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Lutsk
Lutsk
(Ukrainian: Луцьк, translit. Luc'k, [ˈlutsʲk], Polish: Łuck, Yiddish: לוצק‎, translit. Luck) is a city on the Styr River
Styr River
in northwestern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Volyn Oblast
Volyn Oblast
(province) and the administrative center of the surrounding Lutsk Raion
Lutsk Raion
(district) within the oblast, though it is not a part of the raion. Lutsk
Lutsk
has the status of a city of oblast significance, equivalent to that of a raion. Population: 217,103 (2015 est.)[1]

Contents

1 Name etymology 2 History

2.1 Crown of the Kingdom of Poland 2.2 Russian Empire 2.3 Second Polish Republic 2.4 World War II 2.5 Post-war

3 Climate 4 Industry and commerce 5 Places of interest 6 Theatres and museums 7 International relations

7.1 Twin towns — Sister cities

8 Gallery 9 Notable people 10 In popular culture 11 References 12 External links

Name etymology[edit] Lutsk
Lutsk
is an ancient Slavic town, mentioned in the Hypatian Chronicle as Luchesk in the records of 1085. The etymology of the name is unclear. There are three hypotheses: either the name may have been derived from the old-Slavic word luka (an arc or bend in a river), or the name may have originated from Luka (the chieftain of the Dulebs), an ancient Slavic tribe living in this area. The name may have also been derived from Luchanii (Luchans), an ancient branch of the tribe mentioned above. Its historical name in Ukrainian is Луцьк; in Russian, Луцк; and in Polish, Łuck; in Yiddish, Loytsk. History[edit] According to legend, Luchesk dates from the 7th century. The first known documentary reference dates from the year 1085. The town served as the capital of the Principality of Halych-Volynia
Halych-Volynia
(founded 1199) until the rise of Volodymyr-Volynsky. The town grew around a wooden stronghold built by a local branch of the Rurik Dynasty. At certain times the location functioned as the capital of the principality, but since there was no need for a fixed capital in medieval Europe, the town did not become an important centre of commerce or culture. In 1240 Tatars
Tatars
seized and looted the nearby town but left the castle unharmed. In 1321 George son of Lev, the last prospective heir of Halych-Volynia, died in a battle with the forces of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and Lithuanian forces seized the castle. In 1349 the forces of King Casimir III of Poland
Casimir III of Poland
captured the town, but Lithuania
Lithuania
soon retook it.[citation needed]

Lubart's Castle

The town began to prosper during the period of Lithuanian rule. Prince Lubart (died 1384), son of Gediminas, erected Lubart's Castle
Lubart's Castle
as part of his fortification programme. Vytautas the Great, Grand Duke of Lithuania
Lithuania
from 1392 to 1430, founded the town itself by importing colonists (mostly Jews, Tatars, and Karaims). In 1427 he transferred the Catholic bishopric from Volodymyr-Volynskyi
Volodymyr-Volynskyi
to Luchesk. Vytautas was the last monarch to use the title of "Duke of Volhynia" and to reside in Lubart's Castle. The town grew rapidly, and by the end of the 15th century there were 19 Orthodox and two Catholic churches. It was the seat of two Christian bishops, one Catholic and one Orthodox. Because of that the town was sometimes nicknamed the Volhynian Rome. The cross symbol of Lutsk
Lutsk
features on the highest Lithuanian Presidential award, the Order of Vytautas the Great.[citation needed] In 1429 Lutsk
Lutsk
was the meeting place selected for a conference of monarchs hosted by Jogaila
Jogaila
and Sophia of Halshany
Sophia of Halshany
to deal with the Tartar threat. Those invited to attend included Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, Vasili II of Russia, the king of Denmark
Denmark
Eric of Pomerania, the Grand Master of the Livonian Order
Livonian Order
Zisse von Rutenberg, the Duke of Szczecin
Szczecin
Kazimierz V, Dan II the Hospodar of Wallachia
Wallachia
and Prince-electors of most of the countries of Germany. Crown of the Kingdom of Poland[edit]

