS

The diphthongs /aj/ and /aw/ are represented in vocalized text as follows:

Diphthongs (fully vocalized text) NAME TRANS. VALUE

064A 064E ـَي‎ fatḥah yā’ ay /aj/

0648 064E ـَو‎ fatḥah wāw aw /aw/

VOWEL OMISSION

An Arabic
Arabic
syllable can be open (ending with a vowel) or closed (ending with a consonant):

* open: CV (long or short vowel) * closed: CVC (short vowel only)

A normal text is composed only of a series of consonants plus vowel-lengthening letters; thus, the word qalb, "heart", is written qlb, and the word qalab "he turned around", is also written qlb.

To write qalab without this ambiguity, we could indicate that the l is followed by a short a by writing a fatḥah above it.

To write qalb, we would instead indicate that the l is followed by no vowel by marking it with a diacritic called sukūn ( ْ ‎ ), like this: قلْبْ.

This is one step down from full vocalization, where the vowel after the q would also be indicated by a fatḥah: قَلْبْ.

The Qur’ān is traditionally written in full vocalization.

The long i sound in some editions of the Qur’ān is written with a kasrah followed by a diacritic-less y, and long u by a ḍammah followed by a bare w. In others, these y and w carry a sukūn. Outside of the Qur’ān, the latter convention is extremely rare, to the point that y with sukūn will be unambiguously read as the diphthong /aj/, and w with sukūn will be read /aw/.

For example, the letters m-y-l can be read like English meel or mail, or (theoretically) also like mayyal or mayil. But if a sukūn is added on the y then the m cannot have a sukūn (because two letters in a row cannot be sukūnated), cannot have a ḍammah (because there is never an uy sound in Arabic
Arabic
unless there is another vowel after the y), and cannot have a kasrah (because kasrah before sukūnated y is never found outside the Qur’ān), so it must have a fatḥah and the only possible pronunciation is /majl/ (meaning mile, or even e-mail). By the same token, m-y-t with a sukūn over the y can be mayt but not mayyit or meet, and m-w-t with a sukūn on the w can only be mawt, not moot (iw is impossible when the w closes the syllable).

Vowel
Vowel
marks are always written as if the i‘rāb vowels were in fact pronounced, even when they must be skipped in actual pronunciation. So, when writing the name Aḥmad, it is optional to place a sukūn on the ḥ, but a sukūn is forbidden on the d, because it would carry a ḍammah if any other word followed, as in Aḥmadu zawjī "Ahmad is my husband".

Another example: the sentence that in correct literary Arabic
Arabic
must be pronounced Aḥmadu zawjun sharrīr "Ahmad is a wicked husband", is usually mispronounced (due to influence from vernacular Arabic varieties) as Aḥmad zawj sharrīr. Yet, for the purposes of Arabic grammar and orthography, is treated as if it were not mispronounced and as if yet another word followed it, i.e., if adding any vowel marks, they must be added as if the pronunciation were Aḥmadu zawjun sharrīrun with a tanwīn 'un' at the end. So, it is correct to add an un tanwīn sign on the final r, but actually pronouncing it would be a hypercorrection. Also, it is never correct to write a sukūn on that r, even though in actual pronunciation it is (and in correct Arabic MUST be) sukūned.

Of course, if the correct i‘rāb is a sukūn, it may be optionally written.

General Unicode
Unicode
NAME NAME IN ARABIC SCRIPT TRANSLIT. PHONEMIC VALUE (IPA)

0652 ْ ‎ sukūn سُكُون (no vowel with this consonant letter or diphthong with this long vowel letter) ∅

0670 ٰ ‎ alīf khanjariyyah أَلِي ف خَنْجَرِيَّة ā /aː/

The sukūn is also used for transliterating words into the Arabic script. The Persian word ماسک (mâsk, from the English word "mask"), for example, might be written with a sukūn above the ﺱ to signify that there is no vowel sound between that letter and the ک.

ADDITIONAL LETTERS

REGIONAL VARIATIONS

Some letters take a traditionally different form in specific regions:

LETTER EXPLANATION

ISOLATED FINAL MEDIAL INITIAL

ڛ‎ ـڛ‎ ـڛـ‎ ڛـ‎ A traditional form to denotate the sīn س letter, rarely used in areas influenced by Persian script and former Ottoman script .

ڢ‎ ـڢ‎ ـڢـ‎ ڢـ‎ A traditional Maghrebi variant (except for Libya and Algeria) of fā’ ف.

