ŁóDź (/wuːtʃ/ wooch , /lɒdz/ lodz ; Polish: ( listen );
Yiddish : לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as LODZ) is the
third-largest city in
Poland and a former industrial centre. Located
in the central part of the country, it has a population of 693,797
(2017). It is the capital of
Łódź Voivodeship , and is
approximately 135 kilometres (84 mi) south-west of
Warsaw . The city's
coat of arms is an example of canting : depicting a boat. It alludes
to the city's name which translates literally as "boat."
Łódź was once a small settlement that first appeared in written
records in around 1332. In the early 15th century it was granted city
rights , but remained a rather small and insubstantial town. It was
the property of Kuyavian bishops and clergy until the end of the 18th
Łódź was annexed by
Prussia as a result of the second
Poland . Following the collapse of the independent Duchy
Warsaw , the city became part of Congress
Poland , a client state
Russian Empire . It was then that
Łódź experienced rapid
growth in the cloth industry and in population due the inflow of
migrants, most notably Germans and Jews. Ever since the
industrialization of the area, the city has struggled with many
difficulties such as multinationalism and social inequality, which
were vividly documented in the novel The Promised Land written by
Nobel Prize -winning author
Władysław Reymont . The contrasts
greatly reflected on the architecture of the city, where luxurious
mansions coexisted with redbrick factories and old tenement houses.
Poland regained its independence in 1918,
Łódź grew to be
one of the largest Polish cities and one of the most multicultural and
industrial centers in
Europe . The interbellum period saw rapid
development in education and healthcare. After the invasion of Poland
in 1939, the German Army captured the city and renamed it
Litzmannstadt in honour of the German general
Karl Litzmann , who was
victorious near the area during
World War I
World War I . The city's large Jewish
population was forced into a walled zone known as the
Łódź Ghetto ,
from which they were sent to German concentration and extermination
camps . Following the liberation of the city by the Soviet Army ,
Łódź, which sustained insignificant damage during the war, became
part of the newly established Polish People\'s Republic .
After years of prosperity during the socialist era , Łódź
experienced decline after the fall of communism throughout Central and
Eastern Europe. Only in the 2010s has the city witnessed large-scale
regeneration of its downtown area, an ongoing effort that culminated
Łódź being granted more than 4 billion PLN by the Polish
government and the European Union to complete the project. The city
is internationally known for its National Film School , a cradle for
the most renowned Polish actors and directors, including Andrzej Wajda
Roman Polanski , and in 2017 was inducted into the UNESCO
Creative Cities network and named
UNESCO City of Film.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Century of partitions: 1815
Congress of Vienna
* 1.2 Restored
Poland after the First World War
* 1.3 Occupation of
* 1.4 After
World War II
World War II in the Polish People\'s Republic
* 2 Economy
* 3 Climate
* 4 Tourism
* 5 Education
National Film School in Łódź
* 6 Transport
* 6.1 Airport
* 6.2 Public Transport
* 6.3 Rail
Łódź in literature and cinema
* 8 Sports
* 9 Government
* 10 International relations
* 10.1 Twin towns – sister cities
* 11 Points of interest
* 12 Notable residents
* 13 Notable descendants of
* 14 See also
* 15 References
* 15.1 Bibliography
* 15.2 Notes
* 16 External links
Timeline of Łódź Sigillum oppidi Lodzia - seal
dating back to 1577
Łódź first appears in the written record in a 1332 document giving
the village of Łodzia to the bishops of
Włocławek . In 1423 King
Władysław II Jagiełło officially granted city rights to the
village of Łódź. From then until the 18th century the town remained
a small settlement on a trade route between the provinces of Masovia
Silesia . In the 16th century the town had fewer than 800
inhabitants, mostly working on the surrounding grain farms.
