HOME
The Info List - Śramaṇa



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i)

VEDANTA

* _Advaita _ * _ Vishishtadvaita _ * _ Dvaita Vedanta _ * _ Bhedabheda _ * _ Dvaitadvaita _ * _ Achintya Bheda Abheda _ * _ Shuddhadvaita _

HETERODOX

* CHARVAKA * ĀJīVIKA * BUDDHISM * JAINISM

OTHER SCHOOLS

* Vaishnava * Smarta * Shakta

* Shaiva : Pratyabhijña * Pashupata * Siddhanta

* Tantra
Tantra

TEACHERS (Acharyas )

NYAYA

* Akṣapāda Gotama * Jayanta Bhatta * Raghunatha Siromani

MīMāṃSā

* Jaimini * Kumārila Bhaṭṭa * Prabhākara

ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Gaudapada * Adi Shankara * Vācaspati Miśra * Vidyaranya * Sadananda * Madhusūdana Sarasvatī * Vijnanabhiksu * Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* Vivekananda
Vivekananda
* Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
* Siddharudha * Chinmayananda * Nisargadatta

VISHISHTADVAITA

* Nammalvar * Alvars * Yamunacharya * Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Vedanta Desika * Pillai Lokacharya * Manavala Mamunigal
Manavala Mamunigal

DVAITA

* Madhvacharya * Jayatirtha * Vyasatirtha * Sripadaraja
Sripadaraja
* Vadirajatirtha * Vijayendra Tirtha * Raghavendra Swami

ACHINTYA BHEDA ABHEDA

* Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
* Jiva Goswami
Jiva Goswami
* Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati * Prabhupada

* Tantra
Tantra
* Shakta

* Abhinavagupta * Nigamananda Paramahansa
Nigamananda Paramahansa
* Ramprasad Sen * Bamakhepa
Bamakhepa
* Kamalakanta Bhattacharya * Anandamayi Ma

OTHERS

SAMKHYA

* Kapila

YOGA

* Patanjali
Patanjali

VAISHESHIKA

* Kanada , Prashastapada

DVAITADVAITA

* Nimbarka
Nimbarka

SHUDDHADVAITA

* Vallabha Acharya
Acharya

MAJOR TEXTS

* Sruti * Smriti
Smriti

------------------------- VEDAS

* Rigveda
Rigveda
* Yajurveda
Yajurveda
* Samaveda
Samaveda
* Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda

UPANISHADS

* Principal Upanishads * Minor Upanishads

_Other scriptures_

* Bhagavat Gita
Bhagavat Gita
* Agama (Hinduism)

------------------------- _SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS _

* Brahma Sutras * Samkhya Sutras * Mimamsa Sutras * Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
* Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
* Yoga
Yoga
Sutras

* Pramana
Pramana
Sutras

* Puranas * Dharma
Dharma
Shastra * Artha Śastra * Kamasutra * Tirumurai
Tirumurai
* Shiva Samhita

* Hinduism * Other Indian philosophies

* v * t * e

ŚRAMAṇA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: श्रमण, SAMAṇA in Pali
Pali
) means "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic". The term refers to several Indian religious movements parallel to but separate from the historical Vedic religion . The Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
tradition includes Jainism
Jainism
of 9th-century BCE, Buddhism
Buddhism
of 6th-century BCE, and others such as Ājīvika , Ajñana and Cārvāka .

The Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movements arose in the same circles of mendicants in ancient India
India
that led to the development of Yogic practices, as well as the popular concepts in all major Indian religions
Indian religions
such as _saṃsāra _ (the cycle of birth and death) and _moksha _ (liberation from that cycle).

The Śramaṇic traditions have a diverse range of beliefs, ranging from accepting or denying the concept of soul, fatalism to free will, idealization of extreme asceticism to that of family life, wearing dress to complete nudity in daily social life, strict ahimsa (non-violence) and vegetarianism to permissibility of violence and meat-eating.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology and origin

* 2 History

* 2.1 Vedic * 2.2 Pre-Buddhist Sramana schools in Buddhist texts * 2.3 Jainism
Jainism
* 2.4 Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2.5 Ajivika * 2.6 Conflict between Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movements

* 3 Philosophy

* 3.1 Jain philosophy

* 3.2 Usage in Jain texts

* 3.2.1 _Ācāranga Sūtra_ * 3.2.2 Sūtrakrtanga

* 3.3 Buddhist philosophy * 3.4 Ajivika philosophy * 3.5 Comparison of philosophies

* 4 Influences on Indian culture

* 4.1 Hinduism

* 5 In Western literature

* 5.1 Clement of Alexandria (150-211) * 5.2 Porphyry (233-305)

* 6 In contemporary Western culture * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Sources

ETYMOLOGY AND ORIGIN

One of the earliest recorded use of the word _Śramaṇa_, in the sense of a mendicant, is in verse 4.3.22 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad composed by about the 8th century BCE. The concept of renunciation and monk-like lifestyle is found in Vedic literature, with terms such as yatis , rishis , and śramaṇas. The Vedic literature from pre-1000 BCE era, mentions _Muni _ (मुनि, monks, mendicants, holy man). Rig Veda , for example, in Book
Book
10 Chapter 136, mentions mendicants as those with _kēśin_ (केशिन्, long-haired) and _mala_ clothes (मल, dirty, soil-colored, yellow, orange, saffron) engaged in the affairs of _mananat_ (mind, meditation).

केश्यग्निं केशी विषं केशी बिभर्ति रोदसी । केशी विश्वं स्वर्दृशे केशीदं ज्योतिरुच्यते ॥१॥ मुनयो वातरशनाः पिशङ्गा वसते मला । वातस्यानु ध्राजिं यन्ति यद्देवासो अविक्षत ॥२॥ He with the long loose locks (of hair) supports Agni, and moisture, heaven, and earth; He is all sky to look upon: he with long hair is called this light. The MUNIS, girdled with the wind, wear garments of soil hue; They, following the wind's swift course, go where the Gods have gone before. — Rig Veda, Hymn 10.136.1-2

The hymn uses the term _vātaraśana_ (वातरशन) which means "girdled with wind". Some scholars have interpreted this to mean "sky-clad, naked monk" and therefore a synonym for _ Digambara
Digambara
_ (a Jainism
Jainism
sect). However, other scholars state that this could not be the correct interpretation because it is inconsistent with the words that immediately follow, "wearing soil-hued garments". The context likely means that the poet is describing the "munis" as moving like the wind, their garments pressed by the wind. According to Olivelle, it is unlikely that the _vātaraśana_ implies a class within the Vedic context.

The earliest known explicit use of the term śramaṇa is found in section 2.7 of the _Taittiriya Aranyaka _, a layer within the _ Yajurveda
Yajurveda
_ (~1000 BCE, a scripture of Hinduism). It mentions _sramana Rishis _ and celibate _Rishis_.

Buddhist commentaries associate the word's etymology with the quieting (_samita_) of evil (_pāpa_) as in the following phrase from the 3rd century BCE _ Dhammapada _, verse 265: _samitattā pāpānaŋ ʻsamaṇoʼ ti pavuccati_ ("someone who has pacified evil is called _samaṇa_").

The word śramaṇa is postulated to be derived from the verbal root _śram_, meaning "to exert effort, labor or to perform austerity". The history of wandering monks in ancient India
India
is partly untraceable. The term 'parivrajaka' was perhaps applicable to all the peripatetic monks of India, such as those found in Buddhism, Jainism
Jainism
and Hinduism.

The _śramaṇa_ refers to a variety of renunciate ascetic traditions from the middle of the 1st millennium BCE. The śramaṇas were individual, experiential and free-form traditions. The term "Śramaṇas" is used sometimes to contrast them with "Brahmins" in terms of their religious models. Part of the Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
tradition retained their distinct identity from Hinduism by rejecting the epistemic authority of the Vedas
Vedas
, while a part of the Śramaṇa tradition became part of Hinduism as one stage in the Ashrama dharma, that is as renunciate sannyasins .

Pali
Pali
_samaṇa_ has been suggested as the ultimate origin of the word Evenki сама̄н (_samān_) "shaman", possibly via Middle Chinese or Tocharian B ; however, the etymology of this word, which is also found in other Tungusic languages , is controversial (see Shamanism § Etymology ).

HISTORY

THE VIEWS OF SIX _SAMAṇA_ IN THE PāLI CANON (based on the Buddhist text _Sāmaññaphala Sutta_1)

Śramaṇa _view (diṭṭhi)_1

Pūraṇa Kassapa AMORALISM : denies any reward or punishment for either good or bad deeds.

Makkhali Gośāla (ĀJīVIKA ) NIYATIVāDA (Fatalism): we are powerless; suffering is pre-destined.

Ajita Kesakambalī (LOKāYATA ) MATERIALISM : live happily ; with death, all is annihilated.

Pakudha Kaccāyana SASSATAVADA (Eternalism): Matter, pleasure, pain and the soul are eternal and do not interact.

Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta (JAINISM ) RESTRAINT : be endowed with, cleansed by and suffused with the avoidance of all evil.2

Sañjaya Belaṭṭhiputta (AJñANA ) AGNOSTICISM : "I don't think so. I don't think in that way or otherwise. I don't think not or not not." Suspension of judgement.

