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Łódź
Łódź
(/wuːtʃ/ WOOTCH, /lɒdz/ LODZ;[1] Polish: [wutɕ] ( listen); Yiddish: לאדזש‎, Lodzh; also written as Lodz)[2] is the third-largest city in Poland and a former industrial centre. Located in the central part of the country, it has a population of 693,797 (2017).[3] It is the capital of Łódź
Łódź
Voivodeship, and is approximately 135 kilometres (84 mi) south-west of Warsaw. The city's coat of arms is an example of canting, as it depicts a boat (łódź), which alludes to the city's name. Łódź
Łódź
was once a small settlement that first appeared in written records in around 1332. In the early 15th century it was granted city rights, but remained a rather small and insubstantial town. It was the property of Kuyavian bishops and clergy until the end of the 18th century, when Łódź
Łódź
was annexed by Prussia
Prussia
as a result of the second partition of Poland. Following the collapse of the independent Duchy of Warsaw, the city became part of Congress Poland, a client state of the Russian Empire. It was then that Łódź
Łódź
experienced rapid growth in the cloth industry and in population due to the inflow of migrants, most notably Germans and Jews. Ever since the industrialization of the area, the city has struggled with many difficulties such as multinationalism and social inequality, which were vividly documented in the novel The Promised Land written by Polish Nobel Prize-winning author Władysław Reymont. The contrasts greatly reflected on the architecture of the city, where luxurious mansions coexisted with redbrick factories and old tenement houses.[4] After Poland
Poland
regained its independence in 1918, Łódź
Łódź
grew to be one of the largest Polish cities and one of the most multicultural and industrial centers in Europe. The interbellum period saw rapid development in education and healthcare. After the invasion of Poland in 1939, the German Army captured the city and renamed it Litzmannstadt in honour of the German general Karl Litzmann, who was victorious near the area during World War I. The city's large Jewish population was forced into a walled zone known as the Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto, from which they were sent to German concentration and extermination camps. Following the liberation of the city by the Soviet Army, Łódź, which sustained insignificant damage during the war, became part of the newly established Polish People's Republic. After years of prosperity during the socialist era, Łódź experienced decline after the fall of communism throughout Central and Eastern Europe; however, it is currently experiencing revitalization of its downtown area.[5][6] The city is also internationally known for its National Film School, a cradle for the most renowned Polish actors and directors, including Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
and Roman Polanski,[4] and in 2017 was inducted into the UNESCO
UNESCO
Creative Cities network and named UNESCO
UNESCO
City of Film.[7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Century of partitions: 1815 Congress of Vienna 1.2 Restored Poland
Poland
after the First World War 1.3 Occupation of Poland
Poland
by Nazi Germany 1.4 After World War II
World War II
in the Polish People's Republic

2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Districts 2.3 Places of interest 2.4 Gallery of sights

3 Demographics 4 Government and politics

4.1 International relations

4.1.1 Twin towns – sister cities

5 Culture

5.1 Łódź
Łódź
in literature and cinema 5.2 Notable residents

5.2.1 Notable descendants of Łódź
Łódź
residents

5.3 Sports

6 Economy and infrastructure

6.1 Transport

6.1.1 Airport 6.1.2 Public Transport 6.1.3 Rail

7 Education

7.1 National Film School in Łódź

8 Horticultural Expo 2024 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Bibliography 10.2 Notes

11 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Łódź

Sigillum oppidi Lodzia - seal dating back to 1577

Łódź
Łódź
first appears in the written record in a 1332 document giving the village of Łodzia to the bishops of Włocławek. In 1423 King Władysław II Jagiełło officially granted city rights to the village of Łódź. From then until the 18th century the town remained a small settlement on a trade route between the provinces of Masovia and Silesia. In the 16th century the town had fewer than 800 inhabitants, mostly working on the surrounding grain farms. With the second partition of Poland
Poland
in 1793, Łódź
Łódź
became part of the Kingdom of Prussia's province of South Prussia, and was known in German as Lodsch. In 1798 the Prussians nationalised the town, and it lost its status as a town of the bishops of Kuyavia. In 1806 Łódź joined the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw
Warsaw
and in 1810 it had approximately 190 inhabitants. After the 1815 Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
treaty it became part of the Congress Kingdom of Poland, a client state of the Russian Empire. Century of partitions: 1815 Congress of Vienna[edit]

The Great Synagogue was the main prayer house for the local Jewish community. It was destroyed during World War II

Many tenement houses often reflected the social status of owners and industrialists

In the 1815 treaty, it was planned to renew the dilapidated town and with the 1816 decree by the Czar a number of German immigrants received territory deeds for them to clear the land and to build factories and housing. In 1820 Stanisław Staszic
Stanisław Staszic
aided in changing the small town into a modern industrial centre. The immigrants came to the Promised Land (Ziemia obiecana, the city's nickname) from all over Europe. Mostly they arrived from Southern Germany, Silesia
Silesia
and Bohemia, but also from countries as far away as Portugal, England, France
France
and Ireland. The first cotton mill opened in 1825, and 14 years later the very first steam-powered factory in both Poland
Poland
and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
commenced operations. In 1839, over 78% of the population was German,[8] and German schools and churches were established. A constant influx of workers, businessmen and craftsmen from all over Europe
Europe
transformed Łódź
Łódź
into the main textile production centre of the mighty Russian Empire
Russian Empire
spanning from East-Central Europe
Europe
all the way to Alaska. Three groups dominated the city's population and contributed the most to the city's development: Poles, Germans and Jews, who started to arrive from 1848. Many of the Łódź craftspeople were weavers from Upper and Lower Silesia. In 1850, Russia
Russia
abolished the customs barrier between Congress Poland and Russia
Russia
proper and therefore industry in Łódź
Łódź
could now develop freely with a huge Russian market not far away. Eventually the city became the second-largest city of Congress Poland. In 1865 the first railroad line opened (to Koluszki, branch line of the Warsaw–Vienna railway), and soon the city had rail links with Warsaw
Warsaw
and Białystok.

