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Qoph
Qoph
or Qop (Phoenician Qōp ) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads. Aramaic Qop is derived from the Phoenician letter, and derivations from Aramaic include Hebrew Qof ק‬, Syriac Qōp̄ ܩ and Arabic
Arabic
Qāf ق. Its original sound value was a West Semitic emphatic stop, presumably [kˤ] or [q]. In Hebrew gematria, it has the numerical value of 100.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Arabic
Arabic
qāf

2.1 Pronunciation 2.2 Maghrebi variant

3 Hebrew Qof

3.1 Pronunciation 3.2 Gematria

4 Unicode 5 References 6 External links

Origins[edit] The origin of the glyph shape of qōp () is uncertain. It is usually suggested to have originally depicted either a sewing needle, specifically the eye of a needle, or the back of a head and neck (qāf in Arabic
Arabic
meant "nape").[1] According to an older suggestion, it may also have been a picture of a monkey and its tail (the Hebrew קוף means "monkey").[2] Besides Aramaic Qop, which gave rise to the letter in the Semitic abjads used in classical antiquity, Phoenician qōp is also the origin of the Latin letter Q and Greek Ϙ
Ϙ
(qoppa) and Φ
Φ
(phi).[3] Arabic
Arabic
qāf[edit]

The main Pronunciations of written <ق> in Arabic
Arabic
dialects.

The Arabic
Arabic
letter ق is named قاف qāf. It is written is several ways depending in its position in the word:

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial

Glyph form: ق‬ ـق‬ ـقـ‬ قـ‬

It is usually transliterated into Latin script
Latin script
as q, though some scholarly works use ḳ.[4] Pronunciation[edit] According to Sibawayh, author of the first book on Arabic
Arabic
grammar, the letter is pronounced as a voiced phoneme.[5] As noted above, Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
has the voiceless uvular plosive /q/ as its standard pronunciation of the letter, but dialectical pronunciations vary as follows:

[q]: In Druze
Druze
dialects, most of the variants of Maghrebi, Northern Mesopotamian Arabic, a number of Yemeni accents, and partially in Gulf Arabic. [ɡ]: In Hejazi Arabic, Najdi Arabic, Gulf Arabic, Libyan Arabic, rural Jordan, Southern Mesopotamian Arabic
Mesopotamian Arabic
and some forms of Yemeni and Sa'idi Arabic (of Southern Egypt) and partially in Maghrebi dialects.[6] [d͡z]: In Najdi Arabic [7][8] [ʔ]: In Egyptian Arabic, as well as Levantine Arabic
Levantine Arabic
and forms of Algerian Arabic and Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
from around Tlemcen
Tlemcen
and Fes respectively. [ɢ]: In Sudanese Arabic and some forms of Yemeni Arabic. [k]: In rural Palestinian Arabic
Palestinian Arabic
it is often pronounced as a voiceless velar plosive [k]. [d͡ʒ]: Optionally in Iraqi and in Gulf Arabic, it is sometimes pronounced as a voiced postalveolar affricate [d͡ʒ].

Note, however, that most dialects of Arabic
Arabic
will pronounce the letter as [q] in learned words that are borrowed from Standard Arabic
Arabic
into the respective dialect.

The Maghribi text renders qāf and fāʼ differently than elsewhere would: منكم فقد ضل سواء السبيل فبما نقضهم ميثـٰـقهم لعنـٰـهم وجعلنا قلوبهم قـٰـسية يحرفون الكلم عن مواضعه ونسوا حظاً مما ذكروا به ولا تزال تطلع‬

Maghrebi variant[edit] The Maghrebi style of writing qāf is different: having only a single point (dot) above; when the letter is isolated or word-final, it may sometimes become unpointed.[9]

The Maghrebi qāf

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial

Form of letter: ڧ‬ ٯ‬ ـڧ‬ ـٯ‬ ـڧـ‬ ڧـ‬

The earliest Arabic
Arabic
manuscripts show qāf in several variants: pointed (above or below) or unpointed.[10] Then the prevalent convention was having a point above for qāf and a point below for fāʼ; this practice is now only preserved in manuscripts from the Maghribi,[11] with the exception of Libya
Libya
and Algeria, where the Mashriqi form (two dots above: ق) prevails. Within Maghribi texts, there is no possibility of confusing it with the letter fāʼ, as it is instead written with a dot underneath (ڢ‬) in the Maghribi script.[12]

Hebrew Qof[edit] The Oxford Hebrew-English Dictionary transliterates the letter Qoph (קוֹף) a transliteration as q or k; and, when word-final, it may be transliterated as ck. The English spellings of Biblical names (as derived from Latin via Biblical Greek) containing this letter may represent it as c or k, e.g. Cain for Hebrew Qayin, or Kenan for Qenan (Genesis 4:1, 5:9).

