* CHARVAKA * ĀJīVIKA * BUDDHISM * JAINISM
* Vaishnava * Smarta * Shakta
* Shaiva : Pratyabhijña * Pashupata * Siddhanta
TEACHERS (Acharyas )
ACHINTYA BHEDA ABHEDA
* Tantra * Shakta
* Kanada , Prashastapada
* Sruti * Smriti
* Bhagavat Gita * Agama (Hinduism)
------------------------- SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS
* Pramana Sutras
* Hinduism * Other Indian philosophies
* v * t * e
The śramaṇa movements arose in the same circles of mendicants in
The Śramaṇic traditions have a diverse range of beliefs, ranging from accepting or denying the concept of soul, fatalism to free will, idealization of extreme asceticism to that of family life, wearing dress to complete nudity in daily social life, strict ahimsa (non-violence) and vegetarianism to permissibility of violence and meat-eating.
* 1 Etymology and origin
* 2 History
* 3 Philosophy
* 3.2 Usage in Jain texts
* 3.2.1 Ācāranga Sūtra * 3.2.2 Sūtrakrtanga
* 3.3 Buddhist philosophy * 3.4 Ajivika philosophy * 3.5 Comparison of philosophies
* 4 Influences on Indian culture
* 4.1 Hinduism
* 5 In Western literature
* 5.1 Clement of Alexandria (150-211) * 5.2 Porphyry (233-305)
* 6 In contemporary Western culture * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Sources
ETYMOLOGY AND ORIGIN
One of the earliest recorded use of the word śramaṇa, in the sense
of a mendicant, is in verse 4.3.22 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
composed by about the 8th century BCE. The concept of renunciation
and monk-like lifestyle is found in Vedic literature, with terms such
as yatis , rishis , and śramaṇas. The Vedic literature from
pre-1000 BCE era, mentions Muni (मुनि, monks, mendicants, holy
man). Rig Veda , for example, in
केश्यग्निं केशी विषं केशी बिभर्ति रोदसी । केशी विश्वं स्वर्दृशे केशीदं ज्योतिरुच्यते ॥१॥ मुनयो वातरशनाः पिशङ्गा वसते मला । वातस्यानु ध्राजिं यन्ति यद्देवासो अविक्षत ॥२॥ He with the long loose locks (of hair) supports Agni, and moisture, heaven, and earth; He is all sky to look upon: he with long hair is called this light. The MUNIS, girdled with the wind, wear garments of soil hue; They, following the wind's swift course, go where the Gods have gone before. — Rig Veda, Hymn 10.136.1-2
The hymn uses the term vātaraśana (वातरशन) which means "girdled with wind". Some scholars have interpreted this to mean "sky-clad, naked monk" and therefore a synonym for Digambara (a Jainism sect). However, other scholars state that this could not be the correct interpretation because it is inconsistent with the words that immediately follow, "wearing soil-hued garments". The context likely means that the poet is describing the "munis" as moving like the wind, their garments pressed by the wind. According to Olivelle, it is unlikely that the vātaraśana implies a class within the Vedic context.
The earliest known explicit use of the term śramaṇa is found in section 2.7 of the Taittiriya Aranyaka , a layer within the Yajurveda (~1000 BCE, a scripture of Hinduism). It mentions sramana Rishis and celibate Rishis.
Buddhist commentaries associate the word's etymology with the
quieting (samita) of evil (pāpa) as in the following phrase from the
3rd century BCE
The word śramaṇa is postulated to be derived from the verbal root
śram, meaning "to exert effort, labor or to perform austerity". The
history of wandering monks in ancient
The śramaṇa refers to a variety of renunciate ascetic traditions from the middle of the 1st millennium BCE. The śramaṇas were individual, experiential and free-form traditions. The term "śramaṇas" is used sometimes to contrast them with "Brahmins" in terms of their religious models. Part of the śramaṇa tradition retained their distinct identity from Hinduism by rejecting the epistemic authority of the Vedas , while a part of the śramaṇa tradition became part of Hinduism as one stage in the Ashrama dharma, that is as renunciate sannyasins .
THE VIEWS OF SIX SAMAṇA IN THE PāLI CANON (based on the Buddhist text Sāmaññaphala Sutta1)
Śramaṇa view (diṭṭhi)1
Pūraṇa Kassapa AMORALISM : denies any reward or punishment for either good or bad deeds.
Makkhali Gośāla (ĀJīVIKA ) NIYATIVāDA (Fatalism): we are powerless; suffering is pre-destined.
Ajita Kesakambalī (LOKāYATA ) MATERIALISM : live happily ; with death, all is annihilated.
