Łódź (/wuːtʃ/ WOOTCH, /lɒdz/ LODZ;
Polish: [wutɕ] ( listen); Yiddish: לאדזש,
Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland
and a former industrial centre. Located in the central part of the
country, it has a population of 693,797 (2017). It is the capital
Łódź Voivodeship, and is approximately 135 kilometres
(84 mi) south-west of Warsaw. The city's coat of arms is an
example of canting, as it depicts a boat (łódź), which alludes to
the city's name.
Łódź was once a small settlement that first appeared in written
records in around 1332. In the early 15th century it was granted city
rights, but remained a rather small and insubstantial town. It was the
property of Kuyavian bishops and clergy until the end of the 18th
Łódź was annexed by
Prussia as a result of the second
partition of Poland. Following the collapse of the independent Duchy
of Warsaw, the city became part of Congress Poland, a client state of
the Russian Empire. It was then that
Łódź experienced rapid growth
in the cloth industry and in population due to the inflow of migrants,
most notably Germans and Jews. Ever since the industrialization of the
area, the city has struggled with many difficulties such as
multinationalism and social inequality, which were vividly documented
in the novel The Promised Land written by Polish Nobel Prize-winning
author Władysław Reymont. The contrasts greatly reflected on the
architecture of the city, where luxurious mansions coexisted with
redbrick factories and old tenement houses.
Poland regained its independence in 1918,
Łódź grew to be one
of the largest Polish cities and one of the most multicultural and
industrial centers in Europe. The interbellum period saw rapid
development in education and healthcare. After the invasion of Poland
in 1939, the German Army captured the city and renamed it
Litzmannstadt in honour of the German general Karl Litzmann, who was
victorious near the area during World War I. The city's large Jewish
population was forced into a walled zone known as the
from which they were sent to German concentration and extermination
camps. Following the liberation of the city by the Soviet Army,
Łódź, which sustained insignificant damage during the war, became
part of the newly established Polish People's Republic.
After years of prosperity during the socialist era, Łódź
experienced decline after the fall of communism throughout Central and
Eastern Europe; however, it is currently experiencing revitalization
of its downtown area. The city is also internationally known for
its National Film School, a cradle for the most renowned Polish actors
and directors, including
Andrzej Wajda and Roman Polanski, and in
2017 was inducted into the
UNESCO Creative Cities network and named
UNESCO City of Film.
1.1 Century of partitions: 1815 Congress of Vienna
Poland after the First World War
1.3 Occupation of
Poland by Nazi Germany
World War II
World War II in the Polish People's Republic
2.3 Places of interest
2.4 Gallery of sights
4 Government and politics
4.1 International relations
4.1.1 Twin towns – sister cities
Łódź in literature and cinema
5.2 Notable residents
5.2.1 Notable descendants of
6 Economy and infrastructure
6.1.2 Public Transport
7.1 National Film School in Łódź
8 Horticultural Expo 2024
9 See also
11 External links
See also: Timeline of Łódź
Sigillum oppidi Lodzia - seal dating back to 1577
Łódź first appears in the written record in a 1332 document giving
the village of Łodzia to the bishops of Włocławek. In 1423 King
Władysław II Jagiełło officially granted city rights to the
village of Łódź. From then until the 18th century the town remained
a small settlement on a trade route between the provinces of Masovia
and Silesia. In the 16th century the town had fewer than 800
inhabitants, mostly working on the surrounding grain farms.
With the second partition of
Poland in 1793,
Łódź became part of
the Kingdom of Prussia's province of South Prussia, and was known in
German as Lodsch. In 1798 the Prussians nationalised the town, and it
lost its status as a town of the bishops of Kuyavia. In 1806 Łódź
joined the Napoleonic Duchy of
Warsaw and in 1810 it had approximately
190 inhabitants. After the 1815
Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna treaty it became
part of the Congress Kingdom of Poland, a client state of the Russian
Century of partitions: 1815 Congress of Vienna
The Great Synagogue was the main prayer house for the local Jewish
community. It was destroyed during World War II
Many tenement houses often reflected the social status of owners and
In the 1815 treaty, it was planned to renew the dilapidated town and
with the 1816 decree by the Czar a number of German immigrants
received territory deeds for them to clear the land and to build
factories and housing. In 1820
Stanisław Staszic aided in changing
the small town into a modern industrial centre. The immigrants came to
the Promised Land (Ziemia obiecana, the city's nickname) from all over
Europe. Mostly they arrived from Southern Germany,
Bohemia, but also from countries as far away as Portugal, England,
France and Ireland. The first cotton mill opened in 1825, and 14 years
later the very first steam-powered factory in both
Poland and the
Russian Empire commenced operations. In 1839, over 78% of the
population was German, and German schools and churches were
A constant influx of workers, businessmen and craftsmen from all over
Łódź into the main textile production centre of
Russian Empire spanning from East-Central
Europe all the
way to Alaska. Three groups dominated the city's population and
contributed the most to the city's development: Poles, Germans and
Jews, who started to arrive from 1848. Many of the Łódź
craftspeople were weavers from Upper and Lower Silesia.