Notes: 1. DN 2 (Thanissaro, 1997; Walshe, 1995, pp. 91-109). 2. DN -a (Ñāṇamoli "> Martin Wilshire states that the Sramana tradition evolved in India
India
over two phases, namely Paccekabuddha and Savaka phases, the former being the tradition of individual ascetic and latter of disciples, and that Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
ultimately emerged from these as sectarian manifestations. These traditions drew upon already established Brahmanical concepts, states Wiltshire, to formulate their own doctrines. Reginald Ray concurs that Sramana movements already existed and were established traditions in pre-6th century BCE India, but disagrees with Wiltshire that they were nonsectarian before the arrival of Buddha.

According to the Jain Agamas
Jain Agamas
and the Buddhist Pāli Canon , there were other śramaṇa leaders at the time of Buddha. The _Mahāparinibbāna Sutta _ (DN 16), a śramaṇa named Subhadda mentions:

...those ascetics, samaṇa and Brahmins
Brahmins
who have orders and followings, who are teachers, well-known and famous as founders of schools, and popularly regarded as saints, like Pūraṇa Kassapa , Makkhali Gosāla , Ajita Kesakambalī , Pakudha Kaccāyana , Sanjaya Belatthiputta and Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta (Mahavira)... — Digha Nikaya, 16

VEDIC

Govind Chandra Pande , a professor of Indian history, states in his 1957 study on the origins of Buddhism, that Sramana was a "distinct and separate cultural and religious" tradition than the Vedic.

Patrick Olivelle , a professor of Indology and known for his translations of major ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
works, states in his 1993 study that contrary to some representations, the original Sramana tradition was a part of the Vedic one. He writes,

Sramana in that context obviously means a person who is in the habit of performing srama. Far from separating these seers from the vedic ritual tradition, therefore, sramana places them right at the center of that tradition. Those who see them as non-Brahmanical, anti-Brahmanical, or even non-Aryan precursors of later sectarian ascetics are drawing conclusions that far outstrip the available evidence. — Patrick Olivelle, _The Ashrama System_

According to Olivelle, and other scholars such as Edward Crangle, the concept of Sramana exists in the early Brahmanical literature. The term is used in an adjectival sense for sages who lived a special way of life that the Vedic culture considered extraordinary. However, Vedic literature does not provide details of that life. The term did not imply any opposition to either Brahmins
Brahmins
or householders. In all likelihood states Olivelle, during the Vedic era, neither did the Sramana concept refer to an identifiable class, nor to ascetic groups as it does in later Indian literature. Additionally, in the early texts, some pre-dating 3rd-century BCE ruler Ashoka
Ashoka
, the Brahmana and Sramana are neither distinct nor opposed. The distinction, according to Olivelle, in later Indian literature "may have been a later semantic development possibly influenced by the appropriation of the latter term by Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism".

The vedic society, states Olivelle, contained many people whose roots were non-Aryan who must have influenced the Aryan classes. However, it is difficult to identify and isolate these influences, in part because the vedic culture not only developed from influences but also from its inner dynamism and socio-economic developments.

PRE-BUDDHIST SRAMANA SCHOOLS IN BUDDHIST TEXTS

Pande attributes the origin of Buddhism, not entirely to the Buddha, but to a "great religious ferment" towards the end of the Vedic period when the Brahmanic and Sramanic traditions intermingled.

The Buddhist text of the _ Samaññaphala Sutta _ identifies six pre-Buddhist Sramana schools, identifying them by their leader. These six schools are represented in the text to have diverse philosophies, which according to Padmanabh Jaini, may be "a biased picture and does not give a true picture" of the Sramanic schools rivaling with Buddhism,

* Sramana movement of Purana Kassapa : believed in antinomian ethics. This ancient school asserted that there are no moral laws, nothing is moral or immoral, there is neither virtue nor sin. * Sramana movement of Makkhali Gosala (Ajivika): believed in fatalism and determinism that everything is the consequence of nature and its laws. The school denied that there is free will, but believed that soul exists. Everything has its own individual nature, based on how one is constituted from elements. Karma
Karma
and consequences are not due to free will, cannot be altered, everything is pre-determined, because of and including one's composition. * Sramana movement of Ajita Kesakambali : believed in materialism. Denied that there is an after-life, any samsara, any karma, or any fruit of good or evil deeds. Everything including humans are composed of elemental matter, and when one dies one returns to those elements.

* Sramana movement of Pakudha Kaccayana : believed in atomism . Denied that there is a creator, knower. Believed that everything is made of seven basic building blocks that are eternal, neither created nor caused to be created. The seven blocks included earth, water, fire, air, happiness, pain and soul. All actions, including death is mere re-arrangement and interpenetration of one set of substances into another set of substances. * Sramana movement of Nigantha Nataputta (Jainism): believed in fourfold restraint, avoid all evil (see more below). * Sramana movement of Sanjaya Belatthiputta (Ajñana): believed in absolute agnosticism. Refused to have any opinion either way about existence of or non-existence of after-life, karma, good, evil, free will, creator, soul, or other topics.

The pre-Buddhist Indian Sramanic movements were organized _Sangha -Gani_ (order of monks and ascetics), according to the Buddhist text _ Samannaphala Sutta _. The six leaders above are described as a _Sanghi_ (head of the order), _Ganacariyo_ (teacher), _Cira-pabbajito_ (recluse), _Yasassi and Neto_ (of repute and well known). :60

JAINISM

Further information: History of Jainism
Jainism

Jain literature too mentions Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla and Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta. During the life of Buddha, Mahavira
Mahavira
and the Buddha were leaders of their śramaṇa orders. Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta refers to Mahāvīra.

According to Pande, Jainas were same as the Niganthas mentioned in the Buddhist texts, and they were a well established sect when Buddha began preaching. He states, without identifying supporting evidence, that " appear to have belonged to the non-Vedic Munis and Sramanas who may have been ultimately connected with pre-Vedic civilization". The śramaṇa system is believed by a majority of Jaina scholars to have been of independent origin and not a protest movement of any kind, were led by Jaina thinkers, and were pre-Buddhist and pre-Vedic.

Some scholars posit that the Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation
symbols may be related to later Jain statues, and the bull icon may have a connection to Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
.

BUDDHISM

PEOPLE OF THE PāLI CANON

_PALI _ _English_

COMMUNITY OF BUDDHIST DISCIPLES

MONASTIC SANGHA

BHIKKHU , BHIKKHUṇī Monk
Monk
, Nun
Nun

SIKKHAMāNā Nun
Nun
trainee

SAMAṇERA , SAMAṇēRī Novice
Novice
(_m., f._)

LAITY

UPāSAKA AND UPāSIKā Lay devotee (_m., f._)

GAHATTHA, GAHAPATI Householder

ANAGāRIKA , ANAGāRIYA Layperson

RELATED RELIGIONS

SAMAṇA Wanderer

ĀJīVIKA Ascetic

BRāHMAṇA Brahmin
Brahmin

NIGAṇṭHA Jain monastics

* v * t * e

It was as a śramaṇa that the Buddha left his father's palace and practised austerities. Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
, after fasting nearly to death by starvation, regarded extreme austerities and self-mortification as useless or unnecessary in attaining enlightenment, recommending instead a "middle way " between the extremes of hedonism and self-mortification. Devadatta
Devadatta
, a cousin of Gautama, caused a split in the Buddhist _saṅgha _ by demanding more rigorous practices.

The Buddhist Sramanic movement chose moderate ascetic lifestyle. This was in contrast to Jainas who continued the tradition of stronger austerity, such as fasting and giving away all property including clothes and thus going naked, emphasizing that complete dedication to spirituality includes turning away from material possessions and any cause for evil karma . The moderate ascetic precepts, states Collins, likely appealed to more people and widened the base of people wanting to become Buddhists. The Buddhist Sramanic movement also developed a code for interaction of world-pursuing lay people and world-denying Buddhist monastic communities, which encouraged continued relationship between the two. Two rules of this monastic code for example, states Collins, were that a person could not join a monk community without parent's permission, and that at least one son remained with each family to care for that family. The Buddhist teachings also combined the continuing interaction, such as giving alms to monks, in terms of merit gained for good rebirth and good karma by the lay people. This code played a historic role in its growth, and provided a means for reliable alms (food, clothing) and social support for the Buddhist Sramanic movement.

Randall Collins states that Buddhism
Buddhism
was more a reform movement within the educated religious classes, composed mostly of Brahmins, rather than a rival movement from outside these classes. In the early Buddhist Sramanic movement, the largest number of monks were derived from Brahmin
Brahmin
origin, and virtually all the monks were recruited from the two upper classes of society – Brahmins
Brahmins
and Kshatriyas.

AJIVIKA

Ajivika was founded in the 5th century BCE by Makkhali Gosala , as a śramaṇa movement and a major rival of early Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
. Ājīvikas were organised renunciates who formed discrete communities.

The Ājīvikas reached the height of their prominence in the late 1st millennium BCE, then declined, yet continued to exist in south India until the 14th Century CE, as evidenced by inscriptions found in southern India. Ancient texts of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
mention a city in the 1st millennium BCE named Savatthi ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_Śravasti_) as the hub of the Ājīvikas; it was located in what is now the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
. In later part of the common era, inscriptions suggests that the Ājīvikas had a significant presence in the South Indian state of Karnataka
Karnataka
and the Kolar district of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
.

Original scriptures of the Ājīvika school of philosophy once existed, but these are unavailable and probably lost. Their theories are extracted from mentions of Ajivikas in the secondary sources of ancient Indian literature. Scholars question whether Ājīvika philosophy has been fairly and completely summarized in these secondary sources, written by ancient Buddhist and Jaina scholars, who represented competing and adversarial philosophies to Ajivikas.