Castle gate

St. Peter and Paul Cathedral

Great Synagogue in Lutsk

Holy Trinity Cathedral

Lutheran church

Lutsk
Lutsk
Old Town

In 1432 Volhynia became a fief of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and Lutsk
Lutsk
became the seat of the governors, and later the Marshalls of the Land of Volhynia. That same year, the city was granted Magdeburg rights. In 1569 Volhynia was fully incorporated into the Polish kingdom and the town became the capital of the Volhynian Voivodeship and the Łuck
Łuck
powiat (Polish administrative unit). After the Union of Lublin
Lublin
the local Orthodox bishop converted to Eastern Catholicism. The town continued to prosper as an important economic centre of the region. By the mid-17th century Łuck
Łuck
had approximately 50,000 inhabitants and was one of the largest towns in the area. During the Khmelnytskyi Uprising
Khmelnytskyi Uprising
the town was seized by the forces of Colonel Kolodko. Up to 4,000 people were slaughtered, approximately 35,000 fled, and the town was looted and partially burnt. It never fully recovered. In 1781 the city was struck by a fire which destroyed 440 houses, both cathedrals, and several other churches. Russian Empire[edit] In 1795, as a result of the Partitions of Poland, the Russian Empire annexed Lutsk. The Voivodeship was liquidated and the town lost its significance as the capital of the province (which was moved to Zhytomyr). After the November Uprising
November Uprising
(1830–1831) efforts increased to remove Polish influence and Russian became the dominant language in official circles, though the population continued to speak Ukrainian, the Polish population Polish, and the Jewish population Yiddish, if only in private circles. The Greek Catholic churches were turned into Orthodox Christian ones, which led to the self-liquidation of the Uniates here. In 1845 another great fire struck the city, resulting in a further depopulation. In 1850 three major forts were built around Lutsk, and the town became a small fortress called Mikhailogorod. During the First World War
First World War
the town was seized by Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
on August 29, 1915. The town sustained a small amount of damage. During more than a year of Austro-Hungarian occupation Lutsk
Lutsk
became an important military centre with the headquarters of the IV Army under Archduke Josef Ferdinand stationed there. A plague of epidemic typhus decimated the city's inhabitants. On June 4, 1916 four Russian armies under general Aleksei Brusilov started what later became known as the Brusilov Offensive. After up to three days of heavy artillery barrage, the Battle of Lutsk
Battle of Lutsk
began. On June 7, 1916 the Russian forces reconquered the city. After the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
in 1917, the city was seized by Germany on February 7, 1918. On February 22, 1918 the town was transferred by the withdrawing German army to the forces loyal to Symon Petlura. Second Polish Republic[edit] During the Polish-Bolshevik War, on May 16, 1919 Lutsk
Lutsk
was taken over by the forces of Poland's Blue Army after a heavy battle with the Red Army. The city was devastated and largely depopulated. It witnessed the Soviet counter-offensive of 1920 and was taken on 12 July 1920. It was recaptured by Poland's 45th Rifles regiment and field artillery on September 15, 1920.[2] According to American sociologist Alexander Gella "the Polish victory [over the Red Army] had gained twenty years of independence not only for Poland, but at least for an entire central part of Europe.[3] Łuck
Łuck
was designated by the newly-reborn nation of Poland
Poland
as the capital of the Wołyń Voivodeship. The city was connected by railroad to Lviv
Lviv
(then Lwów) and Przemyśl. Several brand new factories were built both in Łuck
Łuck
and on its outskirts producing farming equipment, wood, and leather products among other consumer goods. New mills and breweries opened. An orphanage was built, and a big new bursary. The first high-school was soon inaugurated. In 1937, an airport was established in Łuck
Łuck
with an area of 69 hectares (170 acres).[2] The 13th Kresowy Light Artillery Regiment was stationed in the city, together with a Łuck
Łuck
National Defense (Poland) Battalion. In 1938, construction of a large modern radio transmitter began in the city (see Polish Radio Łuck). As of January 1, 1939 Łuck
Łuck
had 39,000 inhabitants (approximately 17,500 Jews and 13,500 Poles). The powiat formed around the town had 316,970 inhabitants, including 59% Ukrainians, 19.5% Poles, 14% Jews and approximately 23,000 Czechs
Czechs
and Germans. World War II[edit] On Thursday, September 7, 1939 at app. 5 p.m., Polish government, which had left Warsaw
Warsaw
the day before, arrived at Łuck. German intelligence quickly found out about it, and the city was twice bombed by the Luftwaffe: on Sept. 11, and Sept. 14. After panzer units of the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
had crossed the Bug river, on September 14, the government of Poland
Poland
left Łuck
Łuck
and headed southwards, to Kosow Huculski, which at that time was located near the Polish - Romanian border. As a result of the invasion of Poland
Poland
from both sides and the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Łuck, along with the rest of western Volyn, was annexed by the Soviet Union. Most of the factories (including the almost-finished radio station) were dismantled and sent east to Russia. Approximately 10,000 of the city's Polish inhabitants (chiefly ethnic Poles, but also Polish Jews) were deported in cattle trucks to Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and 1,550 were arrested by the NKVD.[4][5] After the start of Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
the city was captured by the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
on 25 June 1941, but not before thousands of Polish and Ukrainian prisoners were shot by the retreating NKVD
NKVD
responsible for political prisons. The inmates were offered amnesty and in the morning of 000000001941-06-23-0000June 23 ordered to exit the building en masse. They were gunned down from Soviet tanks.[6] Some 4,000 captives including Poles, Jews and Ukrainians were massacred.[7] Upon Nazi occupation most of the Jewish inhabitants of the city were forced into a new Łuck
Łuck
Ghetto (German: Ghetto Luzk) and then murdered at the execution site on Górka Połonka hill not far from the city.[8] In total, more than 25,000 Jews were executed there at point-blank range,[9] men, women and children.[10] The Łuck
Łuck
Ghetto was liquidated entirely through the Holocaust by bullets.[11] During the massacres of Poles in Volhynia approximately 10,000 Poles were murdered by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army
Ukrainian Insurgent Army
in the area. It was captured by Red Army
Red Army
on 2 February 1944. Post-war[edit] Following the end of the war the remaining Polish inhabitants of the city were expelled, mostly to the areas sometimes referred to as the Polish Regained Territories. The city became an industrial centre in the Ukrainian SSR. The major changes in the city's demographics had the final result that by the end of the war the city was almost entirely Ukrainian. During the Cold War, the city hosted the Lutsk
Lutsk
air base. As one of the largest cities in Western Ukraine, Lutsk
Lutsk
became the seat of a General Consulate of Poland
Poland
in 2003.[12] Climate[edit]