Pakudha Kaccāyana SASSATAVADA (Eternalism): Matter, pleasure, pain and the soul are eternal and do not interact.
Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta (JAINISM ) RESTRAINT : be endowed with, cleansed by and suffused with the avoidance of all evil.2
Sañjaya Belaṭṭhiputta (AJñANA ) AGNOSTICISM : "I don't think so. I don't think in that way or otherwise. I don't think not or not not." Suspension of judgement.
1. DN 2 (Thanissaro, 1997; Walshe, 1995, pp. 91-109).
2. DN -a (Ñāṇamoli "> Martin Wilshire states that the Sramana
tradition evolved in
According to the
...those ascetics, samaṇa and Brahmins who have orders and followings, who are teachers, well-known and famous as founders of schools, and popularly regarded as saints, like Pūraṇa Kassapa , Makkhali Gosāla , Ajita Kesakambalī , Pakudha Kaccāyana , Sanjaya Belatthiputta and Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta (Mahavira)... — Digha Nikaya, 16
Govind Chandra Pande , a professor of Indian history, states in his 1957 study on the origins of Buddhism, that Sramana was a "distinct and separate cultural and religious" tradition than the Vedic.
Patrick Olivelle , a professor of Indology and known for his
translations of major ancient
Sramana in that context obviously means a person who is in the habit of performing srama. Far from separating these seers from the vedic ritual tradition, therefore, sramana places them right at the center of that tradition. Those who see them as non-Brahmanical, anti-Brahmanical, or even non-Aryan precursors of later sectarian ascetics are drawing conclusions that far outstrip the available evidence. — Patrick Olivelle, The Ashrama System
According to Olivelle, and other scholars such as Edward Crangle, the concept of Sramana exists in the early Brahmanical literature. The term is used in an adjectival sense for sages who lived a special way of life that the Vedic culture considered extraordinary. However, Vedic literature does not provide details of that life. The term did not imply any opposition to either Brahmins or householders. In all likelihood states Olivelle, during the Vedic era, neither did the Sramana concept refer to an identifiable class, nor to ascetic groups as it does in later Indian literature. Additionally, in the early texts, some pre-dating 3rd-century BCE ruler Ashoka , the Brahmana and Sramana are neither distinct nor opposed. The distinction, according to Olivelle, in later Indian literature "may have been a later semantic development possibly influenced by the appropriation of the latter term by Buddhism and Jainism".
The vedic society, states Olivelle, contained many people whose roots were non-Aryan who must have influenced the Aryan classes. However, it is difficult to identify and isolate these influences, in part because the vedic culture not only developed from influences but also from its inner dynamism and socio-economic developments.
PRE-BUDDHIST śRāMANA SCHOOLS IN BUDDHIST TEXTS
Pande attributes the origin of Buddhism, not entirely to the Buddha, but to a "great religious ferment" towards the end of the Vedic period when the Brahmanic and Sramanic traditions intermingled.
The Buddhist text of the Samaññaphala Sutta identifies six pre-Buddhist śrāmana schools, identifying them by their leader. These six schools are represented in the text to have diverse philosophies, which according to Padmanabh Jaini, may be "a biased picture and does not give a true picture" of the Sramanic schools rivaling with Buddhism,
* śrāmana movement of Purana Kassapa : believed in antinomian ethics. This ancient school asserted that there are no moral laws, nothing is moral or immoral, there is neither virtue nor sin. * śrāmana movement of Makkhali Gosala (Ajivika): believed in fatalism and determinism that everything is the consequence of nature and its laws. The school denied that there is free will, but believed that soul exists. Everything has its own individual nature, based on how one is constituted from elements. Karma and consequences are not due to free will, cannot be altered, everything is pre-determined, because of and including one's composition. * śrāmana movement of Ajita Kesakambali : believed in materialism. Denied that there is an after-life, any samsara, any karma, or any fruit of good or evil deeds. Everything including humans are composed of elemental matter, and when one dies one returns to those elements.
* śrāmana movement of Pakudha Kaccayana : believed in atomism . Denied that there is a creator, knower. Believed that everything is made of seven basic building blocks that are eternal, neither created nor caused to be created. The seven blocks included earth, water, fire, air, happiness, pain and soul. All actions, including death is mere re-arrangement and interpenetration of one set of substances into another set of substances. * śrāmana movement of Mahavira (Jainism): believed in fourfold restraint, avoid all evil (see more below). * śrāmana movement of Sanjaya Belatthiputta (Ajñana): believed in absolute agnosticism. Refused to have any opinion either way about existence of or non-existence of after-life, karma, good, evil, free will, creator, soul, or other topics.
