ŚūNYATā (Sanskrit; Pali: suññatā), translated into English as emptiness and voidness, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context. It is either an ontological feature of reality, a meditation state, or a phenomenological analysis of experience.
* 1 Etymology * 2 Development of the concept
* 3 Early
* 3.1 Pāli Nikāyas
* 3.1.1 Emptiness of dhammas * 3.1.2 Meditative state
* 3.2 Chinese Āgamas
* 6.1 Prajna-paramita Sutras
* 6.2 Mādhyamaka
* 6.3 Buddha-nature
* 6.3.1 Srimala
* 6.4 Yogacara
* 6.5 Tibetan
* 6.6 Chinese
* 6.6.1 Chán
* 6.7 Western
* 7 Hinduism
* 8 Alternate translations * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References
* 12 Sources
* 12.1 Primary * 12.2 Secondary
* 13 External links
* śūnya means "zero," "nothing," "empty" or "void". Śūnya comes from the root śvi, meaning "hollow". * -tā means "-ness";
DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT
Over time, many different philosophical schools or tenet-systems
(Sanskrit: siddhānta) have developed within
After the Buddha, emptiness was further developed by the Abhidharma schools, Nāgārjuna and the Mādhyamaka school, an early Mahāyāna school. Emptiness ("positively" interpreted) is also an important element of the Buddha nature literature, which played a formative role in the evolution of subsequent Mahāyāna doctrine and practice.
Main article: Presectarian
Emptiness Of Dhammas
According to Bhikkhu Analayo :
In the Pāli discourses the adjective suñña occurs with a much
higher frequency than the corresponding noun suññatā. This is not a
matter of mere philological interest, but points to an emphasis in
One example of this usage is in the phena sutta, which states that on close inspection, each of the five aggregates are seen as being vain, void and unsubstantial, like a lump of foam .
The Suñña Sutta, part of the Pāli canon , relates that the monk Ānanda , Buddha\'s attendant asked,
It is said that the world is empty, the world is empty, lord. In what respect is it said that the world is empty?" The Buddha replied, "Insofar as it is empty of a self or of anything pertaining to a self: Thus it is said, Ānanda, that the world is empty.
According to Thanissaro Bhikku :
Emptiness as a quality of dharmas , in the early canons, means simply that one cannot identify them as one's own self or having anything pertaining to one's own self Emptiness as a mental state, in the early canons, means a mode of perception in which one neither adds anything to nor takes anything away from what is present, noting simply, "There is this." This mode is achieved through a process of intense concentration, coupled with the insight that notes more and more subtle levels of the presence and absence of disturbance (see MN 121).
Emptiness as a meditative state is said to be reached when "not attending to any themes, he enters text-decoration: none">ṇihito).
The meaning of emptiness as contemplated here is explained at M I.297 and S IV.296-97 as the "emancipation of the mind by emptiness" (suññatā cetovimutti) being consequent upon the realization that "this world is empty of self or anything pertaining to self" (suññam idaṃ attena vā attaniyena vā).
The term "emptiness" (suññatā) is also used in two suttas in the Majjhima Nikāya, in the context of a progression of mental states. The texts refer to each state's emptiness of the one below.
Some of the Sarvāstivādin Agama sutras (extant in Chinese) which
have emptiness as a theme include Samyukta Agama 335 -
"What is the
The phrase "when this exists..." is a common gloss on dependent origination . Sarvāstivādin Agamas also speak of a certain emptiness samadhi (śūnyatāsamādhi) as well as stating that all dharmas are "classified as conventional".
Mun-Keat Choong and
Yin Shun have both published studies on the
various uses of emptiness in the early
Buddhist texts (
EARLY BUDDHIST SCHOOLS AND ABHIDHARMA
Many of the early Buddhist schools featured sunyata as an important part of their teachings.
Schools such as the
Mahāsāṃghika Prajñaptivādins as well as
many of the Sthavira schools (except the
Pudgalavada ) held that all
dharmas were empty (dharma śūnyatā). This can be seen in the early
One of the main themes of Harivarman's Tattvasiddhi -Śāstra (3rd-4th century) is dharma -śūnyatā, the emptiness of phenomena.