With the second partition of
Poland in 1793,
Łódź became part of
the Kingdom of
Prussia 's province of South
Prussia , and was known in
German as Lodsch. In 1798 the Prussians nationalised the town, and it
lost its status as a town of the bishops of
Kuyavia . In 1806 Łódź
joined the Napoleonic Duchy of
Warsaw and in 1810 it had approximately
190 inhabitants. After the 1815
Congress of Vienna treaty it became
part of the Congress Kingdom of
Poland , a client state of the Russian
CENTURY OF PARTITIONS: 1815 CONGRESS OF VIENNA
The Great Synagogue was the main prayer house for the local
Jewish community . It was destroyed during
World War II
World War II Many
tenement houses often reflected the social status of owners and
In the 1815 treaty, it was planned to renew the dilapidated town and
with the 1816 decree by the Czar a number of German immigrants
received territory deeds for them to clear the land and to build
factories and housing. In 1820
Stanisław Staszic aided in changing
the small town into a modern industrial centre. The immigrants came to
the Promised Land (Ziemia obiecana, the city's nickname) from all over
Europe. Mostly they arrived from Southern
Bohemia , but also from countries as far away as Portugal, England,
France and Ireland. The first cotton mill opened in 1825, and 14 years
later the very first steam-powered factory in both
Poland and the
Russian Empire commenced operations. In 1839, over 78% of the
population was German, and German schools and churches were
A constant influx of workers, businessmen and craftsmen from all over
Łódź into the main textile production centre of
Russian Empire spanning from East-Central
Europe all the
Alaska . Three groups dominated the city's population and
contributed the most to the city's development: Poles, Germans and
Jews, who started to arrive since 1848. Many of the Łódź
craftspeople were weavers from Upper and Lower
Russia abolished the customs barrier between Congress Poland
Russia proper and therefore industry in
Łódź could now develop
freely with a huge Russian market not far away. Eventually the city
became the second-largest city of Congress Poland. In 1865 the first
railroad line opened (to
Koluszki , branch line of the Warsaw–Vienna
railway ), and soon the city had rail links with
Warsaw and Białystok
Izrael Poznański Factory in 1895 Liberty Square pictured
during the Second World War. The statue of
Tadeusz Kościuszko was
later dismantled by the German army Museum of Archeology and
Ethnography at Liberty Square
One of the most important industrialists of
Łódź was Karl Wilhelm
Scheibler . In 1852 he came to
Łódź and with Julius Schwarz
together started buying property and building several factories.
Scheibler later bought out Schwarz's share and thus became sole owner
of a large business. After he died in 1881 his widow and other members
of the family decided to pay homage to his memory by erecting a chapel
, intended as a mausoleum with family crypt, in the Lutheran part of
Łódź cemetery on ulica Ogrodowa (later known as The Old
Between 1823 and 1873, the city's population doubled every ten years.
The years 1870–1890 marked the period of most intense industrial
development in the city's modern history. Many of the industrialists
were of Jewish ethnicity.
Łódź also soon became a major centre of
the socialist movement. In 1892 a huge strike paralyzed most of the
factories and manufacturing plants. According to Russian census of
1897 , out of the total population of 315,000, Jews constituted 99,000
(around 31% percent). During the 1905 Revolution , in what became
known as the June Days or
Łódź insurrection , Tsarist police killed
hundreds of workers. By 1913, the Poles constituted almost half of
the population (49.7%), the German minority had fallen to 14.8%, and
the Jews made up 34%, out of some 506,000 inhabitants.
Despite the air of impending crisis preceding World War I, the city
grew constantly until 1914. By that year it had become one of the most
densely populated as well as one of the most polluted industrial
cities in the world—13,280 inhabitants per square kilometre
(34,400/sq mi). A major battle was fought near the city in late 1914,
and as a result the city came under German occupation after 6 December
but with Polish independence restored in November 1918 the local
population liberated the city and disarmed the German troops. In the
aftermath of World War I,
Łódź lost approximately 40% of its
inhabitants, mostly owing to draft, diseases, pollution and primarily
because of the mass expulsion of the city's German population back to
RESTORED POLAND AFTER THE FIRST WORLD WAR
In 1922, following the establishment of the
Second Polish Republic ,
Łódź became the capital of the
Łódź Voivodeship , but the period
of rapid growth had ceased. The
Great Depression of the 1930s and the
Customs war with
Germany closed western markets to Polish textiles
while the Bolshevik Revolution (1917) and the Civil War in Russia
(1918–1922) put an end to the most profitable trade with the East.
The city became a scene of a series of huge workers' protests and
riots in the interbellum .
On 13 September 1925 a new airport, Lublinek Airport , began
operations on the outskirts of the city. In the interwar years Łódź
continued to be a diverse and multicultural city, with the 1931 Polish
census showing that the total population of roughly 604,000 included
375,000 (59%) Poles, 192,000 (32%) Jews and 54,000 (9%) Germans
(determined from the main language used). By 1939, the Jewish minority
had grown to well over 200,000.
OCCUPATION OF POLAND BY NAZI GERMANY
Battle of Łódź (1939) and
Łódź Ghetto Memorial
to Holocaust victims at
Radegast railway station Izrael
Poznański 's tomb at the New Jewish Cemetery in
During the invasion of
Poland , the Polish forces of General Juliusz
Łódź Army defended the city against initial German
Wehrmacht nevertheless captured the city on 8 September.