The pre-Buddhist śrāmana movements were organized Sanghagani (order of monks and ascetics), according to the Buddhist Samaññaphala Sutta. The six leaders above are described as a Sanghi (head of the order), Ganacariyo (teacher), Cirapabbajito (recluse), Yasassi and Neto (of repute and well known). :60
Further information: History of Jainism
Jain literature too mentions Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla and Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta. During the life of Buddha, Mahavira and the Buddha were leaders of their śramaṇa orders. Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta refers to Mahāvīra.
According to Pande, Jainas were same as the Niganthas mentioned in the Buddhist texts, and they were a well established sect when Buddha began preaching. He states, without identifying supporting evidence, that " appear to have belonged to the non-Vedic Munis and Sramanas who may have been ultimately connected with pre-Vedic civilization". The śramaṇa system is believed by a majority of Jaina scholars to have been of independent origin and not a protest movement of any kind, were led by Jaina thinkers, and were pre-Buddhist and pre-Vedic.
Main article: Buddhist monasticism
PEOPLE OF THE PāLI CANON
Sangha (the Buddhist community)
SAMAṇERA, SAMAṇēRī Novice (m., f.)
ANAGāRIKA, ANAGāRIKā lay renunciants (m., f.)
Maechi , thilashin dasa sil mata , modern female lay renunciants (f.)
UPāSAKA AND UPāSIKā Lay devotee (m., f.)
GAHATTHA, GAHAPATI Householder
NIGAṇṭHA Jain monastics
* v * t * e
It was as a śramaṇa that the Buddha left his father's palace and
The Buddhist movement chose a moderate ascetic lifestyle. This was in contrast to Jains, who continued the tradition of stronger austerity, such as fasting and giving away all property including clothes and thus going naked, emphasizing that complete dedication to spirituality includes turning away from material possessions and any cause for evil karma . The moderate ascetic precepts, states Collins, likely appealed to more people and widened the base of people wanting to become Buddhists. Buddhism also developed a code for interaction of world-pursuing lay people and world-denying Buddhist monastic communities , which encouraged continued relationship between the two. Collins states, for example, that two rules of the vinaya (monastic code) were that a person could not join a monastic community without parent's permission, and that at least one son remained with each family to care for that family. Buddhism also combined the continuing interaction, such as giving alms to renunciants, in terms of merit gained for good rebirth and good karma by the lay people. This code played a historic role in its growth, and provided a means for reliable alms (food, clothing) and social support for Buddhism.
Randall Collins states that Buddhism was more a reform movement within the educated religious classes, composed mostly of Brahmins, rather than a rival movement from outside these classes. In early Buddhism, the largest number of monastics were originally brahmins , and virtually all were recruited from the two upper classes of society – brahmins and kshatriyas .
The Ājīvikas reached the height of their prominence in the late 1st
millennium BCE, then declined, yet continued to exist in south India
until the 14th Century CE, as evidenced by inscriptions found in
southern India. Ancient texts of
Jainism mention a city
in the first millennium BCE named Savatthi (
Original scriptures of the
CONFLICT BETWEEN śRAMAṇA MOVEMENTS
According to the 2nd century CE text
Ashokavadana , the Mauryan
Jaina texts mention separation and conflict between Mahavira and Gosala, accusation of contemptuous comments, and an occasion where the Jaina and Ajivika monastic orders "came to blows". However, given the texts alleging conflict and portraying Ajivikas and Gosala in negative light were written centuries after the incident by their śramaṇa opponents, and given the versions in Buddhist and Jaina texts are different, the reliability of these stories, states Basham, is questionable.
Part of a series on
* v * t * e
Jainism derives its philosophy from the teachings and lives of the
twenty-four Tirthankaras , of whom
Mahavira was the last. Acharyas
USAGE IN JAIN TEXTS
Jain monastics are known as śramaṇas while lay practitioners are called śrāvakas . The religion or code of conduct of the monks is known as the śramaṇa dharma. Jain canons like Ācāranga Sūtra and other later texts contain many references to Sramanas.
One verse of the Ācāranga sūtra defines a good śramaṇa:
Disregarding (all calamities) he lives together with clever monks, insensitive to pain and pleasure, not hurting the movable and immovable (beings), not killing, bearing all: so is described the great sage, a good Sramana.
The chapter on renunciation contains a śramaṇa vow of non-possession:
I shall become a śramaṇa who owns no house, no property, no sons, no cattle, who eats what others give him; I shall commit no sinful action; Master, I renounce to accept anything that has not been given.' Having taken such vows, (a mendicant) should not, on entering a village or free town, take himself, or induce others to take, or allow others to take, what has not been given.
