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ŁóDź (/wuːtʃ/ wooch , /lɒdz/ lodz ; Polish: ( listen ); Yiddish : לאדזש‎, Lodzh; also written as LODZ) is the third-largest city in Poland
Poland
and a former industrial centre. Located in the central part of the country, it has a population of 693,797 (2017). It is the capital of Łódź Voivodeship , and is approximately 135 kilometres (84 mi) south-west of Warsaw
Warsaw
. The city's coat of arms is an example of canting : depicting a boat. It alludes to the city's name which translates literally as "boat."

Łódź
Łódź
was once a small settlement that first appeared in written records in around 1332. In the early 15th century it was granted city rights , but remained a rather small and insubstantial town. It was the property of Kuyavian bishops and clergy until the end of the 18th century, when Łódź
Łódź
was annexed by Prussia as a result of the second partition of Poland
Poland
. Following the collapse of the independent Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
, the city became part of Congress Poland
Poland
, a client state of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. It was then that Łódź
Łódź
experienced rapid growth in the cloth industry and in population due the inflow of migrants, most notably Germans and Jews. Ever since the industrialization of the area, the city has struggled with many difficulties such as multinationalism and social inequality, which were vividly documented in the novel The Promised Land written by Polish Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
-winning author Władysław Reymont
Władysław Reymont
. The contrasts greatly reflected on the architecture of the city, where luxurious mansions coexisted with redbrick factories and old tenement houses.

After Poland
Poland
regained its independence in 1918, Łódź
Łódź
grew to be one of the largest Polish cities and one of the most multicultural and industrial centers in Europe
Europe
. The interbellum period saw rapid development in education and healthcare. After the invasion of Poland in 1939, the German Army captured the city and renamed it Litzmannstadt in honour of the German general Karl Litzmann , who was victorious near the area during World War I
World War I
. The city's large Jewish population was forced into a walled zone known as the Łódź Ghetto , from which they were sent to German concentration and extermination camps . Following the liberation of the city by the Soviet Army , Łódź, which sustained insignificant damage during the war, became part of the newly established Polish People\'s Republic .

After years of prosperity during the socialist era , Łódź experienced decline after the fall of communism throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Only in the 2010s has the city witnessed large-scale regeneration of its downtown area, an ongoing effort that culminated in Łódź
Łódź
being granted more than 4 billion PLN by the Polish government and the European Union to complete the project. The city is internationally known for its National Film School , a cradle for the most renowned Polish actors and directors, including Andrzej Wajda and Roman Polanski , and in 2017 was inducted into the UNESCO Creative Cities network and named UNESCO
UNESCO
City of Film.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Century of partitions: 1815 Congress of Vienna * 1.2 Restored Poland
Poland
after the First World War * 1.3 Occupation of Poland
Poland
by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* 1.4 After World War II
World War II
in the Polish People\'s Republic

* 2 Economy * 3 Climate * 4 Tourism

* 5 Education

* 5.1 National Film School in Łódź

* 6 Transport

* 6.1 Airport * 6.2 Public Transport * 6.3 Rail

* 7 Łódź
Łódź
in literature and cinema * 8 Sports * 9 Government

* 10 International relations

* 10.1 Twin towns – sister cities

* 11 Points of interest * 12 Notable residents * 13 Notable descendants of Łódź
Łódź
residents * 14 See also

* 15 References

* 15.1 Bibliography * 15.2 Notes

* 16 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Łódź Sigillum oppidi Lodzia - seal dating back to 1577

Łódź
Łódź
first appears in the written record in a 1332 document giving the village of Łodzia to the bishops of Włocławek . In 1423 King Władysław II Jagiełło officially granted city rights to the village of Łódź. From then until the 18th century the town remained a small settlement on a trade route between the provinces of Masovia and Silesia . In the 16th century the town had fewer than 800 inhabitants, mostly working on the surrounding grain farms.

With the second partition of Poland
Poland
in 1793, Łódź
Łódź
became part of the Kingdom of Prussia 's province of South Prussia , and was known in German as Lodsch. In 1798 the Prussians nationalised the town, and it lost its status as a town of the bishops of Kuyavia
Kuyavia
. In 1806 Łódź joined the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
and in 1810 it had approximately 190 inhabitants. After the 1815 Congress of Vienna treaty it became part of the Congress Kingdom of Poland
Poland
, a client state of the Russian Empire .

CENTURY OF PARTITIONS: 1815 CONGRESS OF VIENNA

The Great Synagogue was the main prayer house for the local Jewish community . It was destroyed during World War II
World War II
Many tenement houses often reflected the social status of owners and industrialists

In the 1815 treaty, it was planned to renew the dilapidated town and with the 1816 decree by the Czar a number of German immigrants received territory deeds for them to clear the land and to build factories and housing. In 1820 Stanisław Staszic
Stanisław Staszic
aided in changing the small town into a modern industrial centre. The immigrants came to the Promised Land (Ziemia obiecana, the city's nickname) from all over Europe. Mostly they arrived from Southern Germany
Germany
, Silesia and Bohemia , but also from countries as far away as Portugal, England, France
France
and Ireland. The first cotton mill opened in 1825, and 14 years later the very first steam-powered factory in both Poland
Poland
and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
commenced operations. In 1839, over 78% of the population was German, and German schools and churches were established.

A constant influx of workers, businessmen and craftsmen from all over Europe
Europe
transformed Łódź
Łódź
into the main textile production centre of the mighty Russian Empire
Russian Empire
spanning from East-Central Europe
Europe
all the way to Alaska
Alaska
. Three groups dominated the city's population and contributed the most to the city's development: Poles, Germans and Jews, who started to arrive since 1848. Many of the Łódź craftspeople were weavers from Upper and Lower Silesia .

In 1850, Russia
Russia
abolished the customs barrier between Congress Poland and Russia
Russia
proper and therefore industry in Łódź
Łódź
could now develop freely with a huge Russian market not far away. Eventually the city became the second-largest city of Congress Poland. In 1865 the first railroad line opened (to Koluszki , branch line of the Warsaw–Vienna railway ), and soon the city had rail links with Warsaw
Warsaw
and Białystok . Izrael Poznański Factory in 1895 Liberty Square pictured during the Second World War. The statue of Tadeusz Kościuszko
Tadeusz Kościuszko
was later dismantled by the German army Museum of Archeology and Ethnography at Liberty Square

One of the most important industrialists of Łódź
Łódź
was Karl Wilhelm Scheibler . In 1852 he came to Łódź
Łódź
and with Julius Schwarz together started buying property and building several factories. Scheibler later bought out Schwarz's share and thus became sole owner of a large business. After he died in 1881 his widow and other members of the family decided to pay homage to his memory by erecting a chapel , intended as a mausoleum with family crypt, in the Lutheran part of the Łódź
Łódź
cemetery on ulica Ogrodowa (later known as The Old Cemetery).