CONFLICT BETWEEN ŚRAMAṇA MOVEMENTS

According to the 2nd century CE text _ Ashokavadana _, the Mauryan emperor Bindusara was a patron of the Ajivikas, and it reached its peak of popularity during this time. _ Ashokavadana _ also mentions that Bindusara's son Ashoka
Ashoka
converted to Buddhism, became enraged at a picture that depicted Buddha in negative light, and issued an order to kill all the Ajivikas in Pundravardhana . Around 18,000 followers of the Ajivika sect were executed as a result of this order.

Jaina texts mention separation and conflict between Mahavira
Mahavira
and Gosala, accusation of contemptuous comments, and an occasion where the Jaina and Ajivika monastic orders "came to blows". However, given the texts alleging conflict and portraying Ajivikas and Gosala in negative light were written centuries after the incident by their Śramaṇa opponents, and given the versions in Buddhist and Jaina texts are different, the reliability of these stories, states Basham, is questionable.

PHILOSOPHY

JAIN PHILOSOPHY

Part of a series on

JAINISM

_

Jain prayers

* Bhaktamara Stotra
Bhaktamara Stotra
* Micchami Dukkadam * Ṇamōkāra mantra * Jai Jinendra

Philosophy

* Anekantavada * Cosmology * Ahimsa
Ahimsa
* Karma
Karma
* Dharma
Dharma
* Mokṣa * Kevala Jnana
Kevala Jnana
* Dravya
Dravya
* Tattva * Brahmacharya * Aparigraha
Aparigraha
* Gunasthana * Saṃsāra

Ethics

* Ethics of Jainism
Jainism
* Sallekhana
Sallekhana

Major figures

* The 24 Tirthankaras * Rishabha * Pārśva * Mahavira
Mahavira
* Arihant _ * Ganadhara * Kundakunda * Siddhasena
Siddhasena
* Samantabhadra * Haribhadra
Haribhadra
* Yashovijaya

Major sects

* Digambara
Digambara
* Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara

Texts

* _Agama _ * _Tattvartha Sutra
Sutra
_ * _ Dravyasamgraha
Dravyasamgraha
_ * _ Kalpa Sūtra _

Other

* History * Jain flag
Jain flag
* Jain symbols * Parasparopagraho Jivanam * Schools and Branches * Timeline * Topics list

Festivals

* Diwali
Diwali
* Mahavir Jayanti * Paryushana
Paryushana
* Samvatsari

Pilgrimages Tirth

* Abu * Palitana * Girnar * Shikharji * Shravanabelagola

_ Jainism
Jainism
portal _

* v * t * e

Main article: Jain philosophy Further information: Anekantavada , Syādvāda , and Jainism
Jainism
and non-creationism

Jainism
Jainism
derives its philosophy from the teachings and lives of the twenty-four Tirthankaras , of whom Mahavira
Mahavira
was the last. Acharyas Umasvati
Umasvati
(Umasvami), Kundakunda , Haribhadra
Haribhadra
, Yaśovijaya Gaṇi and others further developed and reorganized Jain philosophy in its present form. The distinguishing features of Jain philosophy are its belief in the independent existence of soul and matter, predominance of karma , the denial of a creative and omnipotent God , belief in an eternal and uncreated universe , a strong emphasis on nonviolence , an accent on anekantavada and morality and ethics based on liberation of the soul. The Jain philosophy of Anekantavada and Syādvāda , which posits that the truth or reality is perceived differently from different points of view, and that no single point of view is the complete truth, have made very important contributions to ancient Indian philosophy , especially in the areas of skepticism and relativity.

USAGE IN JAIN TEXTS

Jain monastics are known as śramaṇas while lay practitioners are called śrāvakas . The religion or code of conduct of the monks is known as the śramaṇa dharma. Jain canons like _Ācāranga Sūtra _ and other later texts contain many references to Sramanas.

_Ācāranga Sūtra_

One verse of the _Ācāranga sūtra_ defines a good śramaṇa:

Disregarding (all calamities) he lives together with clever monks, insensitive to pain and pleasure, not hurting the movable and immovable (beings), not killing, bearing all: so is described the great sage, a good Sramana.

The chapter on renunciation contains a śramaṇa vow of non-possession:

I shall become a Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
who owns no house, no property, no sons, no cattle, who eats what others give him; I shall commit no sinful action; Master, I renounce to accept anything that has not been given.' Having taken such vows, (a mendicant) should not, on entering a village or free town, take himself, or induce others to take, or allow others to take, what has not been given.

_Ācāranga Sūtra _ gives three names of Mahavira, the twenty fourth Tirthankara, one of which was _Śramaṇa:_

The Venerable ascetic Mahavira
Mahavira
belonged to the _Kasyapa gotra _. His three names have thus been recorded by tradition: by his parents he was called _Vardhamana_, because he is devoid of love and hate; (he is called) Sramana (i.e. ascetic), because he sustains dreadful dangers and fears, the noble nakedness, and the miseries of the world; the name Venerable Ascetic MAHAVIRA has been given to him by the gods.

Sūtrakrtanga

Another Jain canon, _Sūtrakrtanga _ describes the śramaṇa as an ascetic who has taken Mahavrata , the five great vows:

He is a Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
for this reason that he is not hampered by any obstacles, that he is free from desires, (abstaining from) property, killing, telling lies, and sexual intercourse; (and from) wrath, pride, deceit, greed, love, and hate: thus giving up every passion that involves him in sin, (such as) killing of beings. (Such a man) deserves the name of a Śramaṇa, who subdues (moreover) his senses, is well qualified (for his task), and abandons his body.

The _Sūtrakrtanga_ records that a prince Ardraka (who became disciple to Mahavira), arguing with other heretical teachers, told Makkhali Gosala the qualities of śramaṇas:

He who (teaches) the great vows (of monks) and the five small vows (of the laity 3), the five Âsravas and the stoppage of the Âsravas, and control, who avoids Karman in this blessed life of Śramaṇas, him I call a Śramaṇa.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY

Main article: Buddhist philosophy

Buddha initially practiced severe austerities, fasting himself nearly to death of starvation. However, he later considered extreme austerities and self-mortification as unnecessary and recommended a "middle way " between the extremes of hedonism and self-mortification.

The Brahmajāla Sutta mentions many śramaṇas with whom Buddha disagreed. For example, in contrast to Sramanic Jains whose philosophical premise includes the existence of an _Atman_ (self, soul) in every being, Buddhist philosophy denies that there is any self or soul. This concept called _Anatta_ (or _Anatman_) is a part of _Three Marks of existence_ in Buddhist philosophy, the other two being _Dukkha_ (suffering) and _Anicca_ (impermanence). According to Buddha, states Laumakis, everything lacks inherent existence. Buddhism
Buddhism
is a non-theistic philosophy, which is especially concerned with _ Pratītyasamutpāda _ (dependent origination) and Sunyata (emptiness or nothingness).

From rock edicts, it is found that both Brahmans as well as śramaṇas enjoyed equal sanctity.

AJIVIKA PHILOSOPHY

The Ājīvika school is known for its _Niyati_ doctrine of absolute determinism, the premise that there is no free will, that everything that has happened, is happening and will happen is entirely preordained and a function of cosmic principles. Ājīvika considered the karma doctrine as a fallacy. Ajivika metaphysics included a theory of atoms similar to the Vaisheshika
Vaisheshika
school, where everything was composed of atoms, qualities emerged from aggregates of atoms, but the aggregation and nature of these atoms was predetermined by cosmic forces. Ājīvikas were atheists and rejected the epistemic authority of the Vedas
Vedas
, but they believed that in every living being is an _ātman _ – a central premise of Hinduism and Jainism.

COMPARISON OF PHILOSOPHIES

The _Śramaṇa_ traditions subscribed to diverse philosophies, significantly disagreeing with each other as well as orthodox Hinduism and its six schools of Hindu philosophy . The differences ranged from a belief that every individual has a soul (self, atman) to asserting that there is no soul, :119 from axiological merit in a frugal ascetic life to that of a hedonistic life, from a belief in rebirth to asserting that there is no rebirth.

A denial of the epistemic authority of the Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads was one of the several differences between Sramanic philosophies and orthodox Hinduism. Jaini states that while authority of vedas, belief in a creator, path of ritualism and social system of heredity ranks, made up the cornerstones of Brahminal schools, the path of ascetic self-motification was the main characteristic of all the Sramanic schools.

In some cases when the Sramanic movements shared the same philosophical concepts, the details varied. In Jainism, for example, Karma
Karma
is based on materialist element philosophy, where Karma
Karma
is the fruit of one's action conceived as material particles which stick to a soul and keep it away from natural omniscience. The Buddha conceived Karma
Karma
as a chain of causality leading to attachment of the material world and hence to rebirth. The Ajivikas were fatalists and elevated Karma
Karma
as inescapable fate, where a person's life goes through a chain of consequences and rebirths until it reaches its end. Other Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movements such as those led by Pakkudha Kaccayana and Purana Kashyapa, denied the existence of Karma.