The Ācāranga Sūtra gives three names of Mahavira, the twenty
The Venerable ascetic Mahavira belonged to the Kasyapa gotra . His three names have thus been recorded by tradition: by his parents he was called Vardhamana, because he is devoid of love and hate; (he is called) Sramana (i.e. ascetic), because he sustains dreadful dangers and fears, the noble nakedness, and the miseries of the world; the name Venerable Ascetic MAHAVIRA has been given to him by the gods.
Another Jain canon, Sūtrakrtanga describes the śramaṇa as an
ascetic who has taken
He is a
The Sūtrakrtanga records that a prince, Ardraka , who became disciple to Mahavira, arguing with other heretical teachers, told Makkhali Gosala the qualities of śramaṇas:
He who (teaches) the great vows (of monks) and the five small vows (of the laity 3), the five Âsravas and the stoppage of the Âsravas, and control, who avoids Karman in this blessed life of Śramaṇas, him I call a Śramaṇa.
Main article: Buddhist philosophy
Buddha initially practiced severe austerities, fasting himself nearly to death of starvation. However, he later considered extreme austerities and self-mortification as unnecessary and recommended a "Middle Way" between the extremes of hedonism and self-mortification.
The Brahmajāla Sutta mentions many śramaṇas with whom Buddha disagreed. For example, in contrast to Sramanic Jains whose philosophical premise includes the existence of an Atman (self, soul) in every being, Buddhist philosophy denies that there is any self or soul. This concept called Anatta (or Anatman) is a part of Three Marks of existence in Buddhist philosophy, the other two being Dukkha (suffering) and Anicca (impermanence). According to Buddha, states Laumakis, everything lacks inherent existence. Buddhism is a non-theistic philosophy, which is especially concerned with pratītyasamutpāda (dependent origination) and śūnyatā (emptiness or nothingness).
From rock edicts, it is found that both Brahmans as well as śramaṇas enjoyed equal sanctity.
COMPARISON OF PHILOSOPHIES
The śramaṇa traditions subscribed to diverse philosophies, significantly disagreeing with each other as well as orthodox Hinduism and its six schools of Hindu philosophy . The differences ranged from a belief that every individual has a soul (self, atman) to asserting that there is no soul, :119 from axiological merit in a frugal ascetic life to that of a hedonistic life, from a belief in rebirth to asserting that there is no rebirth.
A denial of the epistemic authority of the Vedas and Upanishads was one of the several differences between Sramanic philosophies and orthodox Hinduism. Jaini states that while authority of vedas, belief in a creator, path of ritualism and social system of heredity ranks, made up the cornerstones of Brahminal schools, the path of ascetic self-motification was the main characteristic of all the Sramanic schools.
In some cases when the Sramanic movements shared the same philosophical concepts, the details varied. In Jainism, for example, Karma is based on materialist element philosophy, where Karma is the fruit of one's action conceived as material particles which stick to a soul and keep it away from natural omniscience. The Buddha conceived Karma as a chain of causality leading to attachment of the material world and hence to rebirth. The Ajivikas were fatalists and elevated Karma as inescapable fate, where a person's life goes through a chain of consequences and rebirths until it reaches its end. Other śramaṇa movements such as those led by Pakkudha Kaccayana and Purana Kashyapa, denied the existence of Karma.
Comparison of ancient Indian philosophies
AJIVIKA BUDDHISM CHARVAKA JAINISM Orthodox schools of Hinduism (Non-Śramaṇic)
Karma Denies Affirms Denies Affirms Affirms
Ascetic life Affirms Affirms Affirms Affirms Affirms as Sannyasa
Rituals, Bhakti Affirms Affirms, optional (Pali: Bhatti) Denies Affirms, optional Theistic school: Affirms, optional Others: Deny
Free will Denies Affirms Affirms Affirms Affirms
Maya Affirms Affirms (prapañca) Denies Affirms Affirms
Atman (Soul, Self) Affirms Denies Denies Affirms :119 Affirms
Creator God Denies Denies Denies Denies Theistic schools: Affirm Others: Deny
Epistemology ( Pramana ) Pratyakṣa, Anumāṇa, Śabda Pratyakṣa, Anumāṇa Pratyakṣa Pratyakṣa, Anumāṇa, Śabda Various, Vaisheshika (two) to Vedanta (six): Pratyakṣa (perception), Anumāṇa (inference), Upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), Arthāpatti (postulation, derivation), Anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof), Śabda (Reliable testimony)
INFLUENCES ON INDIAN CULTURE
The śramaṇa traditions influenced and were influenced by Hinduism and by each other. According to some scholars, the concept of the cycle of birth and death, the concept of samsara and the concept of liberation may quite possibly be from śramaṇa or other ascetic traditions. Obeyesekere suggests that tribal sages in the Ganges valley may instead have inspired the ideas of samsara and liberation, just like rebirth ideas that emerged in Africa and Greece. O'Flaherty states that there isn't enough objective evidence to support any of these theories.