Between 1823 and 1873, the city's population doubled every ten years. The years 1870–1890 marked the period of most intense industrial development in the city's modern history. Many of the industrialists were of Jewish ethnicity. Łódź
Łódź
also soon became a major centre of the socialist movement. In 1892 a huge strike paralyzed most of the factories and manufacturing plants. According to Russian census of 1897 , out of the total population of 315,000, Jews constituted 99,000 (around 31% percent). During the 1905 Revolution , in what became known as the June Days or Łódź
Łódź
insurrection , Tsarist police killed hundreds of workers. By 1913, the Poles constituted almost half of the population (49.7%), the German minority had fallen to 14.8%, and the Jews made up 34%, out of some 506,000 inhabitants.

Historical population YEAR INHABITANTS

1793 190

1806 767

1830 4,300

1850 15,800

1880 77,600

1905 343,900

1925 538,600

1988 854,261

2003 781,900

2007 753,192

2009 742,387

2013 715,360

2016 698,688

Despite the air of impending crisis preceding World War I, the city grew constantly until 1914. By that year it had become one of the most densely populated as well as one of the most polluted industrial cities in the world—13,280 inhabitants per square kilometre (34,400/sq mi). A major battle was fought near the city in late 1914, and as a result the city came under German occupation after 6 December but with Polish independence restored in November 1918 the local population liberated the city and disarmed the German troops. In the aftermath of World War I, Łódź
Łódź
lost approximately 40% of its inhabitants, mostly owing to draft, diseases, pollution and primarily because of the mass expulsion of the city's German population back to Germany.

RESTORED POLAND AFTER THE FIRST WORLD WAR

In 1922, following the establishment of the Second Polish Republic , Łódź
Łódź
became the capital of the Łódź Voivodeship , but the period of rapid growth had ceased. The Great Depression of the 1930s and the Customs war with Germany
Germany
closed western markets to Polish textiles while the Bolshevik Revolution (1917) and the Civil War in Russia (1918–1922) put an end to the most profitable trade with the East. The city became a scene of a series of huge workers' protests and riots in the interbellum .

On 13 September 1925 a new airport, Lublinek Airport , began operations on the outskirts of the city. In the interwar years Łódź continued to be a diverse and multicultural city, with the 1931 Polish census showing that the total population of roughly 604,000 included 375,000 (59%) Poles, 192,000 (32%) Jews and 54,000 (9%) Germans (determined from the main language used). By 1939, the Jewish minority had grown to well over 200,000.

OCCUPATION OF POLAND BY NAZI GERMANY

See also: Battle of Łódź (1939) and Łódź Ghetto Memorial to Holocaust victims at Radegast railway station Izrael Poznański 's tomb at the New Jewish Cemetery in Łódź
Łódź

During the invasion of Poland
Poland
, the Polish forces of General Juliusz Rómmel 's Łódź Army defended the city against initial German attacks. The Wehrmacht nevertheless captured the city on 8 September. Despite plans for the city to become a Polish enclave attached to the General Government
General Government
, the Nazi hierarchy respected the wishes of many ethnically German residents and of the Reichsgau Wartheland
Reichsgau Wartheland
governor Arthur Greiser
Arthur Greiser
by annexing the city to the Reich in November 1939. Many Germans in the city, however, refused to sign the Volksliste and become Volksdeutsche
Volksdeutsche
; they were deported by the General Government. The city was given the new name of "Litzmannstadt" after Karl Litzmann , the German general who had captured it during World War I.

The Nazi authorities soon established the Łódź Ghetto in the city and populated it with more than 200,000 Jews from the Łódź
Łódź
area. As Jews were deported from Litzmannstadt for extermination, others were brought in. Several concentration camps and death camps arose in the city's vicinity for the non-Jewish inhabitants of the regions, among them the infamous Radogoszcz prison and several minor camps for the Romani people and for Polish children. Due to the value of the goods that the ghetto population produced for the German military and various civilian contractors, it was the last major ghetto to be liquidated, in August 1944.

While occupied, thousands of new ethnic German Volksdeutsche
Volksdeutsche
came to Łódź
Łódź
from all across Europe, many of whom were repatriated from Russia
Russia
during the time of Hitler's alliance with the Soviet Union before Operation "Barbarossa" . In January 1945, most of the German population fled the city for fear of the Red Army . The city also suffered tremendous losses due to the German policy of requisition of all factories and machines and transporting them to Germany. Thus, despite relatively small losses due to fighting and aerial bombardment , Łódź
Łódź
was deprived of most of its industrial infrastructure.

Prior to World War II, Łódź's Jewish community numbered around 233,000 and accounted for one-third of the city's total population. The community was almost entirely wiped out in the Holocaust . By the end of the war, the city and its environs had lost approximately 420,000 of its pre-war inhabitants, including approximately 300,000 Polish Jews and 120,000 Poles.

On 1 August 1944 the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising erupted, and the fate of the remaining inhabitants of the Łódź Ghetto was sealed. During the last phase of its existence, some 25,000 inmates were murdered at Chełmno ; their bodies burned immediately after death. As the front approached, German officials decided to deport the remaining Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau aboard Holocaust trains . A handful of people were left alive in the ghetto to clean it up. Others remained in hiding with the Polish rescuers . When the Soviet army entered Łódź
Łódź
on 19 January 1945, only 877 Jews were still alive, 12 of whom were children. Of the 223,000 Jews in Łódź
Łódź
before the invasion, only 10,000 survived the Holocaust in other places.

The Soviet Red Army entered the city on 18 January 1945. According to Marshal Katukov , whose forces participated in the operation, the Germans retreated so suddenly that they had no time to evacuate or destroy any of the factories, as they had in other cities. Łódź subsequently became part of the People\'s Republic of Poland
Poland
.