Izrael Poznański
Izrael Poznański
Factory in 1895

Liberty Square pictured during the Second World War. The statue of Tadeusz Kościuszko
Tadeusz Kościuszko
was later dismantled by the German army

Museum of Archeology and Ethnography at Liberty Square

One of the most important industrialists of Łódź
Łódź
was Karl Wilhelm Scheibler.[9] In 1852 he came to Łódź
Łódź
and with Julius Schwarz together started buying property and building several factories. Scheibler later bought out Schwarz's share and thus became sole owner of a large business. After he died in 1881 his widow and other members of the family decided to pay homage to his memory by erecting a chapel, intended as a mausoleum with family crypt, in the Lutheran part of the Łódź
Łódź
cemetery on ulica Ogrodowa (later known as The Old Cemetery).[10] Between 1823 and 1873, the city's population doubled every ten years. The years 1870–1890 marked the period of most intense industrial development in the city's modern history. Many of the industrialists were of Jewish ethnicity. Łódź
Łódź
also soon became a major centre of the socialist movement. In 1892 a huge strike paralyzed most of the factories and manufacturing plants. According to Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 315,000, Jews constituted 99,000 (around 31% percent).[11] During the 1905 Revolution, in what became known as the June Days or Łódź
Łódź
insurrection, Tsarist police killed hundreds of workers.[12] By 1913, the Poles constituted almost half of the population (49.7%), the German minority had fallen to 14.8%, and the Jews made up 34%, out of some 506,000 inhabitants.[8]

Historical population

   Year       Inhabitants   

1793 190  

1806 767  

1830 4,300  

1850 15,800  

1880 77,600  

1905 343,900  

1925 538,600  

1988 854,261  

2003 781,900  

2007 753,192  

2009 742,387  

2013 715,360  

2016 698,688  

Despite the air of impending crisis preceding World War I, the city grew constantly until 1914. By that year it had become one of the most densely populated as well as one of the most polluted industrial cities in the world—13,280 inhabitants per square kilometre (34,400/sq mi). A major battle was fought near the city in late 1914, and as a result the city came under German occupation after 6 December[13][14][15] but with Polish independence restored in November 1918 the local population liberated the city and disarmed the German troops. In the aftermath of World War I, Łódź
Łódź
lost approximately 40% of its inhabitants, mostly owing to draft, diseases, pollution and primarily because of the mass expulsion of the city's German population back to Germany. Restored Poland
Poland
after the First World War[edit] In 1922, following the establishment of the Second Polish Republic, Łódź
Łódź
became the capital of the Łódź
Łódź
Voivodeship, but the period of rapid growth had ceased. The Great Depression
Great Depression
of the 1930s and the Customs war
Customs war
with Germany
Germany
closed western markets to Polish textiles while the Bolshevik Revolution (1917) and the Civil War in Russia (1918–1922) put an end to the most profitable trade with the East. The city became a scene of a series of huge workers' protests and riots in the interbellum. On 13 September 1925 a new airport, Lublinek Airport, began operations on the outskirts of the city. In the interwar years Łódź
Łódź
continued to be a diverse and multicultural city, with the 1931 Polish census showing that the total population of roughly 604,000 included 375,000 (59%) Poles, 192,000 (32%) Jews and 54,000 (9%) Germans (determined from the main language used). By 1939, the Jewish minority had grown to well over 200,000.[16] Occupation of Poland
Poland
by Nazi Germany[edit] See also: Battle of Łódź (1939) and Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto

Memorial to Holocaust victims at Radegast railway station

Izrael Poznański's tomb at the New Jewish Cemetery in Łódź

During the invasion of Poland, the Polish forces of General Juliusz Rómmel's Łódź Army
Łódź Army
defended the city against initial German attacks.[17] The Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
nevertheless captured the city on 8 September.[17] Despite plans for the city to become a Polish enclave attached to the General Government, the Nazi hierarchy respected the wishes of many ethnically German residents and of the Reichsgau Wartheland governor Arthur Greiser
Arthur Greiser
by annexing the city to the Reich in November 1939. Many Germans in the city, however, refused to sign the Volksliste
Volksliste
and become Volksdeutsche; they were deported by the General Government. The city was given the new name of "Litzmannstadt" after Karl Litzmann, the German general who had captured it during World War I. The Nazi authorities soon established the Łódź Ghetto
Łódź Ghetto
in the city and populated it with more than 200,000 Jews from the Łódź area.[18][19][20][21][22][23] As Jews were deported from Litzmannstadt for extermination, others were brought in.[21][23] Several concentration camps and death camps arose in the city's vicinity for the non-Jewish inhabitants of the regions, among them the infamous Radogoszcz prison
Radogoszcz prison
and several minor camps for the Romani people
Romani people
and for Polish children.[18][21][23] Due to the value of the goods that the ghetto population produced for the German military and various civilian contractors, it was the last major ghetto to be liquidated, in August 1944.[23] While occupied, thousands of new ethnic German Volksdeutsche
Volksdeutsche
came to Łódź
Łódź
from all across Europe, many of whom were repatriated from Russia
Russia
during the time of Hitler's alliance with the Soviet Union before Operation "Barbarossa". In January 1945, most of the German population fled the city for fear of the Red Army. The city also suffered tremendous losses due to the German policy of requisition of all factories and machines and transporting them to Germany. Thus, despite relatively small losses due to fighting and aerial bombardment, Łódź
Łódź
was deprived of most of its industrial infrastructure. Prior to World War II, Łódź's Jewish community numbered around 233,000 and accounted for one-third of the city's total population.[22][24] The community was almost entirely wiped out in the Holocaust.[22][24] By the end of the war, the city and its environs had lost approximately 420,000 of its pre-war inhabitants, including approximately 300,000 Polish Jews and 120,000 Poles.[22][24][25] On 1 August 1944 the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising erupted, and the fate of the remaining inhabitants of the Łódź Ghetto
Łódź Ghetto
was sealed. During the last phase of its existence, some 25,000 inmates were murdered at Chełmno; their bodies burned immediately after death.[26][27] As the front approached, German officials decided to deport the remaining Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau
Auschwitz-Birkenau
aboard Holocaust trains. A handful of people were left alive in the ghetto to clean it up.[28] Others remained in hiding with the Polish rescuers.[29] When the Soviet army entered Łódź
Łódź
on 19 January 1945, only 877 Jews were still alive, 12 of whom were children.[20] Of the 223,000 Jews in Łódź
Łódź
before the invasion, only 10,000 survived the Holocaust in other places.[24] The Soviet Red Army
Soviet Red Army
entered the city on 18 January 1945. According to Marshal Katukov, whose forces participated in the operation, the Germans retreated so suddenly that they had no time to evacuate or destroy any of the factories, as they had in other cities.[30] Łódź subsequently became part of the People's Republic of Poland. After World War II
World War II
in the Polish People's Republic[edit]