It is in the Upanishadic period that Sramanic theories influence the Brahmanical theories. :50 While the concepts of Brahman and Atman (Soul, Self) can be consistently traced back to pre-Upanishadic layers of Vedic literature, the heterogeneous nature of the Upanishads show infusions of both social and philosophical ideas, pointing to evolution of new doctrines, likely from the Sramanic movements. :49–56
Theories on who influenced whom, in ancient India, remains a matter of scholarly debate, and it is likely that the different philosophies contributed to each other's development. Doniger summarizes the historic interaction between scholars of Vedic Hinduism and Sramanic Buddhism:
There was such constant interaction between Vedism and Buddhism in the early period that it is fruitless to attempt to sort out the earlier source of many doctrines, they lived in one another's pockets, like Picasso and Braque (who, in later years, were unable to say which of them had painted certain paintings from their earlier, shared period). — Wendy Doniger,
Randall Collins states that "the basic cultural framework for lay society which eventually became Hinduism" was laid down by Buddhism.
Hinduism can be regarded as a combination of Vedic and
śramaṇa traditions as it is substantially influenced by both
traditions. Among the
Astika schools of Hinduism,
Our best evidence to date suggests that developed in the same ascetic circles as the early śramaṇa movements (Buddhists, Jainas and Ajivikas), probably in around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE.
Patrick Olivelle suggests that the Hindu ashrama system of life, created probably around the 4th-century BCE, was an attempt to institutionalize renunciation within the Brahmanical social structure. This system gave complete freedom to adults to choose what they want to do, whether they want to be householders or sannyasins (ascetics), the monastic tradition was a voluntary institution. This voluntary principle, states Olivelle, was the same principle found in Buddhist and Jain monastic orders at that time.
IN WESTERN LITERATURE
Various possible references to "śramaṇas", with the name more or less distorted, have appeared in ancient Western literature.
CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (150-211)
Thus philosophy, a thing of the highest utility, flourished in
antiquity among the barbarians, shedding its light over the nations.
And afterwards it came to
Porphyry extensively describes the habits of the śramaṇas, whom he
calls "Samanaeans", in his "On Abstinence from Animal Food"
For the polity of the Indians being distributed into many parts, there is one tribe among them of men divinely wise, whom the Greeks are accustomed to call Gymnosophists . But of these there are two sects, over one of which the Brahmins preside, but over the other the Samanaeans. The race of the Brahmins , however, receive divine wisdom of this kind by succession, in the same manner as the priesthood. But the Samanaeans are elected, and consist of those who wish to possess divine knowledge. On entering the order
All the Bramins originate from one stock; for all of them are derived from one father and one mother. But the Samanaeans are not the offspring of one family, being, as we have said, collected from every nation of Indians. A Bramin, however, is not a subject of any government, nor does he contribute any thing together with others to government.
The Samanaeans are, as we have said, elected. When, however, any one is desirous of being enrolled in their order, he proceeds to the rulers of the city; but abandons the city or village that he inhabited, and the wealth and all the other property that he possessed. Having likewise the superfluities of his body cut off, he receives a garment, and departs to the Samanaeans, but does not return either to his wife or children, if he happens to have any, nor does he pay any attention to them, or think that they at all pertain to him. And, with respect to his children indeed, the king provides what is necessary for them, and the relatives provide for the wife. And such is the life of the Samanaeans. But they live out of the city, and spend the whole day in conversation pertaining to divinity. They have also houses and temples, built by the king, in which they are stewards, who receive a certain emolument from the king, for the purpose of supplying those that dwell in them with nutriment. But their food consists of rice, bread, autumnal fruits, and pot-herbs. And when they enter into their house, the sound of a bell being the signal of their entrance, those that are not Samanaeans depart from it, and the Samanaeans begin immediately to pray. On food and living habits
And with respect to those that are philosophers, among these some
dwell on mountains, and others about the river Ganges. And those that
live on mountains feed on autumnal fruits, and on cows' milk
coagulated with herbs. But those that reside near the
They are so disposed with respect to death, that they unwillingly endure the whole time of the present life, as a certain servitude to nature, and therefore they hasten to liberate their souls from the bodies . Hence, frequently, when they are seen to be well, and are neither oppressed, nor driven to desperation by any evil, they depart from life.