Orthographic variants

Various print fonts Cursive Hebrew Rashi script

Serif Sans-serif Monospaced

ק ק ק

Pronunciation[edit] In modern Israeli Hebrew the letter is also called kuf. The letter represents /k/; i.e., no distinction is made between Qof and Kaph. However, many historical groups have made that distinction, with Qof being pronounced [q] by Iraqi Jews
Iraqi Jews
and other Mizrahim, or even as [ɡ] by Yemenite Jews
Yemenite Jews
under the influence of Yemeni Arabic. Gematria[edit] Qof in gematria represents the number 100. Sarah
Sarah
is described in Genesis Rabba
Genesis Rabba
as בת ק' כבת כ' שנה לחטא‬, literally "At Qof years of age, she was like Kaph years of age in sin", meaning that when she was 100 years old, she was as sinless as when she was 20.[citation needed] Unicode[edit]

Character ק ق ܩ ࠒ

Unicode
Unicode
name HEBREW LETTER QOF ARABIC LETTER QAF SYRIAC LETTER QAPH SAMARITAN LETTER QUF

Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex

Unicode 1511 U+05E7 1602 U+0642 1833 U+0729 2066 U+0812

UTF-8 215 167 D7 A7 217 130 D9 82 220 169 DC A9 224 160 146 E0 A0 92

Numeric character reference &#1511; &#x5E7; &#1602; &#x642; &#1833; &#x729; &#2066; &#x812;

Character 𐎖 𐡒 𐤒

Unicode
Unicode
name UGARITIC LETTER QOPA IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER QOPH PHOENICIAN LETTER QOF

Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex

Unicode 66454 U+10396 67666 U+10852 67858 U+10912

UTF-8 240 144 142 150 F0 90 8E 96 240 144 161 146 F0 90 A1 92 240 144 164 146 F0 90 A4 92

UTF-16 55296 57238 D800 DF96 55298 56402 D802 DC52 55298 56594 D802 DD12

Numeric character reference &#66454; &#x10396; &#67666; &#x10852; &#67858; &#x10912;

References[edit]

^ Travers Wood, Henry Craven Ord Lanchester, A Hebrew Grammar, 1913, p. 7. A. B. Davidson, Hebrew Primer and Grammar, 2000, p. 4. The meaning is doubtful. "Eye of a needle" has been suggested, and also "knot" Harvard Studies in Classical Philology vol. 45. ^ Isaac Taylor, History of the Alphabet: Semitic Alphabets, Part 1, 2003: "The old explanation, which has again been revived by Halévy, is that it denotes an 'ape,' the character Q being taken to represent an ape with its tail hanging down. It may also be referred to a Talmudic root which would signify an 'aperture' of some kind, as the 'eye of a needle,' ... Lenormant adopts the more usual explanation that the word means a 'knot'. ^ Qop may have been assigned the sound value /kʷʰ/ in early Greek; as this was allophonic with /pʰ/ in certain contexts and certain dialects, the letter qoppa continued as the letter phi. C. Brixhe, "History of the Alpbabet", in Christidēs, Arapopoulou, & Chritē, eds., 2007, A History of Ancient Greek. ^ e.g., The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition ^ Kees Versteegh, The Arabic
Arabic
Language, pg. 131. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001. Paperback edition. ISBN 9780748614363 ^ This variance has led to the confusion over the spelling of Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi's name in Latin letters. In Western Arabic dialects the sound [q] is more preserved but can also be sometimes pronounced [ɡ] or as a simple [k] under Berber and French influence. ^ Bruce Ingham (1 January 1994). Najdi Arabic: Central Arabian. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 90-272-3801-4.  ^ Lewis jr. (2013), p. 5. ^ van den Boogert, N. (1989). "Some notes on Maghrebi script" (PDF). Manuscript of the Middle East. 4.  p. 38 shows qāf with a superscript point in all four positions. ^ Gacek, Adam (2008). The Arabic
Arabic
Manuscript Tradition. Brill. p. 61. ISBN 90-04-16540-1.  ^ Gacek, Adam (2009). Arabic
Arabic
Manuscripts: A Vademecum for Readers. Brill. p. 145. ISBN 90-04-17036-7.  ^ Muhammad Ghoniem, M S M Saifullah, cAbd ar-Rahmân Robert Squires & cAbdus Samad, Are There Scribal Errors In The Qur'ân?, see qif on a traffic sign written ڧڢ‬ which is written elsewhere as قف, Retrieved 2011-August-27