AFTER WORLD WAR II IN THE POLISH PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC

Fountain on Dąbrowski Square

At the end of World War II, Łódź
Łódź
had fewer than 300,000 inhabitants. However the number began to grow as refugees from Warsaw and territories annexed by the Soviet Union migrated. Until 1948 the city served as a de facto capital of Poland, since events during and after the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising had thoroughly destroyed Warsaw, and most of the government and country administration resided in Łódź. Some planned moving the capital there permanently; however, this idea did not gain popular support and in 1948 the reconstruction of Warsaw began. Under the Polish Communist regime many of the rich industrialist and business magnate families lost their wealth when the authorities nationalised private companies. Once again the city became a major centre of industry. A number of extensive panel block housing estates (including Retkinia , Teofilów, Widzew, Radogoszcz and Chojny) were constructed between 1960 and 1990, covering an area of almost 30 square kilometres (12 sq mi) and accommodating a large part of the city’s population. In mid-1981 Łódź
Łódź
became famous for its massive, 50,000-person hunger demonstration of local mothers and their children . In 1988 the population of the city peaked to 854,261, gradually dropping ever since. After the period of economic transition during the 1990s, most enterprises were again privatised.

ECONOMY

High-rise buildings in central Łódź
Łódź

Before 1990, Łódź's economy heavily focused on the textile industry , which in the nineteenth century had developed in the city owing to the favourable chemical composition of its water. Because of the growth in this industry, the city has sometimes been called the "Polish Manchester
Manchester
". As a result, Łódź
Łódź
grew from a population of 13,000 in 1840 to over 500,000 in 1913. By the time right before World War I Łódź
Łódź
had become one of the most densely populated industrial cities in the world, with 13,280 inhabitants per km2, and also one of the most polluted. The textile industry declined dramatically in 1990 and 1991, and no major textile company survives in Łódź
Łódź
today. However, countless small companies still provide a significant output of textiles, mostly for export to Russia
Russia
and other countries of the former Soviet Union . Izrael Poznański\'s Palace

The city benefits from its central location in Poland. A number of firms have located their logistics centres in the vicinity. Two motorways, A1 spanning from the north to the south of Poland, and A2 going from the east to the west, intersect northeast of the city. As of 2012 , the A2 is complete to Warsaw
Warsaw
and the northern section of A1 is largely completed. With these connections, the advantages due to the city's central location should increase even further. Work has also begun on upgrading the railway connection with Warsaw, which reduced the 2-hour travel time to make the 137 km (85 mi) journey 1.5 hours in 2009. In the next few years much of the track will be modified to handle trains moving at 160 km/h (99 mph), cutting the travel time by an additional 15 minutes.

Recent years has seen many foreign companies opening and establishing their offices in Łódź. Indian IT company Infosys
Infosys
has one of its centres in the city. In January 2009 Dell
Dell
announced that it will shift production from its plant in Limerick
Limerick
, Ireland to its plant in Łódź, largely because the labour costs in Poland
Poland
are a fraction of those in Ireland. The city's investor friendly policies have attracted 980 foreign investors by January 2009. Foreign investment was one of the factors which decreased the unemployment rate in Łódź
Łódź
to 6.5 percent in December 2008, from 20 percent four years earlier.

CLIMATE

Łódź
Łódź
has a humid continental climate (Dfb in the Koeppen climate classification ).

CLIMATE DATA FOR ŁóDź

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 12.8 (55) 17.5 (63.5) 21.0 (69.8) 28.0 (82.4) 32.7 (90.9) 35.0 (95) 37.3 (99.1) 37.6 (99.7) 34.7 (94.5) 27.8 (82) 18.9 (66) 14.8 (58.6) 37.6 (99.7)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 0.5 (32.9) 2.0 (35.6) 6.7 (44.1) 13.3 (55.9) 18.8 (65.8) 21.3 (70.3) 24.0 (75.2) 23.6 (74.5) 18.3 (64.9) 12.5 (54.5) 5.8 (42.4) 1.7 (35.1) 12.4 (54.3)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −1.5 (29.3) −0.6 (30.9) 3.1 (37.6) 8.6 (47.5) 13.8 (56.8) 16.4 (61.5) 18.9 (66) 18.4 (65.1) 13.8 (56.8) 8.8 (47.8) 3.5 (38.3) −0.2 (31.6) 8.6 (47.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −3.6 (25.5) −3.2 (26.2) −0.5 (31.1) 4.0 (39.2) 8.7 (47.7) 11.6 (52.9) 13.9 (57) 13.3 (55.9) 9.2 (48.6) 5.2 (41.4) 1.2 (34.2) −2 (28) 4.8 (40.6)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −31.1 (−24) −28.9 (−20) −21.1 (−6) −8 (18) −3.1 (26.4) 1.4 (34.5) 5.0 (41) 3.3 (37.9) 0.8 (33.4) −9.2 (15.4) −16.8 (1.8) −20.8 (−5.4) −31.1 (−24)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 40.7 (1.602) 36.3 (1.429) 39.7 (1.563) 33.5 (1.319) 63.5 (2.5) 65.2 (2.567) 90.0 (3.543) 56.5 (2.224) 42.1 (1.657) 37.6 (1.48) 40.8 (1.606) 35.9 (1.413) 582 (22.91)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 17 15 14 11 14 14 14 12 11 12 14 16 166

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 41 62 120 190 245 249 247 236 163 115 50 36 1,753

Source:

TOURISM

Sculpture of Artur Rubinstein on Piotrkowska Street in Łódź, where Rubinstein was born and raised Light Move Festival in Łódź
Łódź

The Piotrkowska Street, which remains the high-street and main tourist attraction in the city, runs north to south for a little over five kilometres (3.1 miles). This makes it one of the longest commercial streets in the world. Most of the building façades, many of which date back to the 19th century, have been renovated. It is the site of most restaurants, bars and cafes in Łódź's city centre. Many neglected tenement houses throughout the entire city centre have been renovated in recent years as part of the ongoing ‘mia100 kamienic’ project run by the local authorities. The best example of urban regeneration in Łódź
Łódź
is the Manufaktura complex, occupying a large area of a former cotton factory dating back to the nineteenth century. The site, which was the heart of Izrael Poznański 's industrial empire, now hosts a shopping mall, numerous restaurants, 4-star hotel, multiplex cinema, factory museum, bowling and fitness facilities and a science exhibition centre. Opened in 2006, it quickly became “a centre of cultural entertainment and shopping integrating the residents of the city” as well as a recognizable city landmark attracting both domestic and foreign tourists. The city is also likely to receive a large boost in terms of tourism once the massive revitalization project of the city’s downtown (worth 4 billion PLN) is completed. The local government’s efforts to transform the former industrial city into a thriving urban environment and tourist destination form the basis for the city’s bid to organise the 2022 International EXPO exhibition on the subject of urban renewal.