Russia abolished the customs barrier between Congress Poland
Russia proper and therefore industry in
Łódź could now develop
freely with a huge Russian market not far away. Eventually the city
became the second-largest city of Congress Poland. In 1865 the first
railroad line opened (to Koluszki, branch line of the Warsaw–Vienna
railway), and soon the city had rail links with
Warsaw and Białystok.
Izrael Poznański Factory in 1895
Liberty Square pictured during the Second World War. The statue of
Tadeusz Kościuszko was later dismantled by the German army
Museum of Archeology and Ethnography at Liberty Square
One of the most important industrialists of
Łódź was Karl Wilhelm
Scheibler. In 1852 he came to
Łódź and with Julius Schwarz
together started buying property and building several factories.
Scheibler later bought out Schwarz's share and thus became sole owner
of a large business. After he died in 1881 his widow and other members
of the family decided to pay homage to his memory by erecting a
chapel, intended as a mausoleum with family crypt, in the Lutheran
part of the
Łódź cemetery on ulica Ogrodowa (later known as The Old
Between 1823 and 1873, the city's population doubled every ten years.
The years 1870–1890 marked the period of most intense industrial
development in the city's modern history. Many of the industrialists
were of Jewish ethnicity.
Łódź also soon became a major centre of
the socialist movement. In 1892 a huge strike paralyzed most of the
factories and manufacturing plants. According to Russian census of
1897, out of the total population of 315,000, Jews constituted 99,000
(around 31% percent). During the 1905 Revolution, in what became
known as the June Days or
Łódź insurrection, Tsarist police killed
hundreds of workers. By 1913, the Poles constituted almost half of
the population (49.7%), the German minority had fallen to 14.8%, and
the Jews made up 34%, out of some 506,000 inhabitants.
Despite the air of impending crisis preceding World War I, the city
grew constantly until 1914. By that year it had become one of the most
densely populated as well as one of the most polluted industrial
cities in the world—13,280 inhabitants per square kilometre
(34,400/sq mi). A major battle was fought near the city in late
1914, and as a result the city came under German occupation after 6
December but with Polish independence restored in November
1918 the local population liberated the city and disarmed the German
troops. In the aftermath of World War I,
Łódź lost approximately
40% of its inhabitants, mostly owing to draft, diseases, pollution and
primarily because of the mass expulsion of the city's German
population back to Germany.
Poland after the First World War
In 1922, following the establishment of the Second Polish Republic,
Łódź became the capital of the
Łódź Voivodeship, but the period
of rapid growth had ceased. The
Great Depression of the 1930s and the
Customs war with
Germany closed western markets to Polish textiles
while the Bolshevik Revolution (1917) and the Civil War in Russia
(1918–1922) put an end to the most profitable trade with the East.
The city became a scene of a series of huge workers' protests and
riots in the interbellum.
On 13 September 1925 a new airport, Lublinek Airport, began operations
on the outskirts of the city. In the interwar years
to be a diverse and multicultural city, with the 1931 Polish census
showing that the total population of roughly 604,000 included 375,000
(59%) Poles, 192,000 (32%) Jews and 54,000 (9%) Germans (determined
from the main language used). By 1939, the Jewish minority had grown
to well over 200,000.
Poland by Nazi Germany
Battle of Łódź (1939) and
Memorial to Holocaust victims at Radegast railway station
Izrael Poznański's tomb at the New Jewish Cemetery in Łódź
During the invasion of Poland, the Polish forces of General Juliusz
Łódź Army defended the city against initial German
Wehrmacht nevertheless captured the city on 8
September. Despite plans for the city to become a Polish enclave
attached to the General Government, the Nazi hierarchy respected the
wishes of many ethnically German residents and of the Reichsgau
Arthur Greiser by annexing the city to the Reich
in November 1939. Many Germans in the city, however, refused to sign
Volksliste and become Volksdeutsche; they were deported by the
General Government. The city was given the new name of "Litzmannstadt"
after Karl Litzmann, the German general who had captured it during
World War I.
The Nazi authorities soon established the
Łódź Ghetto in the city
and populated it with more than 200,000 Jews from the Łódź
area. As Jews were deported from Litzmannstadt
for extermination, others were brought in. Several
concentration camps and death camps arose in the city's vicinity for
the non-Jewish inhabitants of the regions, among them the infamous
Radogoszcz prison and several minor camps for the
Romani people and
for Polish children. Due to the value of the goods that
the ghetto population produced for the German military and various
civilian contractors, it was the last major ghetto to be liquidated,
in August 1944.