Theravada Buddhists generally take the view espoused in the Pali canon , that emptiness is merely the not-self nature of the five aggregates as well as a mode of perception which is "empty of the presuppositions we usually add to experience to make sense of it" - especially that of unchanging selfhood. Therefore, some Theravadan teachers like Thanissaro Bhikku hold that emptiness is not so much a metaphysical view, as it is a strategic mode of acting and of seeing the world which leads to liberation:
The idea of emptiness as lack of inherent existence has very little to do with what the Buddha himself said about emptiness. His teachings on emptiness — as reported in the earliest Buddhist texts, the Pali Canon — deal directly with actions and their results, with issues of pleasure and pain. To understand and experience emptiness in line with these teachings requires not philosophical sophistication, but a personal integrity willing to admit the actual motivations behind your actions and the actual benefits and harm they cause.
Some Theravadins such as
David Kalupahana , see
Nagarjuna 's view of
emptiness as compatible with the
Emptiness as an approach to meditation is seen as a state in which one is "empty of disturbance." This form of meditation is one in which the meditator becomes concentrated and focuses on the absence or presence of disturbances in their mind, if they find a disturbance they notice it and allow it drop away, this leads to deeper states of calmness. Emptiness is also seen as a way to look at sense experience that does not identify with the "I-making" and "my-making" process of the mind. As a form of meditation, this is developed by perceiving the six sense spheres and their objects as empty of any self, this leads to a formless jhana of nothingness and a state of equanimity.
Gil Fronsdal : "Emptiness is as important in the
Theravada tradition as it is in the Mahayana. From the earliest times,
Main article: Perfection of Wisdom The emptiness of phenomena is often compared to drops of dew
The Prajna-paramita (Perfection of Wisdom) Sutras taught that all entities, including dharmas, are only conceptual existents or constructs.
Though we perceive a world of concrete and discrete objects, these objects are "empty" of the identity imputed by their designated labels. The Heart sutra , a text from the prajnaparamita-sutras , articulates this in the following saying in which the five skandhas are said to be "empty":
Form is emptiness, emptiness is form Emptiness is not separate from form, form is not separate from emptiness Whatever is form is emptiness, whatever is emptiness is form.
Main article: Madhyamaka
Mādhyamaka is a Mahāyāna Buddhist school of philosophy. In Madhyamaka, to say that an object is "empty" is synonymous with saying that it is dependently originated .
Madhyamaka states that impermanent collections of causes and conditions are designated by mere conceptual labels. This also applies to the principle of causality itself, since everything is dependently originated. If unaware of this, things may seem to arise as existents, remain for a time and then subsequently perish. In reality, dependently originated phenomena do not arise as having inherent existence in the first place. Thus both existence and nihilism are ruled out.
Madhyamaka is retroactively seen as being founded by the monk Nāgārjuna . Nāgārjuna's goal was to refute the essentialism of certain Abhidharma schools. His best-known work is the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā , in which he used the reductio ad absurdum to show the non-substantiality of the perceived world.
Nāgārjuna equates emptiness with dependent origination :
On the basis of the Buddha's view that all experienced phenomena (dharma) are "dependently arisen" (pratitya-samutpanna), Nagarjuna insisted that such phenomena are empty (sunya). This did not mean that they are not experienced and, therefore, non-existent; only that they are devoid of a permanent and eternal substance (svabhava ). Since they are experienced elements of existence, they are not mere names (prjnapti).
In his analysis, any enduring essential nature would prevent the process of dependent origination, or any kind of origination at all. For things would simply always have been, and will always continue to be, without any change.
In doing so, he restores the Middle way of the Buddha, which had become influenced by absolute tendencies:
Utilizing the Buddha's theory of "dependent arising" (pratitya-samutpanna) Nagarjuna demonstrated the futility of these metaphysical speculations. His method of dealing with such metaphysics is referred to as a "middle way" (madhyama pratipad). It is the middle way that avoided the substantialism of the Sarvastivadins as well as the nominalism of the Sautrantikas .
Main article: Prasaṅgika
The Prasangika is a sub-school of the Madhyamaka. The name is derived from prasanga , or reductio ad absurdum arguments, rather than svatantra-anumana , or independent syllogisms .
It is not that we claim non-existence, we merely remove claims for existing existents.