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ק.

v t e

Arabic
Arabic
language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Romanization Numerology Influence on other languages

Alphabet

Nabataean alphabet Perso- Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Ancient North Arabian Ancient South Arabian script

Zabūr script

Arabic
Arabic
numerals Eastern numerals Arabic
Arabic
Braille

Algerian

Diacritics

i‘jām Tashkil Harakat Tanwin Shaddah

Hamza Tāʾ marbūṭah

Letters

ʾAlif Bāʾ Tāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Ṯāʾ Ǧīm Ḥāʾ Ḫāʾ Dāl Ḏāl Rāʾ Zāy Sīn Šīn Ṣād Ḍād Ṭāʾ Ẓāʾ ʿAyn Ġayn Fāʾ Qāf Kāf Lām Mīm Nūn Hāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Wāw Yāʾ Hamza

Notable varieties

Ancient

Proto-Arabic Old Arabic Ancient North Arabian Old South Arabian

Standardized

Classical Modern Standard Maltese[a]

Regional

Nilo-Egyptian Levantine Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian dialects Hilalian dialects Moroccan Darija Tunisian Arabic Sa'idi Arabic

Mesopotamian Peninsular

Yemeni Arabic Tihamiyya Arabic

Sudanese Chadian Modern South Arabian

Ethnic / religious

Judeo-Arabic

Pidgins/Creoles

Juba Arabic Nubi language Babalia Creole Arabic Maridi Arabic Maltese

Academic

Literature Names

Linguistics

Phonology Sun and moon letters ʾIʿrāb (inflection) Grammar Triliteral root Mater lectionis IPA Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

Calligraphy Script

Diwani Jawi script Kufic Rasm Mashq Hijazi script Muhaqqaq Thuluth Naskh (script) Ruqʿah script Taʿlīq script Nastaʿlīq script Shahmukhī script Sini (script)

Technical

Arabic
Arabic
keyboard Arabic script
Arabic script
in Unicode ISO/IEC 8859-6 Windows-1256 MS-DOS codepages

708 709 710 711 720 864

Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

aSociolinguistically not Arabic

v t e

Hebrew language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Transliteration to English / from English Numerology

Eras

Biblical (northern dialect) Mishnaic Medieval Modern

Reading traditions

Ashkenazi Sephardi Italian Mizrahi (Syrian) Yemenite Samaritan Tiberian (extinct) Palestinian (extinct) Babylonian (extinct)

Orthography

Eras

Biblical

Scripts

Rashi Braille Ashuri Cursive Crowning Paleo-Hebrew

Alphabet

Alef Bet Gimel Dalet Hei Vav Zayin Het Tet Yud Kaf Lamed Mem Nun Samech Ayin Pei Tsadi Kuf Reish Shin Taw

Niqqud

Tiberian Babylonian Palestinian Samaritan

Shva Hiriq Tzere Segol Patach Kamatz Holam Kubutz and Shuruk Dagesh Mappiq Maqaf Rafe Sin/Shin Dot

Spelling

with Niqqud
Niqqud
/ missing / full Mater lectionis Abbreviations

Punctuation

Diacritics Meteg Cantillation Geresh Gershayim Inverted nun Shekel sign Numerals

Phonology

Biblical Hebrew Modern Hebrew Philippi's law

Law of attenuation

Grammar

Biblical Modern

Verbal morphology Semitic roots Prefixes Suffixes Segolate Waw-consecutive

Academic

Revival Academy Study Ulpan Keyboard Hebrew / ancient / modern Israeli literature Names Surnames Unicode
Unicode
and HTML

Reference works

Brown–Driver–Briggs Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament

v t e

The Northwest Semitic abjad

ʾ

b

g

d

h

w

z

y

k

l

m

n

s

ʿ

p

q

r

š

t

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400

History Phoenician

Paleo-Hebrew

Heb

.
ق
HOME
The Info List - ق


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Qoph
Qoph
or Qop (Phoenician Qōp ) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads. Aramaic Qop is derived from the Phoenician letter, and derivations from Aramaic include Hebrew Qof ק‬, Syriac Qōp̄ ܩ and Arabic
Arabic
Qāf ق. Its original sound value was a West Semitic emphatic stop, presumably [kˤ] or [q]. In Hebrew gematria, it has the numerical value of 100.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Arabic
Arabic
qāf