Fountain on Dąbrowski Square

At the end of World War II, Łódź
Łódź
had fewer than 300,000 inhabitants. However the number began to grow as refugees from Warsaw and territories annexed by the Soviet Union migrated. Until 1948 the city served as a de facto capital of Poland, since events during and after the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising had thoroughly destroyed Warsaw, and most of the government and country administration resided in Łódź. Some planned moving the capital there permanently; however, this idea did not gain popular support and in 1948 the reconstruction of Warsaw began. Under the Polish Communist regime many of the rich industrialist and business magnate families lost their wealth when the authorities nationalised private companies. Once again the city became a major centre of industry. A number of extensive panel block housing estates (including Retkinia, Teofilów, Widzew, Radogoszcz and Chojny) were constructed between 1960 and 1990, covering an area of almost 30 square kilometres (12 sq mi) and accommodating a large part of the city’s population.[31] In mid-1981 Łódź
Łódź
became famous for its massive, 50,000-person hunger demonstration of local mothers and their children.[32][33][34][35][35] In 1988 the population of the city peaked to 854,261, gradually dropping ever since.[36] After the period of economic transition during the 1990s, most enterprises were again privatised.

Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Łódź
Łódź
has a humid continental climate (Dfb in the Köppen climate classification).

Climate data for Łódź

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 12.8 (55) 17.5 (63.5) 21.0 (69.8) 28.0 (82.4) 32.7 (90.9) 35.0 (95) 37.3 (99.1) 37.6 (99.7) 34.7 (94.5) 27.8 (82) 18.9 (66) 14.8 (58.6) 37.6 (99.7)

Average high °C (°F) 0.5 (32.9) 2.0 (35.6) 6.7 (44.1) 13.3 (55.9) 18.8 (65.8) 21.3 (70.3) 24.0 (75.2) 23.6 (74.5) 18.3 (64.9) 12.5 (54.5) 5.8 (42.4) 1.7 (35.1) 12.4 (54.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) −1.5 (29.3) −0.6 (30.9) 3.1 (37.6) 8.6 (47.5) 13.8 (56.8) 16.4 (61.5) 18.9 (66) 18.4 (65.1) 13.8 (56.8) 8.8 (47.8) 3.5 (38.3) −0.2 (31.6) 8.6 (47.5)

Average low °C (°F) −3.6 (25.5) −3.2 (26.2) −0.5 (31.1) 4.0 (39.2) 8.7 (47.7) 11.6 (52.9) 13.9 (57) 13.3 (55.9) 9.2 (48.6) 5.2 (41.4) 1.2 (34.2) −2 (28) 4.8 (40.6)

Record low °C (°F) −31.1 (−24) −28.9 (−20) −21.1 (−6) −8 (18) −3.1 (26.4) 1.4 (34.5) 5.0 (41) 3.3 (37.9) 0.8 (33.4) −9.2 (15.4) −16.8 (1.8) −20.8 (−5.4) −31.1 (−24)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 40.7 (1.602) 36.3 (1.429) 39.7 (1.563) 33.5 (1.319) 63.5 (2.5) 65.2 (2.567) 90.0 (3.543) 56.5 (2.224) 42.1 (1.657) 37.6 (1.48) 40.8 (1.606) 35.9 (1.413) 582 (22.91)

Average precipitation days 17 15 14 11 14 14 14 12 11 12 14 16 166

Mean monthly sunshine hours 41 62 120 190 245 249 247 236 163 115 50 36 1,753

Source: [37]

Districts[edit] Łódź
Łódź
was previously subdivided into five boroughs (dzielnica): Bałuty, Widzew, Śródmieście, Polesie, Górna. However, the city is now divided into 36 osiedla (districts): Bałuty-Centrum, Bałuty-Doły, Bałuty Zachodnie, Julianów-Marysin-Rogi, Łagiewniki, Radogoszcz, Teofilów-Wielkopolska, Osiedle Wzniesień Łódzkich, Chojny, Chojny-Dąbrowa, Górniak, Nad Nerem, Piastów-Kurak, Rokicie, Ruda, Wiskitno, Osiedle im. Józefa Montwiłła-Mireckiego, Karolew-Retkinia Wschód, Koziny, Lublinek-Pienista, Retkinia
Retkinia
Zachód-Smulsko, Stare Polesie, Zdrowie-Mania, Złotno, Śródmieście-Wschód, Osiedle Katedralna, Andrzejów, Dolina Łódki, Mileszki, Nowosolna, Olechów-Janów, Stary Widzew, Stoki, Widzew-Wschód, Zarzew, and Osiedle nr 33. Places of interest[edit]

Sculpture of Artur Rubinstein
Artur Rubinstein
on Piotrkowska Street
Piotrkowska Street
in Łódź, where Rubinstein was born and raised

Herbst Palace, an art gallery within a historical mansion, which holds paintings from all over Europe

The Piotrkowska Street, which remains the high-street and main tourist attraction in the city, runs north to south for a little over five kilometres (3.1 miles). This makes it one of the longest commercial streets in the world. Most of the building façades, many of which date back to the 19th century, have been renovated.[38] It is the site of most restaurants, bars and cafes in Łódź's city centre. Many neglected tenement houses throughout the entire city centre have been renovated in recent years as part of the ongoing ‘mia100 kamienic’ project run by the local authorities.[39] The best example of urban regeneration in Łódź
Łódź
is the Manufaktura
Manufaktura
complex, occupying a large area of a former cotton factory dating back to the nineteenth century.[40] The site, which was the heart of Izrael Poznański's industrial empire, now hosts a shopping mall, numerous restaurants, 4-star hotel, multiplex cinema, factory museum, bowling and fitness facilities and a science exhibition centre.[41] Opened in 2006, it quickly became “a centre of cultural entertainment and shopping [...] integrating the residents of the city”[42] as well as a recognizable city landmark attracting both domestic and foreign tourists.[43] The city is also likely to receive a large boost in terms of tourism once the massive revitalization project of the city’s downtown (worth 4 billion PLN) is completed.[6] The local government’s efforts to transform the former industrial city into a thriving urban environment and tourist destination formed the basis for the city’s failed bid to organise the 2022 International EXPO exhibition on the subject of urban renewal.[44]