ڧ/ٯ‎ ـڧ/ـٯ‎ ـڧـ‎ ڧـ‎ A traditional Maghrebi variant (except for Libya and Algeria) of qāf ق. Generally dotless in isolated and final positions and dotted in the initial and medial forms.

ک‎ ـک‎ ـکـ‎ کـ‎ An alternative version of kāf ك used especially in Maghrebi under the influence of the Ottoman script or in Gulf script under the influence of the Persian script .

ی‎ ـی‎ ـیـ‎ یـ‎ Notably in Egypt, Sudan ( Nile Valley
Nile Valley
) and sometimes Maghreb, yā’ ي is dotless in the isolated and final position. Visually identical to alif maqṣūrah ى
ى
. The use in handwriting resembles the Perso- Arabic
Arabic
letter یـ ـیـ ـ ی ی which was also used in Ottoman Turkish .

NON-NATIVE LETTERS

See also Arabic script#Special letters for languages other than Arabic.

Some modified letters are used to represent non-native sounds of Arabic. These letters are used in transliterated names, loanwords and dialectal words.

LETTER VALUE NOTE

ڤ /v / Used in loanwords and dialectal words instead of fā’ ف. Not to be confused with ڨ.

ڥ Used in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.

پ /p / Sometimes used when transliterating foreign names and loanwords. Can be substituted with bā’ ب
ب
and pronounced as such.

ڜ /t͡ʃ / Used in Morocco.

چ
چ
Sometimes used when transliterating foreign names and loanwords and in the Gulf and Arabic
Arabic
dialects. The sequence ت ش tāʼ -shīn is usually preferred (e.g. تشا د
د
for " Chad
Chad
").

/ʒ / Used in Egypt
Egypt
and can be a reduction of /d͡ʒ /, where ج
ج
is pronounced /ɡ /.

/ɡ / Used in Israel, for example on road signs.

گ
گ
Used in northwest Africa and west Asia.

ڨ
ڨ
Used in Tunisia and in Algeria for loanwords and for the dialectal pronunciation of qāf ق
ق
in some words. Not to be confused with ڤ.

ڭ Used in Morocco.

ڠ Rarely used in Persian Gulf.

USED IN LANGUAGES OTHER THAN ARABIC

Main article: Arabic script
Arabic script

Most common non-Classical Arabic
Arabic
consonant phonemes/graphemes LANGUAGE FAMILY AUSTRON. DRAVID. TURKIC Indic

(Indo-European) IRANIAN (INDO-EUROPEAN)

ARABIC (SEMITIC)

LANGUAGE/SCRIPT JAWI ARWI UYGHUR SINDHI PUNJABI URDU PERSIAN BALOCHI KURDISH PASHTO IRAQI HEJAZI EGYPTIAN ALGERIAN TUNISIAN MOROCCAN

/p / ڤ ڣ پ پ

/g / ݢ ‎ ࢴ ‎ گ
گ
ګ گ
گ
ق
ق
ج
ج
ڨ
ڨ
ڭ

/t͡ʃ / چ
چ
چ
چ
‎ ت ش ڜ

/ʒ / Ø ژ ‎ Ø ژ ‎ Ø چ
چ
‎ Ø ج
ج

/v / ۏ و
و
ۋ و
و
‎ Ø ڤ ‎ Ø ڤ ڥ

/ŋ / ڠ ڭ ڱ ں ن ‎ Ø Ø

/ɳ / Ø ڹ ‎ Ø ڻ ‎ Ø ڼ ‎ Ø

/ɲ / ڽ ‎ ݧ ‎ Ø ڃ Ø Ø

NUMERALS

Western (Maghreb, Europe) Central (Mideast) Eastern (Persian, Urdu)

0 ٠ ۰

1 ١ ۱

2 ٢ ۲

3 ٣ ۳

4 ٤ ۴

5 ٥ ۵

6 ٦ ۶

7 ٧ ۷

8 ٨ ۸

9 ٩ ۹

10 ١٠ ۱۰

Main articles: Western Arabic numerals and Eastern Arabic numerals
Eastern Arabic numerals

There are two main kinds of numerals used along with Arabic
Arabic
text; Western Arabic numerals and Eastern Arabic numerals
Eastern Arabic numerals
. In most of present-day North Africa, the usual Western Arabic numerals are used. Like Western Arabic
Arabic
numerals, in Eastern Arabic
Arabic
numerals, the units are always right-most, and the highest value left-most.