Despite plans for the city to become a Polish enclave attached to the
General Government , the Nazi hierarchy respected the wishes of many
ethnically German residents and of the
Reichsgau Wartheland governor
Arthur Greiser by annexing the city to the Reich in November 1939.
Many Germans in the city, however, refused to sign the
Volksdeutsche ; they were deported by the General Government.
The city was given the new name of "Litzmannstadt" after Karl Litzmann
, the German general who had captured it during World War I.
The Nazi authorities soon established the
Łódź Ghetto in the city
and populated it with more than 200,000 Jews from the
As Jews were deported from Litzmannstadt for extermination, others
were brought in. Several concentration camps and death camps arose
in the city's vicinity for the non-Jewish inhabitants of the regions,
among them the infamous
Radogoszcz prison and several minor camps for
Romani people and for Polish children. Due to the value of the
goods that the ghetto population produced for the German military and
various civilian contractors, it was the last major ghetto to be
liquidated, in August 1944.
While occupied, thousands of new ethnic German
Volksdeutsche came to
Łódź from all across Europe, many of whom were repatriated from
Russia during the time of Hitler's alliance with the Soviet Union
before Operation "Barbarossa" . In January 1945, most of the German
population fled the city for fear of the
Red Army . The city also
suffered tremendous losses due to the German policy of requisition of
all factories and machines and transporting them to Germany. Thus,
despite relatively small losses due to fighting and aerial bombardment
Łódź was deprived of most of its industrial infrastructure.
Prior to World War II, Łódź's Jewish community numbered around
233,000 and accounted for one-third of the city's total population.
The community was almost entirely wiped out in the Holocaust . By
the end of the war, the city and its environs had lost approximately
420,000 of its pre-war inhabitants, including approximately 300,000
Polish Jews and 120,000 Poles.
On 1 August 1944 the
Warsaw Uprising erupted, and the fate of the
remaining inhabitants of the
Łódź Ghetto was sealed. During the
last phase of its existence, some 25,000 inmates were murdered at
Chełmno ; their bodies burned immediately after death. As the front
approached, German officials decided to deport the remaining Jews to
Holocaust trains . A handful of people were
left alive in the ghetto to clean it up. Others remained in hiding
with the Polish rescuers . When the Soviet army entered
Łódź on 19
January 1945, only 877 Jews were still alive, 12 of whom were
children. Of the 223,000 Jews in
Łódź before the invasion, only
10,000 survived the Holocaust in other places.
Soviet Red Army entered the city on 18 January 1945. According to
Marshal Katukov , whose forces participated in the operation, the
Germans retreated so suddenly that they had no time to evacuate or
destroy any of the factories, as they had in other cities. Łódź
subsequently became part of the People\'s Republic of
AFTER WORLD WAR II IN THE POLISH PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC
Fountain on Dąbrowski Square
At the end of World War II,
Łódź had fewer than 300,000
inhabitants. However the number began to grow as refugees from Warsaw
and territories annexed by the Soviet Union migrated. Until 1948 the
city served as a de facto capital of Poland, since events during and
Warsaw Uprising had thoroughly destroyed Warsaw, and most of
the government and country administration resided in Łódź. Some
planned moving the capital there permanently; however, this idea did
not gain popular support and in 1948 the reconstruction of Warsaw
began. Under the Polish Communist regime many of the rich
industrialist and business magnate families lost their wealth when the
authorities nationalised private companies. Once again the city became
a major centre of industry. A number of extensive panel block housing
Retkinia , Teofilów, Widzew, Radogoszcz and
Chojny) were constructed between 1960 and 1990, covering an area of
almost 30 square kilometres (12 sq mi) and accommodating a large part
of the city’s population. In mid-1981
Łódź became famous for its
massive, 50,000-person hunger demonstration of local mothers and their
children . In 1988 the population of the city peaked to 854,261,
gradually dropping ever since. After the period of economic
transition during the 1990s, most enterprises were again privatised.