Light Move Festival in Łódź

Łódź
Łódź
has one of the best museums of modern art in Poland. Muzeum Sztuki has three branches, two of which (ms1 and ms2) display collections of 20th and 21st century art. The newest addition to the museum, ms2 was opened in 2008 in the Manufaktura
Manufaktura
complex.[45] The unique collection of the Museum is presented in an unconventional way: instead of a chronological lecture on the development of art, works of art representing various periods and movements are arranged into a story touching themes and motifs important for the contemporary public. The third branch of Muzeum Sztuki, located in one of the city’s many industrial palaces, also has more traditional art on display, presenting works by European and Polish masters (including Stanisław Wyspiański
Stanisław Wyspiański
and Henryk Rodakowski).[46] Among the 14 registered museums to be found in Łódź,[47] there is the independent Book Art Museum, awarded the American Printing History Association’s Institutional Award for 2015 for its outstanding contribution to the study, recording, preservation and dissemination of printing history in Poland
Poland
over the last 35 years.[48] Other notable museums include the Central Museum of Textiles
Central Museum of Textiles
with its open-air display of wooden architecture, the Cinematography Museum, located in Karl Wilhelm Scheibler’s palace, and the Museum of Independence Traditions, occupying the building of a historical Tsarist prison from the late 19th century.[45] A more unusual establishment, the Dętka museum offers tourists a chance to visit the municipal sewer designed in the early years of the 20th century by the British engineer William Heerlein Lindley.

Museum of Art in Łódź, the city's primary cultural institution

Łódź
Łódź
also provides plenty of green spaces for recreation. Woodland areas cover 9.61% of the city, with parks taking up an additional 2.37% of the area of Łódź
Łódź
(as of 2014).[49] Las Łagiewnicki (Łagiewnicki Forest), the largest forest within city limits, is referred to in scholarship as “the largest forested area within the administrative borders of any city in Europe.”[50] It has an area of 1,245 ha[49] and is cut across by a number of hiking trails that traverse the hilly landscape on the western edge of Łódź
Łódź
Hills Landscape Park.[51] A “natural complex which has remained nearly intact as oak-hornbeam and oak woodland,”[50] the forest is also rich in history, and its attractions include a Franciscan
Franciscan
friary dating back to the early 18th century and two 17th-century wooden chapels.[52] Out of a total of 44 parks in Łódź
Łódź
(as of 2014), 11 have historical status, the oldest of them dating back to the middle of the 19th century.[53] The largest of these, Józef Piłsudski Park (188,21 ha),[49] is located near the city’s zoo and botanical garden, and together with them it comprises an extensive green complex known as Zdrowie serving the recreational needs of the city. The Jewish Cemetery at Bracka Street, one of the largest of its kind in Europe, was established in 1892. After the German occupation of Poland
Poland
in 1939, this cemetery became a part of Łódź's eastern territory known as the enclosed Łódź
Łódź
ghetto (Ghetto Field). Between 1940 and 1944, approximately 43,000 burials took place within the grounds of this rounded-up cemetery.[54] In 1956, a monument by Muszko in memory of the victims of the Łódź Ghetto
Łódź Ghetto
was erected at the cemetery. It features a smooth obelisk, a menorah, and a broken oak tree with leaves stemming from the tree (symbolizing death, especially death at a young age). As of 2014[update] the cemetery has an area of 39.6 hectare. It contains approximately 180,000 graves, approximately 65,000 labelled tombstones, ohels and mausoleums. Many of these monuments have significant architectural value; 100 of these have been declared historical monuments and have been in various stages of restoration. The mausoleum of Izrael and Eleanora Poznanski is perhaps the largest Jewish tombstone in the world and the only one decorated with mosaics.[55][56] Gallery of sights[edit]

Mural in city centre

Piotrkowska Street
Piotrkowska Street
- the main promenade of the city

EC1 - former power station, now a museum and planetarium

Manufaktura
Manufaktura
- once a textile factory, now a shopping centre

Łódź
Łódź
City Hall, formerly Heinzel Palace

International Faculty of Engineering (TUL)

Andel's Hotel, near Manufaktura
Manufaktura
shopping mall

Music Academy, formerly Poznański Palace

White Factory

Piotrkowska Street

Izrael Poznański's Palace

Archcathedral Basilica of St. Stanislaus Kostka

Alexander Nevsky Orthodox church

Teodor Steigert's Tenement
Tenement
House

Scheiblers' Tenement
Tenement
House

Herman Konstadt's Tenement
Tenement
House

Mieczysław Pinkus and Jakub Lende's Tenement
Tenement
House

Karl Scheibler's Chapel
Karl Scheibler's Chapel
in Old Cemetery

Workers' houses (famuły) at Księży Młyn

Łódź
Łódź
Special
Special
Economic Zone

Home Gutenberg

Church of the Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary

Poniatowski's Park

Łódź
Łódź
Airport

Łódź Fabryczna
Łódź Fabryczna
railway station

Demographics[edit]

Textile
Textile
factory employees in Łódź, 1950s

Łódź
Łódź
was Poland’s second largest city until 2007, when it lost its position to Kraków.[57] This is because alongside the entire region of Łódź
Łódź
Voivodeship,[58] the city is experiencing substantial population decline.[59] Since the population peak of 1988, when the number of inhabitants reached 854,261,[36] Łódź
Łódź
has lost more than 150,000 residents. Such a dramatic change results mainly from low fertility rates and low life expectancy on the one hand, and a negative migration balance on the other.[58] A major factor behind the shrinkage of the city was the transition from socialist to market-based economy after 1989 and the resulting economic crisis,[60] but the economic growth following Poland’s accession to the European Union in 2004 has not reversed the trend.[61] The process of suburbanization also contributes to it, with a number of non-urban areas in counties surrounding Łódź
Łódź
steadily increasing in population. While the ‘fringe area’ around Łódź
Łódź
is expected to register an insignificant growth of less than 2,000 people until 2050, the population of the city proper by the middle of the 21st century is estimated to drop below the level of 500,000.[59] The ongoing ageing and depopulation of Łódź
Łódź
is a major challenge for the future development of the city, putting strain on social infrastructure and medical services.[57] Łódź
Łódź
has one of the highest feminization rates among Poland’s major cities, a legacy of the city’s industrial past, when the textile factories attracted large numbers of female employees.[57] The rising age of the population, coupled with a longer life expectancy among women, further exacerbates the disproportion.[57] Government and politics[edit]

Hanna Zdanowska, city mayor since 2010

See also: List of mayors of Łódź Former city mayors following the collapse of communism include:

Waldemar Bohdanowicz, Solidarity
Solidarity
(November 1989 – 1990) – appointed by Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki Grzegorz Palka (1990–1994) Marek Czekalski, Freedom Union (1994–1998) Tadeusz Matusiak, SLD (1998–2001) Krzysztof Panas, SLD (2001–2002) Krzysztof Jagiełło, SLD (2002) Jerzy Kropiwnicki, Christian-National Union (ZChN) (2002–2010) Tomasz Sadzyński, Platforma Obywatelska / Civic Platform
Civic Platform
(temporary in 2010) Hanna Zdanowska, Platforma Obywatelska / Civic Platform

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Łódź
Łódź
is home to nine foreign consulates, all of which are Honorary. They are subordinate to the following states main representation in Poland: French, Danish, German, Austrian, British, Belgian, Latvian, Hungarian and Moldavian. Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Łódź
Łódź
is twinned with:[62]

Chemnitz
Chemnitz
in Germany
Germany
(since 1972) Stuttgart
Stuttgart
in Germany
Germany
(since 1988)[63] Lyon
Lyon
in France
France
(since 1991)[64] Vilnius
Vilnius
in Lithuania
Lithuania
(since 1991) Ivanovo
Ivanovo
in Russia
Russia
(since 1992) Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
in Russia
Russia
(since 2002)[65] Minsk
Minsk
in Belarus
Belarus
(since 1992)[66] Odessa
Odessa
in Ukraine
Ukraine
(since 1993) Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
in Israel
Israel
(since 1994)[67]

Tianjin
Tianjin
in People's Republic of China
China
(since 1994) Rustavi
Rustavi
in Georgia (since 1995) Barreiro in Portugal
Portugal
(since 1996) Tampere
Tampere
in Finland
Finland
(since 1996) Puebla in Mexico
Mexico
(since 1996) Murcia
Murcia
in Spain
Spain
(since 1999) Örebro
Örebro
in Sweden
Sweden
(since 2001)[68] Lviv
Lviv
in Ukraine
Ukraine
(since 2003) Szeged
Szeged
in Hungary
Hungary
(since 2008) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
in People's Republic of China
China
(since 2014)

Łódź
Łódź
belongs also to the Eurocities
Eurocities
network. Culture[edit] Łódź
Łódź
in literature and cinema[edit]

The contrast between the living conditions in industrial Łódź
Łódź
were often mentioned in arts and literature. A notable example is The Promised Land, a novel by Władysław Reymont

Three major novels depict the development of industrial Łódź: Władysław Reymont's The Promised Land (1898), Joseph Roth's Hotel Savoy (1924) and Israel
Israel
Joshua Singer's The Brothers Ashkenazi (1937). Roth's novel depicts the city on the eve of a workers' riot in 1919. Reymont's novel was made into a film by Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
in 1975. In the 1990 film Europa Europa, Solomon Perel's family flees pre-World War II Berlin and settles in Łódź. Scenes of David Lynch's 2006 film Inland Empire were shot in Łódź. Paweł Pawlikowski's film Ida was partially shot in Łódź. Sections of Harry Turtledove's Worldwar alternate history series take place in Łódź, and, in John Birmingham's Axis of Time
Axis of Time
alternate history trilogy, Łódź
Łódź
gains the unfortunate historical notoriety of becoming the first city to be destroyed by an Atomic Bomb when the USSR
USSR
destroys the city on 5 June 1944. Notable residents[edit]

Arthur Rubinstein, one of the greatest pianists of the twentieth century, was born in Łódź

Daniel Libeskind, notable architect and designer

Andrzej Sapkowski, best known for The Witcher
The Witcher
book series

Daniel Amit, Israeli physicist Grażyna Bacewicz, composer Aleksander Bardini, stage director and actor Andrzej Bartkowiak, cameraman and film director Jurek Becker
Jurek Becker
(1937–1997), writer Sylwester Bednarek, high jumper Kazimierz Brandys, writer Artur Brauner, film producer Jacob Bronowski, writer, mathematician, and Britain's leading academic TV figure of the 1970s. Sabina Citron, Holocaust survivor, activist, and author Bat-Sheva Dagan, Holocaust survivor, teacher, psychologist, author Karl Dedecius, translator Karl Dominik (Born:Karol Dominik Ignaczak), China's first Chinese speaking Polish actor Marek Edelman, Holocaust survivor, one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Solidarity
Solidarity
activist, Polish politician, human rights activist Max Factor
Max Factor
Sr., businessman, founder of the Max Factor
Max Factor
cosmetics company[69] Dov Freiberg, Holocaust survivor
Holocaust survivor
and writer Joseph Friedenson, Holocaust survivor
Holocaust survivor
and writer Piotr Fronczewski, Polish actor Marcin Gortat, NBA
NBA
basketball player for the Washington Wizards Mendel Grossman, Łódź
Łódź
ghetto photographer [70] Józef Hecht (1891–1951), engraver and printmaker Josef Joffe, journalist Jan Karski, diplomat and anti-nazi resistant Aharon Katzir
Aharon Katzir
(1914–1972), Israeli pioneer in study of electrochemistry of biopolymers; killed in Lod Airport Massacre Lea Koenig, Israeli actress Paul Klecki, conductor Katarzyna Kobro, sculptor Jerzy Kosinski, writer Jan Kowalewski, Polish cryptologist who broke Soviet military codes, and ciphers during the Polish-Soviet War Karolina Kowalkiewicz, UFC Strawweight Title challenger Feliks W. Kres, fantasy writer Nathan Lewin, Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
attorney Daniel Libeskind, architect Tadeusz Miciński, poet Ruth Minsky Sender, author and survivor Zew Wawa Morejno, Chief Rabbi Zbigniew Nienacki, writer Marian P. Opala, Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Adam Ostrowski, better known as O.S.T.R., rapper Władysław Pasikowski, director Roman Polanski, cinema director, Oscar and Golden Palm winner Piotr Pustelnik, alpine and high-altitude climber, the 20th man to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders. Ze'ev Raban, Israeli painter and sculptor Władysław Reymont, writer, Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winner Joseph Rotblat, Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winner Stefan Rozental, nuclear physicist Artur Rubinstein, pianist Arnold Rutkowski, opera singer Zbigniew Rybczyński, animator and Oscar winner Marek Saganowski, football player Andrzej Sapkowski, fantasy writer Carl Wilhelm Scheibler (1820–1881), one of the most important Łódź
Łódź
industrialists Piotr Sobociński, cinematographer Andrzej Sontag, track-and-field star Natan Spigel
Natan Spigel
(1900–1942), painter Władysław Strzemiński, painter, Kobro's husband Arthur Szyk, artist Aleksander Tansman, composer and pianist Jack Tramiel, computer manufacturer, the founder of Commodore[71] Julian Tuwim, poet Miś Uszatek, cartoon character Michał Wiśniewski, singer Hanna Zdanowska, politician Aleksandra Ziółkowska-Boehm, writer Jerzy Janowicz, tennis player

