Łódź (Polish: [wutɕ] (listen); also written in English as
Lodz)[a] is the third-largest city in
Poland and a former
industrial hub. Located in the central part of the country, it has a
population of 685,285 (2018). It is the capital of Łódź
Voivodeship, and is located approximately 120 kilometres (75 mi)
south-west of Warsaw. The city's coat of arms is an example
of canting, as it depicts a boat (łódź in Polish), which alludes to
the city's name.
Łódź was once a small settlement that first appeared in written
records in around 1332. In the early 15th century it was granted city
rights, but remained a rather small and insubstantial town. It was the
property of Kuyavian bishops and clergy until the end of the 18th
Łódź was annexed by
Prussia as a result of the second
partition of Poland. Following the collapse of the independent Duchy
of Warsaw, the city became part of Congress Poland, a client state of
the Russian Empire. It was then that
Łódź experienced rapid growth
in the cloth industry and in population due to the inflow of migrants,
most notably Germans and Jews. Ever since the industrialization of the
area, the city has struggled with many difficulties such as
multinationalism and social inequality, which were vividly documented
in the novel The Promised Land written by Polish Nobel Prize-winning
author Władysław Reymont. The contrasts greatly reflected on the
architecture of the city, where luxurious mansions coexisted with
redbrick factories and old tenement houses.
Poland regained its independence in 1918,
Łódź grew to be one
of the largest Polish cities and one of the most multicultural and
industrial centers in Europe. The interbellum period saw rapid
development in education and healthcare. After the invasion of Poland
in 1939, the German Army captured the city and renamed it
Litzmannstadt in honour of the German general Karl Litzmann, who was
victorious near the area during World War I. The city's large Jewish
population was forced into a walled zone known as the
from which they were sent to German concentration and extermination
camps. Following the occupation of the city by the Soviet Army,
Łódź, which sustained insignificant damage during the
war, became part of the newly established Polish People's Republic.
After years of prosperity during the socialist era, Łódź
experienced decline after the fall of communism throughout Central and
Eastern Europe; however, it is currently experiencing revitalization
of its downtown area. The city is also
internationally known for its National Film School, a cradle for the
most renowned Polish actors and directors, including
Andrzej Wajda and
Roman Polanski, and in 2017 was inducted into the UNESCO
Creative Cities Network and named
UNESCO City of Film.
1.1 Century of partitions: 1815 Congress of Vienna
Poland after the First World War
1.3 Occupation of
Poland by Nazi Germany
World War II
World War II in the Polish People's Republic
4 Places of interest
5 Economy and infrastructure
5.1.2 Public Transport
6.1 National Film School in Łódź
7.1 Museums in Łódź
Łódź in literature and cinema
7.4 Horticultural Expo 2024
8 International relations
8.1 Twin towns – sister cities
9 Notable residents
9.1 Notable descendants of
10 Gallery of sights
11 See also
13 External links
See also: Timeline of Łódź
Sigillum oppidi Lodzia - seal dating back to 1577
Łódź first appears in the written record in a 1332 document giving
the village of Łodzia to the bishops of Włocławek. In 1423 King
Władysław II Jagiełło officially granted city rights to the
village of Łódź. From then until the 18th century the town remained
a small settlement on a trade route between the provinces of Masovia
and Silesia. In the 16th century the town had fewer than 800
inhabitants, mostly working on the surrounding grain farms.
With the second partition of
Poland in 1793,
Łódź became part of
the Kingdom of Prussia's province of South Prussia, and was known in
German as Lodsch. In 1798 the Prussians nationalised the town, and it
lost its status as a town of the bishops of Kuyavia. In 1806 Łódź
joined the Napoleonic Duchy of
Warsaw and in 1810 it had approximately
190 inhabitants. After the 1815
Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna treaty it became
part of the Congress Kingdom of Poland, a client state of the Russian
Century of partitions: 1815 Congress of Vienna
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Synagogue was the main prayer house for the local Jewish community. It
was destroyed during World War IIMany tenement houses often reflected
the social status of owners and industrialists
In the 1815 treaty, it was planned to renew the dilapidated town and
with the 1816 decree by the Czar a number of German immigrants
received territory deeds for them to clear the land and to build
factories and housing. Their incentives for settlement included
"exemption from tax obligations for a period of six years, free
materials to build houses, perpetual lease of land for construction,
exemption from military service or duty-free transport of the
immigrants’ livestock." In 1820
Stanisław Staszic aided
in changing the small town into a modern industrial centre. The
immigrants came to the Promised Land (Ziemia obiecana, the city's
nickname) from all over Europe. Mostly they arrived from Saxony,
Silesia and Bohemia, but also from countries as far away as Portugal,
France and Ireland. The first cotton
mill opened in 1825, and 14 years later the very first steam-powered
factory in both
Poland and the
Russian Empire commenced operations. In
1839, over 78% of the population was German, and German
schools and churches were established.
