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Łupków
Łupków
Pass or Lupkov Pass (Polish: Przełęcz Łupkowska, Slovak: Lupkovský priesmyk) is a significant mountain pass in the Carpathian mountains on the border between Poland
Poland
and Slovakia, and close to the western border of Ukraine. Its highest point rises 640 m above sea level. It is located just south of the village Łupków
Łupków
in Poland
Poland
and east of Medzilaborce
Medzilaborce
in Slovakia. Underneath the pass runs a railway tunnel 642 m long, straddling the border between Poland
Poland
and Slovakia. The Łupków
Łupków
Pass separates the Low Beskids
Low Beskids
from the Bieszczady Mountains. The tunnel and the associated railway line were finished in 1874, to link Galicia with the rest of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
across the Carpathian mountains. Given that it was such a vital communications link, the pass had considerable strategic importance. Łupków
Łupków
Pass was one of the strategically important Carpathian passes bitterly contested in battles on the Eastern Front of World War I during the winter of 1914/1915. An attempt to stand on the line of the Wisłok
Wisłok
river and the Łupków
Łupków
Pass failed before renewed Austro-German attacks on 8 May 1915.[1] The railway tunnel was demolished and rebuilt multiple times during both World Wars. It was rebuilt again in 1946 but saw little use afterwards. Only in 1999 was regular passenger rail service reestablished through the pass. References[edit]

^ "The Pursuit and Battles at Sanok
Sanok
and Rzeszów
Rzeszów
(6 May). - After his severe defeat, Radko Dimitriev's plan was to hold the Łupków
Łupków
Pass with his left wing, and, supported upon this, to bring the pursuit to a stand on the line Nowotaniec–Besko-right bank of the Wisłok, where there were positions favoured by the lay of the ground, and then, between the Vistula
Vistula
and the Wisłok, on the line Wielopole-Rzeszów–Mielec. Here he proposed to reconstitute his units, which had fallen into great disorder, and to strengthen them by bringing up reserves. Troops were sent to him from other fronts, and by the 8th he could again dispose of 18 inf. divs., 5 ca y. divs. and 5 Reichswehr bdes. The orders were that the offensive was to be continued with all possible vigour. Mackensen's arm y was to push forward over the stretch of the Wisłok
Wisłok
between Besko
Besko
and Frysztak
Frysztak
on Mrzygłód and Tyczyn, and the Archduke Joseph Ferdinand on Rzeszów, while Boroevic was to roll up Brussilov's VIII. Russian Army in the direction of Sanok. Bohm's II. Austrian Army was to join up corps by corps from the left wing in proportion to the progress of the attack."Enc. Britanica Archived 27 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.

See also[edit]

List of highest paved roads in Europe List of mou

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