HOME
The Info List - ע


--- Advertisement ---



18 (9 in Maltese)

NUMERICAL VALUE

70 (no numeric value in Maltese)

ALPHABETIC DERIVATIVES OF THE PHOENICIAN

Greek Ο

Latin O

Cyrillic О

AYIN or AYN is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads , including Phoenician ʿayin , Hebrew ʿayin ע‎, Aramaic ʿē , Syriac ʿē ܥ, and Arabic
Arabic
ʿayn ع (where it is eighteenth in abjadi order only). ﻉ comes twenty‐first in the Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
and eighteenth in the hijaʾi order of Arabic.

The ʿayin glyph in these various languages represents or used to represent a voiced pharyngeal fricative (/ ʕ
ʕ
/) or a similarly articulated consonant, of which there is not even an approximate substitute sound in English. There are many possible transliterations.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins * 2 Transliteration

* 3 Arabic
Arabic
ʿayn

* 3.1 Pronunciation

* 4 Hebrew Ayin

* 4.1 Phonetic representation * 4.2 Significance

* 5 Character encodings * 6 References * 7 External links

ORIGINS

The letter name is derived from Proto-Semitic _*ʿayn-_ "eye", and the Phoenician letter had an eye-shape, ultimately derived from the _ı͗r_ hieroglyph

To this day, ʿayin in Hebrew, Arabic, and Amharic means "eye" and "spring " (ʿayno in Neo-Aramaic) but in Maltese it additionally also means "aid".

The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Ο , Latin O , and Cyrillic О , all representing vowels.

The sound represented by ayin is common to much of the Afroasiatic language family , such as in the Egyptian language , the Cushitic languages and the Semitic languages . Some scholars believe that the sound in Proto-Indo-European transcribed h3 was similar, but that is debatable. (See Laryngeal theory .)

TRANSLITERATION

The letter ʿayin is usually transliterated into the Latin alphabet with ʿ, (U+02BF) "modifier letter left half ring" (in the Spacing Modifier Letters range), such as in the DIN 31635 romanization of Arabic. This symbol originated from Semitic romanization and the transliteration of Ancient Egyptian . There, it was inspired by the Greek rough breathing mark.

As a substitute for the left half ring, other symbols resembling it are sometimes used, such as a superscript c (c), ʻ (U+02BB Modifier letter turned comma) as in ALA-LC romanization of Arabic, a single opening quotation mark (‘) (U+2018), the grave accent (`), ˁ (U+02C1 Modifier letter reversed glottal stop), or the IPA pharyngeal symbols (U+0295 Latin letter pharyngeal voiced fricative) and (U+02E4 Modifier letter small reversed glottal stop). However, such substitutions obviously may cause confusion, such as with the glottal stop consonant hamza .

In loanwords , ʿayin is commonly omitted altogether: Iraq العراق _al-ʿIrāq_, Oman عمان _ʿUmān_, Saudi Arabia العربية السعودية _al-ʿArabiyyah as-Saʿūdiyyah_, Arab or Arabic
Arabic
عربي, _ʿArabī_, Amman
Amman
عمان _ʿAmmān_, etc.

Specifically for use in transliterating Ancient Egyptian, Ꜥ (U+A724 Latin capital letter Egyptologican Ain) and ꜥ (U+A725 Latin small letter Egyptologican Ain) were added to the Latin Extended-D range in Unicode
Unicode
version 5.1.

Maltese , which uses a Latin alphabet, the only Semitic language to do so in its standard form , writes the ayin as _għ _. It is usually unvocalized in speech.

The Somali Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
represents the ʿayin with the letter c .

The informal way to represent it in Arabic chat alphabet uses the digit 3 as transliteration or an apostrophe (')

ARABIC ʿAYN

Not to be confused with ء (hamzah) looking similar to, and derived from, initial عـ

The Arabic
Arabic
letter ﻉ (called ﻋﻴﻦ _ʿayn_) is the eighteenth letter of the alphabet. It is written in one of several ways depending on its position in the word:

POSITION IN WORD: ISOLATED FINAL MEDIAL INITIAL

GLYPH FORM: ع‎ ـع‎ ـعـ‎ عـ‎

PRONUNCIATION

Arabic
Arabic
ʿayn is one of the most common letters in Arabic. Depending on the region, it ranges from a pharyngeal to an epiglottal . It is voiced , its unvoiced counterpart being ح . Due to its position as the innermost letter to emerge from the throat, al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi , who wrote the first Arabic
Arabic
dictionary, actually started writing with ʿayn as the first letter instead of the eighteenth; he viewed its origins deep down in the throat as a sign that it was the first sound, the essential sound, the voice and a representation of the self.