While occupied, thousands of new ethnic German
Volksdeutsche came to
Łódź from all across Europe, many of whom were repatriated from
Russia during the time of Hitler's alliance with the Soviet Union
before Operation "Barbarossa". In January 1945, most of the German
population fled the city for fear of the Red Army. The city also
suffered tremendous losses due to the German policy of requisition of
all factories and machines and transporting them to Germany. Thus,
despite relatively small losses due to fighting and aerial
Łódź was deprived of most of its industrial
Prior to World War II, Łódź's Jewish community numbered around
233,000 and accounted for one-third of the city's total
population. The community was almost entirely wiped out in the
Holocaust. By the end of the war, the city and its environs
had lost approximately 420,000 of its pre-war inhabitants, including
approximately 300,000 Polish Jews and 120,000 Poles.
On 1 August 1944 the
Warsaw Uprising erupted, and the fate of the
remaining inhabitants of the
Łódź Ghetto was sealed. During the
last phase of its existence, some 25,000 inmates were murdered at
Chełmno; their bodies burned immediately after death. As the
front approached, German officials decided to deport the remaining
Auschwitz-Birkenau aboard Holocaust trains. A handful of
people were left alive in the ghetto to clean it up. Others
remained in hiding with the Polish rescuers. When the Soviet army
Łódź on 19 January 1945, only 877 Jews were still alive, 12
of whom were children. Of the 223,000 Jews in
Łódź before the
invasion, only 10,000 survived the Holocaust in other places.
Soviet Red Army
Soviet Red Army entered the city on 18 January 1945. According to
Marshal Katukov, whose forces participated in the operation, the
Germans retreated so suddenly that they had no time to evacuate or
destroy any of the factories, as they had in other cities. Łódź
subsequently became part of the People's Republic of Poland.
World War II
World War II in the Polish People's Republic
Fountain on Dąbrowski Square
At the end of World War II,
Łódź had fewer than 300,000
inhabitants. However the number began to grow as refugees from Warsaw
and territories annexed by the Soviet Union migrated. Until 1948 the
city served as a de facto capital of Poland, since events during and
Warsaw Uprising had thoroughly destroyed Warsaw, and most of
the government and country administration resided in Łódź. Some
planned moving the capital there permanently; however, this idea did
not gain popular support and in 1948 the reconstruction of Warsaw
began. Under the Polish Communist regime many of the rich
industrialist and business magnate families lost their wealth when the
authorities nationalised private companies. Once again the city became
a major centre of industry. A number of extensive panel block housing
estates (including Retkinia, Teofilów, Widzew, Radogoszcz and Chojny)
were constructed between 1960 and 1990, covering an area of almost 30
square kilometres (12 sq mi) and accommodating a large part
of the city’s population. In mid-1981
Łódź became famous for
its massive, 50,000-person hunger demonstration of local mothers and
their children. In 1988 the population of the city
peaked to 854,261, gradually dropping ever since. After the period
of economic transition during the 1990s, most enterprises were again
Łódź has a humid continental climate (Dfb in the Köppen climate
Climate data for Łódź
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Daily mean °C (°F)
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Łódź was previously subdivided into five boroughs (dzielnica):
Bałuty, Widzew, Śródmieście, Polesie, Górna.
However, the city is now divided into 36 osiedla (districts):
Bałuty-Centrum, Bałuty-Doły, Bałuty Zachodnie,
Julianów-Marysin-Rogi, Łagiewniki, Radogoszcz,
Osiedle Wzniesień Łódzkich, Chojny,
Chojny-Dąbrowa, Górniak, Nad Nerem, Piastów-Kurak, Rokicie, Ruda,
Osiedle im. Józefa Montwiłła-Mireckiego, Karolew-Retkinia
Wschód, Koziny, Lublinek-Pienista,
Retkinia Zachód-Smulsko, Stare
Polesie, Zdrowie-Mania, Złotno, Śródmieście-Wschód, Osiedle
Katedralna, Andrzejów, Dolina Łódki, Mileszki, Nowosolna,
Olechów-Janów, Stary Widzew, Stoki, Widzew-Wschód, Zarzew, and
Osiedle nr 33.
Places of interest
Artur Rubinstein on
Piotrkowska Street in Łódź, where
Rubinstein was born and raised
Herbst Palace, an art gallery within a historical mansion, which holds
paintings from all over Europe
The Piotrkowska Street, which remains the high-street and main tourist
attraction in the city, runs north to south for a little over five
kilometres (3.1 miles). This makes it one of the longest commercial
streets in the world. Most of the building façades, many of which
date back to the 19th century, have been renovated. It is the site
of most restaurants, bars and cafes in Łódź's city centre. Many
neglected tenement houses throughout the entire city centre have been
renovated in recent years as part of the ongoing ‘mia100 kamienic’
project run by the local authorities. The best example of urban
Łódź is the
Manufaktura complex, occupying a large
area of a former cotton factory dating back to the nineteenth
century. The site, which was the heart of Izrael Poznański's
industrial empire, now hosts a shopping mall, numerous restaurants,
4-star hotel, multiplex cinema, factory museum, bowling and fitness
facilities and a science exhibition centre. Opened in 2006, it
quickly became “a centre of cultural entertainment and shopping
[...] integrating the residents of the city” as well as a
recognizable city landmark attracting both domestic and foreign
tourists. The city is also likely to receive a large boost in
terms of tourism once the massive revitalization project of the
city’s downtown (worth 4 billion PLN) is completed. The local
government’s efforts to transform the former industrial city into a
thriving urban environment and tourist destination formed the basis
for the city’s failed bid to organise the 2022 International EXPO
exhibition on the subject of urban renewal.