Notable descendants of Łódź
Łódź
residents[edit]

Ben Burns, American editor of African American publications Lou Gold, American composer, pianist and band leader Amy Totenberg, American district judge Nina Totenberg, American NPR
NPR
legal affairs correspondent Barbara Walters, American journalist, author, and television personality Ada Yonath, Israeli crystallographer and Nobel laureate

Sports[edit]

Atlas Arena in Łódź

The city has experience as a host for international sporting events such as the 2009 EuroBasket.[72] and it will be one of the 12 host cities of the 2019 FIFA U-20 World Cup
2019 FIFA U-20 World Cup
The Stadion Widzewa
Stadion Widzewa
will host the opening and final matches. Under communism it was common for clubs to participate in many different sports for all ages and sexes. Many of these traditional clubs still survive today. Originally they were owned directly by a public body, but now they are independently operated by clubs or private companies. However they get public support through the cheap rent of land and other subsidies from the city. Some of their sections have gone professional and separated from the clubs as private companies. For example, Budowlani S.A is a private company that owns the only professional rugby team in Łódź, while Klub Sportowy Budowlani remains a community amateur club.

Budowlani Łódź
Budowlani Łódź
– rugby (six times Polish champions), hockey, wrestling, volleyball ŁKS Łódź
ŁKS Łódź
– association football (two times Polish champions), basketball (Polish champions 1953), volleyball (two times Polish champions), handball, boxing SMS Łódź[73] – association football, volleyball, basketball KS Społem Łódź
Łódź
– road and track cycling SKS Start Łódź[74] – football, swimming Widzew Łódź
Widzew Łódź
– association football (four time Polish champions, semi-finalists of the 1982–83 European Cup)

In Ekstraklasa of Polish beach soccer Łódź
Łódź
have three professional clubs: Grembach, KP and BSCC Economy and infrastructure[edit]

High-rise buildings in central Łódź

Before 1990, Łódź's economy heavily focused on the textile industry, which in the nineteenth century had developed in the city owing to the favourable chemical composition of its water. Because of the growth in this industry, the city has sometimes been called the "Polish Manchester". As a result, Łódź
Łódź
grew from a population of 13,000 in 1840 to over 500,000 in 1913. By the time right before World War I Łódź
Łódź
had become one of the most densely populated industrial cities in the world, with 13,280 inhabitants per km2, and also one of the most polluted. The textile industry declined dramatically in 1990 and 1991, and no major textile company survives in Łódź
Łódź
today. However, countless small companies still provide a significant output of textiles, mostly for export to Russia
Russia
and other countries of the former Soviet Union.

Izrael Poznański
Izrael Poznański
Palace

The city benefits from its central location in Poland. A number of firms have located their logistics centres in the vicinity. Two motorways, A1 spanning from the north to the south of Poland, and A2 going from the east to the west, intersect northeast of the city. As of 2012[update], the A2 is complete to Warsaw
Warsaw
and the northern section of A1 is largely completed. With these connections, the advantages due to the city's central location should increase even further. Work has also begun on upgrading the railway connection with Warsaw, which reduced the 2-hour travel time to make the 137 km (85 mi) journey 1.5 hours in 2009. As of 2018, the travel time from Łódź
Łódź
to Warsaw
Warsaw
takes around 1.2 hours with the modern Pesa SA
Pesa SA
Dart trains.[75] Recent years has seen many foreign companies opening and establishing their offices in Łódź. Indian IT company Infosys
Infosys
has one of its centres in the city. In January 2009 Dell
Dell
announced that it will shift production from its plant in Limerick, Ireland to its plant in Łódź, largely because the labour costs in Poland
Poland
are a fraction of those in Ireland.[76] The city's investor friendly policies have attracted 980 foreign investors by January 2009.[76] Foreign investment was one of the factors which decreased the unemployment rate in Łódź
Łódź
to 6.5 percent in December 2008, from 20 percent four years earlier.[76] Transport[edit]

Major road network in the city

Łódź
Łódź
tram network

Łódź
Łódź
is situated near the geographical centre of Poland
Poland
and as a result, is located near the main north-south and east-west transport routes. The city is served by the national motorway network, an international airport, and long-distance and regional railways. It is at the centre of a regional and commuter rail network operating from the city’s various train stations. Bus and tram services are operated by a municipal public transport company. There are 130 km (81 mi) of bicycle routes throughout the city.[77] The city is situated near the intersection of Poland’s main north-south and east-west freeways, the A1 and A2 respectively. The A1 connects Łódź
Łódź
with Gdańsk
Gdańsk
in the north and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
in the south. The A2 connects the city with Warsaw
Warsaw
in the east, and Germany, via Poznań
Poznań
in the west. Major roads include:

A1: Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Toruń
Toruń
Łódź
Łódź
Częstochowa
Częstochowa
– Cieszyn (national border) A2: Świecko (national border) – Poznań
Poznań
Łódź
Łódź
– Warszawa S8: Wrocław
Wrocław
Sieradz
Sieradz
Łódź
Łódź
Piotrków Trybunalski
Piotrków Trybunalski
– Warszawa – Białystok S14: Pabianice – Konstantynów Łódzki – Aleksandrów Łódzki – Zgierz DK14: Łowicz
Łowicz
– Stryków – Łódź
Łódź
– Zduńska Wola – Sieradz – Złoczew – Walichnowy DK72: Konin – Turek – Poddębice – Łódź
Łódź
– Brzeziny – Rawa Mazowiecka

Airport[edit] Main article: Łódź
Łódź
Władysław Reymont
Władysław Reymont
Airport The city has an international airport: Łódź
Łódź
Władysław Reymont Airport located 6 kilometres (4 miles) from the city centre. Flights connect the city with destinations in Europe
Europe
including Turkey.[78] In 2014 the airport handled 253,772 passengers.[79] It is the 8th largest airport in Poland.[80] Public Transport[edit] See also: Trams in Łódź

Piotrkowska Centrum tram station, also known as "The Unicorn Stable"