LETTERS AS NUMERALS

Main article: Abjad
Abjad
numerals

In addition, the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet can be used to represent numbers ( Abjad
Abjad
numerals ). This usage is based on the abjadī order of the alphabet. ا
ا
alif is 1, ب
ب
bā’ is 2, ج
ج
jīm is 3, and so on until ي yā’ = 10, ك kāf = 20, ل lām = 30, …, ر rā’ = 200, …, غ ghayn = 1000. This is sometimes used to produce chronograms .

HISTORY

Main article: History of the Arabic alphabet Evolution of early Arabic calligraphy
Arabic calligraphy
(9th–11th century). The Basmala
Basmala
is taken as an example, from Kufic
Kufic
Qur’ān manuscripts. (1) Early 9th century script used no dots or diacritic marks; (2) and (3) in the 9th–10th century during the Abbasid dynasty, Abu al-Aswad 's system used red dots with each arrangement or position indicating a different short vowel. Later, a second system of black dots was used to differentiate between letters like fā’ and qāf; (4) in the 11th century (al-Farāhīdī 's system) dots were changed into shapes resembling the letters to transcribe the corresponding long vowels. This system is the one used today.

The Arabic
Arabic
alphabet can be traced back to the Nabataean alphabet
Nabataean alphabet
used to write the Nabataean
Nabataean
. The first known text in the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet is a late 4th-century inscription from Jabal Ramm
Jabal Ramm
(50 km east of ‘Aqabah ) in Jordan
Jordan
, but the first dated one is a trilingual inscription at Zebed in Syria
Syria
from 512. However, the epigraphic record is extremely sparse, with only five certainly pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions surviving, though some others may be pre-Islamic. Later, dots were added above and below the letters to differentiate them. (The Aramaic language had fewer phonemes than the Arabic, and some originally distinct Aramaic letters had become indistinguishable in shape, so that in the early writings 15 distinct letter-shapes had to do duty for 28 sounds; cf. the similarly ambiguous Pahlavi alphabet.) The first surviving document that definitely uses these dots is also the first surviving Arabic
Arabic
papyrus ( PERF 558
PERF 558
), dated April 643, although they did not become obligatory until much later. Important texts were and still are frequently memorized, especially in Qur\'an memorization , a practice which probably arose partially from a desire to avoid the great ambiguity of the script.

Later still, vowel marks and the hamzah were introduced, beginning some time in the latter half of the 7th century, preceding the first invention of Syriac and Hebrew vocalization . Initially, this was done by a system of red dots, said to have been commissioned in the Umayyad era by Abu al-Aswad al-Du\'ali a dot above = a, a dot below = i, a dot on the line = u, and doubled dots indicated nunation . However, this was cumbersome and easily confusable with the letter-distinguishing dots, so about 100 years later, the modern system was adopted. The system was finalized around 786 by al-Farāhīdī .

ARABIC PRINTING PRESSES

Although Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
generally receives credit for introducing the printing press to Egypt
Egypt
during his invasion of that country in 1798, and though he did indeed bring printing presses and Arabic script presses to print the French occupation's official newspaper Al-Tanbiyyah ("The Courier"), printing in the Arabic language
Arabic language
started several centuries earlier.

In 1514, following Gutenberg 's invention of the printing press in 1450, Gregorio de Gregorii, a Venetian, published an entire prayer-book in Arabic
Arabic
script; it was entitled Kitab Salat al-Sawa\'i and was intended for eastern Christian communities

Between 1580 and 1586, type designer Robert Granjon
Robert Granjon
designed Arabic typefaces for Cardinal Ferdinando de\' Medici , and the Medici press published many Christian prayer and scholarly Arabic
Arabic
texts in the late 16th century.

Maronite
Maronite
monks at the Maar Quzhayy Monastery in Mount Lebanon published the first Arabic
Arabic
books to use movable type in the Middle East. The monks transliterated the Arabic language
Arabic language
using Syriac script.

A goldsmith (like Gutenberg) designed and implemented an Arabic-script movable-type printing-press in the Middle East. The Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
monk Abd Allah Zakhir set up an Arabic
Arabic
language printing press using movable type at the monastery of Saint John at the town of Dhour El Shuwayr in Mount Lebanon, the first homemade press in Lebanon using Arabic
Arabic
script. He personally cut the type molds and did the founding of the typeface. The first book came off his press in 1734; this press continued in use until 1899.