Łódź
Łódź
has one of the best museums of modern art in Poland. Muzeum Sztuki has three branches, two of which (ms1 and ms2) display collections of 20th and 21st century art. The newest addition to the museum, ms2 was opened in 2008 in the Manufaktura complex. The unique collection of the Museum is presented in an unconventional way: instead of a chronological lecture on the development of art, works of art representing various periods and movements are arranged into a story touching themes and motifs important for the contemporary public. The third branch of Muzeum Sztuki, located in one of the city’s many industrial palaces, also has more traditional art on display, presenting works by European and Polish masters (including Stanisław Wyspiański
Stanisław Wyspiański
and Henryk Rodakowski ). Among the 14 registered museums to be found in Łódź, there is the independent Book Art Museum, awarded the American Printing History Association’s Institutional Award for 2015 for its outstanding contribution to the study, recording, preservation and dissemination of printing history in Poland
Poland
over the last 35 years. Other notable museums include the Central Museum of Textiles with its open-air display of wooden architecture, the Cinematography Museum, located in Karl Wilhelm Scheibler’s palace, and the Museum of Independence Traditions, occupying the building of a historical Tsarist prison from the late 19th century. A more unusual establishment, the Dętka museum offers tourists a chance to visit the municipal sewer designed in the early years of the 20th century by the British engineer William Heerlein Lindley .

Łódź
Łódź
also provides plenty of green spaces for recreation. Woodland areas cover 9.61% of the city, with parks taking up an additional 2.37% of the area of Łódź
Łódź
(as of 2014). Las Łagiewnicki (Łagiewnicki Forest), the largest forest within city limits, is referred to in scholarship as “the largest forested area within the administrative borders of any city in Europe.” It has an area of 1,245 ha and is cut across by a number of hiking trails that traverse the hilly landscape on the western edge of Łódź
Łódź
Hills Landscape Park . A “natural complex which has remained nearly intact as oak-hornbeam and oak woodland,” the forest is also rich in history, and its attractions include a Franciscan friary dating back to the early 18th century and two 17th-century wooden chapels. Out of a total of 44 parks in Łódź
Łódź
(as of 2014), 11 have historical status, the oldest of them dating back to the middle of the 19th century. The largest of these, Józef Piłsudski Park (188,21 ha), is located near the city’s zoo and botanical garden, and together with them it comprises an extensive green complex known as Zdrowie serving the recreational needs of the city.

The Jewish Cemetery at Bracka Street , one of the largest of its kind in Europe, was established in 1892. After the German occupation of Poland
Poland
in 1939, this cemetery became a part of Łódź's eastern territory known as the enclosed Łódź
Łódź
ghetto (Ghetto Field). Between 1940 and 1944, approximately 43,000 burials took place within the grounds of this rounded-up cemetery. In 1956, a monument by Muszko in memory of the victims of the Łódź Ghetto was erected at the cemetery. It features a smooth obelisk, a menorah , and a broken oak tree with leaves stemming from the tree (symbolizing death, especially death at a young age). As of 2014 the cemetery has an area of 39.6 hectare. It contains approximately 180,000 graves, approximately 65,000 labelled tombstones, ohels and mausoleums. Many of these monuments have significant architectural value; 100 of these have been declared historical monuments and have been in various stages of restoration. The mausoleum of Izrael and Eleanora Poznanski is perhaps the largest Jewish tombstone in the world and the only one decorated with mosaics. On 20 November 2012 more than 20 gravestones, some of which were from the 19th century, were destroyed at the Jewish cemetery in an apparently anti-Semitic act.

*

Commercial mural at Piotrkowska Street *

Piotrkowska Street - the main promenade of the city *

EC1 - former power station, now a museum and planetarium *

Manufaktura - once a textile factory, now a shopping centre

EDUCATION

Łódź
Łódź
University of Technology rector's office (formerly Reinhold Richter Villa , 1904) Main article: Education in Łódź

Łódź
Łódź
is a thriving center of academic life. Currently Łódź hosts three major state-owned universities, six higher education establishments operating for more than a half of the century, and a number of smaller schools of higher education. The tertiary institutions with the most students in Łódź
Łódź
include:

* University of Łódź (UŁ - Uniwersytet Łódzki) * Lodz University of Technology (TUL - Politechnika Łódzka) * Medical University of Łódź (Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi) * National Film School in Łódź (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Filmowa, Telewizyjna i Teatralna w Łodzi) * Academy of Music in Łódź (Akademia Muzyczna im. Grażyna i Kiejstuta Bacewiczów w Łodzi) * Academy of Fine Arts In Łódź (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Wł. Strzemińskiego w Łodzi)

In the 2017 general ranking of state-owned tertiary education institutions in Poland, the University of Łódź came 15th (6th place among universities), one place lower than Lodz University of Technology (6th place among technical universities). The Medical University of Łódź was ranked 6th among Polish medical universities. Leading courses taught in Łódź
Łódź
include transport (TUL - 3rd place nationwide), architecture (TUL - 5th place) and administration (UŁ - 5th place).

There is also a number of private-owned institutions of higher learning in Łódź. The largest of these are the University of Social Sciences (Społeczna Akademia Nauk) and the University of Humanities and Economics in Łódź
Łódź
(Akademia Humanistyczno-Ekonomiczna w Łodzi). In the 2017 ranking of private universities in Poland, the former was ranked 9th, and the latter 19th.

NATIONAL FILM SCHOOL IN ŁóDź

National Film School at Oskar Kon Palace Main article: National Film School in Łódź

Leon Schiller
Leon Schiller
National Higher School of Film, Television and Theatre in Łódź
Łódź
(Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Filmowa, Telewizyjna i Teatralna im. Leona Schillera w Łodzi) is the most notable academy for future actors, directors, photographers, camera operators and TV staff in Poland. It was founded on 8 March 1948 and was initially planned to be moved to Warsaw
Warsaw
as soon as the city was rebuilt following the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising . However, in the end the school remained in Łódź
Łódź
and today is one of the best-known institutions of higher education in the city.