High-rise buildings in central
Before 1990, Łódź's economy heavily focused on the textile
industry , which in the nineteenth century had developed in the city
owing to the favourable chemical composition of its water. Because of
the growth in this industry, the city has sometimes been called the
Manchester ". As a result,
Łódź grew from a population of
13,000 in 1840 to over 500,000 in 1913. By the time right before World
Łódź had become one of the most densely populated industrial
cities in the world, with 13,280 inhabitants per km2, and also one of
the most polluted. The textile industry declined dramatically in 1990
and 1991, and no major textile company survives in
However, countless small companies still provide a significant output
of textiles, mostly for export to
Russia and other countries of the
former Soviet Union . Izrael Poznański\'s Palace
The city benefits from its central location in Poland. A number of
firms have located their logistics centres in the vicinity. Two
motorways, A1 spanning from the north to the south of Poland, and A2
going from the east to the west, intersect northeast of the city. As
of 2012 , the A2 is complete to
Warsaw and the northern section of A1
is largely completed. With these connections, the advantages due to
the city's central location should increase even further. Work has
also begun on upgrading the railway connection with Warsaw, which
reduced the 2-hour travel time to make the 137 km (85 mi) journey 1.5
hours in 2009. In the next few years much of the track will be
modified to handle trains moving at 160 km/h (99 mph), cutting the
travel time by an additional 15 minutes.
Recent years has seen many foreign companies opening and establishing
their offices in Łódź. Indian IT company
Infosys has one of its
centres in the city. In January 2009
Dell announced that it will shift
production from its plant in
Limerick , Ireland to its plant in
Łódź, largely because the labour costs in
Poland are a fraction of
those in Ireland. The city's investor friendly policies have
attracted 980 foreign investors by January 2009. Foreign investment
was one of the factors which decreased the unemployment rate in
Łódź to 6.5 percent in December 2008, from 20 percent four years
Łódź has a humid continental climate (Dfb in the Koeppen climate
CLIMATE DATA FOR ŁóDź
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Artur Rubinstein on
Piotrkowska Street in Łódź,
where Rubinstein was born and raised Light Move Festival in
The Piotrkowska Street, which remains the high-street and main
tourist attraction in the city, runs north to south for a little over
five kilometres (3.1 miles). This makes it one of the longest
commercial streets in the world. Most of the building façades, many
of which date back to the 19th century, have been renovated. It is
the site of most restaurants, bars and cafes in Łódź's city centre.
Many neglected tenement houses throughout the entire city centre have
been renovated in recent years as part of the ongoing ‘mia100
kamienic’ project run by the local authorities. The best example of
urban regeneration in
Łódź is the
Manufaktura complex, occupying a
large area of a former cotton factory dating back to the nineteenth
century. The site, which was the heart of
Izrael Poznański 's
industrial empire, now hosts a shopping mall, numerous restaurants,
4-star hotel, multiplex cinema, factory museum, bowling and fitness
facilities and a science exhibition centre. Opened in 2006, it
quickly became “a centre of cultural entertainment and shopping
integrating the residents of the city” as well as a recognizable
city landmark attracting both domestic and foreign tourists. The city
is also likely to receive a large boost in terms of tourism once the
massive revitalization project of the city’s downtown (worth 4
billion PLN) is completed. The local government’s efforts to
transform the former industrial city into a thriving urban environment
and tourist destination form the basis for the city’s bid to
organise the 2022 International EXPO exhibition on the subject of
Łódź has one of the best museums of modern art in Poland. Muzeum
Sztuki has three branches, two of which (ms1 and ms2) display
collections of 20th and 21st century art. The newest addition to the
museum, ms2 was opened in 2008 in the
Manufaktura complex. The unique
collection of the Museum is presented in an unconventional way:
instead of a chronological lecture on the development of art, works of
art representing various periods and movements are arranged into a
story touching themes and motifs important for the contemporary
public. The third branch of Muzeum Sztuki, located in one of the
city’s many industrial palaces, also has more traditional art on
display, presenting works by European and Polish masters (including
Stanisław Wyspiański and
Henryk Rodakowski ). Among the 14
registered museums to be found in Łódź, there is the independent
Book Art Museum, awarded the American Printing History Association’s
Institutional Award for 2015 for its outstanding contribution to the
study, recording, preservation and dissemination of printing history
Poland over the last 35 years. Other notable museums include the
Central Museum of Textiles with its open-air display of wooden
architecture, the Cinematography Museum, located in Karl Wilhelm
Scheibler’s palace, and the Museum of Independence Traditions,
occupying the building of a historical Tsarist prison from the late
19th century. A more unusual establishment, the Dętka museum offers
tourists a chance to visit the municipal sewer designed in the early
years of the 20th century by the British engineer William Heerlein
Łódź also provides plenty of green spaces for recreation. Woodland
areas cover 9.61% of the city, with parks taking up an additional
2.37% of the area of
Łódź (as of 2014). Las Łagiewnicki
(Łagiewnicki Forest), the largest forest within city limits, is
referred to in scholarship as “the largest forested area within the
administrative borders of any city in Europe.” It has an area of
1,245 ha and is cut across by a number of hiking trails that traverse
the hilly landscape on the western edge of
Łódź Hills Landscape
Park . A “natural complex which has remained nearly intact as
oak-hornbeam and oak woodland,” the forest is also rich in history,
and its attractions include a
Franciscan friary dating back to the
early 18th century and two 17th-century wooden chapels. Out of a
total of 44 parks in
Łódź (as of 2014), 11 have historical status,
the oldest of them dating back to the middle of the 19th century. The
largest of these, Józef Piłsudski Park (188,21 ha), is located near
the city’s zoo and botanical garden, and together with them it
comprises an extensive green complex known as Zdrowie serving the
recreational needs of the city.