Climate data for Lutsk
Lutsk
(1961–1990)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Daily mean °C (°F) −4.9 (23.2) −3.5 (25.7) 1.0 (33.8) 8.0 (46.4) 13.8 (56.8) 16.8 (62.2) 18.0 (64.4) 17.4 (63.3) 13.3 (55.9) 7.9 (46.2) 2.5 (36.5) −2.2 (28) 7.3 (45.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 31 (1.22) 30 (1.18) 27 (1.06) 39 (1.54) 60 (2.36) 68 (2.68) 76 (2.99) 61 (2.4) 56 (2.2) 37 (1.46) 36 (1.42) 38 (1.5) 559 (22.01)

Source: NOAA[13]

Industry and commerce[edit] Lutsk
Lutsk
is an important centre of industry. Factories producing cars, shoes, bearings, furniture, machines and electronics, as well as weaveries, steel mills and a chemical plant are located in the area.

VGP JSC - manufacture of sanitary and hygienic products LuAZ
LuAZ
- automobile-manufacturing plant, part of Bogdan group SKF
SKF
- manufacture of bearings, seals, lubrication and lubrication systems, maintenance products, mechatronics products, power transmission products and related services globally Modern-Expo Group - one of the largest manufacturers and suppliers of equipment (metal shelving, high racks systems, checkouts, catering equipment, refrigeration equipment, POS-equipment and guidance systems) for retail and warehouse use in Central and Eastern Europe. Lutsk
Lutsk
Automobile Plant LuAZ

Places of interest[edit]

Lubart's Castle. The Upper Castle from the 13th century and the Lower Castle from the 14th century Saint Peter and Paul Cathedral. A Catholic cathedral built 1610 as a Jesuit church, reconstructed in 1781 Great Synagogue built in 1626–1629 Holy Trinity Orthodox Cathedral built 1755 as a church and monastery of Bernardines Lutheran Church Complex of Lutsk
Lutsk
Orthodox Fellowship Market square Lesya Ukrainka street Monasteries, both Catholic and Orthodox: Basilians (17th century), Dominicans (17th century), Trinitarians
Trinitarians
(18th century) and Charites (18th century) Two 16th century Greek-Catholic churches Lutsk
Lutsk
compact overhead powerline, a powerline of unusual type. One of the longest buildings in the world: Apartment house on Sobornosti av. and Molodyozhi st. (50.761219°N, 25.368719°E) Length: 1750 m.