The Municipal Transport Company – Łódź
Łódź
(Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne – Łódź), owned by the Łódź City Government, is responsible for operating 58 bus routes and 19 tram lines.[81][82] Rail[edit] Łódź
Łódź
has a number of long distance and local railway stations. There are two main stations in the city, but with no direct rail connection between them—a legacy of 19th-century railway network planning. Originally constructed in 1866, the centrally-located Łódź Fabryczna
Łódź Fabryczna
was a terminus station for a branch line of the Warsaw-Vienna railway,[83] whereas Łódź
Łódź
Kaliska was built more than thirty years later on the central section of the Warsaw-Kalisz railway. For this reason most intercity train traffic goes to this day through Łódź
Łódź
Kaliska station, despite its relative distance from the city centre, and Łódź Fabryczna
Łódź Fabryczna
serves mainly as a terminal station for trains to Warsaw. The situation will be remedied in 2021 after the construction of a tunnel connecting the two,[84] which is likely to make Łódź
Łódź
Poland’s main railway hub.[85] The tunnel will additionally serve Łódź
Łódź
Commuter Railway, providing a rapid transit system for the city, dubbed the Łódź
Łódź
Metro by the media and local authorities.[86] Two new stations are to be constructed on the underground line, one serving the needs of the Manufaktura
Manufaktura
complex and the other located in the area of Piotrkowska Street.[86] In December 2016, a few years after the demolition of the old building of Łódź Fabryczna
Łódź Fabryczna
station, a new underground station was opened.[85] It is considered to be the largest and most modern of all train stations in Poland
Poland
and is designed to handle increased traffic after the construction of the underground tunnel.[87] It also serves as a multimodal transport hub, featuring an underground intercity bus station, and is integrated with a new transport interchange serving taxis and local trams and buses.[88] The construction of the new Łódź Fabryczna
Łódź Fabryczna
station was part of a broader project of urban renewal known as Nowe Centrum Łodzi (New Centre of Łódź).[89] The third-largest train station in Łódź
Łódź
is Łódź
Łódź
Widzew. There are also many other stations and train stops in the city, many of which were upgraded as part of the Łódzka Kolej Aglomeracyjna commuter rail project. The rail service, founded as part of a major regional rail upgrade and owned by Łódź
Łódź
Voivodeship, operates on routes to Kutno, Sieradz, Skierniewice, Łowicz, and on selected days to Warsaw, with plans for further expansion after the construction of the underground tunnel.[90] Education[edit]

Łódź
Łódź
University of Technology rector's office (formerly Reinhold Richter Villa, 1904)

Main article: Education in Łódź Łódź
Łódź
is a thriving center of academic life. Currently Łódź
Łódź
hosts three major state-owned universities, six higher education establishments operating for more than a half of the century, and a number of smaller schools of higher education. The tertiary institutions with the most students in Łódź
Łódź
include:

University of Łódź
University of Łódź
(UŁ - Uniwersytet Łódzki) Lodz University of Technology
Lodz University of Technology
(TUL - Politechnika Łódzka) Medical University of Łódź
University of Łódź
(Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi) National Film School in Łódź
National Film School in Łódź
(Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Filmowa, Telewizyjna i Teatralna w Łodzi) Academy of Music in Łódź
Academy of Music in Łódź
(Akademia Muzyczna im. Grażyna i Kiejstuta Bacewiczów w Łodzi) Academy of Fine Arts In Łódź (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Wł. Strzemińskiego w Łodzi)

In the 2017 general ranking of state-owned tertiary education institutions in Poland, the University of Łódź
University of Łódź
came 15th (6th place among universities), one place lower than Lodz University of Technology (6th place among technical universities). The Medical University of Łódź
University of Łódź
was ranked 6th among Polish medical universities. Leading courses taught in Łódź
Łódź
include transport (TUL - 3rd place nationwide), architecture (TUL - 5th place) and administration (UŁ - 5th place).[91] There is also a number of private-owned institutions of higher learning in Łódź. The largest of these are the University of Social Sciences (Społeczna Akademia Nauk) and the University of Humanities and Economics in Łódź
Łódź
(Akademia Humanistyczno-Ekonomiczna w Łodzi). In the 2017 ranking of private universities in Poland, the former was ranked 9th, and the latter 19th.[91] National Film School in Łódź[edit]

National Film School at Oskar Kon Palace

Main article: National Film School in Łódź Leon Schiller
Leon Schiller
National Higher School of Film, Television and Theatre in Łódź
Łódź
(Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Filmowa, Telewizyjna i Teatralna im. Leona Schillera w Łodzi) is the most notable academy for future actors, directors, photographers, camera operators and TV staff in Poland. It was founded on 8 March 1948 and was initially planned to be moved to Warsaw
Warsaw
as soon as the city was rebuilt following the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising. However, in the end the school remained in Łódź
Łódź
and today is one of the best-known institutions of higher education in the city. At the end of the Second World War Łódź
Łódź
remained the only large Polish city besides Kraków
Kraków
which war had not destroyed. The creation of the National Film School gave Łódź
Łódź
a role of greater importance from a cultural viewpoint, which before the war had belonged exclusively to Warsaw
Warsaw
and Kraków. Early students of the School include the directors Andrzej Munk, Andrzej Wajda, Kazimierz Karabasz (one of the founders of the so-called Black Series of Polish Documentary) and Janusz Morgenstern, who at the end of the 1950s became famous as one of the founders of the Polish Film School of Cinematography.[92] Horticultural Expo 2024[edit] Łódź
Łódź
will host the Horticultural Expo in 2024. Łódź
Łódź
bid for the Specialized Expo 2022/2023 but lost out to Buenos Aires, Argentina. See also[edit]

Poland
Poland
portal European Union portal

Łódź
Łódź
Design Festival

References[edit] Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Łódź

Alan Adelson and Robert Lapides, Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto : A Community History Told in Diaries, Journals, and Documents, Viking, 1989. ISBN 0-670-82983-8 "A Stairwell in Lodz," Constance Cappel, 2004, Xlibris, (in English).[self-published source] Horwitz, Gordon J. (2009). Ghettostadt: Łódź
Łódź
and the making of a Nazi city. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 27, 54–55, 62. ISBN 0674038797. Retrieved 21 March 2015 – via Google Book, preview.  "Lodz – The Last Ghetto in Poland," Michal Unger, Yad Vashem, 600 pages (in Hebrew) Stefański, Krzysztof (2000). Gmachy użyteczności publicznej dawnej Łodzi, Łódź
Łódź
2000 ISBN 83-86699-45-0. Stefański, Krzysztof (2009). Ludzie którzy zbudowali Łódź Leksykon architektów i budowniczych miasta (do 1939 roku), Łódź 2009 ISBN 978-83-61253-44-0. Trunk, Isaiah; Shapiro, Robert Moses (2006). Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto: a history. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana. ISBN 978-0-253-34755-8. Retrieved 6 March 2010.  Trunk, Isaiah; Shapiro, Robert Moses (2008) [2006]. Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto: A History. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253347556. Retrieved 29 September 2015 – via Google Book, preview. 