The Jewish Cemetery at Bracka Street , one of the largest of its kind
in Europe, was established in 1892. After the German occupation of
Poland in 1939, this cemetery became a part of Łódź's eastern
territory known as the enclosed
Łódź ghetto (Ghetto Field). Between
1940 and 1944, approximately 43,000 burials took place within the
grounds of this rounded-up cemetery. In 1956, a monument by Muszko in
memory of the victims of the
Łódź Ghetto was erected at the
cemetery. It features a smooth obelisk, a menorah , and a broken oak
tree with leaves stemming from the tree (symbolizing death, especially
death at a young age). As of 2014 the cemetery has an area of 39.6
hectare. It contains approximately 180,000 graves, approximately
65,000 labelled tombstones, ohels and mausoleums. Many of these
monuments have significant architectural value; 100 of these have been
declared historical monuments and have been in various stages of
restoration. The mausoleum of Izrael and Eleanora Poznanski is perhaps
the largest Jewish tombstone in the world and the only one decorated
with mosaics. On 20 November 2012 more than 20 gravestones, some of
which were from the 19th century, were destroyed at the Jewish
cemetery in an apparently anti-Semitic act.
Commercial mural at
Piotrkowska Street - the main promenade of the city
EC1 - former power station, now a museum and planetarium
Manufaktura - once a textile factory, now a shopping centre
Łódź University of Technology rector's office (formerly
Reinhold Richter Villa , 1904) Main article:
Education in Łódź
Łódź is a thriving center of academic life. Currently Łódź
hosts three major state-owned universities, six higher education
establishments operating for more than a half of the century, and a
number of smaller schools of higher education. The tertiary
institutions with the most students in
University of Łódź (UŁ - Uniwersytet Łódzki)
Lodz University of Technology (TUL - Politechnika Łódzka)
University of Łódź (Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi)
National Film School in Łódź (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła
Filmowa, Telewizyjna i Teatralna w Łodzi)
Academy of Music in Łódź (Akademia Muzyczna im. Grażyna i
Kiejstuta Bacewiczów w Łodzi)
Academy of Fine Arts In Łódź (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Wł.
Strzemińskiego w Łodzi)
In the 2017 general ranking of state-owned tertiary education
institutions in Poland, the
University of Łódź came 15th (6th place
among universities), one place lower than Lodz University of
Technology (6th place among technical universities). The Medical
University of Łódź was ranked 6th among Polish medical
universities. Leading courses taught in
Łódź include transport (TUL
- 3rd place nationwide), architecture (TUL - 5th place) and
administration (UŁ - 5th place).
There is also a number of private-owned institutions of higher
learning in Łódź. The largest of these are the University of Social
Sciences (Społeczna Akademia Nauk) and the University of Humanities
and Economics in
Łódź (Akademia Humanistyczno-Ekonomiczna w
Łodzi). In the 2017 ranking of private universities in Poland, the
former was ranked 9th, and the latter 19th.
NATIONAL FILM SCHOOL IN ŁóDź
National Film School at Oskar Kon Palace Main article:
National Film School in Łódź
Leon Schiller National Higher School of Film, Television and Theatre
Łódź (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Filmowa, Telewizyjna i
Teatralna im. Leona Schillera w Łodzi) is the most notable academy
for future actors, directors, photographers, camera operators and TV
staff in Poland. It was founded on 8 March 1948 and was initially
planned to be moved to
Warsaw as soon as the city was rebuilt
Warsaw Uprising . However, in the end the school
Łódź and today is one of the best-known institutions of
higher education in the city.