Since relativity is not objectively created, those who, through this reasoning, accept dependent things as resembling the moon in water and reflections in a mirror, understand them as neither objectively true nor false. Therefore, those who think thus regarding dependent things realize that what is dependently arisen cannot be substantially existent, since what is like a reflection is not real. If it were real, that would entail the absurdity that its transformation would be impossible. Yet neither is it unreal, since it manifests as real within the world.
Main article: Svatantrika
For the Svatantrika, conventional phenomena are understood to have a conventional essential existence, but without an ultimately existing essence.
Nihilism And Eternalism
See also: Middle way
A nihilistic interpretation of the concept of voidness (or of mind-only) is not, by any means, a merely hypothetical possibility; it consistently was adopted by Buddhism's opponents, wherever the religion spread, nor have Buddhists themselves been immune to it...
This view has been challenged by other writers, who state that Madhyamaka is not nihilistic but it is a middle way between nihilism and eternalism. Some scholars interpret emptiness as described by Nāgārjuna as a Buddhist transcendental absolute , while other scholars consider it a mistake. The consensus is that Nāgārjuna defended the middle way, one between nihilism and absolute eternalism, and sunyata as emptiness is the soteriological middle way.
Randall Collins states that for Nagarjuna, ultimate reality was "shunyata, emptiness". In Nagarjuna's thesis, adds Collins, this emptiness is not a negation, but the premise that "no concepts are intelligible". David Kalupahana states that this topic has been debated by ancient and medieval Buddhist metaphysicians, with a divergence of views; emptiness is a view, adds Kalupahana, but "holding up emptiness as an absolute or ultimate truth without reference to that which is empty is the last thing either the Buddha or Nāgārjuna would advocate".
According to Ferrer, Nāgārjuna criticized those whose mind held any "positions and beliefs", suggesting liberation is "avoidance of all views", and explaining emptiness as follows:
The Victorious Ones have announced that emptiness is the relinquishing of all views . Those who are possessed of the view of emptiness are said to be incorrigible.
Some 1st-millennium CE
Buddhist texts suggest
concepts that have been controversial because they imply a "self-like"
concept. In particular are the
Tathāgatagarbha sūtras , where the
title itself means a garbha (womb, matrix, seed) containing Tathagata
(Buddha). These Sutras suggest, states Paul Williams, that 'all
sentient beings contain a Tathagata' as their 'essence, core or
essential inner nature'. The
Tathagatagarbha doctrine, at its
earliest probably appeared about the later part of the 3rd century CE,
and is verifiable in Chinese translations of 1st millennium CE. Most
scholars consider the
Tathagatagarbha doctrine of an 'essential
nature' in every living being is equivalent to 'Self', and it
contradicts the doctrines in a vast majority of Buddhist texts,
leading scholars to posit that the
Tathagatagarbha Sutras were written
These Tathāgatagarbha sutras presents a seemingly variant understanding of emptiness, wherein the Buddha Nature, the Buddha and Liberation are seen as transcending the realm of the empty (i.e. of the conditioned and dependently originated). Some scholars, however, view such teachings as metaphorical, not to be taken literally. Other Buddhist monks/scholars disagree with this claim.
In these sutras the perfection of the wisdom of not-self is stated to be the true self. The ultimate goal of the path is characterized using a range of positive language that had been used in Indian philosophy previously by essentialist philosophers, but which was now transmuted into a new Buddhist vocabulary to describe a being who has successfully completed the Buddhist path.
The Śrīmālā Sūtra is one of the earliest texts on tathagata-garbha thought, composed in 3rd century in south India, according to Brian Brown. It asserted that everyone can potentially attain Buddhahood, and warns against the doctrine of Sunyata.
The Śrīmālā Sūtra posits that the Buddha-nature is ultimately identifiable as the supramundane nature of the Buddha , the garbha is the ground for Buddha-nature, this nature is unborn and undying, has ultimate existence, has no beginning nor end, is nondual, and permanent. The text also adds that the garbha has "no self, soul or personality" and "incomprehensible to anyone distracted by sunyata (voidness)"; rather it is the support for phenomenal existence.
According to some scholars, the Buddha nature which these sutras discuss, does not represent a substantial self (ātman). Rather, it is a positive expression of emptiness, and represents the potentiality to realize Buddhahood through Buddhist practices. In this view, the intention of the teaching of Buddha nature is soteriological rather than theoretical. According to others, the potential of salvation depends on the ontological reality of a salvific, abiding core reality — the Buddha-nature, empty of all mutability and error, fully present within all beings.