COMPUTERS

The Arabic
Arabic
alphabet can be encoded using several character sets , including ISO-8859-6 , Windows-1256 and Unicode
Unicode
(see links in Infobox above), latter thanks to the " Arabic
Arabic
segment", entries U+0600 to U+06FF. However, none of the sets indicates the form that each character should take in context. It is left to the rendering engine to select the proper glyph to display for each character.

Each letter has a position-independent encoding in Unicode
Unicode
, and the rendering software can infer the correct glyph form (initial, medial, final or isolated) from its joining context. That is the current recommendation. However, for compatibility with previous standards, the initial, medial, final and isolated forms can also be encoded separately.

UNICODE

Main article: Arabic
Arabic
characters in Unicode
Unicode

As of Unicode
Unicode
7.0, the following ranges encode Arabic
Arabic
characters:

* Arabic
Arabic
(0600-06FF) * Arabic Supplement (0750-077F) * Arabic Extended-A (08A0-08FF) * Arabic Presentation Forms-A (FB50-FDFF) * Arabic Presentation Forms-B (FE70-FEFF) * Arabic Mathematical Alphabetic Symbols 1EE00-1EEFF) * Rumi Numeral Symbols (10E60-10E7F)

The basic Arabic
Arabic
range encodes the standard letters and diacritics but does not encode contextual forms (U+0621-U+0652 being directly based on ISO 8859-6 ). It also includes the most common diacritics and Arabic-Indic digits
Arabic-Indic digits
. U+06D6 to U+06ED encode Qur'anic annotation signs such as "end of ayah " ۝ۖ and "start of rub el hizb " ۞. The Arabic
Arabic
supplement range encodes letter variants mostly used for writing African (non-Arabic) languages. The Arabic Extended-A range encodes additional Qur'anic annotations and letter variants used for various non- Arabic
Arabic
languages.

The Arabic Presentation Forms-A range encodes contextual forms and ligatures of letter variants needed for Persian, Urdu, Sindhi and Central Asian languages. The Arabic Presentation Forms-B range encodes spacing forms of Arabic
Arabic
diacritics, and more contextual letter forms. The Arabic
Arabic
Mathematical Alphabetical Symbols block encodes characters used in Arabic
Arabic
mathematical expressions.

See also the notes of the section on modified letters .

KEYBOARDS

See also: Keyboard layout
Keyboard layout
Arabic
Arabic
Mac keyboard layout Arabic
Arabic
PC keyboard layout Intellark imposed on a QWERTY keyboard layout.

Keyboards designed for different nations have different layouts so proficiency in one style of keyboard, such as Iraq's, does not transfer to proficiency in another, such as Saudi Arabia's. Differences can include the location of non-alphabetic characters.

All Arabic
Arabic
keyboards allow typing Roman characters, e.g., for the URL in a web browser . Thus, each Arabic
Arabic
keyboard has both Arabic
Arabic
and Roman characters marked on the keys. Usually the Roman characters of an Arabic
Arabic
keyboard conform to the QWERTY
QWERTY
layout, but in North Africa
North Africa
, where French is the most common language typed using the Roman characters, the Arabic
Arabic
keyboards are AZERTY
AZERTY
.

To encode a particular written form of a character, there are extra code points provided in Unicode
Unicode
which can be used to express the exact written form desired. The range Arabic
Arabic
presentation forms A (U+FB50 to U+FDFF) contain ligatures while the range Arabic
Arabic
presentation forms B (U+FE70 to U+FEFF) contains the positional variants. These effects are better achieved in Unicode
Unicode
by using the zero-width joiner and non-joiner , as these presentation forms are deprecated in Unicode, and should generally only be used within the internals of text-rendering software, when using Unicode
Unicode
as an intermediate form for conversion between character encodings, or for backwards compatibility with implementations that rely on the hard-coding of glyph forms.

Finally, the Unicode
Unicode
encoding of Arabic
Arabic
is in logical order, that is, the characters are entered, and stored in computer memory, in the order that they are written and pronounced without worrying about the direction in which they will be displayed on paper or on the screen. Again, it is left to the rendering engine to present the characters in the correct direction, using Unicode's bi-directional text features. In this regard, if the Arabic
Arabic
words on this page are written left to right, it is an indication that the Unicode
Unicode
rendering engine used to display them is out of date.

There are competing online tools, e.g. Yamli editor, which allow entry of Arabic
Arabic
letters without having Arabic
Arabic
support installed on a PC, and without knowledge of the layout of the Arabic
Arabic
keyboard.