At the end of the Second World War
Łódź remained the only large
Polish city besides
Kraków which war had not destroyed. The creation
of the National Film School gave
Łódź a role of greater importance
from a cultural viewpoint, which before the war had belonged
Warsaw and Kraków. Early students of the School
include the directors
Andrzej Munk ,
Andrzej Wajda , Kazimierz
Karabasz (one of the founders of the so-called Black Series of Polish
Janusz Morgenstern , who at the end of the 1950s
became famous as one of the founders of the
Polish Film School of
Major road network in the city
Łódź tram network
Łódź is situated near the geographical centre of
Poland and as a
result, is located near the main north-south and east-west transport
routes. The city is served by the national motorway network , an
international airport, and long-distance and regional railways. It is
at the centre of a regional and commuter rail network operating from
the city’s various train stations. Bus and tram services are
operated by a municipal public transport company. There are 130 km (81
mi) of bicycle routes throughout the city.
The city is situated near the intersection of Poland’s main
north-south and east-west freeways, the A1 and A2 respectively. The A1
Gdańsk in the north and the
Czech Republic in
the south. The A2 connects the city with
Warsaw in the east, and
Germany , via
Poznań in the west.
Major roads include:
Częstochowa – Cieszyn
* A2: Świecko (national border) –
Piotrków Trybunalski –
Warszawa – Białystok
* S14: Pabianice – Konstantynów Łódzki – Aleksandrów
Łódzki – Zgierz
Łowicz – Stryków –
Łódź – Zduńska Wola –
Sieradz – Złoczew – Walichnowy
* DK72: Konin – Turek – Poddębice –
Łódź – Brzeziny –
Władysław Reymont Airport
The city has an international airport:
Łódź Władysław Reymont
Airport located 6 kilometres (4 miles) from the city centre. Flights
connect the city with destinations in
Europe and Turkey. In 2014 the
airport handled 253,772 passengers. It is the 8th largest airport in
Trams in Łódź
Trams in Łódź
The Municipal Transport Company –
Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne – Łódź), owned by the Łódź
City Government, is responsible for operating 58 bus routes and 19
Łódź has a number of long distance and local railway stations.
There are two main stations in the city, but with no direct rail
connection between them—a legacy of 19th-century railway network
planning. Originally constructed in 1866, the centrally-located
Łódź Fabryczna was a terminus station for a branch line of the
Warsaw-Vienna railway , whereas
Łódź Kaliska was built more than
thirty years later on the central section of the Warsaw-
. For this reason most intercity train traffic goes to this day
Łódź Kaliska station, despite its relative distance from
the city centre, and
Łódź Fabryczna serves mainly as a terminal
station for trains to
Warsaw . The situation will be remedied in 2021
after the construction of a tunnel connecting the two, which is
likely to make
Łódź Poland’s main railway hub. The tunnel will
Łódź Commuter Railway , providing a rapid
transit system for the city, dubbed the
Łódź Metro by the media and
local authorities. Two new stations are to be constructed on the
underground line, one serving the needs of the
Manufaktura complex and
the other located in the area of
Piotrkowska Street .
In December 2016, a few years after the demolition of the old
Łódź Fabryczna station, a new underground station was
opened. It is considered to be the largest and most modern of all
train stations in
Poland and is designed to handle increased traffic
after the construction of the underground tunnel. It also serves as a
multimodal transport hub, featuring an underground intercity bus
station, and is integrated with a new transport interchange serving
taxis and local trams and buses. The construction of the new Łódź
Fabryczna station was part of a broader project of urban renewal known
as Nowe Centrum Łodzi (New Centre of Łódź).
The third-largest train station in
Łódź Widzew . There
are also many other stations and train stops in the city, many of
which were upgraded as part of the Łódzka Kolej Aglomeracyjna
commuter rail project. The rail service, founded as part of a major
regional rail upgrade and owned by
Łódź Voivodeship , operates on
Łowicz , and on selected
Warsaw , with plans for further expansion after the
construction of the underground tunnel.
ŁóDź IN LITERATURE AND CINEMA
The contrast between the living conditions in industrial Łódź
were often mentioned in arts and literature. A notable example is The
Promised Land , a novel by
Three major novels depict the development of industrial Łódź:
Władysław Reymont 's The Promised Land (1898),
Joseph Roth 's Hotel
Savoy (1924) and
Israel Joshua Singer 's The Brothers Ashkenazi
(1937). Roth's novel depicts the city on the eve of a workers' riot in
1919. Reymont's novel was made into a film by
Andrzej Wajda in 1975.