At the end of the Second World War Łódź
Łódź
remained the only large Polish city besides Kraków
Kraków
which war had not destroyed. The creation of the National Film School gave Łódź
Łódź
a role of greater importance from a cultural viewpoint, which before the war had belonged exclusively to Warsaw
Warsaw
and Kraków. Early students of the School include the directors Andrzej Munk , Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
, Kazimierz Karabasz (one of the founders of the so-called Black Series of Polish Documentary) and Janusz Morgenstern , who at the end of the 1950s became famous as one of the founders of the Polish Film School of Cinematography.

TRANSPORT

Major road network in the city Łódź
Łódź
tram network

Łódź
Łódź
is situated near the geographical centre of Poland
Poland
and as a result, is located near the main north-south and east-west transport routes. The city is served by the national motorway network , an international airport, and long-distance and regional railways. It is at the centre of a regional and commuter rail network operating from the city’s various train stations. Bus and tram services are operated by a municipal public transport company. There are 130 km (81 mi) of bicycle routes throughout the city.

The city is situated near the intersection of Poland’s main north-south and east-west freeways, the A1 and A2 respectively. The A1 connects Łódź
Łódź
with Gdańsk
Gdańsk
in the north and the Czech Republic in the south. The A2 connects the city with Warsaw
Warsaw
in the east, and Germany
Germany
, via Poznań
Poznań
in the west.

Major roads include:

* A1: Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Toruń
Toruń
Łódź
Łódź
Częstochowa
Częstochowa
– Cieszyn (national border) * A2: Świecko (national border) – Poznań
Poznań
Łódź
Łódź
– Warszawa * S8: Wrocław
Wrocław
Sieradz Łódź
Łódź
Piotrków Trybunalski
Piotrków Trybunalski
– Warszawa – Białystok * S14: Pabianice – Konstantynów Łódzki – Aleksandrów Łódzki – Zgierz * DK14: Łowicz – Stryków – Łódź
Łódź
– Zduńska Wola – Sieradz – Złoczew – Walichnowy * DK72: Konin – Turek – Poddębice – Łódź
Łódź
– Brzeziny – Rawa Mazowiecka

AIRPORT

Main article: Łódź
Łódź
Władysław Reymont
Władysław Reymont
Airport

The city has an international airport: Łódź
Łódź
Władysław Reymont Airport located 6 kilometres (4 miles) from the city centre. Flights connect the city with destinations in Europe
Europe
and Turkey. In 2014 the airport handled 253,772 passengers. It is the 8th largest airport in Poland.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

See also: Trams in Łódź Trams in Łódź

The Municipal Transport Company – Łódź
Łódź
(Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne – Łódź), owned by the Łódź City Government, is responsible for operating 58 bus routes and 19 tram lines.

RAIL

Łódź
Łódź
has a number of long distance and local railway stations. There are two main stations in the city, but with no direct rail connection between them—a legacy of 19th-century railway network planning. Originally constructed in 1866, the centrally-located Łódź Fabryczna was a terminus station for a branch line of the Warsaw-Vienna railway , whereas Łódź
Łódź
Kaliska was built more than thirty years later on the central section of the Warsaw- Kalisz
Kalisz
railway . For this reason most intercity train traffic goes to this day through Łódź
Łódź
Kaliska station, despite its relative distance from the city centre, and Łódź Fabryczna serves mainly as a terminal station for trains to Warsaw
Warsaw
. The situation will be remedied in 2021 after the construction of a tunnel connecting the two, which is likely to make Łódź
Łódź
Poland’s main railway hub. The tunnel will additionally serve Łódź
Łódź
Commuter Railway , providing a rapid transit system for the city, dubbed the Łódź
Łódź
Metro by the media and local authorities. Two new stations are to be constructed on the underground line, one serving the needs of the Manufaktura complex and the other located in the area of Piotrkowska Street .

In December 2016, a few years after the demolition of the old building of Łódź Fabryczna station, a new underground station was opened. It is considered to be the largest and most modern of all train stations in Poland
Poland
and is designed to handle increased traffic after the construction of the underground tunnel. It also serves as a multimodal transport hub, featuring an underground intercity bus station, and is integrated with a new transport interchange serving taxis and local trams and buses. The construction of the new Łódź Fabryczna station was part of a broader project of urban renewal known as Nowe Centrum Łodzi (New Centre of Łódź).

The third-largest train station in Łódź
Łódź
is Łódź
Łódź
Widzew . There are also many other stations and train stops in the city, many of which were upgraded as part of the Łódzka Kolej Aglomeracyjna commuter rail project. The rail service, founded as part of a major regional rail upgrade and owned by Łódź Voivodeship , operates on routes to Kutno , Sieradz , Skierniewice , Łowicz , and on selected days to Warsaw
Warsaw
, with plans for further expansion after the construction of the underground tunnel.

ŁóDź IN LITERATURE AND CINEMA

The contrast between the living conditions in industrial Łódź were often mentioned in arts and literature. A notable example is The Promised Land , a novel by Władysław Reymont
Władysław Reymont

Three major novels depict the development of industrial Łódź: Władysław Reymont
Władysław Reymont
's The Promised Land (1898), Joseph Roth
Joseph Roth
's Hotel Savoy (1924) and Israel Joshua Singer 's The Brothers Ashkenazi (1937). Roth's novel depicts the city on the eve of a workers' riot in 1919. Reymont's novel was made into a film by Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
in 1975. In the 1990 film Europa Europa , Solomon Perel 's family flees pre- World War II
World War II
Berlin and settles in Łódź. Scenes of David Lynch 's 2006 film Inland Empire were shot in Łódź. Paweł Pawlikowski 's film Ida was partially shot in Łódź. Sections of Harry Turtledove 's Worldwar alternate history series take place in Łódź.

SPORTS

Atlas Arena in Łódź
Łódź

The city has experience as a host for international sporting events such as the 2009 EuroBasket .

Under communism it was common for clubs to participate in many different sports for all ages and sexes. Many of these traditional clubs still survive today. Originally they were owned directly by a public body, but now they are independently operated by clubs or private companies. However they get public support through the cheap rent of land and other subsidies from the city. Some of their sections have gone professional and separated from the clubs as private companies. For example, Budowlani S.A is a private company that owns the only professional rugby team in Łódź, while Klub Sportowy Budowlani remains a community amateur club.