IN CONTEMPORARY WESTERN CULTURE
German novelist Hermann Hesse , long interested in Eastern, especially Indian, spirituality, wrote Siddhartha , in which the main character becomes a Samana upon leaving his home (where he was a Brahmin).
* ^ Flood moksa/nirvana - the goal of human existence....." * ^ According to Rhys Davids text-decoration: none">samitattā pāpānaŋ ʻsamaṇoʼ ti pavuccati"....' The English translation of Dh 265 is based on Fronsdal (2005), p. 69.
* ^ Some terms are common between
Jainism and Buddhism, including:
• Symbols: caitya , stūpa , dharmacakra
• Terms: arihant (Jainism) /arhat (Buddhism) , nirvāṇa ,
saṅgha , ācārya , Jina etc.
The term pudgala is used by both but with completely different
meanings. * ^ The
* ^ According to Rahul Sankrityayan, the 7th-century CE Buddhist scholar Dharmakirti wrote: vedapramanyam kasyacit kartrvadah/ snane dharmeccha jativadavalepah// santaparambhah papahanaya ceti/ dhvastaprajnanam pancalirigani jadye The unquestioned authority of the vedas; the belief in a world-creator; the quest for purification through ritual bathings; the arrogant division into castes; the practice of mortification to atone for sin; - these five are the marks of the crass stupidity of witless men. - Translated by Rahul Sankrityayan Belief in the authority of the Vedas, and in a creator, desiring merit from bathing, pride in caste, and practicising self denial for the eradication of sins - these five are the marks of stupidity of one whose intelligence is damaged. - Translated by Ramkrishna Bhattacharya * ^ Elisa Freschi (2012): The Vedas are not deontic authorities and may be disobeyed, but still recognized as an epistemic authority by a Hindu; (Note: This differentiation between epistemic and deontic authority is true for all Indian religions) * ^ Randall Collins: " Buddhism laid down the basic cultural framework for lay society which eventually became Hinduism. Buddhism cannot be understood as a reaction against the caste system, any more than it is simply an effort to escape from karma." * ^ "Mahavira, it is said, proceeded to a place in the neighbourhood where a big yagna was being organized by a brahman, Somilacharya, and preached his first sermon denouncing the sacrifice and converting eleven learned Brahmins assembled there who became his chief disciples called ganadharas."
* ^ A B Monier Monier-Williams, श्रमण śramaṇa,
Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, page 1096
* ^ Zimmer 1952 , p. 182-183.
* ^ Svarghese, Alexander P. 2008.
* ^ A B GS Ghurye (1952), Ascetic Origins, Sociological Bulletin,
Vol. 1, No. 2, pages 162-184;
* ^ A B C Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791422175 , page 64; "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence."; KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, ISBN 978-8120806191 , pages 246-249, from note 385 onwards; John C. Plott et al (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120801585 , page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism"; Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist ‘No-Self’ Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy Now; Anatta Encyclopedia Britannica, Quote:"In Buddhism, the doctrine that there is in humans no permanent, underlying substance that can be called the soul. (...) The concept of anatta, or anatman, is a departure from the Hindu belief in atman (self)." * ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (1850). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lyon Public Library. p. 241. * ^ AL Basham (2009), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 262-270 * ^ Johannes Quack (2014), The Oxford Handbook of Atheism (Editors: Stephen Bullivant, Michael Ruse), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199644650 , page 654 * ^ Analayo (2004), Satipaṭṭhāna: The Direct Path to Realization, ISBN 978-1899579549 , pages 207-208 * ^ AL Basham (1951), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 240-261, 270-273 * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K Randall Collins (2000). The sociology of philosophies: a global theory of intellectual change. Harvard University Press. pp. 199–200. ISBN 9780674001879 . * ^ A B Padmanabh S. Jaini (2001). Collected papers on Buddhist studies. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. pp. 47–. ISBN 9788120817760 . * ^ Ramkrishna Bhattacharya (June 2015), Cārvāka Miscellany II, Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research, Volume 32, Issue 2, pages 199-210 * ^ Gananath Obeyesekere (2005), Karma and Rebirth: A Cross Cultural Study, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120826090 , page 106 * ^ Damien Keown (2013), Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199663835 , pages 32-46 * ^ Haribhadrasūri (Translator: M Jain, 1989), Saddarsanasamuccaya, Asiatic Society, OCLC 255495691 * ^ Halbfass, Wilhelm (2000), Karma und Wiedergeburt im indischen Denken, Diederichs, München, ISBN 978-3896313850 * ^ A B C D Patrick Olivelle (2005), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Editor: Flood, Gavin), Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-1405132510 , pages 277-278 * ^ Karel Werner (1995), Love Divine: Studies in Bhakti and Devotional Mysticism, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700702350 , pages 45-46 * ^ John Cort, Jains in the World : Religious Values and Ideology in India, Oxford University Press, ISBN, pages 64-68, 86-90, 100-112 * ^ Christian Novetzke (2007), Bhakti and Its Public, International Journal of Hindu Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3, page 255-272
* ^ Knut Jacobsen (2008), Theory and Practice of
* ^ Howard Coward (2008), The Perfectibility of Human Nature in
Eastern and Western Thought, State University of New York Press, ISBN
978-0791473368 , pages 103-114;
Harold Coward (2003), Encyclopedia of Science and Religion, Macmillan
Reference, see Karma, ISBN 978-0028657042 * ^ AL Basham (1951),
History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion,
Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 237
* ^ Damien Keown (2004), A Dictionary of Buddhism, Oxford
University Press, ISBN 978-0198605607 , Entry for Prapañca, Quote:
"Term meaning ‘proliferation’, in the sense of the multiplication
of erroneous concepts, ideas, and ideologies which obscure the true
nature of reality".