In the 1990 film
Europa Europa ,
Solomon Perel 's family flees
World War II
World War II Berlin and settles in Łódź. Scenes of David Lynch
's 2006 film Inland Empire were shot in Łódź.
Paweł Pawlikowski 's
film Ida was partially shot in Łódź. Sections of Harry Turtledove
Worldwar alternate history series take place in Łódź.
Atlas Arena in
The city has experience as a host for international sporting events
such as the
2009 EuroBasket .
Under communism it was common for clubs to participate in many
different sports for all ages and sexes. Many of these traditional
clubs still survive today. Originally they were owned directly by a
public body, but now they are independently operated by clubs or
private companies. However they get public support through the cheap
rent of land and other subsidies from the city. Some of their sections
have gone professional and separated from the clubs as private
companies. For example, Budowlani S.A is a private company that owns
the only professional rugby team in Łódź, while Klub Sportowy
Budowlani remains a community amateur club.
Budowlani Łódź – rugby (six times Polish champions), hockey ,
wrestling , volleyball
ŁKS Łódź – association football (two times Polish
champions), basketball (Polish champions 1953), volleyball (two times
Polish champions), handball , boxing
Łódź – association football, volleyball, basketball
* KS Społem
Łódź – road and track cycling
* SKS Start
Łódź – football, swimming
Widzew Łódź – association football (four time Polish
champions, semi-finalists of the
1982–83 European Cup )
In Ekstraklasa of Polish beach soccer
Łódź have three professional
clubs: Grembach , KP and BSCC
Hanna Zdanowska , city mayor since 2010 See also: List of
Former city mayors following the collapse of communism include:
* Waldemar Bohdanowicz,
Solidarity (November 1989 – 1990) –
appointed by Prime Minister
* Grzegorz Palka (1990–1994)
* Marek Czekalski, Freedom Union (1994–1998)
* Tadeusz Matusiak, SLD (1998–2001)
* Krzysztof Panas, SLD (2001–2002)
* Krzysztof Jagiełło, SLD (2002)
Jerzy Kropiwnicki , Christian-National Union (ZChN) (2002–2010)
* Tomasz Sadzyński, Platforma Obywatelska / Civic Platform
(temporary in 2010)
Hanna Zdanowska , Platforma Obywatelska / Civic Platform
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
Łódź is home to nine foreign consulates, all of which are
Honorary. They are subordinate to the following states main
representation in Poland: French, Danish, German, Austrian, British,
Belgian, Latvian, Hungarian and Moldavian.
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
Łódź is twinned with:
Germany (since 1972)
Germany (since 1988)
France (since 1991)
Lithuania (since 1991)
Russia (since 1992)
Russia (since 2002)
Belarus (since 1992)
Ukraine (since 1993)
Tel Aviv in
Israel (since 1994)
Tianjin in People's Republic of
China (since 1994)
Rustavi in Georgia (since 1995)
* Barreiro in
Portugal (since 1996)
Finland (since 1996)
* Puebla in
Mexico (since 1996)
Spain (since 1999)
Sweden (since 2001)
Ukraine (since 2003)
Hungary (since 2008)
Guangzhou in People's Republic of
China (since 2014)
Łódź belongs also to the
POINTS OF INTEREST
Łódź City Hall, formerly Heinzel Palace
International Faculty of Engineering (TUL )
Andel's Hotel, near
Manufaktura shopping mall
Music Academy, formerly Poznański Palace
Izrael Poznański\'s Palace
Saint Stanislaus Kostka
Alexander Nevsky Orthodox church
Mieczysław Pinkus and Jakub Lende's
Maurycy Poznański Palace
Wilhelm Landau Bank
Ludwik Geyer House
Church of the Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary
Łódź Fabryczna railway station
Daniel Amit , Israeli physicist
Grażyna Bacewicz , composer
Aleksander Bardini , stage director and actor
Andrzej Bartkowiak , cameraman and film director
Jurek Becker (1937–1997), writer
Kazimierz Brandys , writer
Artur Brauner , film producer
Jacob Bronowski , writer, mathematician, and Britain's leading
academic TV figure of the 1970s.