In Persian language and other languages using the Persian alphabet, it is pronounced as /ʔ / (glottal stop), and rarely as /ʁ / in some languages.

As in Hebrew, the letter originally stood for two sounds, / ʕ
ʕ
/ and /ʁ /. When pointing was developed, the sound /ʁ / was distinguished with a dot on top (غ), to give the letter _ghayn_. In Maltese, which is written with the Latin alphabet, the digraph għ , called _ʿajn_, is used to write what was originally the same sound.

HEBREW AYIN

Orthographic variants VARIOUS PRINT FONTS Cursive Hebrew Rashi script

SERIF SANS-SERIF MONOSPACED

ע ע ע

Hebrew spelling: עַיִן

ʿayin, along with Aleph , Resh , and Heth , cannot receive a dagesh .

PHONETIC REPRESENTATION

ʿayin has traditionally been described as a voiced pharyngeal fricative (). However, this may be imprecise. Although a pharyngeal fricative has occasionally been observed for ʿayin in Arabic
Arabic
and so may occur in Hebrew as well, the sound is more commonly epiglottal (), and may also be a pharyngealized glottal stop ().

In some historical Sephardi and Ashkenazi pronunciations, ʿayin represented a velar nasal (). Remnants can be found in the Yiddish pronunciations of some words such as /ˈjaŋkəv/ and /ˈmansə/ from Hebrew יַעֲקֹב‎ (_yaʿăqōḇ_, "Jacob") and מַעֲשֶׂה‎ (_maʿăse_, "story"), but in other cases, the nasal has disappeared and been replaced by /j/, such as /ˈmajsə/ and /ˈmajrəv/ from Hebrew מַעֲשֶׂה‎ and מַעֲרָב‎ (_maʿărāḇ_, "west"). In Israeli Hebrew (except for Mizrahi pronunciations), it represents a glottal stop in certain cases but is usually silent (it behaves the same as aleph ). However, changes in adjoining vowels often testify to the former presence of a pharyngeal or epiglottal articulation. As well, it may be used as a shibboleth to identify the social background of a speaker, as Mizrahim and Arabs almost always use the more traditional pronunciation.

Ayin is also one of the three letters that can take a furtive patach / patach ganuv .

In Hebrew loanwords in Greek and Latin, ʿayin is sometimes reflected as /g/, since the biblical phonemes / ʕ
ʕ
/ (or "ʿ") and /ʁ / (represented by "g") were both represented in Hebrew writing by the letter ʿayin (see Ġain ). Gomorrah is from the original /ʁamora/ (modern _ʿAmora_) and Gaza from the original /ʁazza/ (_ʿaza_) (although Gaza is _Ghaza_ in Arabic).

In Yiddish, the ʿayin is used to write the vowel e when it is not part of the diphthong _ey_.

SIGNIFICANCE

In gematria , ʿayin represents the number 70.

ʿayin is also one of the seven letters which receive special crowns (called _tagin _) when written in a sefer Torah .

Because the sound is difficult for most non- Arabs
Arabs
to pronounce, it is often used as a shibboleth by Arabic
Arabic
speakers; other sounds, such as Ḥā and Ḍād are also used.

CHARACTER ENCODINGS

CHARACTER ע ﬠ ܥ ࠏ

UNICODE NAME HEBREW LETTER AYIN HEBREW LETTER ALTERNATIVE AYIN SYRIAC LETTER E SAMARITAN LETTER IN

ENCODINGS DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX

Unicode
Unicode
1506 U+05E2 64288 U+FB20 1829 U+0725 2063 U+080F

UTF-8 215 162 D7 A2 239 172 160 EF AC A0 220 165 DC A5 224 160 143 E0 A0 8F

Numeric character reference

CHARACTER ع ࣖ ݝ ݟ ڠ ݞ ࢳ

UNICODE NAME ARABIC LETTER AIN ARABIC SMALL HIGH AIN ARABIC LETTER AIN WITH TWO DOTS ABOVE ARABIC LETTER AIN WITH TWO DOTS VERTICALLY ABOVE ARABIC LETTER AIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE ARABIC LETTER AIN WITH THREE DOTS POINTING DOWNWARDS ABOVE ARABIC LETTER AIN WITH THREE DOTS BELOW