* ^ Lynn Foulston and Stuart Abbott (2009), Hindu Goddesses:
Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1902210438 ,
* ^ Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1986), Dreams, Illusion, and Other
Realities, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226618555 , page 119
* ^ Ramkrishna Bhattacharya (2011), Studies on the
Carvaka/Lokayata, Anthem, ISBN 978-0857284334 , page 216
Anatta Encyclopedia Britannica, Quote:"In Buddhism, the
doctrine that there is in humans no permanent, underlying substance
that can be called the soul. (...) The concept of anatta, or anatman,
is a departure from the Hindu belief in atman (self)."
* ^ Oliver Leaman (2000), Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings,
Routledge, ISBN 978-0415173582 , page 251
* ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical
* ^ Roy W Perrett (Editor, 2000), Indian Philosophy: Metaphysics,
Volume 3, Taylor
AC Das (1952),
Brahman and Māyā in Advaita Metaphysics, Philosophy
East and West, Vol. 2, No. 2, pages 144-154 * ^ Gavin D. Flood
(1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN
0-521-43878-0 , page 86, Quote: "It is very possible that the karmas
and reincarnation entered the mainstream brahaminical thought from the
śramaṇa or the renouncer traditions."
* ^ G Obeyesekere (2002), Imagining
Karma - Ethical Transformation
in Amerindian, Buddhist, and Greek Rebirth, University of California
Press, ISBN 978-0520232433
* ^ Wendy D O'Flaherty (1980),
Karma and Rebirth in Classical
Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230
, pages xi-xxvi
* ^ Flood, Gavin D. (1996) p. 86-90
* ^ Gavin D. Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge
University Press : UK ISBN 0-521-43878-0 P. 86
* ^ Uno Tähtinen (1976), Ahimsa: Non-Violence in Indian Tradition,
London, ISBN 0-09-123340-2 , pages 2–5
* ^ By D. R. Bhandarkar, 1989 "Some Aspects of Ancient Indian
Culture" Asian Educational Services 118 pages ISBN 81-206-0457-1 p.
* ^ Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980),
Karma and Rebirth in Classical
Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230
, pp xvii-xviii
* ^ Samuel 2008 , p. 8.
* ^ Gethin (1998), pp. 10–11, 13
* ^ A B Padmanabh S Jaini, Collected papers on Buddhist studies.
Motilal Banarsidass 2001, P.64
* ^ Clement of Alexandria, "Strom."
* ^ A B C D E Porphyry, On abstinence from animal food,
* Zimmer, Heinrich (1953) , Campbell, Joseph , ed., Philosophies Of
* Basham, A. L. (1951). History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas.
* Bhaskar, Bhagchandra Jain (1972).
Jainism in Buddhist Literature.
Alok Prakashan: Nagpur. Available on-line at
* Fronsdal, Gil (2005). The Dhammapada: A New Translation of the
Buddhist Classic with Annotations. Boston: Shambhala Publications.
ISBN 1-59030-380-6 .
* Gethin, Rupert (1998). The Foundations of Buddhism. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-289223-1 .
* Hesse, Hermann (1992). Siddhartha (Novel).
* http://www.herenow4u.net/index.php?id=65998 Antiquity of
Professor Mahavir Saran Jain
Bhikkhu (trans.) and Bodhi,
Bhikkhu (ed.) (2001).
The Middle-Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the
Majjhima Nikāya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-072-X .
* Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). The
* v * t * e
* Glossary * Index * Outline
* Three Jewels
* Places where the Buddha stayed * Buddha in world religions
* Avidyā (Ignorance)
* Heaven * Human realm * Asura realm * Hungry Ghost realm * Animal realm * Hell
* Three planes of existence
* Offerings * Prostration * Chanting
* Śīla * Samadhi * Prajñā
* Chan Buddhism
* Tibetan * Shingon * Dzogchen
* Kalmykia * Buryatia
* Singapore * Sri Lanka * Taiwan * Thailand * Tibet * Vietnam
* Middle East
* Western countries
* Argentina * Australia * Brazil * France * United Kingdom * United States * Venezuela
* Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution * Greco- Buddhism * Buddhism and the Roman world * Buddhism in the West * Silk Road transmission of Buddhism * Persecution of Buddhists * Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal * Buddhist crisis * Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism * Buddhist modernism * Vipassana movement * 969 Movement * Women in Buddhism
* Abhidharma * Atomism * Buddhology * Creator * Economics * Eight Consciousnesses * Engaged Buddhism * Eschatology * Ethics * Evolution * Humanism * Logic * Reality * Secular Buddhism * Socialism * The unanswered questions
* Mudra * Music
* Poetry * Prayer beads * Prayer wheel
* Temple of the Tooth * Vegetarianism
* Sacred languages
* Bahá\'í Faith
* Influences * Comparison
* Bodhisattvas * Books
* Buddhists * Suttas * Temples
* v * t * e
* Kevala Jñāna
* Jaina logic
* Siddhashila * Naraka * Heavenly beings
* Types * Causes
* Kharatara * Tapa * Tristutik
* Sthānakavāsī * Terapanth
* Monasticism * Vegetarianism * Fasting * Rituals
* Auspicious dreams
* Bundelkhand * Delhi * Goa * Gujarat * Haryana
* Rajasthan * Uttar Pradesh
* Canada * Europe * United States * Japan * Singapore * Hong Kong * Pakistan * Belgium * Africa * Southeast Asia * Australia
DYNASTIES AND EMPIRES
* Ikshvaku * Maurya * Kalinga * Kadamba * Ganga * Chalukya * Rashtrakuta * Hoysala * Pandayan
* Jain calendar
* Gods * Literature * Monks ">
* PORTAL * COMMONS * WIKIQUOTE * WIKISOURCE
* v * t * e
* Three bodies
* Five sheaths
HISTORY OF YOGA
* Eight Limbs
* Mudras * List of asanas * List of styles
Contemporary yoga styles and schools
INDIAN BUDDHIST TANTRA
* Anuttarayoga Tantra
* BOOK * COMMONS * WIKIQUOTE * WIKISOURCE TEXTS * CATEGORY * PORTAL
Links: ------ /WIKI/VEDANTA /wiki/Advaita_Vedanta /wiki/Vishishtadvaita /wiki/Dvaita_Vedanta /wiki/Bhedabheda /wiki/Dvaitadvaita /wiki/Achintya_Bheda_Abheda /wiki/Shuddhadvaita /wiki/%C4%80stika_and_n%C4%81stika /WIKI/CHARVAKA /WIKI/%C4%80J%C4%ABVIKA /WIKI/BUDDHISM /WIKI/JAINISM /wiki/Vaishnavism /wiki/Smarta_Tradition /wiki/Shaktism /wiki/Shaivism /wiki/Pratyabhijna /wiki/Pashupata_Shaivism /wiki/Shaiva_Siddhanta /wiki/Tantra /wiki/Acharya /wiki/Nyaya /wiki/Ny%C4%81ya_S%C5%ABtras /wiki/Jayanta_Bhatta /wiki/Raghunatha_Siromani /wiki/M%C4%ABm%C4%81%E1%B9%83s%C4%81 /wiki/Jaimini /wiki/Kum%C4%81rila_Bha%E1%B9%AD%E1%B9%ADa /wiki/Prabh%C4%81kara /wiki/Advaita_Vedanta /wiki/Gaudapada /wiki/Adi_Shankara /wiki/V%C4%81caspati_Mi%C5%9Bra /wiki/Vidyaranya /wiki/Sadananda_(of_Vedantasara) /wiki/Madhus%C5%ABdana_Sarasvat%C4%AB /wiki/Vijnanabhiksu /wiki/Ramakrishna /wiki/Swami_Vivekananda /wiki/Ramana_Maharshi /wiki/Siddharudha_Swami /wiki/Chinmayananda_Saraswati /wiki/Nisargadatta_Maharaj /wiki/Vishishtadvaita /wiki/Nammalvar /wiki/Alvars /wiki/Yamunacharya /wiki/Ramanuja