Light Move Festival in Łódź
Łódź has one of the best museums of modern art in Poland. Muzeum
Sztuki has three branches, two of which (ms1 and ms2) display
collections of 20th and 21st century art. The newest addition to the
museum, ms2 was opened in 2008 in the
Manufaktura complex. The
unique collection of the Museum is presented in an unconventional way:
instead of a chronological lecture on the development of art, works of
art representing various periods and movements are arranged into a
story touching themes and motifs important for the contemporary
public. The third branch of Muzeum Sztuki, located in one of the
city’s many industrial palaces, also has more traditional art on
display, presenting works by European and Polish masters (including
Stanisław Wyspiański and Henryk Rodakowski). Among the 14
registered museums to be found in Łódź, there is the
independent Book Art Museum, awarded the American Printing History
Association’s Institutional Award for 2015 for its outstanding
contribution to the study, recording, preservation and dissemination
of printing history in
Poland over the last 35 years. Other
notable museums include the
Central Museum of Textiles
Central Museum of Textiles with its
open-air display of wooden architecture, the Cinematography Museum,
located in Karl Wilhelm Scheibler’s palace, and the Museum of
Independence Traditions, occupying the building of a historical
Tsarist prison from the late 19th century. A more unusual
establishment, the Dętka museum offers tourists a chance to visit the
municipal sewer designed in the early years of the 20th century by the
British engineer William Heerlein Lindley.
Museum of Art in Łódź, the city's primary cultural institution
Łódź also provides plenty of green spaces for recreation. Woodland
areas cover 9.61% of the city, with parks taking up an additional
2.37% of the area of
Łódź (as of 2014). Las Łagiewnicki
(Łagiewnicki Forest), the largest forest within city limits, is
referred to in scholarship as “the largest forested area within the
administrative borders of any city in Europe.” It has an area of
1,245 ha and is cut across by a number of hiking trails that
traverse the hilly landscape on the western edge of
Landscape Park. A “natural complex which has remained nearly
intact as oak-hornbeam and oak woodland,” the forest is also
rich in history, and its attractions include a
dating back to the early 18th century and two 17th-century wooden
chapels. Out of a total of 44 parks in
Łódź (as of 2014), 11
have historical status, the oldest of them dating back to the middle
of the 19th century. The largest of these, Józef Piłsudski Park
(188,21 ha), is located near the city’s zoo and botanical
garden, and together with them it comprises an extensive green complex
known as Zdrowie serving the recreational needs of the city.
The Jewish Cemetery at Bracka Street, one of the largest of its kind
in Europe, was established in 1892. After the German occupation of
Poland in 1939, this cemetery became a part of Łódź's eastern
territory known as the enclosed
Łódź ghetto (Ghetto Field). Between
1940 and 1944, approximately 43,000 burials took place within the
grounds of this rounded-up cemetery. In 1956, a monument by Muszko
in memory of the victims of the
Łódź Ghetto was erected at the
cemetery. It features a smooth obelisk, a menorah, and a broken oak
tree with leaves stemming from the tree (symbolizing death, especially
death at a young age). As of 2014[update] the cemetery has an area of
39.6 hectare. It contains approximately 180,000 graves, approximately
65,000 labelled tombstones, ohels and mausoleums. Many of these
monuments have significant architectural value; 100 of these have been
declared historical monuments and have been in various stages of
restoration. The mausoleum of Izrael and Eleanora Poznanski is perhaps
the largest Jewish tombstone in the world and the only one decorated
Gallery of sights
Mural in city centre
Piotrkowska Street - the main promenade of the city
EC1 - former power station, now a museum and planetarium
Manufaktura - once a textile factory, now a shopping centre
Łódź City Hall, formerly Heinzel Palace
International Faculty of Engineering (TUL)
Andel's Hotel, near
Manufaktura shopping mall
Music Academy, formerly Poznański Palace
Izrael Poznański's Palace
Archcathedral Basilica of St. Stanislaus Kostka
Alexander Nevsky Orthodox church
Mieczysław Pinkus and Jakub Lende's
Karl Scheibler's Chapel
Karl Scheibler's Chapel in Old Cemetery
Workers' houses (famuły) at Księży Młyn
Special Economic Zone
Church of the Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary
Łódź Fabryczna railway station
Textile factory employees in Łódź, 1950s
Łódź was Poland’s second largest city until 2007, when it lost
its position to Kraków. This is because alongside the entire
Łódź Voivodeship, the city is experiencing
substantial population decline. Since the population peak of 1988,
when the number of inhabitants reached 854,261,
Łódź has lost
more than 150,000 residents. Such a dramatic change results mainly
from low fertility rates and low life expectancy on the one hand, and
a negative migration balance on the other. A major factor behind
the shrinkage of the city was the transition from socialist to
market-based economy after 1989 and the resulting economic crisis,
but the economic growth following Poland’s accession to the European
Union in 2004 has not reversed the trend. The process of
suburbanization also contributes to it, with a number of non-urban
areas in counties surrounding
Łódź steadily increasing in
population. While the ‘fringe area’ around
Łódź is expected to
register an insignificant growth of less than 2,000 people until 2050,
the population of the city proper by the middle of the 21st century is
estimated to drop below the level of 500,000. The ongoing ageing
and depopulation of
Łódź is a major challenge for the future
development of the city, putting strain on social infrastructure and
Łódź has one of the highest feminization rates among Poland’s
major cities, a legacy of the city’s industrial past, when the
textile factories attracted large numbers of female employees. The
rising age of the population, coupled with a longer life expectancy
among women, further exacerbates the disproportion.