Comparison of ancient Indian philosophies

AJIVIKA BUDDHISM CHARVAKA JAINISM Orthodox schools of Hinduism (Non-Śramaṇic)

Karma
Karma
Denies Affirms Denies Affirms Affirms

Samsara , Rebirth Affirms Affirms Denies Affirms Some school affirm, some not

Ascetic life Affirms Affirms Affirms Affirms Affirms as Sannyasa

Rituals, Bhakti
Bhakti
Affirms Affirms, optional (Pali: _Bhatti_) Denies Affirms, optional Theistic school: Affirms, optional Others: Deny

Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and Vegetarianism Affirms Affirms, Unclear on meat as food Strongest proponent of non-violence; Vegetarianism to avoid violence against animals Affirms as highest virtue, but Just War affirmed Vegetarianism encouraged, but choice left to the Hindu

Free will Denies Affirms Affirms Affirms Affirms

Maya Affirms Affirms (_prapañca_) Denies Affirms Affirms

Atman (Soul, Self) Affirms Denies Denies Affirms :119 Affirms

Creator God Denies Denies Denies Denies Theistic schools: Affirm Others: Deny

Epistemology
Epistemology
( Pramana
Pramana
) Pratyakṣa, Anumāṇa, Śabda Pratyakṣa, Anumāṇa Pratyakṣa Pratyakṣa, Anumāṇa, Śabda Various, Vaisheshika
Vaisheshika
(two) to Vedanta (six): Pratyakṣa (perception), Anumāṇa (inference), Upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), Arthāpatti (postulation, derivation), Anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof), Śabda (Reliable testimony)

Epistemic authority Denies: Vedas Affirms: Buddha text Denies: Vedas
Vedas
Denies: Vedas Affirms: Jain Agamas
Jain Agamas
Denies: Vedas
Vedas
Affirm: Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads , Affirm: other texts

Salvation ( Soteriology ) Samsdrasuddhi Nirvana (realize Śūnyatā ) Siddha Moksha, Nirvana, Kaivalya Advaita, Yoga, others: Jivanmukti Dvaita, theistic: Videhamukti

Metaphysics (Ultimate Reality) Śūnyatā

Anekāntavāda Brahman

INFLUENCES ON INDIAN CULTURE

The Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
traditions influenced and were influenced by Hinduism and by each other. According to some scholars, the concept of the cycle of birth and death, the concept of samsara and the concept of liberation may quite possibly be from śramaṇa or other ascetic traditions. Obeyesekere suggests that tribal sages in the Ganges valley may instead have inspired the ideas of samsara and liberation, just like rebirth ideas that emerged in Africa and Greece. O'Flaherty states that there isn't enough objective evidence to support any of these theories.

It is in the Upanishadic period that Sramanic theories influence the Brahmanical theories. :50 While the concepts of Brahman and Atman (Soul, Self) can be consistently traced back to pre-Upanishadic layers of Vedic literature, the heterogeneous nature of the Upanishads show infusions of both social and philosophical ideas, pointing to evolution of new doctrines, likely from the Sramanic movements. :49–56

Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
traditions brought concepts of Karma
Karma
and Samsara as central themes of debate. Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
views were influential to all schools of Indian philosophies. Concepts, such as karma and reincarnation may have originated in the sramana or the renunciant traditions, and then become mainstream. There are multiple theories of possible origins of concepts such as Ahimsa
Ahimsa
, or non-violence. The Chāndogya Upaniṣad , dated to about the 7th century BCE, in verse 8.15.1, has the earliest evidence for the use of the word _Ahimsa_ in the sense familiar in Hinduism (a code of conduct). It bars violence against "all creatures" (_sarvabhuta_) and the practitioner of Ahimsa is said to escape from the cycle of metempsychosis (CU 8.15.1). According to some scholars, such as D. R. Bhandarkar, the Ahimsa dharma of the Sramanas made an impression on the followers of Brahamanism and their law books and practices.

Theories on who influenced whom, in ancient India, remains a matter of scholarly debate, and it is likely that the different philosophies contributed to each other's development. Doniger summarizes the historic interaction between scholars of Vedic Hinduism and Sramanic Buddhism:

There was such constant interaction between Vedism and Buddhism
Buddhism
in the early period that it is fruitless to attempt to sort out the earlier source of many doctrines, they lived in one another's pockets, like Picasso and Braque (who, in later years, were unable to say which of them had painted certain paintings from their earlier, shared period). — Wendy Doniger,

HINDUISM

Randall Collins states that "the basic cultural framework for lay society which eventually became Hinduism" was laid down by Buddhism.

Modern Hinduism can be regarded as a combination of Vedic and śramaṇa traditions as it is substantially influenced by both traditions. Among the Astika schools of Hinduism, Vedanta , Samkhya , and Yoga
Yoga
philosophies influenced and were influenced by the Śramaṇa philosophy. As Geoffrey Samuel notes,

Our best evidence to date suggests that developed in the same ascetic circles as the early śramaṇa movements (Buddhists, Jainas and Ajivikas), probably in around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE.

Some Brahmins
Brahmins
joined the śramaṇa movement such as Cānakya and Sāriputta . Similarly, a group of eleven Brahmins
Brahmins
accepted Jainism and become his chief disciples or ganadharas .

Patrick Olivelle suggests that the Hindu ashrama system of life, created probably around the 4th-century BCE, was an attempt to institutionalize renunciation within the Brahmanical social structure. This system gave complete freedom to adults to choose what they want to do, whether they want to be householders or sannyasins (ascetics), the monastic tradition was a voluntary institution. This voluntary principle, states Olivelle, was the same principle found in Buddhist and Jain monastic orders at that time.

IN WESTERN LITERATURE

Various possible references to "śramaṇas", with the name more or less distorted, have appeared in ancient Western literature.

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (150-211)

Clement of Alexandria makes several mentions of the śramaṇas, both in the context of the Bactrians and the Indians:

Thus philosophy, a thing of the highest utility, flourished in antiquity among the barbarians, shedding its light over the nations. And afterwards it came to Greece
Greece
. First in its ranks were the prophets of the Egyptians ; and the Chaldeans among the Assyrians ; and the Druids
Druids
among the Gauls
Gauls
; and the SAMANAEANS among the Bactrians ("Σαμαναίοι Βάκτρων"); and the philosophers of the Celts
Celts
; and the Magi
Magi
of the Persians , who foretold the Saviour's birth, and came into the land of Judaea guided by a star. The Indian gymnosophists are also in the number, and the other barbarian philosophers. And of these there are two classes, some of them called _Sarmanae_ ("Σαρμάναι"), and Brahmanae ("Βραχμαναι").

PORPHYRY (233-305)

Porphyry extensively describes the habits of the śramaṇas, whom he calls "Samanaeans", in his "On Abstinence from Animal Food" Book
Book
IV . He says his information was obtained from "the Babylonian Bardesanes , who lived in the times of our fathers, and was familiar with those Indians who, together with Damadamis, were sent to Caesar "

For the polity of the Indians being distributed into many parts, there is one tribe among them of men divinely wise, whom the Greeks are accustomed to call Gymnosophists . But of these there are two sects, over one of which the Brahmins
Brahmins
preside, but over the other the Samanaeans. The race of the Brahmins
Brahmins
, however, receive divine wisdom of this kind by succession, in the same manner as the priesthood. But the Samanaeans are elected, and consist of those who wish to possess divine knowledge. On entering the order

All the Bramins originate from one stock; for all of them are derived from one father and one mother. But the Samanaeans are not the offspring of one family, being, as we have said, collected from every nation of Indians. A Bramin, however, is not a subject of any government, nor does he contribute any thing together with others to government.

The Samanaeans are, as we have said, elected. When, however, any one is desirous of being enrolled in their order, he proceeds to the rulers of the city; but abandons the city or village that he inhabited, and the wealth and all the other property that he possessed. Having likewise the superfluities of his body cut off, he receives a garment, and departs to the Samanaeans, but does not return either to his wife or children, if he happens to have any, nor does he pay any attention to them, or think that they at all pertain to him. And, with respect to his children indeed, the king provides what is necessary for them, and the relatives provide for the wife. And such is the life of the Samanaeans. But they live out of the city, and spend the whole day in conversation pertaining to divinity. They have also houses and temples, built by the king, in which they are stewards, who receive a certain emolument from the king, for the purpose of supplying those that dwell in them with nutriment. But their food consists of rice, bread, autumnal fruits, and pot-herbs. And when they enter into their house, the sound of a bell being the signal of their entrance, those that are not Samanaeans depart from it, and the Samanaeans begin immediately to pray. On food and living habits

And with respect to those that are philosophers, among these some dwell on mountains, and others about the river Ganges. And those that live on mountains feed on autumnal fruits, and on cows' milk coagulated with herbs. But those that reside near the Ganges
Ganges
, live also on autumnal fruits, which are produced in abundance about that river. The land likewise nearly always bears new fruit, together with much rice, which grows spontaneously, and which they use when there is a deficiency of autumnal fruits. But to taste of any other nutriment, or, in short, to touch animal food, is considered by them as equivalent to extreme impurity and impiety. And this is one of their dogmas. They also worship divinity with piety and purity. They spend the day, and the greater part of the night, in hymns and prayers to the Gods; each of them having a cottage to himself, and living, as much as possible, alone. For the Bramins cannot endure to remain with others, nor to speak much; but when this happens to take place, they afterwards withdraw themselves, and do not speak for many days. They likewise frequently fast. On life and death

They are so disposed with respect to death, that they unwillingly endure the whole time of the present life, as a certain servitude to nature, and therefore they hasten to liberate their souls from the bodies . Hence, frequently, when they are seen to be well, and are neither oppressed, nor driven to desperation by any evil, they depart from life.

IN CONTEMPORARY WESTERN CULTURE

German novelist Hermann Hesse , long interested in Eastern, especially Indian, spirituality, wrote _Siddhartha _, in which the main character becomes a Samana upon leaving his home (where he was a Brahmin).