2.1 Pronunciation 2.2 Maghrebi variant

3 Hebrew Qof

3.1 Pronunciation 3.2 Gematria

4 Unicode 5 References 6 External links

Origins[edit] The origin of the glyph shape of qōp () is uncertain. It is usually suggested to have originally depicted either a sewing needle, specifically the eye of a needle, or the back of a head and neck (qāf in Arabic
Arabic
meant "nape").[1] According to an older suggestion, it may also have been a picture of a monkey and its tail (the Hebrew קוף means "monkey").[2] Besides Aramaic Qop, which gave rise to the letter in the Semitic abjads used in classical antiquity, Phoenician qōp is also the origin of the Latin letter Q and Greek Ϙ
Ϙ
(qoppa) and Φ
Φ
(phi).[3] Arabic
Arabic
qāf[edit]

The main Pronunciations of written <ق> in Arabic
Arabic
dialects.

The Arabic
Arabic
letter ق is named قاف qāf. It is written is several ways depending in its position in the word:

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial

Glyph form: ق‬ ـق‬ ـقـ‬ قـ‬

It is usually transliterated into Latin script
Latin script
as q, though some scholarly works use ḳ.[4] Pronunciation[edit] According to Sibawayh, author of the first book on Arabic
Arabic
grammar, the letter is pronounced as a voiced phoneme.[5] As noted above, Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
has the voiceless uvular plosive /q/ as its standard pronunciation of the letter, but dialectical pronunciations vary as follows:

[q]: In Druze
Druze
dialects, most of the variants of Maghrebi, Northern Mesopotamian Arabic, a number of Yemeni accents, and partially in Gulf Arabic. [ɡ]: In Hejazi Arabic, Najdi Arabic, Gulf Arabic, Libyan Arabic, rural Jordan, Southern Mesopotamian Arabic
Mesopotamian Arabic
and some forms of Yemeni and Sa'idi Arabic (of Southern Egypt) and partially in Maghrebi dialects.[6] [d͡z]: In Najdi Arabic [7][8] [ʔ]: In Egyptian Arabic, as well as Levantine Arabic
Levantine Arabic
and forms of Algerian Arabic and Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
from around Tlemcen
Tlemcen
and Fes respectively. [ɢ]: In Sudanese Arabic and some forms of Yemeni Arabic. [k]: In rural Palestinian Arabic
Palestinian Arabic
it is often pronounced as a voiceless velar plosive [k]. [d͡ʒ]: Optionally in Iraqi and in Gulf Arabic, it is sometimes pronounced as a voiced postalveolar affricate [d͡ʒ].

Note, however, that most dialects of Arabic
Arabic
will pronounce the letter as [q] in learned words that are borrowed from Standard Arabic
Arabic
into the respective dialect.

The Maghribi text renders qāf and fāʼ differently than elsewhere would: منكم فقد ضل سواء السبيل فبما نقضهم ميثـٰـقهم لعنـٰـهم وجعلنا قلوبهم قـٰـسية يحرفون الكلم عن مواضعه ونسوا حظاً مما ذكروا به ولا تزال تطلع‬

Maghrebi variant[edit] The Maghrebi style of writing qāf is different: having only a single point (dot) above; when the letter is isolated or word-final, it may sometimes become unpointed.[9]

The Maghrebi qāf

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial

Form of letter: ڧ‬ ٯ‬ ـڧ‬ ـٯ‬ ـڧـ‬ ڧـ‬

The earliest Arabic
Arabic
manuscripts show qāf in several variants: pointed (above or below) or unpointed.[10] Then the prevalent convention was having a point above for qāf and a point below for fāʼ; this practice is now only preserved in manuscripts from the Maghribi,[11] with the exception of Libya
Libya
and Algeria, where the Mashriqi form (two dots above: ق) prevails. Within Maghribi texts, there is no possibility of confusing it with the letter fāʼ, as it is instead written with a dot underneath (ڢ‬) in the Maghribi script.[12]

Hebrew Qof[edit] The Oxford Hebrew-English Dictionary transliterates the letter Qoph (קוֹף) a transliteration as q or k; and, when word-final, it may be transliterated as ck. The English spellings of Biblical names (as derived from Latin via Biblical Greek) containing this letter may represent it as c or k, e.g. Cain for Hebrew Qayin, or Kenan for Qenan (Genesis 4:1, 5:9).