HANDWRITING RECOGNITION

The first software program of its kind in the world that identifies Arabic
Arabic
handwriting in real time was developed by researchers at Ben-Gurion University
Ben-Gurion University
(BGU).

The prototype enables the user to write Arabic
Arabic
words by hand on an electronic screen, which then analyzes the text and translates it into printed Arabic
Arabic
letters in a thousandth of a second. The error rate is less than three percent, according to Dr. Jihad El-Sana, from BGU's department of computer sciences, who developed the system along with master's degree student Fadi Biadsy.

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ARABIC ALPHABET .

* Arabic calligraphy
Arabic calligraphy
* Arabic diacritics (pointed vowels and consonants) * Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
* Arabic script
Arabic script
about other languages written in Arabic
Arabic
letters. * Arabic
Arabic
Unicode
Unicode
* Arabic Chat Alphabet * ArabTeX – provides Arabic
Arabic
support for TeX
TeX
and La TeX
TeX
* Rasm (unpointed consonants) * Romanization of Arabic * South Arabian alphabet
South Arabian alphabet
* Perso- Arabic script
Arabic script
* Arabic braille * Algerian braille * ʿilm al-Ḥurouf

REFERENCES

* ^ A B (in Arabic) Alyaseer.net ترتي ب
ب
المداخل والبطاقا ت ف ي القوائ م والفهارس الموضوعية Ordering entries and cards in subject indexes Discussion thread (Accessed 2009-October–06) * ^ Rogers, Henry (2005). Writing Systems: A Linguistic Approach. Blackwell Publishing. p. 135. * ^ SIL International
SIL International
: This simplified style is often preferred for clarity, especially in non- Arabic
Arabic
languages * ^ http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5824879v/f26.item.zoom * ^ Arabic
Arabic
Dialect Tutorial * ^ File: Basmala
Basmala
kufi.svg - Wikimedia Commons * ^ A B File:Kufi.jpg - Wikimedia Commons * ^ File:Qur\'an folio 11th century kufic.jpg - Wikimedia Commons * ^ "294° anniversario della Biblioteca Federiciana: ricerche e curiosità sul Kitab Salat al-Sawai". Retrieved 2017-01-31. * ^ Arabic
Arabic
and the Art of Printing – A Special
Special
Section, by Paul Lunde * ^ For more information about encoding Arabic, consult the Unicode manual available at The Unicode
Unicode
website * ^ See also Multilingual Computing with Arabic
Arabic
and Arabic Transliteration: Arabicizing Windows Applications to Read and Write Arabic
Arabic
Raza, Hafsa (August 2009). "NERA: Named entity recognition for Arabic". Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60 (8). * "Why the right side of your brain doesn\'t like Arabic". CNN. 9 September 2010. * Arabic
Arabic
at DMOZ
DMOZ

-------------------------

This article contains major sections of text from the very detailed article Arabic
Arabic
alphabet from the French, which has been partially translated into English. Further translation of that page, and its incorporation into the text here, are welcomed.

* v * t * e

Arabic
Arabic
alphabets

EUROPE

* Aljamiado
Aljamiado
* Arebica
Arebica
* Azerbaijani * Belarusian * Kazakh * Ottoman Turkish * Tatar (İske imlâ * Yaña imlâ )

ASIA

* Arabic * Arabi Malayalam
Malayalam
* Arwi
Arwi
* Azerbaijani * Buri Wolio * Jawi * Kazakh * Khowar * Kurdish * Kyrgyz * Ottoman Turkish * Pashto * Pegon * Persian * Saraiki * Sindhi * Shahmukhī * Tajik * Turkmen * Urdu * Uyghur * Uzbek * Xiao\'erjing

AFRICA

* Afrikaans * Ajami * Berber * Fula * Sorabe * Swahili * Wadaad * Wolof

* v * t * e

Arabic language
Arabic language

OVERVIEWS

* Language * Alphabet * History * Romanization * Numerology * Influence on other languages

ALPHABET

* Nabataean alphabet
Nabataean alphabet
* Perso- Arabic
Arabic
alphabet * Ancient North Arabian

* Ancient South Arabian script
Ancient South Arabian script

* Zabūr script

* Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
* Eastern numerals

* Arabic
Arabic
Braille
Braille

* Algerian

* Diacritics * i‘jām * Tashkil
Tashkil
* Harakat
Harakat
* Tanwin * Shaddah
Shaddah
* Hamza
Hamza
* Tāʾ marbūṭah