* Budowlani Łódź – rugby (six times Polish champions), hockey , wrestling , volleyball * ŁKS Łódź – association football (two times Polish champions), basketball (Polish champions 1953), volleyball (two times Polish champions), handball , boxing * SMS Łódź
Łódź
– association football, volleyball, basketball * KS Społem Łódź
Łódź
– road and track cycling * SKS Start Łódź
Łódź
– football, swimming * Widzew Łódź – association football (four time Polish champions, semi-finalists of the 1982–83 European Cup )

In Ekstraklasa of Polish beach soccer Łódź
Łódź
have three professional clubs: Grembach , KP and BSCC

GOVERNMENT

Hanna Zdanowska , city mayor since 2010 See also: List of mayors of Łódź
Łódź

Former city mayors following the collapse of communism include:

* Waldemar Bohdanowicz, Solidarity (November 1989 – 1990) – appointed by Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki * Grzegorz Palka (1990–1994) * Marek Czekalski, Freedom Union (1994–1998) * Tadeusz Matusiak, SLD (1998–2001) * Krzysztof Panas, SLD (2001–2002) * Krzysztof Jagiełło, SLD (2002) * Jerzy Kropiwnicki , Christian-National Union (ZChN) (2002–2010) * Tomasz Sadzyński, Platforma Obywatelska / Civic Platform (temporary in 2010) * Hanna Zdanowska , Platforma Obywatelska / Civic Platform

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
Poland

Łódź
Łódź
is home to nine foreign consulates, all of which are Honorary. They are subordinate to the following states main representation in Poland: French, Danish, German, Austrian, British, Belgian, Latvian, Hungarian and Moldavian.

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Łódź
Łódź
is twinned with:

* Chemnitz
Chemnitz
in Germany
Germany
(since 1972) * Stuttgart
Stuttgart
in Germany
Germany
(since 1988) * Lyon
Lyon
in France
France
(since 1991) * Vilnius
Vilnius
in Lithuania
Lithuania
(since 1991) * Ivanovo
Ivanovo
in Russia
Russia
(since 1992) * Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
in Russia
Russia
(since 2002) * Minsk
Minsk
in Belarus
Belarus
(since 1992) * Odessa
Odessa
in Ukraine
Ukraine
(since 1993) * Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
in Israel
Israel
(since 1994)

* Tianjin
Tianjin
in People's Republic of China
China
(since 1994) * Rustavi
Rustavi
in Georgia (since 1995) * Barreiro in Portugal
Portugal
(since 1996) * Tampere
Tampere
in Finland
Finland
(since 1996) * Puebla in Mexico
Mexico
(since 1996) * Murcia
Murcia
in Spain
Spain
(since 1999) * Örebro
Örebro
in Sweden
Sweden
(since 2001) * Lviv
Lviv
in Ukraine
Ukraine
(since 2003) * Szeged
Szeged
in Hungary
Hungary
(since 2008) * Guangzhou
Guangzhou
in People's Republic of China
China
(since 2014)

Łódź
Łódź
belongs also to the Eurocities
Eurocities
network.

POINTS OF INTEREST

*

Łódź
Łódź
City Hall, formerly Heinzel Palace *

International Faculty of Engineering (TUL ) *

Andel's Hotel, near Manufaktura shopping mall *

Music Academy, formerly Poznański Palace *

White Factory *

Piotrkowska Street *

Izrael Poznański\'s Palace *

Arch-cathedral of Saint Stanislaus Kostka *

Alexander Nevsky Orthodox church *

Teodor Steigert's Tenement House *

Scheiblers' Tenement House *

Herman Konstadt's Tenement House *

Mieczysław Pinkus and Jakub Lende's Tenement House *

Maurycy Poznański Palace *

Wilhelm Landau Bank *

Ludwik Geyer House *

Concert Hall *

Church of the Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary *

Poniatowski's Park *

Łódź
Łódź
Airport *

Łódź Fabryczna railway station

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

* Daniel Amit , Israeli physicist * Grażyna Bacewicz , composer * Aleksander Bardini , stage director and actor * Andrzej Bartkowiak
Andrzej Bartkowiak
, cameraman and film director * Jurek Becker (1937–1997), writer * Kazimierz Brandys , writer * Artur Brauner , film producer * Jacob Bronowski
Jacob Bronowski
, writer, mathematician, and Britain's leading academic TV figure of the 1970s. * Sabina Citron , Holocaust survivor, activist, and author * Bat-Sheva Dagan , Holocaust survivor, teacher, psychologist, author * Karl Dedecius , translator * Karl Dominik (Born:Karol Dominik Ignaczak), China's first Chinese speaking Polish actor * Marek Edelman , Holocaust survivor, one of the leaders of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising , Solidarity activist, Polish politician, human rights activist * Max Factor, Sr. , businessman, founder of the Max Factor
Max Factor
cosmetics company * Dov Freiberg , Holocaust survivor and writer * Joseph Friedenson , Holocaust survivor and writer * Piotr Fronczewski , Polish actor * Marcin Gortat , NBA basketball player for the Washington Wizards * Mendel Grossman , Łódź
Łódź
ghetto photographer * Józef Hecht (1891–1951), engraver and printmaker * Josef Joffe , journalist * Jan Karski
Jan Karski
, diplomat and antinazi resistant * Aharon Katzir (1914–1972), Israeli pioneer in study of electrochemistry of biopolymers; killed in Lod Airport Massacre * Lea Koenig , Israeli actress * Paul Klecki , conductor * Katarzyna Kobro , sculptor * Jerzy Kosinski , writer * Jan Kowalewski , Polish cryptologist who broke Soviet military codes and ciphers during the Polish-Soviet War * Karolina Kowalkiewicz , UFC Strawweight Title challenger * Feliks W. Kres , fantasy writer * Nathan Lewin , Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
attorney * Daniel Libeskind
Daniel Libeskind
, architect * Tadeusz Miciński , poet * Zew Wawa Morejno , Chief Rabbi * Zbigniew Nienacki , writer * Marian P. Opala , Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice * Adam Ostrowski , better known as O.S.T.R., rapper * Władysław Pasikowski , director * Roman Polanski , cinema director, Oscar and Golden Palm winner * Piotr Pustelnik , alpine and high-altitude climber, the 20th man to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders. * Ze\'ev Raban , Israeli painter and sculptor * Władysław Reymont
Władysław Reymont
, writer, Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winner * Joseph Rotblat , Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winner * Stefan Rozental , nuclear physicist * Artur Rubinstein , pianist * Arnold Rutkowski , opera singer * Zbigniew Rybczyński , animator and Oscar winner * Marek Saganowski , football player * Andrzej Sapkowski
Andrzej Sapkowski
, fantasy writer * Carl Wilhelm Scheibler (1820–1881), one of the most important Łódź
Łódź
industrialists * Piotr Sobociński , cinematographer * Andrzej Sontag , track-and-field star * Natan Spigel (1900–1942), painter * Władysław Strzemiński , painter, Kobro's husband * Arthur Szyk , artist * Aleksander Tansman , composer and pianist * Jack Tramiel
Jack Tramiel
, computer manufacturer, founder of Commodore * Julian Tuwim , poet * Miś Uszatek , cartoon character * Michał Wiśniewski , singer * Hanna Zdanowska , politician * Aleksandra Ziółkowska-Boehm , writer * Jerzy Janowicz , tennis player