Theatres and museums[edit]

Lutsk
Lutsk
Puppet Theatre

Drama Theatre, built in 1939 (uk) Children's Puppet Theater Museum of Regional Studies. Address: Shopena St. 20 Museum of Ukrainian army and ammunition opened in 1999. Address: Lutsk, vul. Taborishi 4 Museum of Volyn Icon was opened in August 1993. Relatively small museum in the centre on the town. Has some interesting and very old icons. Address: vul. Yaroshchuka 5. (behind the Lesia Ukrainka Volyn State University)

International relations[edit]

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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Ukraine Twin towns — Sister cities[edit] Lutsk
Lutsk
is twinned with:

Brest, Belarus Bielsk Podlaski, Poland Rzeszów, Poland[14] Lublin, Poland[15] Olsztyn, Poland

Toruń, Poland[16] Zamość, Poland[17] Xiangtan, China Gori, Georgia

Gallery[edit]

Volyn' regional administration in Lutsk

Voli Avenue

Modern architecture

Former Armenian church

Orthodox Fellowship building

Market Square

Lesya Ukrainka street

Notable people[edit]

Alojzy Feliński – Polish scientist and writer Anatoliy Tymoshchuk – Ukrainian football player Boleslaw Kontrym – officer of the Polish Home Army, executed by the Communists Florian Siwicki – general of the Polish Army Mikolaj Kruszewski – Polish 19th-century linguist Oksana Zabuzhko – contemporary Ukrainian poet, writer and essayist Peter Bondra – Ukrainian-born Slovak ice hockey player Sasha Bonilova – Playboy model, Playmate of the Month for May 2011 Shmuel Shilo – Israeli theatre and cinema actor Shimshon Unichman – Israeli politician and member of the Knesset Svetlana Zakharova – Russian ballet dancer Tartak – all the group members were born in Lutsk Zalman Sorotzkin – Jewish rabbi, author Anzhelika Savrayuk – member of the Italian group of rhythmic gymnastics was born in Lutsk; three-time world champion in group all around, bronze medallist in the group all around at London 2012 Taras Maksimuk, creator of TechRax
TechRax
a YouTube
YouTube
channel featuring the destruction of mobile phones and laptop computers. Mordecai Sultansky – Karaite Jewish hakham and scholar

In popular culture[edit] The NKVD
NKVD
and Nazi massacres are mentioned in the Prix Goncourt
Prix Goncourt
awarded novel The Kindly Ones by Jonathan Littell. Is a location taken over by post-apocalyptic slavers in the Sci-Fi/Adventure Novel The Crisis Pendant by Charlie Patterson References[edit]

^ a b "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 1 July 2016.  ^ a b Antoni Tomczyk (2013). " Łuck
Łuck
- Miasto bliskie sercom naszym". Kresowe Stanice. Stowarzyszenie Rodzin Osadników Wojskowych i Cywilnych Kresów Wschodnich. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ Aleksander Gella (1988), Development of Class Structure in Eastern Europe: Poland
Poland
and Her Southern Neighbors, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-88706-833-1, Google Print, p. 23. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1998), Poland's Holocaust (Google Books). Jefferson: McFarland, pp. 17-18, 420. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3. ^ Feliks Trusiewicz, Zbrodnie – Ludobójstwo dokonane na ludności polskiej w powiecie Łuck, woj. wołyńskie, w latach 1939-1944. (War crimes committed against Polish nationals in the Łuck
Łuck
county, 1939–44). Retrieved July 22, 2015. ^ Berkhoff, Karel Cornelis (2004). Harvest of Despair. Harvard University Press via Google Books. p. 14. ISBN 0674020782. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ Piotrowski 1998, p. 17; The Murder of the Jews of Lutsk
Lutsk
at Yad Vashem website ^ Andrzej Mielcarek, Wieś i kolonia Hnidawa, inaczej Gnidawa, powiat Łuck; Gromada Połonka. Interactive 1936 map included. Strony o Wołyniu Wolyn.ovh.org in Polish. Retrieved July 24, 2015. ^ Yad Vashem, Mass-murder of Łuck
Łuck
Jews at Gurka Polonka in August 1942 on YouTube
YouTube
Note: village Połonka (Polish: Górka Połonka or its Połonka Little Hill subdivision) is misspelled in the documentary, with testimony of eyewitness Shmuel Shilo. Retrieved July 24, 2015. ^ YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, Lutsk. Ghetto history. Retrieved 22 July 2015. ^ "The Holocaust by bullets" by National Geographic Channel on YouTube Retrieved 20 July 2015. ^ General Consulate of Poland
Poland
in Lutsk
Lutsk
(Polish and Ukrainian) ^ "Luck (Lutsk) Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 29, 2016.  ^ "Serwis informacyjny UM Rzeszów
Rzeszów
- Informacja o współpracy Rzeszowa z miastami partnerskimi". www.rzeszow.pl. Archived from the original on 2012-12-05. Retrieved 2010-02-02.  ^ "Miasta Partnerskie Lublina" [ Lublin
Lublin
- Partnership Cities]. City of Lublin
Lublin
(in Polish). Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.  ^ "Miasta bliźniacze Torunia" [Toruń's twin towns]. Urząd Miasta Torunia [City of Toruń
Toruń
Council] (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-22.  ^ "Miasta partnerskie - Zamość". Urząd Miasta Zamość
Zamość
(in Polish). Retrieved 2013-07-26. 