Government and politics
Hanna Zdanowska, city mayor since 2010
See also: List of mayors of Łódź
Former city mayors following the collapse of communism include:
Solidarity (November 1989 –
1990) – appointed by Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki
Grzegorz Palka (1990–1994)
Marek Czekalski, Freedom Union (1994–1998)
Tadeusz Matusiak, SLD (1998–2001)
Krzysztof Panas, SLD (2001–2002)
Krzysztof Jagiełło, SLD (2002)
Jerzy Kropiwnicki, Christian-National Union (ZChN) (2002–2010)
Tomasz Sadzyński, Platforma Obywatelska /
Civic Platform (temporary
Hanna Zdanowska, Platforma Obywatelska / Civic Platform
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
Łódź is home to nine foreign consulates, all of which are Honorary.
They are subordinate to the following states main representation in
Poland: French, Danish, German, Austrian, British, Belgian, Latvian,
Hungarian and Moldavian.
Twin towns – sister cities
Łódź is twinned with:
Germany (since 1972)
Germany (since 1988)
France (since 1991)
Lithuania (since 1991)
Russia (since 1992)
Russia (since 2002)
Belarus (since 1992)
Ukraine (since 1993)
Tel Aviv in
Israel (since 1994)
Tianjin in People's Republic of
China (since 1994)
Rustavi in Georgia (since 1995)
Portugal (since 1996)
Finland (since 1996)
Mexico (since 1996)
Spain (since 1999)
Sweden (since 2001)
Ukraine (since 2003)
Hungary (since 2008)
Guangzhou in People's Republic of
China (since 2014)
Łódź belongs also to the
Łódź in literature and cinema
The contrast between the living conditions in industrial
often mentioned in arts and literature. A notable example is The
Promised Land, a novel by Władysław Reymont
Three major novels depict the development of industrial Łódź:
Władysław Reymont's The Promised Land (1898), Joseph Roth's Hotel
Savoy (1924) and
Israel Joshua Singer's
The Brothers Ashkenazi (1937).
Roth's novel depicts the city on the eve of a workers' riot in 1919.
Reymont's novel was made into a film by
Andrzej Wajda in 1975. In the
1990 film Europa Europa, Solomon Perel's family flees pre-World War II
Berlin and settles in Łódź. Scenes of David Lynch's 2006 film
Inland Empire were shot in Łódź. Paweł Pawlikowski's film Ida was
partially shot in Łódź. Sections of Harry Turtledove's Worldwar
alternate history series take place in Łódź, and, in John
Axis of Time
Axis of Time alternate history trilogy,
Łódź gains the
unfortunate historical notoriety of becoming the first city to be
destroyed by an Atomic Bomb when the
USSR destroys the city on 5 June
Arthur Rubinstein, one of the greatest pianists of the twentieth
century, was born in Łódź
Daniel Libeskind, notable architect and designer
Andrzej Sapkowski, best known for
The Witcher book series
Daniel Amit, Israeli physicist
Grażyna Bacewicz, composer
Aleksander Bardini, stage director and actor
Andrzej Bartkowiak, cameraman and film director
Jurek Becker (1937–1997), writer
Sylwester Bednarek, high jumper
Kazimierz Brandys, writer
Artur Brauner, film producer
Jacob Bronowski, writer, mathematician, and Britain's leading academic
TV figure of the 1970s.