According to Matsumoto Shiro and Hakamaya Noriaki, the idea of an ontological reality of the Buddha-nature is an un-Buddhist idea: Their "Critical Buddhism" approach rejects what it calls "dhatu-vada" (substantialist Buddha nature doctrines)
At least some ways of understanding the tathagatagarbha contravene the teachings of not-Self, or the Madhyamika idea of emptiness. And these ways of understanding the tathagatagarbha were and are widespread in Mahāyāna Buddhism. Yet by their own self-definition they are Buddhist.
Main article: Yogacara
Yogacara explains "emptiness" in an analysis of the way we perceive "things". Everything we conceive of is the result of the working of the five skandhas : form, perception, feeling, volition and discrimination. The five skandhas together create consciousness. The "things" we are conscious of are "mere concepts", not 'das Ding an sich' or 'the thing in itself'.
In Tibetan Buddhism, emptiness is often symbolized by and compared to the open sky which is associated with openness and freedom .
The Sakya school originated in the 11th century. It rose to power in the 13th century.
Emptiness in Mādhyamaka has a second aspect. Through logical
analyses it is shown that conceptual thought is dichotomizing yet
"reality" (or lack of it) is free from all extremes.
Senge (1429-1489), an important philosopher in the
Sakya school of
Main article: Jonang
In the Tibetan Jonang school, only the Buddha and the Buddha Nature are viewed as not intrinsically empty, but as truly real, unconditioned, and replete with eternal, changeless virtues. The Buddha Nature (tathagatagarbha ) is only empty of what is impermanent and conditioned, not of its own self. The Buddha Nature is truly real, and primordially present in all beings.
An important Tibetan treatise on Emptiness and the Buddha Nature is found in the scholar-monk Dolpopa\'s voluminous study, Mountain Doctrine. It...
... follows the format, inherited from India, of a presentation by way of both reasoning and scripture - the scriptural citations being so rich that the book can also be considered an inspiring anthology, a veritable treasure-trove of literature about the matrix-of-one-gone-thus .
In this vast Mountain Doctrine, Dolpopa describes the Buddha Nature as ...
on-material emptiness, emptiness that is far from an annihilatory emptiness, great emptiness that is the ultimate pristine wisdom of superiors ...buddha earlier than all buddhas, ... causeless original buddha.
The Buddha-nature is filled with eternal powers and virtues:
ermanent, stable, eternal, everlasting. Not compounded by causes and conditions, the matrix-of-one-gone-thus is intrinsically endowed with ultimate buddha qualities of body, speech, and mind such as the ten powers; it is not something that did not exist before and is newly produced; it is self-arisen.'
Dolpopa also cites the Angulimaliya Sutra\'s contrast between empty phenomena such as the moral and emotional afflictions (kleshas ), which are like ephemeral hailstones, and the enduring, eternal Buddha, which is like a precious gem:
Empty phenomena are other ; non-empty phenomena are other . The tens of millions of afflictive emotions like hail-stones are empty. The phenomena in the class of non-virtues, like hail-stones, quickly disintegrate. Buddha, like a vaidurya jewel, is permanent The liberation of a buddha also is form do not make a discrimination of non-division, saying, "The character of liberation is empty".'
Gelugpa school of Tibetan
According to the theory of emptiness, any belief in an objective reality grounded in the assumption of intrinsic, independent existence is simply untenable. All things and events, whether ‘material’, mental or even abstract concepts like time, are devoid of objective, independent existence hings and events are 'empty' in that they can never possess any immutable essence, intrinsic reality or absolute ‘being’ that affords independence.
The Tibetan Yungdrung Bon-tradition regards the Ma Gyu, or Mother
Tantra , as the highest tantra. Its views are close to
...examples, similes and metaphors that we can ponder in order to better understand this illusory nature of both dream and waking life".
These "examples, similes and metaphors" ...
...stress the lack of inherent existence and the unity of experience
and experiencer. In the sutra teachings we call this "emptiness," in
tantra "illusion," and in
The influence of those various doctrinal and textual backgrounds is
still discernable in Zen.
