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ŁAńCUT (Polish pronunciation: ; German : Landshut, error: {{lang-xx}}: text has italic markup (help )), is a town in south-eastern Poland
Poland
, with 18,004 inhabitants, as of 2 June 2009. Situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship
Subcarpathian Voivodeship
(since 1999), it is the capital of Łańcut County .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Main sights * 3 Transport

* 4 International relations

* 4.1 Twin towns — sister cities

* 5 See also

* 6 References

* 6.1 Bibliography * 6.2 Attribution * 6.3 Notes

* 7 External links

HISTORY

Archeological investigations carried out in the region of Łańcut confirm the existence of human settlements from about 4000 years B.C.

The first owner of the town was Otton (z Pilczy) Pilecki, who was given the Łańcut
Łańcut
estate by the Polish king , Casimir III the Great
Casimir III the Great
, in 1349, as a reward for his service. At the same time, the king also granted Łańcut
Łańcut
its city rights according to Magdeburg law . In 1381 Łańcut
Łańcut
was officially named a ‘town’ for the first time, by Otton Pilecki, in the foundation charter of the town. Łańcut remained under the ownership of the Pilecki family up to 1586.

The city was then owned consecutively by aristocratic Polish families of Stadnicki, Lubomirski , and Potocki . Łańcut
Łańcut
was purchased by Stanisław Lubomirski in 1629, at which time he secured the services of architect Matteo (Polish : ‘Maciej’) Trapola and the stuccoist Giovanni Battista Falconi, in order to build a fortified residence in the town, Łańcut Castle , completed in 1641 and reconstructed many times since. Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski
Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski
, fearing attack from the Swedes, further strengthened the fortifications. To perform these works he employed Tylman van Gameren , a Dutchman and one of the most prominent foreign architects to ever work in Poland.

The castle is situated in the centre of the town and constructed in the style of a grand aristocratic palace-residence. It was last owned until 1944 by the Potocki family
Potocki family
, and made infamous in late 16th century during the times of Stanisław Stadnicki , who was known as 'the Devil of Łańcut' (Polish: diabeł łańcucki) for his violent behaviour. After 1775 the palace was owned by Izabella Lubomirska , who extended it and had the interiors remodelled. The palace is currently a museum particularly well known for its large collection of historic carriages. Since 1961, a well-known classical music festival is held there annually.

In 1772, after Poland's First Partition , Łańcut
Łańcut
became part of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
where it remained until 1918 when it became part of independent Poland.

At the end of the 18th century, Duchess
Duchess
Izabela Lubomirska established a distillery on the vast estate of the Lubomirski family in Łańcut. Count
Count
Alfred Wojciech Potocki , a grandson and heir of the Duchess, started to run the Łańcut
Łańcut
and Lwów Lubomirski estates in 1823. He modernised the management of these properties. The distillery has changed ownership several times and now exists under the name of Polmos Łańcut . It is well known for producing flavoured and sweetened vodkas.

Jews began to settle in Łańcut
Łańcut
in the 16th century: the earliest mention of a settler is 1554. The landowner Stanisław Lubomirski employed a Jewish factor for his Łańcut
Łańcut
estate in 1629. in 1707 the Council of Four Lands
Council of Four Lands
(the Polish Jewish parliament). met in Łańcut. A wooden synagogue burnt down in 1716 and new brick synagogue was commenced in 1726. The project was supported by the Lubomirski family and the synagogue, which still stands, was completed in 1761 (see below). Local Jewish cemeteries are the resting place of the famous Rabbi Zvi Naftali Horowitz , the Grand Rabbi of Ropshitz (Ropczyce) and Rabbi Ahron Moshe Leifer, the Grand Rabbi of Żołynia . Every year, followers of the Hasidic Judaism
Hasidic Judaism
come to pray at their graves.

Prior to World War II
World War II
, Łańcut
Łańcut
had a thriving Jewish community constituting about one-third of the city population. In 1939 there were 2750 Jews in Łańcut. From 1942 onwards the German occupiers began transportation and murder of the Jewish community; very few of the community survived.

The last owner of Łańcut, Alfred Antoni Potocki, (14 June 1886 – 30 March 1958), was one of the richest men in prewar Poland
Poland
, accumulating a fantastic collection of art during his tenancy. Shortly before the arrival of the Red Army
Red Army
in 1944, he loaded 11 railway carriages of a specially chartered train to Vienna
Vienna
, with his most valuable possessions (about 700 boxes of movable property) and fled to Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
. Most of these valuables were gradually sold off to finance a lavish lifestyle

The Music Festival in Łańcut
Łańcut
has been an annual event since 1961. The Festival is a series of modern and classical music concerts performed by distinguished European soloists, ensembles and choirs.

MAIN SIGHTS

* The Łańcut Castle , sometimes called the Potocki Palace. It was built in 1628–1641 by Stanisław Lubomirski, rebuilt in 1894–1903 in the style of French Neo-baroque . In the castle grounds there is a park with the little romantic castle, a coachhouse with a collection of carriages and a guest-house in the English style. * The Łańcut Synagogue , completed in 1761. German invaders in 1939 attempted to burn the synagogue down, but were prevented by Count Alfred Antoni Potocki. Although plain on the exterior, the interior walls and ceiling are decorated with restorations of paintings and stuccowork from the 18th century and polychromies from the 19th – 20th centuries. * The architectural complex of the ancient Church and the Dominican monastery (Rynek) rebuilt repeatedly, the oldest phase of the construction going back to the 15th century. * The Parish Church (Farna Street) going back to the 15th century. Rebuilt in 1884–1900.