SEE ALSO

* Bhikkhu * Bhikkhuni
Bhikkhuni
* Fakir * Hermit
Hermit
* Sadhu
Sadhu
* Śrāmaṇera * Yogi
Yogi
* Yogini
Yogini

NOTES

* ^ Flood moksa/nirvana - the goal of human existence....." * ^ According to Rhys Davids text-decoration: none">samitattā pāpānaŋ ʻsamaṇoʼ ti pavuccati"....' The English translation of Dh 265 is based on Fronsdal (2005), p. 69.

* ^ Some terms are common between Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism, including: • Symbols: caitya , stūpa , dharmacakra • Terms: arihant (Jainism) /arhat (Buddhism) , nirvāṇa , saṅgha , ācārya , Jina etc. The term _pudgala_ is used by both but with completely different meanings. * ^ The Pali
Pali
Canon is the only source for Ajita Kesakambalī and Pakudha Kaccāyana. * ^ In the Buddhist Pāli literature, these non-Buddhist ascetic leaders – including Mahavira
Mahavira
– are also referred to as Titthiyas of Tīrthakas. * ^ Randall Collins: "Thus, although the Buddha himself was a kshatriya the largest number of monks in the early movement were of Brahman origin. In principle, the Sangha
Sangha
was open to any caste; and since it was outside the ordinary world, caste had no place in it. Nevertheless, virtually all monks were recruited from the upper two classes. The biggest source of lay support, however, the ordinary donor of alms, were the landowning farmers."

* ^ According to Rahul Sankrityayan, the 7th-century CE Buddhist scholar Dharmakirti
Dharmakirti
wrote: _vedapramanyam kasyacit kartrvadah/ snane dharmeccha jativadavalepah// santaparambhah papahanaya ceti/ dhvastaprajnanam pancalirigani jadye_ The unquestioned authority of the vedas; the belief in a world-creator; the quest for purification through ritual bathings; the arrogant division into castes; the practice of mortification to atone for sin; - these five are the marks of the crass stupidity of witless men. - Translated by Rahul Sankrityayan Belief in the authority of the Vedas, and in a creator, desiring merit from bathing, pride in caste, and practicising self denial for the eradication of sins - these five are the marks of stupidity of one whose intelligence is damaged. - Translated by Ramkrishna Bhattacharya * ^ Elisa Freschi (2012): The Vedas
Vedas
are not deontic authorities and may be disobeyed, but still recognized as an epistemic authority by a Hindu; (Note: This differentiation between epistemic and deontic authority is true for all Indian religions) * ^ Randall Collins: " Buddhism
Buddhism
laid down the basic cultural framework for lay society which eventually became Hinduism. Buddhism cannot be understood as a reaction against the caste system, any more than it is simply an effort to escape from karma." * ^ "Mahavira, it is said, proceeded to a place in the neighbourhood where a big yagna was being organized by a brahman, Somilacharya, and preached his first sermon denouncing the sacrifice and converting eleven learned Brahmins
Brahmins
assembled there who became his chief disciples called ganadharas."

REFERENCES

* ^ Padmanabh S. Jaini (2000), _Collected papers on Jaina Studies_, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120816916 , p. 219 * ^ _A_ _B_ Monier Monier-Williams, श्रमण zramaNa, Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, page 1096 * ^ Zimmer 1952 , p. 182-183. * ^ Svarghese, Alexander P. 2008. _ India
India
: History, Religion, Vision And Contribution To The World._ p. 259-60. * ^ AL Basham (1951), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 94-103 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). _The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z, Volume 2 of The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism_. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 639. ISBN 9780823922871 . * ^ Samuel 2008 , p. 8; Quote: such (yogic) practices developed in the same ascetic circles as the early Sramana movements (Buddhists, Jainas and Ajivikas), probably in around the sixth or fifth BCE. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Flood, Gavin. Olivelle, Patrick. 2003. _The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism._ Malden: Blackwell. pg. 273-4. * ^ Padmanabh S Jaini (2001), Collected papers on Buddhist Studies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120817760 , pages 57-77 * ^ Padmanabh S Jaini (2000), Collected papers on Jaina Studies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120816916 , pages 3-14 * ^ Padmanabh S Jaini (2001), Collected papers on Buddhist Studies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120817760 , page 48 * ^ Max Muller, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
4.3.22 Oxford University Press, page 169 * ^ _A_ _B_ Gavin D. Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521438780 , page 76-78 * ^ École pratique des hautes études (France); Section des sciences économiques et sociales, University of Oxford; Institute of Social Anthropology; Institute of Economic Growth (India); Research Centre on Social and Economic Development in Asia (1981). _Contributions to Indian sociology, Volume 15_. Mouton. p. 276. * ^ _A_ _B_ Werner, Karel (1977). " Yoga
Yoga
and the Ṛg Veda: An Interpretation of the Keśin Hymn (RV 10, 136)". _Religious Studies_. 13 (3): 289–302.

* ^ _A_ _B_ GS Ghurye (1952), Ascetic Origins, Sociological Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 2, pages 162-184; For Sanskrit
Sanskrit
original: Rigveda
Rigveda
Wikisource; For English translation: Kesins Rig Veda, Hymn CXXXVI, Ralph Griffith (Translator) * ^ Monier Williams, vAtarazana Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany * ^ _A_ _B_ Olivelle 1993 , p. 12. * ^ Olivelle 1993 , pp. 12-13. * ^ _A_ _B_ Olivelle 1993 , p. 12 with footnote 20. * ^ _A_ _B_ Edward Fitzpatrick Crangle (1994). _The Origin and Development of Early Indian Contemplative Practices_. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 30 with footnote 37. ISBN 978-3-447-03479-1 .

* ^ Pranabananda Jash (1991). _History of the Parivrājaka, Issue 24 of Heritage of ancient India_. Ramanand Vidya Bhawan. p. 1. * ^ P. Billimoria (1988), Śabdapramāṇa: Word and Knowledge, Studies of Classical India
India
Volume 10, Springer, ISBN 978-94-010-7810-8 , pages 1-30 * ^ _A_ _B_ Reginald Ray (1999), Buddhist Saints in India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195134834 , pages 237-240, 247-249 * ^ Andrew J. Nicholson (2013), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History , Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231149877 , Chapter 9 * ^ Martin Wiltshire (1990), Ascetic Figures Before and in Early Buddhism, De Gruyter, ISBN 978-3110098969 , page 293 * ^ Martin Wiltshire (1990), Ascetic Figures Before and in Early Buddhism, De Gruyter, ISBN 978-3110098969 , pages 226-227 * ^ Gethin (1998), p. 11 * ^ Walshe (1995), p. 268 * ^ _A_ _B_ Pande, Govind (1957), _Studies in the Origins of Buddhism_, Motilal Banarsidass (Reprint: 1995), p. 261, ISBN 81-208-1016-3 * ^ Olivelle 1993 , p. 14. * ^ Olivelle, Patrick (1993), _The Āśrama System: The History and Hermeneutics of a Religious Institution_, Oxford University Press, p. 14, ISBN 978-0-19-534478-3 * ^ Olivelle 1993 , p. 15. * ^ Olivelle 1993 , pp. 15-16. * ^ Olivelle 1993 , p. 68, Quote: "It is obvious that vedic society contained large numbers of people whose roots were non-Aryan and that their customs and beliefs must have influenced the dominant Aryan classes. It is quite a different matter, however, to attempt to isolate non-Aryan customs, beliefs, or traits at a period a millennium or more removed from the initial Aryan migration.". * ^ Olivelle 1993 , p. 68, Quote: "The Brahmanical religion. furthermore, like any other historical phenomenon, developed and changed over time not only through external influences but also by its own inner dynamism and because of socio-economic changes, the radical nature of which we have already discussed. New elements in a culture, therefore, need not always be of foreign origin.". * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Padmanabh S Jaini (2001), Collected papers on Buddhist Studies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120817760 , pages 57-60 * ^ AL Basham (2009), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 18-26 * ^ AL Basham (2009), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 80-93 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ James Lochtefeld, "Ajivika", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0823931798 , page 22 * ^ AL Basham (2009), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 54-55 * ^ AL Basham (2009), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 90-93 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Cite error: The named reference jaini was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ Pande, Govind (1957), _Studies in the Origins of Buddhism_, Motilal Banarsidass (Reprint: 1995), p. 353, ISBN 81-208-1016-3 * ^ Sonali Bhatt Marwaha (2006). _Colors Of Truth: Religion, Self And Emotions: Perspectives Of Hinduism, Buddhism. Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Islam, Sikhism, And Contemporary Psychology_. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 97–99. ISBN 9788180692680 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Puruṣottama Bilimoria; Joseph Prabhu; Renuka M. Sharma (2007). _Indian Ethics: Classical traditions and contemporary challenges, Volume 1 of Indian Ethics_. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 315. ISBN 978-07546-330-13 . * ^ Institute of Indic Studies, Kurukshetra University (1982). _Prāci-jyotī: digest of Indological studies, Volumes 14-15_. Kurukshetra University. pp. 247–249. * ^ Robert P. Scharlemann (1985). _Naming God God, the contemporary discussion series_. Paragon House. pp. 106–109. ISBN 9780913757222 .