Sabina Citron, Holocaust survivor, activist, and author
Bat-Sheva Dagan, Holocaust survivor, teacher, psychologist, author
Karl Dedecius, translator
Karl Dominik (Born:Karol Dominik Ignaczak), China's first Chinese
speaking Polish actor
Marek Edelman, Holocaust survivor, one of the leaders of the Warsaw
Solidarity activist, Polish politician, human rights
Max Factor Sr., businessman, founder of the
Max Factor cosmetics
Holocaust survivor and writer
Holocaust survivor and writer
Piotr Fronczewski, Polish actor
NBA basketball player for the Washington Wizards
Łódź ghetto photographer 
Józef Hecht (1891–1951), engraver and printmaker
Josef Joffe, journalist
Jan Karski, diplomat and anti-nazi resistant
Aharon Katzir (1914–1972), Israeli pioneer in study of
electrochemistry of biopolymers; killed in Lod Airport Massacre
Lea Koenig, Israeli actress
Paul Klecki, conductor
Katarzyna Kobro, sculptor
Jerzy Kosinski, writer
Jan Kowalewski, Polish cryptologist who broke Soviet military codes,
and ciphers during the Polish-Soviet War
Karolina Kowalkiewicz, UFC Strawweight Title challenger
Feliks W. Kres, fantasy writer
Washington, D.C. attorney
Daniel Libeskind, architect
Tadeusz Miciński, poet
Ruth Minsky Sender, author and survivor
Zew Wawa Morejno, Chief Rabbi
Zbigniew Nienacki, writer
Marian P. Opala, Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice
Adam Ostrowski, better known as O.S.T.R., rapper
Władysław Pasikowski, director
Roman Polanski, cinema director, Oscar and Golden Palm winner
Piotr Pustelnik, alpine and high-altitude climber, the 20th man to
climb all fourteen eight-thousanders.
Ze'ev Raban, Israeli painter and sculptor
Władysław Reymont, writer,
Nobel Prize winner
Nobel Prize winner
Stefan Rozental, nuclear physicist
Artur Rubinstein, pianist
Arnold Rutkowski, opera singer
Zbigniew Rybczyński, animator and Oscar winner
Marek Saganowski, football player
Andrzej Sapkowski, fantasy writer
Carl Wilhelm Scheibler (1820–1881), one of the most important
Piotr Sobociński, cinematographer
Andrzej Sontag, track-and-field star
Natan Spigel (1900–1942), painter
Władysław Strzemiński, painter, Kobro's husband
Arthur Szyk, artist
Aleksander Tansman, composer and pianist
Jack Tramiel, computer manufacturer, the founder of Commodore
Julian Tuwim, poet
Miś Uszatek, cartoon character
Michał Wiśniewski, singer
Hanna Zdanowska, politician
Aleksandra Ziółkowska-Boehm, writer
Jerzy Janowicz, tennis player
Notable descendants of
Ben Burns, American editor of African American publications
Lou Gold, American composer, pianist and band leader
Amy Totenberg, American district judge
Nina Totenberg, American
NPR legal affairs correspondent
Barbara Walters, American journalist, author, and television
Ada Yonath, Israeli crystallographer and Nobel laureate
Atlas Arena in Łódź
The city has experience as a host for international sporting events
such as the 2009 EuroBasket. and it will be one of the 12 host
cities of the
2019 FIFA U-20 World Cup
2019 FIFA U-20 World Cup The
Stadion Widzewa will host
the opening and final matches.
Under communism it was common for clubs to participate in many
different sports for all ages and sexes. Many of these traditional
clubs still survive today. Originally they were owned directly by a
public body, but now they are independently operated by clubs or
private companies. However they get public support through the cheap
rent of land and other subsidies from the city. Some of their sections
have gone professional and separated from the clubs as private
companies. For example, Budowlani S.A is a private company that owns
the only professional rugby team in Łódź, while Klub Sportowy
Budowlani remains a community amateur club.
Budowlani Łódź – rugby (six times Polish champions), hockey,
ŁKS Łódź – association football (two times Polish champions),
basketball (Polish champions 1953), volleyball (two times Polish
champions), handball, boxing
SMS Łódź – association football, volleyball, basketball
Łódź – road and track cycling
SKS Start Łódź – football, swimming
Widzew Łódź – association football (four time Polish champions,
semi-finalists of the 1982–83 European Cup)
In Ekstraklasa of Polish beach soccer
Łódź have three professional
clubs: Grembach, KP and BSCC
Economy and infrastructure
High-rise buildings in central Łódź
Before 1990, Łódź's economy heavily focused on the textile
industry, which in the nineteenth century had developed in the city
owing to the favourable chemical composition of its water. Because of
the growth in this industry, the city has sometimes been called the
"Polish Manchester". As a result,
Łódź grew from a population of
13,000 in 1840 to over 500,000 in 1913. By the time right before World
Łódź had become one of the most densely populated industrial
cities in the world, with 13,280 inhabitants per km2, and also one of
the most polluted. The textile industry declined dramatically in 1990
and 1991, and no major textile company survives in
However, countless small companies still provide a significant output
of textiles, mostly for export to
Russia and other countries of the
former Soviet Union.
Izrael Poznański Palace
The city benefits from its central location in Poland. A number of
firms have located their logistics centres in the vicinity. Two
motorways, A1 spanning from the north to the south of Poland, and A2
going from the east to the west, intersect northeast of the city. As
of 2012[update], the A2 is complete to
Warsaw and the northern section
of A1 is largely completed. With these connections, the advantages due
to the city's central location should increase even further. Work has
also begun on upgrading the railway connection with Warsaw, which
reduced the 2-hour travel time to make the 137 km (85 mi)
journey 1.5 hours in 2009. As of 2018, the travel time from
Warsaw takes around 1.2 hours with the modern
Pesa SA Dart trains.