LETTERS

* ʾAlif * Bāʾ * Tāʾ * Ṯāʾ
Ṯāʾ
* Ǧīm * Ḥāʾ * Ḫāʾ * Dāl * Ḏāl
Ḏāl
* Rāʾ * Zāy * Sīn * Šīn * Ṣād * Ḍād
Ḍād
* Ṭāʾ * Ẓāʾ
Ẓāʾ
* ʿAyn * Ġayn * Fāʾ * Qāf * Kāf * Lām * Mīm * Nūn * Hāʾ
Hāʾ
* Wāw * Yāʾ

NOTABLE VARIETIES

ANCIENT

* Proto- Arabic
Arabic
* Old Arabic
Arabic
* Ancient North Arabian * Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian

STANDARDIZED

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

REGIONAL

* Nilo-Egyptian * Levantine

* Maghrebi

* Pre-Hilalian dialects * Hilalian dialects * Moroccan Darija
Moroccan Darija
* Tunisian Arabic
Tunisian Arabic
* Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Mesopotamian

* Peninsular

* Yemeni Arabic
Arabic
* Tihamiyya Arabic
Arabic

* Sudanese * Chadian * Modern South Arabian
Modern South Arabian

ETHNIC / RELIGIOUS

* Judeo- Arabic
Arabic

PIDGINS/CREOLES

* Juba Arabic
Arabic
* Nubi language * Babalia Creole Arabic
Arabic
* Maridi Arabic
Arabic
* Maltese

ACADEMIC

* Literature * Names

LINGUISTICS

* Phonology * Sun and moon letters
Sun and moon letters
* ʾIʿrāb (inflection) * Grammar * Triliteral root * Mater lectionis * IPA * Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

* Calligraphy
Calligraphy
* Script

* Diwani
Diwani
* Jawi script
Jawi script
* Kufic
Kufic
* Rasm * Mashq
Mashq
* Hijazi script
Hijazi script
* Muhaqqaq
Muhaqqaq
* Thuluth
Thuluth
* Naskh (script)
Naskh (script)
* Ruqʿah script
Ruqʿah script
* Taʿlīq script * Nastaʿlīq script
Nastaʿlīq script
* Shahmukhī script * Sini (script)
Sini (script)

TECHNICAL

* Arabic
Arabic
keyboard * Arabic script
Arabic script
in Unicode
Unicode
* ISO/IEC 8859-6 * Windows-1256

* MS-DOS codepages

* 708 * 709 * 710 * 711 * 720 * 864

* Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing
History of writing
* Grapheme
Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

TYPES

ABJADS

* Numerals

* Aramaic

* Hatran

* Arabic
Arabic
* Pitman shorthand
Pitman shorthand

* Hebrew

* Ashuri * Cursive
Cursive
* Rashi * Solitreo

* Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* Manichaean * Nabataean
Nabataean
* Old North Arabian * Pahlavi * Pegon

* Phoenician

* Paleo-Hebrew

* Proto-Sinaitic * Psalter * Punic * Samaritan

* South Arabian

* Zabur * Musnad

* Sogdian

* Syriac

* ʾEsṭrangēlā * Serṭā * Maḏnḥāyā

* Teeline Shorthand
Teeline Shorthand
* Ugaritic

ABUGIDAS

BRAHMIC

NORTHERN

* Asamiya (Ôxômiya) * Bānglā * Bhaikshuki * Bhujinmol * Brāhmī * Devanāgarī * Dogra * Gujarati * Gupta * Gurmukhī * Kaithi
Kaithi
* Kalinga * Khojki * Khotanese * Khudawadi * Laṇḍā * Lepcha * Limbu * Mahajani
Mahajani
* Marchen * Marchung * Meitei Mayek * Modi * Multani * Nāgarī * Nandinagari
Nandinagari
* Odia * \'Phags-pa * Newar * Pungs-chen * Pungs-chung * Ranjana * Sharada * Saurashtra * Siddhaṃ * Soyombo * Sylheti Nagari
Sylheti Nagari
* Takri

* Tibetan

* Uchen * Umê

* Tirhuta
Tirhuta
* Tocharian * Zanabazar Square

SOUTHERN

* Ahom * Balinese * Batak * Baybayin
Baybayin
* Bhattiprolu * Buhid * Burmese * Chakma * Cham * Grantha * Goykanadi * Hanunó\'o * Javanese * Kadamba * Kannada * Kawi * Khmer * Kulitan * Lanna * Lao * Leke * Lontara * Malayalam
Malayalam