Notes[edit]

^ Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.  ^ /luːdʒ/, /lɒdz/, /wʊtʃ/ ^ Population in Poland. Size and Structure by Territorial Division, As of June 30, 2017 (PDF). Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny. 2017. p. 71. ISSN 1734-6118.  ^ a b "Lodz – Tourism Tourist Information – Lodz, Poland". staypoland.com. eTravel S.A.  ^ Cysek-Pawlak, Monika; Krzysztofik, Sylwia (2017). "Integrated Approach as a Means of Leading the Degraded Post-Industrial Areas Out of Crisis - A Case Study of Lodz". IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 245: 1–8. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/245/8/082036. eISSN 1757-899X. ISSN 1757-8981. Retrieved 6 November 2017.  ^ a b “4 Billion PLN for Revitalization of Downtown Łódź.” lodzpost.com. Retrieved 18 July 2017. ^ "Poland’s Łódź
Łódź
named UNESCO
UNESCO
City of Film." Radio Poland. Retrieved 3 November 2017. ^ a b Wiesław Puś, Stefan Pytlas. " Industry
Industry
and Trade in Łódź
Łódź
and the Eastern Markets in Partitioned Poland". In: Uwe Müller, Helga Schultz. National borders and economic disintegration in modern East Central Europe. Berlin Verlag A. Spitz. 2002. p. 69. ^ "Neues Leben in alten Fabriken: Lódz baut auf Kultur" (in German). Weser Kurier. 22 September 2009. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2009.  ^ "Foundation For Saving Karol Scheibler's Chapel". Scheibler.org.pl. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman, Poles, Jews, and the Politics of Nationality, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 0-299-19464-7, Google Print, p.16 ^ Robert Bubczyk. A History of Poland
Poland
in Outline. Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Press. 2002. p. 68. ^ Geoffrey Jukes, Peter Simkins, Michael Hickey, The First World War: The Eastern Front, 1914–1918, 2002, p. 28 ^ Gilbert, Martin (1994). The First World War: A Complete History. New York: Henry Holt and Company. p. 107. ISBN 080501540X.  ^ Alan D. Axelrod, The Complete Idiot's Guide to World War I, 2001, p. 108 ^ Gordon J Horwitz. Ghettostadt: Łódź
Łódź
and the Making of a Nazi City. Harvard University Press. 2009. p. 3. ^ a b John Radzilowski; C. Peter Chen, Invasion of Poland: 1 Sep 1939 – 6 Oct 1939, ww2db.com, retrieved 17 February 2008  ^ a b Biuletyn Informacyjny Obchodów 60. Rocznicy Likwidacji Litzmannstadt Getto. Nr 1-2. "The establishment of Litzmannstadt Ghetto", Torah Code website. Retrieved 21 March 2015. ^ Isaiah Trunk: 2006, Page xi ^ a b Jennifer Rosenberg (1998). "The Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 29 July 2011.  ^ a b c Jennifer Rosenberg (2015) [1998]. "The Lódz Ghetto (1939–1945)" (Reprinted with permission). History & Overview. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 19 March 2015.  ^ a b c d Jennifer Rosenberg (2006). "The Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto". Part 1 of 2. 20th Century History, About.com. Archived from the original (Internet Archive) on 30 April 2006. Retrieved 19 March 2015. Lodz Ghetto: Inside a Community Under Siege by Adelson, Alan and Robert Lapides (ed.), New York, 1989; The Documents of the Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto: An Inventory of the Nachman Zonabend Collection by Web, Marek (ed.), New York, 1988; The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry by Yahil, Leni, New York, 1991.  ^ a b c d The statistical data, compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" by Virtual Shtetl, Museum of the History of the Polish Jews, as well as "Getta Żydowskie" by Gedeon  (in Polish) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters  (in English). Accessed 25 March 2015. ^ a b c d Abraham J. Peck (1997). "The Agony of the Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto, 1941–1944". The Chronicle of the Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto, 1941–1944 by Lucjan Dobroszycki, and The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington D.C. The Simon Wiesenthal Center. Retrieved 25 March 2015.  ^ Weiner, Rebecca. Lodz, Poland
Poland
Jewish History Tour, Jewish Virtual Library, American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved on 15 January 2008. ^ Golden, Juliet (2006). "Remembering Chelmno". In Vitelli, Karen D.; Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip. Archeological Ethics (2nd ed.). AltaMira Press. p. 189. ISBN 075910963X. Retrieved 25 March 2015.  ^ JVL (2013). "Chelmno (Kulmhof)". The Forgotten Camps. Jewish Virtual Library.org. Retrieved 25 March 2015.  ^ S.J., H.E.A.R.T (2007). "Chronicle: 1940 – 1944". The Łódź Ghetto. Holocaust Research Project.org. Retrieved 22 March 2015.  ^ Archives (2015). "Polish Righteous". Łódź. POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Retrieved 25 March 2015.  ^ Blobaum, Robert. "On Strike on Łódź. "Rewolucja: Russian Poland, 1904–1907". Cornell University
Cornell University
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Principal cities of Poland

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Counties of Łódź
Łódź
Voivodeship

City counties

Łódź
Łódź
(capital) Piotrków Trybunalski Skierniewice

Land counties

Bełchatów Brzeziny Kutno Łask Łęczyca Łódź
Łódź
East Łowicz Opoczno Pabianice Pajęczno Piotrków Poddębice Radomsko Rawa Sieradz Skierniewice Tomaszów Mazowiecki Wieluń Wieruszów Zduńska Wola Zgierz

v t e

Łódź
Łódź
East County

Urban-rural gminas

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Rural gminas

Gmina Andrespol Gmina Brójce Gmina Nowosolna

Seat (not part of the county)

Łódź

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 154716567 LCCN: n80093570 GND: 4074299-4 SUDOC: 028056418 BNF:

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