Recent years has seen many foreign companies opening and establishing
their offices in Łódź. Indian IT company
Infosys has one of its
centres in the city. In January 2009
Dell announced that it will shift
production from its plant in Limerick, Ireland to its plant in
Łódź, largely because the labour costs in
Poland are a fraction of
those in Ireland. The city's investor friendly policies have
attracted 980 foreign investors by January 2009. Foreign
investment was one of the factors which decreased the unemployment
Łódź to 6.5 percent in December 2008, from 20 percent four
Major road network in the city
Łódź tram network
Łódź is situated near the geographical centre of
Poland and as a
result, is located near the main north-south and east-west transport
routes. The city is served by the national motorway network, an
international airport, and long-distance and regional railways. It is
at the centre of a regional and commuter rail network operating from
the city’s various train stations. Bus and tram services are
operated by a municipal public transport company. There are
130 km (81 mi) of bicycle routes throughout the city.
The city is situated near the intersection of Poland’s main
north-south and east-west freeways, the A1 and A2 respectively. The A1
Gdańsk in the north and the
Czech Republic in
the south. The A2 connects the city with
Warsaw in the east, and
Poznań in the west.
Major roads include:
Częstochowa – Cieszyn
A2: Świecko (national border) –
Łódź – Warszawa
Piotrków Trybunalski –
Warszawa – Białystok
S14: Pabianice – Konstantynów Łódzki – Aleksandrów Łódzki
Łowicz – Stryków –
Łódź – Zduńska Wola – Sieradz
– Złoczew – Walichnowy
DK72: Konin – Turek – Poddębice –
Łódź – Brzeziny – Rawa
Władysław Reymont Airport
The city has an international airport:
Łódź Władysław Reymont
Airport located 6 kilometres (4 miles) from the city centre. Flights
connect the city with destinations in
Europe including Turkey. In
2014 the airport handled 253,772 passengers. It is the 8th largest
airport in Poland.
See also: Trams in Łódź
Piotrkowska Centrum tram station, also known as "The Unicorn Stable"
The Municipal Transport Company –
Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne – Łódź), owned by the Łódź
City Government, is responsible for operating 58 bus routes and 19
Łódź has a number of long distance and local railway stations.
There are two main stations in the city, but with no direct rail
connection between them—a legacy of 19th-century railway network
planning. Originally constructed in 1866, the centrally-located
Łódź Fabryczna was a terminus station for a branch line of the
Warsaw-Vienna railway, whereas
Łódź Kaliska was built more than
thirty years later on the central section of the Warsaw-Kalisz
railway. For this reason most intercity train traffic goes to this day
Łódź Kaliska station, despite its relative distance from
the city centre, and
Łódź Fabryczna serves mainly as a terminal
station for trains to Warsaw. The situation will be remedied in 2021
after the construction of a tunnel connecting the two, which is
likely to make
Łódź Poland’s main railway hub. The tunnel
will additionally serve
Łódź Commuter Railway, providing a rapid
transit system for the city, dubbed the
Łódź Metro by the media and
local authorities. Two new stations are to be constructed on the
underground line, one serving the needs of the
Manufaktura complex and
the other located in the area of Piotrkowska Street.
In December 2016, a few years after the demolition of the old building
Łódź Fabryczna station, a new underground station was
opened. It is considered to be the largest and most modern of all
train stations in
Poland and is designed to handle increased traffic
after the construction of the underground tunnel. It also serves
as a multimodal transport hub, featuring an underground intercity bus
station, and is integrated with a new transport interchange serving
taxis and local trams and buses. The construction of the new
Łódź Fabryczna station was part of a broader project of urban
renewal known as Nowe Centrum Łodzi (New Centre of Łódź).
The third-largest train station in
Łódź Widzew. There
are also many other stations and train stops in the city, many of
which were upgraded as part of the Łódzka Kolej Aglomeracyjna
commuter rail project. The rail service, founded as part of a major
regional rail upgrade and owned by
Łódź Voivodeship, operates on
routes to Kutno, Sieradz, Skierniewice, Łowicz, and on selected days
to Warsaw, with plans for further expansion after the construction of
the underground tunnel.
Łódź University of Technology rector's office (formerly Reinhold
Richter Villa, 1904)
Main article: Education in Łódź
Łódź is a thriving center of academic life. Currently
three major state-owned universities, six higher education
establishments operating for more than a half of the century, and a
number of smaller schools of higher education. The tertiary
institutions with the most students in
University of Łódź
University of Łódź (UŁ - Uniwersytet Łódzki)
Lodz University of Technology
Lodz University of Technology (TUL - Politechnika Łódzka)
University of Łódź
University of Łódź (Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi)
National Film School in Łódź
National Film School in Łódź (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Filmowa,
Telewizyjna i Teatralna w Łodzi)
Academy of Music in Łódź
Academy of Music in Łódź (Akademia Muzyczna im. Grażyna i
Kiejstuta Bacewiczów w Łodzi)
Academy of Fine Arts In Łódź (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Wł.