ENCODINGS DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX

Unicode
Unicode
1593 U+0639 2262 U+08D6 1885 U+075D 1887 U+075F 1696 U+06A0 1886 U+075E 2227 U+08B3

UTF-8 216 185 D8 B9 224 163 150 E0 A3 96 221 157 DD 9D 221 159 DD 9F 218 160 DA A0 221 158 DD 9E 224 162 179 E0 A2 B3

Numeric character reference

CHARACTER ᴥ ᵜ Ꜥ ꜥ

UNICODE NAME MODIFIER LETTER AIN MODIFIER LETTER SMALL AIN LATIN CAPITAL LETTER EGYPTOLOGICAL AIN LATIN SMALL LETTER EGYPTOLOGICAL AIN

ENCODINGS DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX

Unicode
Unicode
7461 U+1D25 7516 U+1D5C 42788 U+A724 42789 U+A725

UTF-8 225 180 165 E1 B4 A5 225 181 156 E1 B5 9C 234 156 164 EA 9C A4 234 156 165 EA 9C A5

Numeric character reference

CHARACTER 𐎓 𐡏 𐤏 Ⲵ ⲵ

UNICODE NAME UGARITIC LETTER AIN IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER AYIN PHOENICIAN LETTER AIN COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER OLD COPTIC AIN COPTIC SMALL LETTER OLD COPTIC AIN

ENCODINGS DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX

Unicode
Unicode
66451 U+10393 67663 U+1084F 67855 U+1090F 11444 U+2CB4 11445 U+2CB5

UTF-8 240 144 142 147 F0 90 8E 93 240 144 161 143 F0 90 A1 8F 240 144 164 143 F0 90 A4 8F 226 178 180 E2 B2 B4 226 178 181 E2 B2 B5

UTF-16 55296 57235 D800 DF93 55298 56399 D802 DC4F 55298 56591 D802 DD0F 11444 2CB4 11445 2CB5

Numeric character reference

CHARACTER 𐭏 𐭥 𐮅 ჺ

UNICODE NAME INSCRIPTIONAL PARTHIAN LETTER AYIN INSCRIPTIONAL PAHLAVI LETTER WAW-AYIN-RESH PSALTER PAHLAVI LETTER WAW-AYIN-RESH GEORGIAN LETTER AIN

ENCODINGS DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX

Unicode
Unicode
68431 U+10B4F 68453 U+10B65 68485 U+10B85 4346 U+10FA

UTF-8 240 144 173 143 F0 90 AD 8F 240 144 173 165 F0 90 AD A5 240 144 174 133 F0 90 AE 85 225 131 186 E1 83 BA

UTF-16 55298 57167 D802 DF4F 55298 57189 D802 DF65 55298 57221 D802 DF85 4346 10FA

Numeric character reference

CHARACTER 𐫙 ࡘ 𐢗 𐪒 𐡰

UNICODE NAME MANICHAEAN LETTER AYIN MANDAIC LETTER AIN NABATAEAN LETTER AYIN OLD NORTH ARABIAN LETTER AIN PALMYRENE LETTER AYIN

ENCODINGS DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX

Unicode
Unicode
68313 U+10AD9 2136 U+0858 67735 U+10897 68242 U+10A92 67696 U+10870

UTF-8 240 144 171 153 F0 90 AB 99 224 161 152 E0 A1 98 240 144 162 151 F0 90 A2 97 240 144 170 146 F0 90 AA 92 240 144 161 176 F0 90 A1 B0

UTF-16 55298 57049 D802 DED9 2136 0858 55298 56471 D802 DC97 55298 56978 D802 DE92 55298 56432 D802 DC70

Numeric character reference

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Ladefoged, Peter ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Arabic
Arabic
language

OVERVIEWS

* Language * Alphabet * History * Romanization * Numerology * Influence on other languages

ALPHABET

* Nabataean alphabet * Perso- Arabic alphabet * Ancient North Arabian

* Ancient South Arabian script

* Zabūr script

* Arabic
Arabic
numerals * Eastern numerals

* Arabic
Arabic
Braille

* Algerian

* Diacritics * i‘jām * Tashkil * Harakat
Harakat
* Tanwin * Shaddah * Hamza * Tāʾ marbūṭah