Orthographic variants

Various print fonts Cursive Hebrew Rashi script

Serif Sans-serif Monospaced

ק ק ק

Pronunciation[edit] In modern Israeli Hebrew the letter is also called kuf. The letter represents /k/; i.e., no distinction is made between Qof and Kaph. However, many historical groups have made that distinction, with Qof being pronounced [q] by Iraqi Jews
Iraqi Jews
and other Mizrahim, or even as [ɡ] by Yemenite Jews
Yemenite Jews
under the influence of Yemeni Arabic. Gematria[edit] Qof in gematria represents the number 100. Sarah
Sarah
is described in Genesis Rabba
Genesis Rabba
as בת ק' כבת כ' שנה לחטא‬, literally "At Qof years of age, she was like Kaph years of age in sin", meaning that when she was 100 years old, she was as sinless as when she was 20.[citation needed] Unicode[edit]

Character ק ق ܩ ࠒ

Unicode
Unicode
name HEBREW LETTER QOF ARABIC LETTER QAF SYRIAC LETTER QAPH SAMARITAN LETTER QUF

Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex

Unicode 1511 U+05E7 1602 U+0642 1833 U+0729 2066 U+0812

UTF-8 215 167 D7 A7 217 130 D9 82 220 169 DC A9 224 160 146 E0 A0 92

Numeric character reference &#1511; &#x5E7; &#1602; &#x642; &#1833; &#x729; &#2066; &#x812;

Character 𐎖 𐡒 𐤒

Unicode
Unicode
name UGARITIC LETTER QOPA IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER QOPH PHOENICIAN LETTER QOF

Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex

Unicode 66454 U+10396 67666 U+10852 67858 U+10912

UTF-8 240 144 142 150 F0 90 8E 96 240 144 161 146 F0 90 A1 92 240 144 164 146 F0 90 A4 92

UTF-16 55296 57238 D800 DF96 55298 56402 D802 DC52 55298 56594 D802 DD12

Numeric character reference &#66454; &#x10396; &#67666; &#x10852; &#67858; &#x10912;

References[edit]

^ Travers Wood, Henry Craven Ord Lanchester, A Hebrew Grammar, 1913, p. 7. A. B. Davidson, Hebrew Primer and Grammar, 2000, p. 4. The meaning is doubtful. "Eye of a needle" has been suggested, and also "knot" Harvard Studies in Classical Philology vol. 45. ^ Isaac Taylor, History of the Alphabet: Semitic Alphabets, Part 1, 2003: "The old explanation, which has again been revived by Halévy, is that it denotes an 'ape,' the character Q being taken to represent an ape with its tail hanging down. It may also be referred to a Talmudic root which would signify an 'aperture' of some kind, as the 'eye of a needle,' ... Lenormant adopts the more usual explanation that the word means a 'knot'. ^ Qop may have been assigned the sound value /kʷʰ/ in early Greek; as this was allophonic with /pʰ/ in certain contexts and certain dialects, the letter qoppa continued as the letter phi. C. Brixhe, "History of the Alpbabet", in Christidēs, Arapopoulou, & Chritē, eds., 2007, A History of Ancient Greek. ^ e.g., The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition ^ Kees Versteegh, The Arabic
Arabic
Language, pg. 131. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001. Paperback edition. ISBN 9780748614363 ^ This variance has led to the confusion over the spelling of Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi's name in Latin letters. In Western Arabic dialects the sound [q] is more preserved but can also be sometimes pronounced [ɡ] or as a simple [k] under Berber and French influence. ^ Bruce Ingham (1 January 1994). Najdi Arabic: Central Arabian. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 90-272-3801-4.  ^ Lewis jr. (2013), p. 5. ^ van den Boogert, N. (1989). "Some notes on Maghrebi script" (PDF). Manuscript of the Middle East. 4.  p. 38 shows qāf with a superscript point in all four positions. ^ Gacek, Adam (2008). The Arabic
Arabic
Manuscript Tradition. Brill. p. 61. ISBN 90-04-16540-1.  ^ Gacek, Adam (2009). Arabic
Arabic
Manuscripts: A Vademecum for Readers. Brill. p. 145. ISBN 90-04-17036-7.  ^ Muhammad Ghoniem, M S M Saifullah, cAbd ar-Rahmân Robert Squires & cAbdus Samad, Are There Scribal Errors In The Qur'ân?, see qif on a traffic sign written ڧڢ‬ which is written elsewhere as قف, Retrieved 2011-August-27