*

Castle *

Synagogue *

ancient Church and the Dominican monastery *

Parish Church

TRANSPORT

Łańcut
Łańcut
is located on the main West-East European E40 Highway , which goes from Calais
Calais
in France
France
via Belgium
Belgium
, across Germany
Germany
, Poland , Ukraine
Ukraine
and on to Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
. Circa 2008, the A4 highway was announced. Despite it was meant to be done before Euro 2012, it was not finished by July 2014. This caused a large worker protest, after which the contract was broken. However, now the A4 north of Łańcut
Łańcut
is expected to be completed sometime in 2016 Other Polish cities located by the E40 highway are Wrocław
Wrocław
, Opole
Opole
, Katowice
Katowice
, Kraków
Kraków
, Tarnów , Rzeszów
Rzeszów
and Przemyśl
Przemyśl
.

The nearest airport is Rzeszów-Jasionka Airport located in the village of Jasionka, north of Rzeszów
Rzeszów
. It is about 18 kilometres (11 miles) north-west of Łańcut
Łańcut
on the A881 and takes about 25–30 minutes by car. Scheduled passenger services include flights to: Warsaw
Warsaw
(WAW ), Dublin
Dublin
, London (Stansted ), Bristol
Bristol
, UK, Birmingham
Birmingham
, UK, New York City
New York City
(JFK Airport , and Newark Liberty International Airport ).

Łańcut
Łańcut
has a railway station, located at Kolejowa Street 1. It is on the main line, Kraków
Kraków
Main station — Medyka . The line then continues on to Ukraine.

The bus station is located at the crossroads of Kościuszko Street and Sikorski Street.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
Poland

TWIN TOWNS — SISTER CITIES

Łańcut
Łańcut
is twinned with:

* Levoča , Slovakia
Slovakia
* Litomyšl , Czech Republic
Czech Republic
* Piran
Piran
, Slovenia
Slovenia

* Keszthely
Keszthely
, Hungary
Hungary
* Tavira , Portugal
Portugal
* Uman
Uman
, Ukraine
Ukraine

* Balmazújváros , Hungary
Hungary
* Baktalórántháza
Baktalórántháza
, Hungary
Hungary
* Castelnuovo Bormida , Italy
Italy

SEE ALSO

* Walddeutsche
Walddeutsche
* Łańcut
Łańcut
(vodka) is a brand of vodka.

REFERENCES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Cicochny, Macin et al. (2010). Łańcut: The Hasidic route. Warsaw: FODZ. ISBN 9788361306092 * "Central Statistical Office(GUS) – TERYT(National Register of Territorial Land Apportionment Journal)" (in Polish). 2008-01-09. Retrieved 2008-10-23. * " Łańcut
Łańcut
Official Website". © 2008 Urząd Miejski w Łańcucie, Plac Sobieskiego 18, 37–100 Łańcut. Retrieved 2008-10-23. * Polski Słownik Biograficzny t. 27 s. 760 * Stanisław Mossakowski, Tilman van Gameren: Leben und Werk, Deutscher Kunstverlag, München 1994, XIII, 366 S., ISBN 3-422-06097-9

ATTRIBUTION

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Polish.

NOTES

* ^ Approximately "wine-suit" * ^ "Population. Size and structure by territorial division" (PDF). Central Statistical Office. February 2016. * ^ A B C D E " Łańcut
Łańcut
Official Website". © 2008 Urząd Miejski w Łańcucie, Plac Sobieskiego 18, 37–100 Łańcut. Retrieved 2008-10-23. * ^ Danuta Szmit-Zawierucha (July 2003). " Tylman van Gameren of Warsaw". Articles. Warsaw
Warsaw
Voice.pl. Retrieved November 30, 2012. (in English) * ^ Jacek Komuda
Jacek Komuda
, Warchoły i pijanice, Fabryka Słów, 2004, ISBN 83-89011-40-9 * ^ Jurzak, Ryszard. "Genealogia dynastyczna". grocholski.pl. * ^ mj@minakowski.pl, Marek Jerzy Minakowski. "Alfred Potocki z Podhajec h. Pilawa (Srebrna)". sejm-wielki.pl. * ^ Rogala, Jan. Gorzałka czyli historia i zasady wypalania mocnych trunków, Baobab: 2004. ISBN 83-89642-70-0 * ^ Cicohny (2010), pp. 8-9. * ^ Mańko, Sławomir. "Ropczyce: The Chassidic Route", page 11. © Polish Jews Heritage 2008. * ^ Cichocki (2010), pp. 15-16. * ^ Chmura, Barbara (2009). NR49 (PDF) (in Polish). Rzeszów: Nasz Dom Rzeszów. * ^ Łojek J. (1980, wyd. I), Potomkowie Szczęsnego. Dzieje fortuny Potockich z Tulczyna 1799–1921 s. 265, Lublin, Wydawnictwo Lubelskie, ISBN 83-222-0119-2 . * ^ A B Tamże, s. 264–274. * ^ A B C D " Łańcut
Łańcut
Official Website – Information". © 2008 Urząd Miejski w Łańcucie, Plac Sobieskiego 18, 37–100 Łańcut. Retrieved 2008-10-25. * ^ Cichocki (2010), p. 15. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J " Łańcut
Łańcut
Official Website – Foreign contacts". © 2008 Urząd Miejski w Łańcucie, Plac Sobieskiego 18, 37–100 Łańcut. Retrieved 2008-10-25.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for ŁAńCUT .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ŁAńCUT .

* City of Łańcut
Łańcut
official website * Official Łańcut
Łańcut
Castle

.