External links[edit]

 "Lutzk". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.  Official tourist website Lutsk
Lutsk
- historical description (in Ukrainian). Orthodox Lutsk
Lutsk
(in Ukrainian). Historic images of Lutsk Lutsk, Ukraine "Photos of Lutsk". photoua.net. 

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v t e

Administrative divisions of Volyn Oblast

Administrative center: Lutsk

Raions

Horokhiv Ivanychi Kamin-Kashyrskyi Kivertsi Kovel Liubeshiv Liuboml Lokachi Lutsk Manevychi Ratne Rozhyshche Shatsk Stara Vyzhivka Turiisk Volodymyr-Volynskyi

Cities

Regional

Kovel Lutsk Novovolynsk Volodymyr-Volynskyi

District

Berestechko Horokhiv Kamin-Kashyrskyi Kivertsi Liuboml Rozhyshche Ustyluh

Urban-type settlements Category:Volyn Oblast

v t e

 Administrative divisions of Ukraine

Capital: Kiev

Oblasts

Cherkasy Chernihiv Chernivtsi Dnipropetrovsk Donetsk Ivano-Frankivsk Kharkiv Kherson Khmelnytskyi Kiev Kirovohrad Luhansk Lviv Mykolaiv Odessa Poltava Rivne Sumy Ternopil Vinnytsia Volyn Zakarpattia Zaporizhia Zhytomyr

Cities with special status

Kiev Sevastopol1

Autonomous republic

Crimea1

Administrative centers

Cherkasy Chernihiv Chernivtsi Dnipro Donetsk Ivano-Frankivsk Kharkiv Kherson Khmelnytskyi Kiev Kropyvnytskyi Luhansk Lutsk Lviv Mykolaiv Odessa Poltava Rivne Sevastopol Simferopol Sumy Ternopil Uzhhorod Vinnytsia Zaporizhia Zhytomyr

1Claimed and controlled by Russia
Russia
as the Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
and the Federal City of Sevastopol

v t e

Cities in Ukraine
Ukraine
(including Crimea) by population

City with special status City of regional significance City of district significance

1,000,000+

Kiev Kharkiv Dnipro Odessa

500,000+

Donetsk Zaporizhia Lviv Kryvyi Rih Mykolaiv

200,000+

Mariupol Luhansk Makiivka Vinnytsia Simferopol Sevastopol Kherson Poltava Chernihiv Cherkasy Sumy Horlivka Zhytomyr Kamianske Kropyvnytskyi Khmelnytskyi Rivne Chernivtsi Kremenchuk Ternopil Ivano-Frankivsk Lutsk Bila Tserkva

100,000+

Kramatorsk Melitopol Kerch Nikopol Sloviansk Berdiansk Sievierodonetsk Alchevsk Pavlohrad Uzhhorod Lysychansk Yevpatoria Yenakiieve

Crimea
Crimea
is the subject of a territorial dispute between Ukraine (Autonomous Republic of Crimea) and Russia
Russia
(Republi

.