* ^ Buddhist Society (London, England) (2000). _The Middle way, Volumes 75-76_. The Society. p. 205. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Randall Collins (2000), The sociology of philosophies: a global theory of intellectual change, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0674001879 , page 204 * ^ Boucher, Daniel (2008). _Bodhisattvas of the Forest and the Formation of the Mahayana_. University of Hawaii Press . p. 47. ISBN 9780824828813 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Randall Collins (2000), The sociology of philosophies: a global theory of intellectual change, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0674001879 , page 205 * ^ Jeffrey D Long (2009), Jainism: An Introduction, Macmillan, ISBN 978-1845116255 , page 199 * ^ AL Basham (1951), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 145-146 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Ajivikas World Religions Project, University of Cumbria , United Kingdom * ^ _A_ _B_ AL Basham (2009), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , Chapter 1 * ^ Paul Dundas (2002), The Jains (The Library of Religious Beliefs and Practices), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415266055 , pages 28-30 * ^ John S. Strong (1989). _The Legend of King Aśoka: A Study and Translation of the Aśokāvadāna_. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 232. ISBN 978-81-208-0616-0 . Retrieved 30 October 2012. * ^ AL Basham (2009), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 147-148 * ^ John McKay et al, A History of World Societies, Combined Volume, 9th Edition, Macmillan, ISBN 978-0312666910 , page 76 * ^ AL Basham (2009), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 62-66, 88-89, 278 * ^ McEvilley, Thomas (2002). _The Shape of Ancient Thought_. Allworth Communications. p. 335. ISBN 1-58115-203-5 . * ^ Jacobi, Hermann (1884). _Ācāranga Sūtra, Jain Sutras Part I, Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 22._ * ^ _Ācāranga Sūtra_. 1097 * ^ _Ācāranga Sūtra_, 799 * ^ _Ācāranga Sūtra_ 954 * ^ Jacobi, Hermann (1895). (ed.) Max Müller, ed. _Jaina Sutras, Part II : Sūtrakrtanga_. Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 45. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * ^ _Sūtrakrtanga_, Book
Book
1: 16.3 * ^ _Sūtrakrtanga_, Book
Book
2: 6.6 * ^ Laumakis, Stephen. _An Introduction to Buddhist philosophy_. 2008. p. 4 * ^ N. Venkata Ramanayya (1930). _An essay on the origin of the South Indian temple_. Methodist Publishing House. p. 47. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Stephen J Laumakis (2008), An Introduction to Buddhist Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521689779 , pages 125-134, 271-272

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791422175 , page 64; "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence."; KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, ISBN 978-8120806191 , pages 246-249, from note 385 onwards; John C. Plott et al (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120801585 , page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism"; Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist ‘No-Self’ Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy Now; Anatta
Anatta
Encyclopedia Britannica, Quote:"In Buddhism, the doctrine that there is in humans no permanent, underlying substance that can be called the soul. (...) The concept of anatta, or anatman, is a departure from the Hindu belief in atman (self)." * ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (1850). _Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland_. Lyon Public Library. p. 241. * ^ AL Basham (2009), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 262-270 * ^ Johannes Quack (2014), The Oxford Handbook of Atheism (Editors: Stephen Bullivant, Michael Ruse), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199644650 , page 654 * ^ Analayo (2004), Satipaṭṭhāna: The Direct Path to Realization, ISBN 978-1899579549 , pages 207-208 * ^ AL Basham (1951), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 240-261, 270-273 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ Randall Collins (2000). _The sociology of philosophies: a global theory of intellectual change_. Harvard University Press. pp. 199–200. ISBN 9780674001879 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Padmanabh S. Jaini (2001). _Collected papers on Buddhist studies_. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. pp. 47–. ISBN 9788120817760 . * ^ Ramkrishna Bhattacharya (June 2015), Cārvāka Miscellany II, Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research, Volume 32, Issue 2, pages 199-210 * ^ Gananath Obeyesekere (2005), Karma
Karma
and Rebirth: A Cross Cultural Study, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120826090 , page 106 * ^ Damien Keown (2013), Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199663835 , pages 32-46 * ^ Haribhadrasūri (Translator: M Jain, 1989), Saddarsanasamuccaya, Asiatic Society, OCLC
OCLC
255495691 * ^ Halbfass, Wilhelm (2000), Karma
Karma
und Wiedergeburt im indischen Denken, Diederichs, München, ISBN 978-3896313850 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Patrick Olivelle (2005), _The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism_ (Editor: Flood, Gavin), Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-1405132510 , pages 277-278 * ^ Karel Werner (1995), Love Divine: Studies in Bhakti
Bhakti
and Devotional Mysticism, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700702350 , pages 45-46 * ^ John Cort, Jains in the World : Religious Values and Ideology in India, Oxford University Press, ISBN, pages 64-68, 86-90, 100-112 * ^ Christian Novetzke (2007), Bhakti
Bhakti
and Its Public, International Journal of Hindu Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3, page 255-272

* ^ Knut Jacobsen (2008), Theory and Practice of Yoga
Yoga
: 'Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329 , pages 15-16, 76-78; Lloyd Pflueger, Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra, in Theory and Practice of Yoga
Yoga
(Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329 , pages 38-39 * ^ Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Vol. III, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803107 , pages 16-18, 220; Basant Pradhan (2014), Yoga
Yoga
and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy, Springer Academic, ISBN 978-3319091044 , page 13 see A.4 * ^ U Tahtinen (1976), Ahimsa: Non-Violence in Indian Tradition, London, ISBN 978-0091233402 , pages 75-78, 94-106 * ^ U Tahtinen (1976), Ahimsa: Non-Violence in Indian Tradition, London, ISBN 978-0091233402 , pages 57-62, 109-111 * ^ U Tahtinen (1976), Ahimsa: Non-Violence in Indian Tradition, London, ISBN 978-0091233402 , pages 34-43, 89-97, 109-110 * ^ Christopher Chapple (1993), Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-1498-1 , pages 16-17 * ^ Karin Meyers (2013), Free Will, Agency, and Selfhood in Indian Philosophy (Editors: Matthew R. Dasti, Edwin F. Bryant), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199922758 , pages 41-61

* ^ Howard Coward (2008), The Perfectibility of Human Nature in Eastern and Western Thought, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791473368 , pages 103-114; Harold Coward (2003), Encyclopedia of Science and Religion, Macmillan Reference, see Karma, ISBN 978-0028657042 * ^ AL Basham (1951), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812048 , pages 237 * ^ Damien Keown (2004), A Dictionary of Buddhism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198605607 , Entry for _Prapañca_, Quote: "Term meaning ‘proliferation’, in the sense of the multiplication of erroneous concepts, ideas, and ideologies which obscure the true nature of reality". * ^ Lynn Foulston and Stuart Abbott (2009), Hindu Goddesses: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1902210438 , pages 14-16 * ^ Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1986), Dreams, Illusion, and Other Realities, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226618555 , page 119 * ^ Ramkrishna Bhattacharya (2011), Studies on the Carvaka/Lokayata, Anthem, ISBN 978-0857284334 , page 216 * ^ Anatta
Anatta
Encyclopedia Britannica, Quote:"In Buddhism, the doctrine that there is in humans no permanent, underlying substance that can be called the soul. (...) The concept of anatta, or anatman, is a departure from the Hindu belief in atman (self)." * ^ Oliver Leaman (2000), Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415173582 , page 251 * ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya and Yoga
Yoga
- An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415648875 , page 39 * ^ Paul Hacker (1978), Eigentumlichkeiten dr Lehre und Terminologie Sankara: Avidya, Namarupa, Maya, Isvara, in Kleine Schriften (Editor: L. Schmithausen), Franz Steiner Verlag, Weisbaden, pages 101-109 (in German), also pages 69-99 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791430675 , page 238 * ^ D Sharma (1966), Epistemological negative dialectics of Indian logic — Abhāva versus Anupalabdhi, Indo-Iranian Journal, 9(4): 291-300 * ^ MM Kamal (1998), The Epistemology
Epistemology
of the Carvaka Philosophy, Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies, 46(2), pages 13-16 * ^ Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112 , pages 245-248 * ^ _A_ _B_ Christopher Bartley (2011), An Introduction to Indian Philosophy, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-1847064493 , pages 46, 120 * ^ Elisa Freschi (2012), Duty, Language and Exegesis in Prabhakara Mimamsa, BRILL, ISBN 978-9004222601 , page 62 * ^ Catherine Cornille (2009), Criteria of Discernment in Interreligious Dialogue, Wipf Quote: "In this chapter, we looked at religious metaphysics and saw two different ways of understanding Ultimate Reality. On the one hand, it can be understood as an absolute state of being. Within Hindu absolutism, for example, it is Brahman, the undifferentiated Absolute. Within Buddhist metaphysics, fundamental reality is Sunyata, or the Void." * ^ Christopher Key Chapple (2004), Jainism
Jainism
and Ecology: Nonviolence in the Web of Life, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820456 , page 20 * ^ PT Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge, ISBN 978-1406732627 , page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII

* ^ Roy W Perrett (Editor, 2000), Indian Philosophy: Metaphysics, Volume 3, Taylor AC Das (1952), Brahman and Māyā in Advaita Metaphysics, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 2, No. 2, pages 144-154 * ^ Gavin D. Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43878-0 , page 86, Quote: "It is very possible that the karmas and reincarnation entered the mainstream brahaminical thought from the śramaṇa or the renouncer traditions." * ^ G Obeyesekere (2002), Imagining Karma
Karma
- Ethical Transformation in Amerindian, Buddhist, and Greek Rebirth, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520232433 * ^ Wendy D O'Flaherty (1980), Karma
Karma
and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230 , pages xi-xxvi * ^ Flood, Gavin D. (1996) p. 86-90 * ^ Gavin D. Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press : UK ISBN 0-521-43878-0 P. 86 * ^ Uno Tähtinen (1976), Ahimsa: Non-Violence in Indian Tradition, London, ISBN 0-09-123340-2 , pages 2–5 * ^ By D. R. Bhandarkar, 1989 "Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture" Asian Educational Services 118 pages ISBN 81-206-0457-1 p. 80-81 * ^ Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma
Karma
and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230 , pp xvii-xviii * ^ Samuel 2008 , p. 8. * ^ Gethin (1998), pp. 10–11, 13 * ^ _A_ _B_ Padmanabh S Jaini, Collected papers on Buddhist studies. Motilal Banarsidass 2001, P.64 * ^ Clement of Alexandria, "Strom." * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Porphyry, _On abstinence from animal food_, Book
Book
IV.