LETTERS

* ʾAlif * Bāʾ * Tāʾ * Ṯāʾ
Ṯāʾ
* Ǧīm * Ḥāʾ * Ḫāʾ * Dāl * Ḏāl * Rāʾ * Zāy * Sīn * Šīn * Ṣād * Ḍād * Ṭāʾ * Ẓāʾ * ʿAyn * Ġayn * Fāʾ * Qāf * Kāf * Lām * Mīm * Nūn * Hāʾ * Wāw * Yāʾ

NOTABLE VARIETIES

ANCIENT

* Proto- Arabic
Arabic
* Old Arabic
Arabic
* Ancient North Arabian * Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian

STANDARDIZED

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

REGIONAL

* Nilo-Egyptian * Levantine

* Maghrebi

* Pre-Hilalian dialects * Hilalian dialects * Moroccan Darija
Moroccan Darija
* Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
* Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Mesopotamian

* Peninsular

* Yemeni Arabic
Arabic
* Tihamiyya Arabic
Arabic

* Sudanese * Chadian * Modern South Arabian

ETHNIC / RELIGIOUS

* Judeo- Arabic
Arabic

PIDGINS/CREOLES

* Juba Arabic
Arabic
* Nubi language * Babalia Creole Arabic
Arabic
* Maridi Arabic
Arabic
* Maltese

ACADEMIC

* Literature * Names

LINGUISTICS

* Phonology
Phonology
* Sun and moon letters * ʾIʿrāb (inflection) * Grammar * Triliteral root * Mater lectionis * IPA * Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

* Calligraphy * Script

* Diwani * Jawi script * Kufic
Kufic
* Rasm * Mashq * Hijazi script * Muhaqqaq * Thuluth * Naskh (script) * Ruqʿah script * Taʿlīq script * Nastaʿlīq script * Shahmukhī script * Sini (script)

TECHNICAL

* Arabic
Arabic
keyboard * Arabic
Arabic
script in Unicode
Unicode
* ISO/IEC 8859-6 * Windows-1256

* MS-DOS codepages

* 708 * 709 * 710 * 711 * 720 * 864

* Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

* v * t * e

Hebrew language

OVERVIEWS

* Language * Alphabet * History * Transliteration to English / from English * Numerology

ERAS

* Biblical (northern dialect ) * Mishnaic * Medieval * Modern

READING TRADITIONS

* Ashkenazi * Sephardi * Italian * Mizrahi (Syrian ) * Yemenite * Samaritan * Tiberian (extinct) * Palestinian (extinct) * Babylonian (extinct)

ORTHOGRAPHY

ERAS

* Biblical

SCRIPTS

* Rashi * Braille * Ashuri * Cursive * Crowning * Paleo-Hebrew

ALPHABET

* Alef * Bet * Gimel * Dalet * Hei * Vav * Zayin * Het * Tet * Yud * Kaf * Lamed * Mem
Mem
* Nun * Samech * Ayin * Pei * Tsadi * Kuf * Reish * Shin * Taw

NIQQUD

* Tiberian * Babylonian * Palestinian * Samaritan

* Shva * Hiriq * Tzere * Segol * Patach * Kamatz * Holam
Holam
* Kubutz and Shuruk * Dagesh * Mappiq * Maqaf * Rafe * Sin/Shin Dot

SPELLING

* with Niqqud / missing / full * Mater lectionis * Abbreviations

PUNCTUATION

* Diacritics * Meteg * Cantillation * Geresh * Gershayim * Inverted nun * Shekel sign * Numerals

PHONOLOGY

* Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
* Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
* Philippi\'s law * * Law of attenuation

GRAMMAR

* Biblical * Modern

* Verbal morphology * Semitic roots * Prefixes * Suffixes * Segolate * Waw-consecutive

ACADEMIC

* Revival * Academy * Study * Ulpan * Keyboard * Hebrew / ancient / modern Israeli literature * Names * Surnames * Unicode
Unicode
and HTML

REFERENCE WORKS

* _ Brown–Driver–Briggs _ * _ Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament _

* v * t * e

The Northwest Semitic abjad

ʾ

b

g

d

h

w

z

y

k

l

m

n

s

ʿ

p

q

r

š

t

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400

* History

* Phoenician

* Paleo-Hebrew

* Hebrew * Aramaic * Syriac

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=