Strzemińskiego w Łodzi)
In the 2017 general ranking of state-owned tertiary education
institutions in Poland, the
University of Łódź
University of Łódź came 15th (6th place
among universities), one place lower than Lodz University of
Technology (6th place among technical universities). The Medical
University of Łódź
University of Łódź was ranked 6th among Polish medical
universities. Leading courses taught in
Łódź include transport (TUL
- 3rd place nationwide), architecture (TUL - 5th place) and
administration (UŁ - 5th place).
There is also a number of private-owned institutions of higher
learning in Łódź. The largest of these are the University of Social
Sciences (Społeczna Akademia Nauk) and the University of Humanities
and Economics in
Łódź (Akademia Humanistyczno-Ekonomiczna w
Łodzi). In the 2017 ranking of private universities in Poland, the
former was ranked 9th, and the latter 19th.
National Film School in Łódź
National Film School at Oskar Kon Palace
Main article: National Film School in Łódź
Leon Schiller National Higher School of Film, Television and Theatre
Łódź (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Filmowa, Telewizyjna i
Teatralna im. Leona Schillera w Łodzi) is the most notable academy
for future actors, directors, photographers, camera operators and TV
staff in Poland. It was founded on 8 March 1948 and was initially
planned to be moved to
Warsaw as soon as the city was rebuilt
Warsaw Uprising. However, in the end the school remained
Łódź and today is one of the best-known institutions of higher
education in the city.
At the end of the Second World War
Łódź remained the only large
Polish city besides
Kraków which war had not destroyed. The creation
of the National Film School gave
Łódź a role of greater importance
from a cultural viewpoint, which before the war had belonged
Warsaw and Kraków. Early students of the School
include the directors Andrzej Munk, Andrzej Wajda, Kazimierz Karabasz
(one of the founders of the so-called Black Series of Polish
Documentary) and Janusz Morgenstern, who at the end of the 1950s
became famous as one of the founders of the
Polish Film School of
Horticultural Expo 2024
Łódź will host the Horticultural Expo in 2024.
Łódź bid for the
Specialized Expo 2022/2023 but lost out to Buenos Aires, Argentina.
European Union portal
Łódź Design Festival
See also: Bibliography of the history of Łódź
Alan Adelson and Robert Lapides,
Łódź Ghetto : A Community
History Told in Diaries, Journals, and Documents, Viking, 1989.
"A Stairwell in Lodz," Constance Cappel, 2004, Xlibris, (in
Horwitz, Gordon J. (2009). Ghettostadt:
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"Lodz – The Last Ghetto in Poland," Michal Unger, Yad Vashem,
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Stefański, Krzysztof (2000). Gmachy użyteczności publicznej dawnej
Łódź 2000 ISBN 83-86699-45-0.
Stefański, Krzysztof (2009). Ludzie którzy zbudowali Łódź
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Trunk, Isaiah; Shapiro, Robert Moses (2006).
Łódź Ghetto: a
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Trunk, Isaiah; Shapiro, Robert Moses (2008) .
Łódź Ghetto: A
History. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press.
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Władysław Reymont Airport
article on 19 July 2015.
^ Sourced from the
Łódź article on the Polish site on 19
^ "About MPK – MPK-Lodz Spolka z o.o." lodz.pl.
^ Grzegorczyk, p. 144.
Łódź railway tunnel tender announced". RailwayPro. 6 December
2016. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
^ a b "Superdworzec już jest, będzie (prawie) metro.
Łódź ma być
komunikacyjnym centrum kraju". TVN24. 2 December 2016. Retrieved 3
^ a b "
Łódź będzie miała 'metro'. I to już niedługo".
Wyborcza.pl: Magazyn Łódź. 18 May 2016. Retrieved 3 August
^ Rogaczewska, Beata (1 November 2016). "
największy podziemny dworzec kolejowy w Polsce i trzeci w Europie".
rp.pl. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
^ Kozlowski, Remigiusz; Palczewska, Anna; Jablonski, Jakub (2016).
"The Scope and Capabilities of ITS – The Case of Łódź". In
Mikulski, Jerzy. Challenge of Transport Telematics. Springer.
pp. 305–16. ISBN 9783319496450. (p. 308)
^ "The New Centre of
Łódź has a Local Action Plan – URBACT".
^ "Rekordowy rok Łódzkiej Kolei Aglomeracyjnej". kurierkolejowy.eu.
22 December 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
^ a b Ranking szkół wyższych: Perspektywy 2017 12 June 2017.
Retrieved 31 July 2017.
^ Dana, Przemek (16 January 2015). "Janusz Morgenstern, reżyser m.in.
"Stawki większej niż życie" nie żyje". Retrieved 14 February
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