SOURCES

* Zimmer, Heinrich (1953) , Campbell, Joseph , ed., _Philosophies Of India_, London
London
, E.C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6 , _ This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain ._

* Basham, A. L. (1951). _History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas_. * Bhaskar, Bhagchandra Jain (1972). _ Jainism
Jainism
in Buddhist Literature_. Alok Prakashan: Nagpur. Available on-line at http://jainfriends.tripod.com/books/jiblcontents.html. * Fronsdal, Gil (2005). _The Dhammapada: A New Translation of the Buddhist Classic with Annotations_. Boston: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 1-59030-380-6 . * Gethin, Rupert (1998). _The Foundations of Buddhism_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-289223-1 . * Hesse, Hermann (1992). Siddhartha (Novel). * http://www.herenow4u.net/index.php?id=65998 Antiquity of Jainism
Jainism
: Professor Mahavir Saran Jain * Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu (trans.) and Bodhi, Bhikkhu (ed.) (2001). _The Middle-Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya_. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-072-X . * Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). _The Pali
Pali
Text Society's Pali–English Dictionary_. Chipstead: Pali
Pali
Text Society. A general on-line search engine for the PED is available at dsal.uchicago.edu. * Samuel, Geoffrey (2008), _The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra_, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-69534-3 * Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997). _Samaññaphala Sutta: The Fruits of the Contemplative Life_ (DN 2). Available on-line at accesstoinsight.org. * Walshe, Maurice O'Connell (trans.) (1995). _The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Dīgha Nikāya_. Somerville: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-103-3 .

* v * t * e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

* Glossary * Index * Outline

FOUNDATIONS

* Three Jewels

* Buddha * Dharma
Dharma
* Sangha
Sangha

* Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
* Noble Eightfold Path * Nirvana * Middle Way

THE BUDDHA

* Tathāgata * Birthday * Four sights * Physical characteristics * Footprint * Relics * Iconography in Laos and Thailand * Films * Miracles

* Family

* Suddhodāna (father) * Māyā (mother) * Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) * Yasodhara (wife) * Rāhula (son) * Ānanda (cousin) * Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

* Places where the Buddha stayed * Buddha in world religions

KEY CONCEPTS

* Avidyā (Ignorance) * Bardo
Bardo
* Bodhicitta * Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
* Dhamma theory * Dharma
Dharma
* Enlightenment * Five hindrances * Indriya * Karma
Karma
* Kleshas * Mind Stream * Parinirvana * Pratītyasamutpāda * Rebirth * Saṃsāra * Saṅkhāra * Skandha
Skandha
* Śūnyatā * Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) * Tathātā * Ten Fetters

* Three marks of existence

* Impermanence * Dukkha * Anatta
Anatta

* Two truths doctrine

COSMOLOGY

* Ten spiritual realms

* Six realms
Six realms

* Heaven * Human realm * Asura realm * Hungry Ghost realm * Animal realm * Hell

* Three planes of existence

PRACTICES

* Bhavana * Bodhipakkhiyādhammā

* Brahmavihara
Brahmavihara

* Mettā * Karuṇā * Mudita * Upekkha

* Dāna
Dāna
* Devotion * Dhyāna * Faith * Five Strengths * Iddhipada

* Meditation

* Mantras * Kammaṭṭhāna * Recollection * Smarana * Anapanasati
Anapanasati
* Samatha * Vipassanā ( Vipassana movement ) * Shikantaza * Zazen
Zazen
* Kōan * Mandala
Mandala
* Tonglen * Tantra
Tantra
* Tertön * Terma

* Merit

* Mindfulness

* Satipatthana

* Nekkhamma * Pāramitā * Paritta
Paritta

* Puja

* Offerings * Prostration * Chanting

* Refuge

* Satya
Satya

* Sacca

* Seven Factors of Enlightenment

* Sati * Dhamma vicaya * Pīti * Passaddhi

* Śīla

* Five Precepts * Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow * Prātimokṣa

* Threefold Training
Threefold Training

* Śīla * Samadhi
Samadhi
* Prajñā

* Vīrya

* Four Right Exertions

NIRVANA

* Bodhi
Bodhi
* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddhahood
Buddhahood
* Pratyekabuddha

* Four stages of enlightenment

* Sotāpanna * Sakadagami * Anāgāmi * Arhat
Arhat

MONASTICISM

* Bhikkhu * Bhikkhuni
Bhikkhuni
* Śrāmaṇera * Śrāmaṇerī * Anagarika * Ajahn * Sayadaw * Zen master * Rōshi * Lama
Lama
* Rinpoche
Rinpoche
* Geshe * Tulku * Householder * Upāsaka and Upāsikā

* Śrāvaka

* The ten principal disciples
The ten principal disciples

* Shaolin Monastery

MAJOR FIGURES

* Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
* Kaundinya
Kaundinya
* Assaji * Sāriputta * Mahamoggallāna * Mulian * Ānanda * Mahākassapa * Anuruddha * Mahākaccana * Nanda * Subhuti * Punna * Upali * Mahapajapati Gotamī * Khema * Uppalavanna * Asita
Asita
* Channa * Yasa * Buddhaghoṣa * Nagasena
Nagasena
* Angulimala * Bodhidharma * Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
* Asanga * Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
* Atiśa
Atiśa
* Padmasambhava * Nichiren
Nichiren
* Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
* Emperor Wen of Sui * Dalai Lama
Lama
* Panchen Lama
Lama
* Karmapa * Shamarpa * Naropa * Xuanzang * Zhiyi

TEXTS

* Tripiṭaka * _ Madhyamakālaṃkāra _ * Mahayana sutras * Pāli Canon * Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
* Tibetan Buddhist canon

BRANCHES

* Theravada
Theravada

* Mahayana
Mahayana

* Chan Buddhism
Buddhism

* Zen
Zen
* Seon * Thiền

* Pure Land * Tiantai * Nichiren
Nichiren
* Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
* Yogachara

* Navayana

* Vajrayana
Vajrayana

* Tibetan * Shingon * Dzogchen

* Early Buddhist schools * Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Buddhism
* Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

COUNTRIES

* Afghanistan * Bangladesh * Bhutan * Cambodia * China * India
India
* Indonesia * Japan * Korea * Laos * Malaysia * Maldives * Mongolia * Myanmar * Nepal * Pakistan * Philippines

* Russia

* Kalmykia * Buryatia

* Singapore * Sri Lanka * Taiwan * Thailand * Tibet * Vietnam

* Middle East

* Iran

* Western countries

* Argentina * Australia * Brazil * France * United Kingdom * United States * Venezuela

HISTORY

* Timeline * Ashoka
Ashoka
* Buddhist councils
Buddhist councils

* History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India
India

* Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India
India

* Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution * Greco- Buddhism
Buddhism
* Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world * Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West * Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
* Persecution of Buddhists * Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal
Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal
* Buddhist crisis
Buddhist crisis
* Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism * Buddhist modernism * Vipassana movement * 969 Movement * Women in Buddhism
Buddhism

PHILOSOPHY

* Abhidharma
Abhidharma
* Atomism * Buddhology * Creator * Economics * Eight Consciousnesses * Engaged Buddhism
Buddhism
* Eschatology * Ethics * Evolution * Humanism * Logic * Reality * Secular Buddhism
Buddhism
* Socialism * The unanswered questions

CULTURE

* Architecture

* Temple * Vihara
Vihara
* Wat
Wat
* Stupa
Stupa
* Pagoda
Pagoda
* Candi * Dzong architecture * Japanese Buddhist architecture * Korean Buddhist temples * Thai temple art and architecture * Tibetan Buddhist architecture

* Art

* Greco-Buddhist

* Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree * Budai
Budai
* Buddharupa
Buddharupa
* Calendar * Cuisine * Funeral

* Holidays

* Vesak
Vesak
* Uposatha
Uposatha
* Magha Puja * Asalha Puja * Vassa

* Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Bodhi
* Kasaya * Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple

* Mantra

* Om mani padme hum
Om mani padme hum

* Mudra
Mudra
* Music

* Pilgrimage

* Lumbini
Lumbini
* Maya Devi Temple * Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
* Sarnath
Sarnath
* Kushinagar

* Poetry * Prayer beads * Prayer wheel
Prayer wheel

* Symbolism

* Dharmachakra
Dharmachakra
* Flag * Bhavacakra
Bhavacakra
* Swastika
Swastika
* Thangka
Thangka

* Temple of the Tooth * Vegetarianism

MISCELLANEOUS

* Abhijñā * Amitābha

* Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara

* Guanyin
Guanyin

* Brahmā * _ Dhammapada _ * Dharma
Dharma
talk * Hinayana * Kalpa * Koliya * Lineage * Maitreya
Maitreya
* Māra * Ṛddhi