* Maldivian

* Dhives Akuru
Dhives Akuru
* Eveyla Akuru * Thaana
Thaana

* Mon * Old Sundanese * Pallava * Pyu * Rejang * Rencong * Sinhala * Sundanese * Tagbanwa * Tai Le * Tai Tham * Tai Viet * Tamil * Telugu * Thai * Tigalari

* Vatteluttu

* Kolezhuthu * Malayanma

* Visayan

OTHERS

* Boyd\'s syllabic shorthand

* Canadian syllabics

* Blackfoot * Déné syllabics
Déné syllabics

* Fox I * Ge\'ez * Gunjala Gondi * Japanese Braille
Japanese Braille
* Jenticha * Kayah Li * Kharosthi
Kharosthi
* Mandombe * Masaram Gondi * Meroitic * Miao * Mwangwego * Sorang Sompeng * Pahawh Hmong
Pahawh Hmong
* Thomas Natural Shorthand
Thomas Natural Shorthand

ALPHABETS

LINEAR

* Abkhaz * Adlam * Armenian * Avestan * Avoiuli
Avoiuli
* Bassa Vah * Borama * Carian * Caucasian Albanian * Coorgi–Cox alphabet
Coorgi–Cox alphabet
* Coptic * Cyrillic * Deseret

* Duployan shorthand
Duployan shorthand

* Chinook writing

* Early Cyrillic * Eclectic shorthand
Eclectic shorthand
* Elbasan * Etruscan * Evenki * Fox II * Fraser * Gabelsberger shorthand
Gabelsberger shorthand
* Garay

* Georgian

* Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
* Nuskhuri
Nuskhuri
* Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli

* Glagolitic * Gothic * Gregg shorthand
Gregg shorthand
* Greek * Greco-Iberian alphabet
Greco-Iberian alphabet
* Hangul
Hangul
* IPA * Kaddare

* Latin

* Beneventan * Blackletter
Blackletter
* Carolingian minuscule
Carolingian minuscule
* Fraktur
Fraktur
* Gaelic * Insular * Kurrent
Kurrent
* Merovingian * Sigla * Sütterlin
Sütterlin
* Tironian notes
Tironian notes
* Visigothic

* Luo * Lycian * Lydian * Manchu * Mandaic * Molodtsov * Mongolian * Mru * Neo- Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* New Tai Lue * N\'Ko * Ogham
Ogham
* Oirat * Ol Chiki * Old Hungarian * Old Italic * Old Permic * Orkhon * Old Uyghur * Osage * Osmanya * Pau Cin Hau * Rohingya Hanifi

* Runic

* Anglo-Saxon * Cipher
Cipher
* Dalecarlian * Elder Futhark
Elder Futhark
* Younger Futhark
Younger Futhark
* Gothic * Marcomannic * Medieval * Staveless

* Sidetic * Shavian * Somali * Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* Vagindra * Visible Speech
Visible Speech
* Vithkuqi * Zaghawa

NON-LINEAR

* Braille
Braille
* Maritime flags * Morse code
Morse code
* New York Point
New York Point
* Semaphore line
Semaphore line
* Flag semaphore
Flag semaphore
* Moon type
Moon type

IDEOGRAMS /PICTOGRAMS

* Adinkra * Aztec * Blissymbol * Dongba * Ersu Shaba * Emoji
Emoji
* IConji
IConji
* Isotype * Kaidā * Míkmaq * Mixtec * New Epoch Notation Painting
New Epoch Notation Painting
* Nsibidi
Nsibidi
* Ojibwe Hieroglyphs * Siglas poveiras
Siglas poveiras
* Testerian
Testerian
* Yerkish * Zapotec

LOGOGRAMS

CHINESE FAMILY OF SCRIPTS

CHINESE CHARACTERS

* Simplified * Traditional * Oracle bone script
Oracle bone script
* Bronze Script

* Seal Script

* large * small * bird-worm

* Hanja
Hanja
* Idu * Kanji
Kanji
* Chữ nôm * Zhuang

CHINESE-INFLUENCED

* Jurchen * Khitan large script
Khitan large script
* Sui * Tangut

CUNEIFORM

* Akkadian * Assyrian * Elamite * Hittite * Luwian * Sumerian

OTHER LOGO-SYLLABIC

* Anatolian * Bagam * Cretan * Isthmian * Maya * Proto-Elamite * Yi (Classical)