Various western Buddhists note that sunyata refers to the emptiness
of inherent existence, as in Mdhyamaka; but also to the emptiness of
mind or awareness, as open space and the "ground of being," as in
meditation-orientated traditions and approaches such as
INFLUENCE ON ADVAITA VEDANTA
* "An" means "not", or "non" * "Utpāda" means "genesis", "coming forth", "birth"
Taken together "anutpāda" means "having no origin", "not coming into existence", "not taking effect", "non-production".
According to Gaudapada, the Absolute is not subject to birth, change and death . The Absolute is aja, the unborn eternal. The empirical world of appearances is considered Maya (unreal as it is transitory), and not absolutely existent . Thus, Gaudapada's concept of ajativada is similar to Buddhist term "anutpāda" for the absence of an origin or śūnyatā.
But Gaudapada's perspective is quite different from Nagarjuna. Gaudapada's perspective found in Mandukya Karika is based on the Mandukya Upanishad . According to Gaudapada, the metaphysical absolute called Brahman never changes, while the phenomenal world changes continuously, so the phenomenal world cannot arise independently from Brahman. If the world cannot arise, yet is an empirical fact, than the perceived world has to be a transitory (unreal) appearance of Brahman. And if the phenomenal world is a transitory appearance, then there is no real origination or destruction, only apparent origination or destruction. From the level of ultimate truth (paramārthatā) the phenomenal world is māyā , "illusion", apparently existing but ultimately not metaphysically real.
In Gaudapada-Karika, chapter III, verses 46-48, he states that Brahman never arises, is never born, is never unborn, it rests in itself:
When the mind does not lie low, and is not again tossed about, then
that being without movement, and not presenting any appearance,
Brahman . Resting in itself, calm, with Nirvana,
indescribable, highest happiness, unborn and one with the unborn
knowable, omniscient they say. No creature whatever is born, no
origination of it exists or takes place. This is that highest truth
where nothing whatever is born. —
In contrast to Renard's view, Karmarkar states the
Sunya and Sunyatisunya are concepts which appear in some Shaiva
texts, such as the
Vijñāna Bhairava Tantra , which contains several
verses mentioning voidness as a feature of ultimate reality -
"The Absolute void is Bhairava who is beyond the senses and the mind, beyond all the categories of these instruments. From the point of view of the human mins, He is most void. from the point of view of Reality, He is most full, for He is the source of all manifestation."
"The yogi should concentrate intensely on the idea (and also feel) that this universe is totally void. In that void, his mind would become absorbed. Then he becomes highly qualified for absorption i.e. his mind is absorbed in the absolute void (sunyatisunya)."
In a series of Kannada language texts of
Shunya Brahma is a concept found in certain texts of
particularly in Odiya , such as the poetic Panchasakhas. It explains
Brahman idea of Vedanta, that is the eternal unchanging
metaphysical reality as "personified void". Alternate names for this
concept of Hinduism, include shunya purusha and Jagannatha (Vishnu) in
certain text. However, both in
In the Vaishnavism of Orissa , the idea of Shunya Brahman or Shunya Purusha is found in the poetry of the Orissan Panchasakhas (Five Friends), such as in the compositions of 16th-century Acyutananda . Acyutananda's Shunya Samhita extols the nature of Shunya Brahman:
nāhi tāhāra rūpa varṇa, adṛsha avarṇa tā cinha. tāhāku brahmā boli kahi, śūnya brahmhati se bolāi.
It has no shape, no colour, It is invisible and without a name This Brahman is called Shunya Brahman.
* Emptiness * Interdependence (Ringu Tulku) * Openness * Transparency (Cohen) * Spaciousness * Thusness
Acosmism (belief that the world is illusory)
* ^ A common translation is "no-self", without a self, but the Pali canon uses anattā as a singular substantive, meaning "not-self". * ^ Original: "Rupan śūnyatā śūnyatāiva rupan. Rupan na prithak śūnyatā śūnyatā na prithag rupan. Yad rupan sa śūnyatā ya śūnyatā tad rupan." * ^ The Five Skandhas are: Form, Feeling, Perceptions, Mental Formations and Consciousness. * ^ Chapter 21 of the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā goes into the reasoning behind this. * ^ Mūlamadhyamakakārikā 24:18 * ^ Nāgārjuna equates svabhāva (essence) with bhāva (existence) in Chapter 15 of the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā * ^ Wayman and Wayman have disagreed with this view, and they state that the Tathagatagarbha is neither self nor sentient being, nor soul, nor personality. * ^ Translations do differ, which makes a difference. Vijñāna can be translated as "consciousness", but also as "discernement".