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ק.

v t e

Arabic
Arabic
language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Romanization Numerology Influence on other languages

Alphabet

Nabataean alphabet Perso- Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Ancient North Arabian Ancient South Arabian script

Zabūr script

Arabic
Arabic
numerals Eastern numerals Arabic
Arabic
Braille

Algerian

Diacritics

i‘jām Tashkil Harakat Tanwin Shaddah

Hamza Tāʾ marbūṭah

Letters

ʾAlif Bāʾ Tāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Ṯāʾ Ǧīm Ḥāʾ Ḫāʾ Dāl Ḏāl Rāʾ Zāy Sīn Šīn Ṣād Ḍād Ṭāʾ Ẓāʾ ʿAyn Ġayn Fāʾ Qāf Kāf Lām Mīm Nūn Hāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Wāw Yāʾ Hamza

Notable varieties

Ancient

Proto-Arabic Old Arabic Ancient North Arabian Old South Arabian

Standardized

Classical Modern Standard Maltese[a]

Regional

Nilo-Egyptian Levantine Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian dialects Hilalian dialects Moroccan Darija Tunisian Arabic Sa'idi Arabic

Mesopotamian Peninsular

Yemeni Arabic Tihamiyya Arabic

Sudanese Chadian Modern South Arabian

Ethnic / religious

Judeo-Arabic

Pidgins/Creoles

Juba Arabic Nubi language Babalia Creole Arabic Maridi Arabic Maltese

Academic

Literature Names

Linguistics

Phonology Sun and moon letters ʾIʿrāb (inflection) Grammar Triliteral root Mater lectionis IPA Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

Calligraphy Script

Diwani Jawi script Kufic Rasm Mashq Hijazi script Muhaqqaq Thuluth Naskh (script) Ruqʿah script Taʿlīq script Nastaʿlīq script Shahmukhī script Sini (script)

Technical

Arabic
Arabic
keyboard Arabic script
Arabic script
in Unicode ISO/IEC 8859-6 Windows-1256 MS-DOS codepages

708 709 710 711 720 864

Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

aSociolinguistically not Arabic

v t e

Hebrew language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Transliteration to English / from English Numerology

Eras

Biblical (northern dialect) Mishnaic Medieval Modern

Reading traditions

Ashkenazi Sephardi Italian Mizrahi (Syrian) Yemenite Samaritan Tiberian (extinct) Palestinian (extinct) Babylonian (extinct)

Orthography

Eras

Biblical

Scripts

Rashi Braille Ashuri Cursive Crowning Paleo-Hebrew

Alphabet

Alef Bet Gimel Dalet Hei Vav Zayin Het Tet Yud Kaf Lamed Mem Nun Samech Ayin Pei Tsadi Kuf Reish Shin Taw

Niqqud

Tiberian Babylonian Palestinian Samaritan

Shva Hiriq Tzere Segol Patach Kamatz Holam Kubutz and Shuruk Dagesh Mappiq Maqaf Rafe Sin/Shin Dot

Spelling

with Niqqud
Niqqud
/ missing / full Mater lectionis Abbreviations

Punctuation

Diacritics Meteg Cantillation Geresh Gershayim Inverted nun Shekel sign Numerals

Phonology

Biblical Hebrew Modern Hebrew Philippi's law

Law of attenuation

Grammar

Biblical Modern

Verbal morphology Semitic roots Prefixes Suffixes Segolate Waw-consecutive

Academic

Revival Academy Study Ulpan Keyboard Hebrew / ancient / modern Israeli literature Names Surnames Unicode
Unicode
and HTML

Reference works

Brown–Driver–Briggs Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament

v t e

The Northwest Semitic abjad

ʾ

b

g

d

h

w

z

y

k

l

m

n

s

ʿ

p

q

r

š

t

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400

History Phoenician

Paleo-Hebrew

Heb

.
l> ق
HOME
The Info List - ق


--- Advertisement ---



Qoph
Qoph
or Qop (Phoenician Qōp ) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads. Aramaic Qop is derived from the Phoenician letter, and derivations from Aramaic include Hebrew Qof ק‬, Syriac Qōp̄ ܩ and Arabic
Arabic
Qāf ق. Its original sound value was a West Semitic emphatic stop, presumably [kˤ] or [q]. In Hebrew gematria, it has the numerical value of 100.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Arabic
Arabic
qāf