Sabina Citron , Holocaust survivor, activist, and author
Bat-Sheva Dagan , Holocaust survivor, teacher, psychologist,
Karl Dedecius , translator
Karl Dominik (Born:Karol Dominik Ignaczak), China's first Chinese
speaking Polish actor
Marek Edelman , Holocaust survivor, one of the leaders of the
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising ,
Solidarity activist, Polish politician, human
Max Factor, Sr. , businessman, founder of the
Max Factor cosmetics
Dov Freiberg ,
Holocaust survivor and writer
Joseph Friedenson ,
Holocaust survivor and writer
Piotr Fronczewski , Polish actor
Marcin Gortat ,
NBA basketball player for the
Mendel Grossman ,
Łódź ghetto photographer
Józef Hecht (1891–1951), engraver and printmaker
Josef Joffe , journalist
Jan Karski , diplomat and antinazi resistant
Aharon Katzir (1914–1972), Israeli pioneer in study of
electrochemistry of biopolymers; killed in
Lod Airport Massacre
Lea Koenig , Israeli actress
* Paul Klecki , conductor
Katarzyna Kobro , sculptor
Jerzy Kosinski , writer
Jan Kowalewski , Polish cryptologist who broke Soviet military
codes and ciphers during the Polish-Soviet War
Karolina Kowalkiewicz ,
UFC Strawweight Title challenger
Feliks W. Kres , fantasy writer
Nathan Lewin ,
Washington, D.C. attorney
Daniel Libeskind , architect
Tadeusz Miciński , poet
Zew Wawa Morejno ,
Zbigniew Nienacki , writer
Marian P. Opala , Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice
* Adam Ostrowski , better known as O.S.T.R., rapper
Władysław Pasikowski , director
Roman Polanski , cinema director, Oscar and Golden Palm winner
Piotr Pustelnik , alpine and high-altitude climber, the 20th man
to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders.
* Ze\'ev Raban , Israeli painter and sculptor
Władysław Reymont , writer,
Nobel Prize winner
Joseph Rotblat ,
Nobel Prize winner
Stefan Rozental , nuclear physicist
Artur Rubinstein , pianist
Arnold Rutkowski , opera singer
Zbigniew Rybczyński , animator and Oscar winner
Marek Saganowski , football player
Andrzej Sapkowski , fantasy writer
* Carl Wilhelm Scheibler (1820–1881), one of the most important
Piotr Sobociński , cinematographer
Andrzej Sontag , track-and-field star
Natan Spigel (1900–1942), painter
Władysław Strzemiński , painter, Kobro's husband
Arthur Szyk , artist
* Aleksander Tansman , composer and pianist
Jack Tramiel , computer manufacturer, founder of Commodore
Julian Tuwim , poet
Miś Uszatek , cartoon character
Michał Wiśniewski , singer
Hanna Zdanowska , politician
* Aleksandra Ziółkowska-Boehm , writer
Jerzy Janowicz , tennis player
NOTABLE DESCENDANTS OF ŁóDź RESIDENTS
Ben Burns , American editor of African American publications
Lou Gold , American composer, pianist and band leader
Amy Totenberg , American district judge
Nina Totenberg , American
NPR legal affairs correspondent
Barbara Walters , American journalist, author, and television
Ada Yonath , Israeli crystallographer and
Łódź Design Festival
See also: Bibliography of the history of
* Alan Adelson and Robert Lapides,
Łódź Ghetto : A Community
History Told in Diaries, Journals, and Documents, Viking, 1989. ISBN
* "A Stairwell in Lodz," Constance Cappel, 2004, Xlibris, (in
* Horwitz, Gordon J. (2009). Ghettostadt:
Łódź and the making of
a Nazi city. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press . pp.
27, 54–55, 62. ISBN 0674038797 . Retrieved 21 March 2015 – via
Google Book, preview.
* "Lodz – The Last Ghetto in Poland," Michal Unger,
Yad Vashem ,
600 pages (in Hebrew)
* Stefański, Krzysztof (2000). Gmachy użyteczności publicznej
Łódź 2000 ISBN 83-86699-45-0 .
* Stefański, Krzysztof (2009). Ludzie którzy zbudowali Łódź
Leksykon architektów i budowniczych miasta (do 1939 roku), Łódź
2009 ISBN 978-83-61253-44-0 .
* Trunk, Isaiah; Shapiro, Robert Moses (2006).
Łódź Ghetto: a
Indiana University Press , Bloomington, Indiana. ISBN
978-0-253-34755-8 . Retrieved 6 March 2010.
* Trunk, Isaiah ; Shapiro, Robert Moses (2008) .
Łódź Ghetto: A
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to ŁóDź .
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for ŁóDź .
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
article LODZ .
* Official website
* Public Transport Official Site
* City map of Łódź
* Historic images of Łódź
Special Economic Zone
* Łódź-Lublinek Airport
English language newspaper
Principal cities of
* GORZóW WIELKOPOLSKI
* ZIELONA GóRA