NOTABLE DESCENDANTS OF ŁóDź RESIDENTS

* Ben Burns , American editor of African American publications * Lou Gold , American composer, pianist and band leader * Amy Totenberg , American district judge * Nina Totenberg , American NPR legal affairs correspondent * Barbara Walters
Barbara Walters
, American journalist, author, and television personality * Ada Yonath , Israeli crystallographer and Nobel laureate

SEE ALSO

* Łódź Design Festival

REFERENCES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

See also: Bibliography of the history of Łódź
Łódź

* Alan Adelson and Robert Lapides, Łódź Ghetto : A Community History Told in Diaries, Journals, and Documents, Viking, 1989. ISBN 0-670-82983-8 * "A Stairwell in Lodz," Constance Cappel, 2004, Xlibris, (in English). * Horwitz, Gordon J. (2009). Ghettostadt: Łódź
Łódź
and the making of a Nazi city. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press . pp. 27, 54–55, 62. ISBN 0674038797 . Retrieved 21 March 2015 – via Google Book, preview. * "Lodz – The Last Ghetto in Poland," Michal Unger, Yad Vashem , 600 pages (in Hebrew) * Stefański, Krzysztof (2000). Gmachy użyteczności publicznej dawnej Łodzi, Łódź
Łódź
2000 ISBN 83-86699-45-0 . * Stefański, Krzysztof (2009). Ludzie którzy zbudowali Łódź Leksykon architektów i budowniczych miasta (do 1939 roku), Łódź 2009 ISBN 978-83-61253-44-0 . * Trunk, Isaiah; Shapiro, Robert Moses (2006). Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto: a history. Indiana University Press , Bloomington, Indiana. ISBN 978-0-253-34755-8 . Retrieved 6 March 2010. * Trunk, Isaiah ; Shapiro, Robert Moses (2008) . Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto: A History. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press . ISBN 0253347556 . Retrieved 29 September 2015 – via Google Book, preview.