2.1 Pronunciation 2.2 Maghrebi variant

3 Hebrew Qof

3.1 Pronunciation 3.2 Gematria

4 Unicode 5 References 6 External links

Origins[edit] The origin of the glyph shape of qōp () is uncertain. It is usually suggested to have originally depicted either a sewing needle, specifically the eye of a needle, or the back of a head and neck (qāf in Arabic
Arabic
meant "nape").[1] According to an older suggestion, it may also have been a picture of a monkey and its tail (the Hebrew קוף means "monkey").[2] Besides Aramaic Qop, which gave rise to the letter in the Semitic abjads used in classical antiquity, Phoenician qōp is also the origin of the Latin letter Q and Greek Ϙ
Ϙ
(qoppa) and Φ
Φ
(phi).[3] Arabic
Arabic
qāf[edit]

The main Pronunciations of written <ق> in Arabic
Arabic
dialects.

The Arabic
Arabic
letter ق is named قاف qāf. It is written is several ways depending in its position in the word:

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial

Glyph form: ق‬ ـق‬ ـقـ‬ قـ‬

It is usually transliterated into Latin script
Latin script
as q, though some scholarly works use ḳ.[4] Pronunciation[edit] According to Sibawayh, author of the first book on Arabic
Arabic
grammar, the letter is pronounced as a voiced phoneme.[5] As noted above, Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
has the voiceless uvular plosive /q/ as its standard pronunciation of the letter, but dialectical pronunciations vary as follows:

[q]: In Druze
Druze
dialects, most of the variants of Maghrebi, Northern Mesopotamian Arabic, a number of Yemeni accents, and partially in Gulf Arabic. [ɡ]: In Hejazi Arabic, Najdi Arabic, Gulf Arabic, Libyan Arabic, rural Jordan, Southern Mesopotamian Arabic
Mesopotamian Arabic
and some forms of Yemeni and Sa'idi Arabic (of Southern Egypt) and partially in Maghrebi dialects.[6] [d͡z]: In Najdi Arabic [7][8] [ʔ]: In Egyptian Arabic, as well as Levantine Arabic
Levantine Arabic
and forms of Algerian Arabic and Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
from around Tlemcen
Tlemcen
and Fes respectively. [ɢ]: In Sudanese Arabic and some forms of Yemeni Arabic. [k]: In rural Palestinian Arabic
Palestinian Arabic
it is often pronounced as a voiceless velar plosive [k]. [d͡ʒ]: Optionally in Iraqi and in Gulf Arabic, it is sometimes pronounced as a voiced postalveolar affricate [d͡ʒ].

Note, however, that most dialects of Arabic
Arabic
will pronounce the letter as [q] in learned words that are borrowed from Standard Arabic
Arabic
into the respective dialect.

The Maghribi text renders qāf and fāʼ differently than elsewhere would: منكم فقد ضل سواء السبيل فبما نقضهم ميثـٰـقهم لعنـٰـهم وجعلنا قلوبهم قـٰـسية يحرفون الكلم عن مواضعه ونسوا حظاً مما ذكروا به ولا تزال تطلع‬

Maghrebi variant[edit] The Maghrebi style of writing qāf is different: having only a single point (dot) above; when the letter is isolated or word-final, it may sometimes become unpointed.[9]

The Maghrebi qāf

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial

Form of letter: ڧ‬ ٯ‬ ـڧ‬ ـٯ‬ ـڧـ‬ ڧـ‬

The earliest Arabic
Arabic
manuscripts show qāf in several variants: pointed (above or below) or unpointed.[10] Then the prevalent convention was having a point above for qāf and a point below for fāʼ; this practice is now only preserved in manuscripts from the Maghribi,[11] with the exception of Libya
Libya
and Algeria, where the Mashriqi form (two dots above: ق) prevails. Within Maghribi texts, there is no possibility of confusing it with the letter fāʼ, as it is instead written with a dot underneath (ڢ‬) in the Maghribi script.[12]

Hebrew Qof[edit] The Oxford Hebrew-English Dictionary transliterates the letter Qoph (קוֹף) a transliteration as q or k; and, when word-final, it may be transliterated as ck. The English spellings of Biblical names (as derived from Latin via Biblical Greek) containing this letter may represent it as c or k, e.g. Cain for Hebrew Qayin, or Kenan for Qenan (Genesis 4:1, 5:9).