* '^ Quotes:
* John Snelling: "At the core of
Mahayana philosophy lies the notion
of Emptiness: SHUNYATA. THIS IS VERY MUCH IN THE SPIRIT OF ANATTA
(SKT. ANATMAN) AS FIRST TAUGHT BY THE BUDDHA. IT IS OFTEN USED TO
IMPLY, NOT MERE OR SHEER NOTHINGNESS (THAT WOULD BE THE NIHILISTIC
VIEW), BUT \'EMPTINESS OF INHERENT EXISTENCE; that is, the absence of
any kind of of enduring or self-sustaining essence. There is also a
sense in which it has connotations of 'conceptual emptiness': absence
of thoughts. It could be regarded too as a non-term signifying the
ineffable understanding arising within the practice of meditation.
Although seemingly negative, it also has its positive uses - and of
course ultimately points beyond the positive negative dichotomy."
* Hans Knibbe: "There are at least to important meanings of this
concept of emptiness, namely:
- empty of independent existence;
- openness and space as grounf of being.
* Nigel Wellings: "Thus we have two types of emptiness, the
emptiness of self in the skandhas that reveals the absence of an
empirical and metaphysical self. And the emptiness of the self in
Nirvâ.na that reveals nothing of the empirical self existing within
the Nirvâ.na consciousness.
Harvey seems to confirm this view when he tells us that all
conditioned dharmas are empty of self because they are impermanent and
a source of suffering, while the unconditioned dharma, Nirvâ.na, is
empty because it does not “support the feeling of ‘I-ness’”,
that is, the impermanent skandhas. (1990:52). This is very similar to
the teaching of the modern
All appearances are empty, in that they can be destroyed or
extinguished in some way The whole universe vanishes at some point,
destroyed by the seven fires and one immense deluge. In this way, all
appearances are empty.
Mind is also ultimately empty, but its way of being empty is not the
same as appearances. Mind can experience anything but it cannot be
destroyed. Its original nature is the dharmakaya of all Buddhas. You
cannot actually do anything to mind – you can’t change it, wash it
away, bury it or burn it. What is truly empty, though, is all the
appearances that appear in the mind. (
* ^ A B Nigel Wellings (2009), Is there anything there? – the Tibetan Rangtong Shentong debate
* ^ Dale Mathers; Melvin E. Miller; Osamu Ando (2013). Self and
No-Self: Continuing the Dialogue Between
* Bhikkhu, Thanissaro (trans.) (1997a), Cula-suñña Sutta, Majjhima
Nikaya 121, The Lesser Discourse on Emptiness, Access to Insight,
archived from the original on December 14, 2004 .
* Bhikkhu, Thanissaro (trans.) (1997b), Maha-suññata Sutta,
Majjhima Nikaya 122, The Greater Discourse on Emptiness, Access to
* Bhikkhu, Thanissaro (trans.) (1997c), Phena Sutta, Samyutta Nikaya
XXII.95, Foam, Access to Insight, archived from the original on
January 1, 1970 .
* Bhikkhu, Thanissaro (trans.) (1997d), SN 35.85, Suñña Sutta,
Empty, Access to Insight
* Hurvitz, Leon (trans.) (1976), Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of
* Bhattacharya, Vidhushekhara (1943), Gauḍapādakārikā, Delhi:
* Boruah, Bijoy H. (2000), Atman in
* Rawson, Philip (1991), Sacred Tibet, London, Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0-500-81032-X * Renard, Philip (2010), Non-Dualisme. De directe bevrijdingsweg, Cothen: Uitgeverij Juwelenschip * Sarma, Chandradhar (1996), The Advaita Tradition in Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass * Snelling, John (1987), The Buddhist handbook. A Complete Guide to Buddhist Teaching and Practice, London: Century Paperbacks * Suzuki, Daisetz Teitarō (1999), Studies in the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass * Wangyal Rinpoche, Tenzin (2004), The Tibetan Yogas Of Dream And Sleep, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
* Zach Dorfman, Toward a Buddhist Politics of
ARTICLES RELATED TO ŚūNYATā
* v * t * e
* Glossary * Index * Outline
* Tathāgata * Birthday *