NOTES

* ^ Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. * ^ /luːdʒ/ , /lɒdz/ , /wʊtʃ/ * ^ Population in Poland. Size and Structure by Territorial Division, As of June 30, 2017 (PDF). Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny. 2017. p. 71. ISSN 1734-6118 . * ^ A B "Lodz – Tourism Tourist Information – Lodz, Poland". staypoland.com. eTravel S.A. * ^ Cysek-Pawlak, Monika; Krzysztofik, Sylwia (2017). "Integrated Approach as a Means of Leading the Degraded Post-Industrial Areas Out of Crisis - A Case Study of Lodz". IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 245: 1–8. doi :10.1088/1757-899X/245/8/082036 . eISSN 1757-899X . ISSN 1757-8981 . Retrieved 6 November 2017. * ^ A B “4 Billion PLN for Revitalization of Downtown Łódź.” lodzpost.com. Retrieved 18 July 2017. * ^ "Poland’s Łódź
Łódź
named UNESCO
UNESCO
City of Film." Radio Poland. Retrieved 3 November 2017. * ^ A B Wiesław Puś, Stefan Pytlas. " Industry
Industry
and Trade in Łódź
Łódź
and the Eastern Markets in Partitioned Poland". In: Uwe Müller, Helga Schultz. National borders and economic disintegration in modern East Central Europe. Berlin Verlag A. Spitz. 2002. p. 69. * ^ "Neues Leben in alten Fabriken: Lódz baut auf Kultur" (in German). Weser Kurier. 22 September 2009. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2009. * ^ "Foundation For Saving Karol Scheibler\'s Chapel". Scheibler.org.pl. Retrieved 25 January 2010. * ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman , Poles, Jews, and the Politics of Nationality, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 0-299-19464-7 , Google Print, p.16 * ^ Robert Bubczyk. A History of Poland
Poland
in Outline. Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Press. 2002. p. 68. * ^ Geoffrey Jukes, Peter Simkins, Michael Hickey, The First World War: The Eastern Front, 1914–1918, 2002, p. 28 * ^ Gilbert, Martin (1994). The First World War: A Complete History. New York: Henry Holt and Company
Henry Holt and Company
. p. 107. ISBN 080501540X . * ^ Alan D. Axelrod, The Complete Idiot's Guide to World War I, 2001, p. 108 * ^ Gordon J Horwitz. Ghettostadt: Łódź
Łódź
and the Making of a Nazi City. Harvard University Press . 2009. p. 3. * ^ A B John Radzilowski; C. Peter Chen, Invasion of Poland: 1 Sep 1939 – 6 Oct 1939, ww2db.com, retrieved 17 February 2008 * ^ A B Biuletyn Informacyjny Obchodów 60. Rocznicy Likwidacji Litzmannstadt Getto. Nr 1-2. "The establishment of Litzmannstadt Ghetto", Torah Code website. Retrieved 21 March 2015. * ^ Isaiah Trunk : 2006, Page xi * ^ A B Jennifer Rosenberg (1998). "The Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 29 July 2011. * ^ A B C Jennifer Rosenberg (2015) . "The Lódz Ghetto (1939–1945)" (Reprinted with permission). History & Overview. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 19 March 2015. * ^ A B C D Jennifer Rosenberg (2006). "The Łódź
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Ghetto". Part 1 of 2. 20th Century History, About.com. Archived from the original (Internet Archive) on 30 April 2006. Retrieved 19 March 2015. Lodz Ghetto: Inside a Community Under Siege by Adelson, Alan and Robert Lapides (ed.), New York, 1989; The Documents of the Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto: An Inventory of the Nachman Zonabend Collection by Web, Marek (ed.), New York, 1988; The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry by Yahil, Leni, New York, 1991. * ^ A B C D The statistical data, compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" by Virtual Shtetl , Museum of the History of the Polish Jews , as well as "Getta Żydowskie" by Gedeon (in Polish) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters (in English). Accessed 25 March 2015. * ^ A B C D Abraham J. Peck (1997). "The Agony of the Łódź Ghetto, 1941–1944". The Chronicle of the Łódź
Łódź
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Łódź
to 27. * ^ “Discover the Book Art Museum, Łódź, Poland.” AEPM: Association of European Printing Museums. January 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2017. * ^ A B C Długoński, Andrzej; Szumański, Marek (2015). "Analysis of Green Infrastructure in Lodz, Poland". Journal of Urban Planning and Development. 141 (3): n. pag. doi :10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000242 . eISSN 1943-5444 . ISSN 0733-9488 . access-date= requires url= (help ) Article first published online in 2014. * ^ A B Jaskulski, Marcin; Szmidt, Aleksander (2015). "The Tourism Attractiveness of Landforms in Łagiewnicki Forest, Łódź". Tourism. 25 (2): 27–35. doi :10.1515/tour-2015-0003 . eISSN 2080-6922 . ISSN 0867-5856 . Retrieved 28 July 2017. (p. 27) * ^ See Jaskulski and Szmidt, p. 29, for a map of tourism trails in the forest. * ^ Grzegorczyk, Arkadiusz, ed. (2015). Ilustrowana Encyklopedia Historii Łodzi. Łódź. pp. 59–61. ISBN 978-83-939822-0-2 . * ^ Kaniewska, Anna. “Najstarsze łódzkie parki. Archiwum Państwowe w Łodzi. . 3 April 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2017. * ^ "Jewish Lodz Cemetery - About Cemetery At Bracka Street". Retrieved 25 January 2017. * ^ "The New Cemetery in Łódź". Lodz ShtetLinks. Retrieved 12 January 2013. * ^ "JEWISH CEMETERY". FUNDACJA MONUMENTUM IUDAICUM LODZENSE. Retrieved 12 January 2013. * ^ "Cmentarz żydowski w Łodzi zdewastowany ". Dziennik LODZKI. Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2013. * ^ A B Ranking szkół wyższych: Perspektywy 2017 12 June 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ Sourced from the Łódź
Łódź
article on the Polish language page on 19 July 2015 * ^ www.lifemotion.pl. "Our destinations – Port Lotniczy Łódź im. Władysława Reymonta". lodz.pl. * ^ www.lifemotion.pl. "Statistics – Port Lotniczy Łódź
Łódź
im. Władysława Reymonta". lodz.pl. * ^ Statistic taken from the Łódź
Łódź
Władysław Reymont
Władysław Reymont
Airport article on 19 July 2015. * ^ Sourced from the Łódź
Łódź
article on the Polish site on 19 July 2015 * ^ "About MPK – MPK-Lodz Spolka z o.o". lodz.pl. * ^ Grzegorczyk, p. 144. * ^ " Łódź
Łódź
railway tunnel tender announced". RailwayPro. 6 December 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2017. * ^ A B "Superdworzec już jest, będzie (prawie) metro. Łódź
Łódź
ma być komunikacyjnym centrum kraju". TVN24. 2 December 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2017. * ^ A B " Łódź
Łódź
będzie miała \'metro\'. I to już niedługo". Wyborcza.pl: Magazyn Łódź. 18 May 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2017. * ^ Rogaczewska, Beata (1 November 2016). " Łódź
Łódź
Fabryczna: największy podziemny dworzec kolejowy w Polsce i trzeci w Europie". rp.pl. Retrieved 3 August 2017. * ^ Kozlowski, Remigiusz; Palczewska, Anna; Jablonski, Jakub (2016). "The Scope and Capabilities of ITS – The Case of Łódź". In Mikulski, Jerzy. Challenge of Transport Telematics. Springer. pp. 305–16. ISBN 9783319496450 . (p. 308) * ^ "The New Centre of Łódź
Łódź
has a Local Action Plan – URBACT". urbact.eu. * ^ "Rekordowy rok Łódzkiej Kolei Aglomeracyjnej". kurierkolejowy.eu. 22 December 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2017. * ^ 2009 EuroBasket, ARCHIVE.FIBA.com, Retrieved 5 June 2016. * ^ "Szkoła Mistrzostwa Sportowego im. K. Górskiego w Łodzi – Oficjalna strona internetowa Szkoły Mistrzostwa Sportowego w Łodzi". smslodz.pl. * ^ "Spółdzielczy Klub Sportowy START Łódź
Łódź
ul. św. Teresy 56/58 – Oficjalny serwis". sksstart.com. * ^ "Twin Cities". The City of Łódź
Łódź
Office. (in English and Polish ) copyright 2007 UMŁ. 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2008. * ^ " Stuttgart
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Städtepartnerschaften". Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart, Abteilung Außenbeziehungen (in German). Retrieved 27 July 2013. * ^ "Partner Cities of Lyon
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City Hall. 2000. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2008. * ^ "Twin towns and Sister cities of Minsk
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" (in Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk
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City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013. * ^ " Tel Aviv
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- Lodz". Retrieved 25 January 2017. * ^ Holocaust chronicles... – Google Books. Books.google.com. May 1999. ISBN 978-0-88125-630-7 . Retrieved 25 January 2010. * ^ admin. "Jack Tramiel, founder of Commodore computers, Lodz survivor, dies at 83 - j. the Jewish news weekly of Northern California". Retrieved 25 January 2017.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ŁóDź .

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for ŁóDź .

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article LODZ .

* Official website * Public Transport Official Site * City map of Łódź * Historic images of Łódź * Łódź
Łódź
Special
Special
Economic Zone * Łódź-Lublinek Airport * The Łódź
Łódź
Post English language newspaper * The Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto

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