Orthographic variants

Various print fonts Cursive Hebrew Rashi script

Serif Sans-serif Monospaced

ק ק ק

Pronunciation[edit] In modern Israeli Hebrew the letter is also called kuf. The letter represents /k/; i.e., no distinction is made between Qof and Kaph. However, many historical groups have made that distinction, with Qof being pronounced [q] by Iraqi Jews
Iraqi Jews
and other Mizrahim, or even as [ɡ] by Yemenite Jews
Yemenite Jews
under the influence of Yemeni Arabic. Gematria[edit] Qof in gematria represents the number 100. Sarah
Sarah
is described in Genesis Rabba
Genesis Rabba
as בת ק' כבת כ' שנה לחטא‬, literally "At Qof years of age, she was like Kaph years of age in sin", meaning that when she was 100 years old, she was as sinless as when she was 20.[citation needed] Unicode[edit]

Character ק ق ܩ ࠒ

Unicode
Unicode
name HEBREW LETTER QOF ARABIC LETTER QAF SYRIAC LETTER QAPH SAMARITAN LETTER QUF

Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex

Unicode 1511 U+05E7 1602 U+0642 1833 U+0729 2066 U+0812

UTF-8 215 167 D7 A7 217 130 D9 82 220 169 DC A9 224 160 146 E0 A0 92

Numeric character reference &#1511; &#x5E7; &#1602; &#x642; &#1833; &#x729; &#2066; &#x812;

Character 𐎖 𐡒 𐤒

Unicode
Unicode
name UGARITIC LETTER QOPA IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER QOPH PHOENICIAN LETTER QOF

Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex

Unicode 66454 U+10396 67666 U+10852 67858 U+10912

UTF-8 240 144 142 150 F0 90 8E 96 240 144 161 146 F0 90 A1 92 240 144 164 146 F0 90 A4 92

UTF-16 55296 57238 D800 DF96 55298 56402 D802 DC52 55298 56594 D802 DD12

Numeric character reference &#66454; &#x10396; &#67666; &#x10852; &#67858; &#x10912;

References[edit]

^ Travers Wood, Henry Craven Ord Lanchester, A Hebrew Grammar, 1913, p. 7. A. B. Davidson, Hebrew Primer and Grammar, 2000, p. 4. The meaning is doubtful. "Eye of a needle" has been suggested, and also "knot" Harvard Studies in Classical Philology vol. 45. ^ Isaac Taylor, History of the Alphabet: Semitic Alphabets, Part 1, 2003: "The old explanation, which has again been revived by Halévy, is that it denotes an 'ape,' the character Q being taken to represent an ape with its tail hanging down. It may also be referred to a Talmudic root which would signify an 'aperture' of some kind, as the 'eye of a needle,' ... Lenormant adopts the more usual explanation that the word means a 'knot'. ^ Qop may have been assigned the sound value /kʷʰ/ in early Greek; as this was allophonic with /pʰ/ in certain contexts and certain dialects, the letter qoppa continued as the letter phi. C. Brixhe, "History of the Alpbabet", in Christidēs, Arapopoulou, & Chritē, eds., 2007, A History of Ancient Greek. ^ e.g., The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition ^ Kees Versteegh, The Arabic
Arabic
Language, pg. 131. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001. Paperback edition. ISBN 9780748614363 ^ This variance has led to the confusion over the spelling of Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi's name in Latin letters. In Western Arabic dialects the sound [q] is more preserved but can also be sometimes pronounced [ɡ] or as a simple [k] under Berber and French influence. ^ Bruce Ingham (1 January 1994). Najdi Arabic: Central Arabian. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 90-272-3801-4.  ^ Lewis jr. (2013), p. 5. ^ van den Boogert, N. (1989). "Some notes on Maghrebi script" (PDF). Manuscript of the Middle East. 4.  p. 38 shows qāf with a superscript point in all four positions. ^ Gacek, Adam (2008). The Arabic
Arabic
Manuscript Tradition. Brill. p. 61. ISBN 90-04-16540-1.  ^ Gacek, Adam (2009). Arabic
Arabic
Manuscripts: A Vademecum for Readers. Brill. p. 145. ISBN 90-04-17036-7.  ^ Muhammad Ghoniem, M S M Saifullah, cAbd ar-Rahmân Robert Squires & cAbdus Samad, Are There Scribal Errors In The Qur'ân?, see qif on a traffic sign written ڧڢ‬ which is written elsewhere as قف, Retrieved 2011-August-27

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ק.

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