* Sacred languages

* Pali
Pali
* Sanskrit
Sanskrit

* Siddhi * Sutra
Sutra
* Vinaya

COMPARISON

* Bahá\'í Faith

* Christianity

* Influences * Comparison

* East Asian religions * Gnosticism * Hinduism * Jainism
Jainism
* Judaism * Psychology * Science * Theosophy * Violence * Western philosophy

LISTS

* Bodhisattvas * Books

* Buddhas

* named

* Buddhists * Suttas * Temples

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

_ Jainism
Jainism
topics

GODS

* Tirthankara
Tirthankara
* Ganadhara * Arihant

PHILOSOPHY

* Ethics

* Ahimsa
Ahimsa

* Epistemology
Epistemology

* Kevala Jñāna

* Jaina logic

* Anekāntavāda

* Jain cosmology

* Siddhashila
Siddhashila
* Naraka * Heavenly beings

* Karma
Karma

* Types * Causes

* Gunasthana

* Dravya
Dravya

* Jīva

* Ajiva

* Pudgala
Pudgala
* Dharma
Dharma

* Tattva

* Asrava * Bandha * Samvara
Samvara
* Nirjara * Mokṣa

* Death * Saṃsāra * Ratnatraya
Ratnatraya
* Kashaya

BRANCHES

DIGAMBARA

* Mula Sangha
Sangha

* Balatkara Gana
Balatkara Gana
* Kashtha Sangha
Sangha

* Taran Panth * Bispanthi
Bispanthi
* Terapanth * Yapaniya

ŚVēTāMBARA

* Murtipujaka

* Gaccha
Gaccha

* Kharatara * Tapa * Tristutik

* Sthānakavāsī * Terapanth

PRACTICES

* Sallekhana
Sallekhana

* Meditation

* Sāmāyika

* Monasticism * Vegetarianism * Fasting * Rituals

* Festivals

* Paryushana
Paryushana
* Kshamavani * Mahamastakabhisheka

* Upadhan * Tapas * Pratikramana
Pratikramana

LITERATURE

* Agama

* Shatkhandagama * Kasayapahuda
Kasayapahuda

* Mantra

* Namokar Mantra
Namokar Mantra
* Bhaktamara Stotra
Bhaktamara Stotra

* Tattvartha Sutra
Sutra
* Samayasāra * Aptamimamsa
Aptamimamsa
* Kalpa Sūtra

SYMBOLS

* Jain flag
Jain flag
* Siddhachakra
Siddhachakra

* Ashtamangala

* Shrivatsa * Nandavarta
Nandavarta

* Auspicious dreams * Swastika
Swastika

ASCETICS

* Digambara
Digambara
monk * Aryika * Kshullak
Kshullak
* Pattavali
Pattavali
* Acharya
Acharya

SCHOLARS

* Nalini Balbir * Colette Caillat * Chandabai * John E. Cort * Paul Dundas * Virchand Gandhi
Virchand Gandhi
* Hermann Jacobi * Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
* Padmanabh Jaini * Jeffery D. Long * Hampa Nagarajaiah * Claudia Pastorino * Bal Patil * Jinendra Varni * Robert J. Zydenbos

COMMUNITY

* Śrāvaka * Sarak
Sarak
* Tamil

* Organisations

* Digambar Jain Mahasabha * Vishwa Jain Sangathan
Vishwa Jain Sangathan
* JAINA
JAINA

JAINISM IN

INDIA

* Bundelkhand * Delhi * Goa * Gujarat * Haryana

* Karnataka
Karnataka

* North

* Kerala

* Maharashtra

* Mumbai

* Rajasthan * Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh

OVERSEAS

* Canada * Europe * United States * Japan * Singapore * Hong Kong * Pakistan * Belgium * Africa * Southeast Asia * Australia

JAINISM AND

* Buddhism
Buddhism
* Hinduism * Islam * Sikhism * Non-creationism

DYNASTIES AND EMPIRES

* Ikshvaku * Maurya * Kalinga * Kadamba * Ganga * Chalukya * Rashtrakuta * Hoysala * Pandayan

RELATED

* History

* Timeline

* Pañca-Parameṣṭhi * Pratima * Śalākāpuruṣa * Tirtha * Samavasarana
Samavasarana

* Jain calendar

* Samvatsari

* Panch Kalyanaka
Panch Kalyanaka
* Statue of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
* Temple * Sculpture * Art * Law * Nigoda * Jain terms and concepts * Sexual differences

LISTS

* List of Jains
List of Jains
* List of Jain temples * List of Jain ascetics * List of Digambar Jain ascetics
List of Digambar Jain ascetics
* Topics List (index)

NAVBOXES

* Gods * Literature * Monks ">

* PORTAL * COMMONS * WIKIQUOTE * WIKISOURCE

* v * t * e

Yoga
Yoga

YOGA PHYSIOLOGY

* Three bodies * Five sheaths * Chakra
Chakra
* Nadi

HINDUISM

FOUR YOGAS

* Karma
Karma
yoga * Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga * Jnana yoga * Raja yoga

CLASSICAL YOGA

* Yoga (philosophy) * Bhagavad Gita _ * _ Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha _

HISTORY OF YOGA

* _ Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali
Patanjali
_

* Eight Limbs

* Yama * Niyama * Āsana * Prāṇāyāma * Pratyahara * Dhāraṇā * Dhyāna * Samādhi

MANTRA YOGA

* Pranava yoga * Nāda yoga

TANTRA

* Yogi
Yogi
* Yogini
Yogini
* Siddhi * Shaiva Siddhanta * Kundalini * Chakra
Chakra
* Subtle body

HATHA YOGA

* _Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika _ * _ Gherand Samhita _ * _ Shiva Samhita _

* Yoga
Yoga
as exercise or alternative medicine

* Chair Yoga
Yoga
* Anti-gravity yoga

* Mudras * List of asanas * List of styles

Contemporary yoga styles and schools

* Ananda
Ananda
Marga Yoga
Yoga
* Ananda
Ananda
Yoga
Yoga
* Anusara Yoga
Yoga
* Ashtanga vinyasa yoga * Bihar School of Yoga
Yoga
* Bikram Yoga
Yoga
* Forrest Yoga
Yoga
* Hot yoga * Integral yoga * Integral yoga (Satchidananda) * Isha Yoga
Yoga
* Iyengar Yoga
Yoga
* Jivamukti Yoga
Yoga
* Kripalu Yoga
Yoga
* Kriya Yoga
Yoga
* Kundalini Yoga
Yoga
* Sahaj Marg * Satyananda Yoga
Yoga
* Sivananda Yoga
Yoga
* Svādhyāya * Viniyoga * Vinyāsa

BUDDHISM

THERAVADA

* Samatha * Samadhi
Samadhi
(Buddhism) * Vipassana * Anapanasati
Anapanasati
* _ Visuddhimagga _

MAHAYANA

* Yogacara
Yogacara
* Zazen
Zazen

VAJRAYANA

INDIAN BUDDHIST TANTRA

* Anuttarayoga Tantra
Tantra

TIBETAN BUDDHISM

* Trul khor * Six Yogas of Naropa * Tummo * Dream yoga
Dream yoga
* Ösel

CHINA

* Tangmi

JAPAN

* Shingon Buddhism
Buddhism
* Tendai
Tendai

INDONESIA

* Kebatinan * Subud

RELATED

* Yoga
Yoga
texts * International Yoga
Yoga
Day * Shinshin-tōitsu-dō

* BOOK * COMMONS * WIKIQUOTE * WIKISOURCE TEXTS * CATEGORY * PORTAL

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About * Disclaimers * Contact * Developers * Cookie statement * Mobile view

* *

Links: ------ /WIKI/VEDANTA /wiki/Advaita_Vedanta /wiki/Vishishtadvaita /wiki/Dvaita_Vedanta /wiki/Bhedabheda /wiki/Dvaitadvaita /wiki/Achintya_Bheda_Abheda /wiki/Shuddhadvaita /wiki/%C4%80stika_and_n%C4%81stika /WIKI/CHARVAKA /WIKI/%C4%80J%C4%ABVIKA /WIKI/BUDDHISM /WIKI/JAINISM /wiki/Vaishnavism /wiki/Smartism /wiki/Shaktism /wiki/Shaivism /wiki/Pratyabhijna /wiki/Pashupata_Shaivism /wiki/Shaiva_Siddhanta /wiki/Tantra /wiki/Acharya /wiki/Nyaya /wiki/Ny%C4%81ya_S%C5%ABtras /wiki/Jayanta_Bhatta /wiki/Raghunatha_Siromani /wiki/M%C4%ABm%C4%81%E1%B9%83s%C4%81 /wiki/Jaimini /wiki/Kum%C4%81rila_Bha%E1%B9%AD%E1%B9%ADa /wiki/Prabh%C4%81kara /wiki/Advaita_Vedanta /wiki/Gaudapada /wiki/Adi_Shankara /wiki/V%C4%81caspati_Mi%C5%9Bra /wiki/Vidyaranya /wiki/Sadananda_(of_Vedantasara) /wiki/Madhus%C5%ABdana_Sarasvat%C4%AB /wiki/Vijnanabhiksu /wiki/Ramakrishna /wiki/Vivekananda /wiki/Ramana_Maharshi /wiki/Siddharudha_Swami /wiki/Chinmayananda_Saraswati /wiki/Nisargadatta_Maharaj /wiki/Vishishtadvaita /wiki/Nammalvar /wiki/Alvars /wiki/Yamunacharya /wiki/Ramanuja

.