LOGO-CONSONANTAL

* Demotic * Hieratic
Hieratic
* Hieroglyphs

NUMERALS

* Hindu- Arabic
Arabic
* Abjad
Abjad
* Attic (Greek) * Muisca * Roman

SEMI-SYLLABARIES

FULL

* Celtiberian * Northeastern Iberian * Southeastern Iberian * Khom

REDUNDANT

* Espanca * Pahawh Hmong
Pahawh Hmong
* Khitan small script
Khitan small script
* Southwest Paleohispanic * Zhuyin fuhao

SOMACHEIROGRAMS

* ASLwrite
ASLwrite
* SignWriting
SignWriting
* si5s * Stokoe Notation

SYLLABARIES

* Afaka * Bamum * Bété * Byblos * Cherokee * Cypriot * Cypro-Minoan * Eskayan * Geba * Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics * Iban

* Japanese

* Hiragana
Hiragana
* Katakana
Katakana
* Man\'yōgana * Hentaigana
Hentaigana
* Sogana
Sogana
* Jindai moji
Jindai moji

* Kikakui * Kpelle * Linear B
Linear B
* Linear Elamite
Linear Elamite
* Lisu * Loma * Nüshu * Nwagu Aneke script * Old Persian Cuneiform
Cuneiform
* Vai * Woleai * Yi (Modern) * Yugtun

* v * t * e

Braille
Braille
⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

BRAILLE CELL

* 1829 braille
1829 braille
* International uniformity * ASCII braille * Unicode
Unicode
braille patterns

BRAILLE SCRIPTS

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

* Albanian * Amharic * Arabic
Arabic
* Armenian * Azerbaijani * Belarusian

* Bharati

* Devanagari
Devanagari
(Hindi / Marathi / Nepali) * Bengali * Punjabi * Sinhalese * Tamil * Urdu * etc.

* Bulgarian * Burmese * Cambodian * Cantonese * Catalan * Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) * Czech * Dutch * Dzongkha (Bhutanese) * English (Unified English ) * Esperanto * Estonian * Faroese * French * Georgian * German * Ghanaian * Greek * Guarani * Hawaiian * Hebrew * Hungarian * Icelandic * Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) * Iñupiaq * IPA * Irish * Italian * Kazakh * Kyrgyz * Latvian * Lithuanian * Maltese * Mongolian * Māori * Nigerian * Northern Sami * Persian * Philippine * Polish * Portuguese * Romanian * Russian * Samoan * Scandinavian * Slovak * South African * Spanish * Tatar * Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) * Thai border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Algerian Braille (obsolete)

FREQUENCY-BASED SCRIPTS

* American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

INDEPENDENT SCRIPTS

* Japanese * Korean * Two-Cell Chinese

EIGHT-DOT SCRIPTS

* Luxembourgish * Kanji
Kanji
* Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

SYMBOLS IN BRAILLE

* Braille
Braille
music * Canadian currency marks * Computer Braille
Braille
Code * Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) * International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) * Nemeth braille code

BRAILLE TECHNOLOGY

* Braille
Braille
e-book * Braille
Braille
embosser * Braille
Braille
translator * Braille
Braille
watch * Mountbatten Brailler
Mountbatten Brailler
* Optical braille recognition
Optical braille recognition
* Perforation
Perforation
* Perkins Brailler
Perkins Brailler
* Refreshable braille display
Refreshable braille display
* Slate and stylus
Slate and stylus
* Braigo
Braigo

PERSONS

* Louis Braille
Braille
* Charles Barbier * Valentin Haüy
Valentin Haüy
* Thakur Vishva Narain Singh * Sabriye Tenberken
Sabriye Tenberken
* William Bell Wait
William Bell Wait

ORGANISATIONS

* Braille
Braille
Institute of America * Braille
Braille
Without Borders * Japan Braille
Braille
Library * National Braille
Braille
Association * Blindness organizations * Schools for the blind * American Printing House for the Blind

OTHER TACTILE ALPHABETS

* Decapoint
Decapoint
* Moon type
Moon type
* New York Point
New York Point
* Night writing
Night writing
* Vibratese

RELATED TOPICS

* Accessible publishing * Braille
Braille
literacy * Robo Braille
Braille

* v * t * e

The Northwest Semitic abjad
Northwest Semitic abjad

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* History

* Phoenician

* Paleo-Hebrew

* Hebrew * Aramaic * Syriac

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* NDL : 00560296

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Links: ------ /wiki/Egyptian_hieroglyphs /wiki/Hieratic /wiki/Demotic_(Egyptian) /wiki/Meroitic_script /wiki/Proto-Sinaitic_script /wiki/Ugaritic_script /wiki/South_Arabia