A constant influx of workers, businessmen and craftsmen from all over
Łódź into the main textile production centre of
Russian Empire spanning from East-Central
Europe all the
way to Alaska. As long as the town was small, the majority of the
town's population was German speaking.  Three groups then
dominated the city's population and contributed the most to the city's
development: Germans, Poles, and Jews, who started to arrive from
1848. Many of the
Łódź craftspeople were weavers from Upper and
Russia abolished the customs barrier between Congress Poland
Russia proper and therefore industry in
Łódź could now develop
freely with a huge Russian market not far away. Eventually the city
became the second-largest city of Congress Poland. In 1865 the first
railroad line opened (to Koluszki, branch line of the Warsaw–Vienna
railway), and soon the city had rail links with
Warsaw and Białystok.
Izrael Poznański Factory in 1895Liberty Square pictured during the
Second World War. The statue of
Tadeusz Kościuszko was later
dismantled by the German army
One of the most important industrialists of
Łódź was Karl Wilhelm
Scheibler. In 1852 he came to
Łódź and with Julius
Schwarz together started buying property and building several
factories. Scheibler later bought out Schwarz's share and thus became
sole owner of a large business. After he died in 1881 his widow and
other members of the family decided to pay homage to his memory by
erecting a chapel, intended as a mausoleum with family crypt, in the
Lutheran part of the
Łódź cemetery on ulica Ogrodowa (later known
as The Old Cemetery).
Between 1823 and 1873, the city's population doubled every ten years.
The years 1870–1890 marked the period of most intense industrial
development in the city's modern history. Many of the industrialists
were of Jewish ethnicity.
Łódź also soon became a major centre of
the socialist movement. In 1892 a huge strike paralyzed most of the
factories and manufacturing plants. According to the Russian census of
1897, in which
Łódź figured as the fifth-largest city of the
Russian Empire, out of the total population of 315,000,
Jews constituted 99,000 (around 31% percent). During the
1905 Revolution, in what became known as the June Days or Łódź
insurrection, Tsarist police killed hundreds of workers.
By 1913, the Poles constituted almost half of the population (49.7%),
the German minority had fallen to 14.8%, and the Jews made up 34%, out
of some 506,000 inhabitants.
Despite the air of impending crisis preceding World War I, the city
grew constantly until 1914. By that year it had become one of the most
densely populated as well as one of the most polluted industrial
cities in the world—13,280 inhabitants per square kilometre
(34,400/sq mi). A major battle was fought near the city in late
1914, and as a result the city came under German occupation after 6
December but with Polish
independence restored in November 1918 the local population liberated
the city and disarmed the German troops. In the aftermath of World War
Łódź lost approximately 40% of its inhabitants, mostly owing to
draft, diseases, pollution and primarily because of the mass expulsion
of the city's German population back to Germany.
Poland after the First World War
In 1922, following the establishment of the Second Polish Republic,
Łódź became the capital of the
Łódź Voivodeship, but the period
of rapid growth had ceased. The
Great Depression of the 1930s and the
Customs war with
Germany closed western markets to Polish textiles
while the Bolshevik Revolution (1917) and the Civil War in Russia
(1918–1922) put an end to the most profitable trade with the East.
The city became a scene of a series of huge workers' protests and
riots in the interbellum.
On 13 September 1925 a new airport, Lublinek Airport, began operations
on the outskirts of the city. In the interwar years
to be a diverse and multicultural city, with the 1931 Polish census
showing that the total population of roughly 604,000 included 375,000
(59%) Poles, 192,000 (32%) Jews and 54,000 (9%) Germans (determined
from the main language used). By 1939, the Jewish minority had grown
to well over 200,000.
Poland by Nazi Germany
Battle of Łódź (1939) and
Memorial to Holocaust victims at Radegast railway station
During the invasion of Poland, the Polish forces of General Juliusz
Łódź Army defended the city against initial German
Wehrmacht nevertheless captured the city on 8
September. Despite plans for the city to become a Polish
enclave attached to the General Government, the Nazi hierarchy
respected the wishes of many ethnically German residents and of the
Reichsgau Wartheland governor
Arthur Greiser by annexing the city to
the Reich in November 1939. Many Germans in the city, however, refused
to sign the
Volksliste and become Volksdeutsche; they were deported by
the General Government. The city was given the new name of
"Litzmannstadt" after Karl Litzmann, the German general who had
captured it during World War I.
Ghetto Litzmannstadt, was the second-largest ghetto
in all of German-occupied Europe
The Nazi authorities soon established the
Łódź Ghetto (Ghetto
Litzmannstadt) in the city and populated it with more than 200,000
Jews from the Łódź
As Jews were deported from Litzmannstadt for extermination, others
were brought in. Several concentration camps
and death camps arose in the city's vicinity for the non-Jewish
inhabitants of the regions, among them the infamous Radogoszcz prison
and several minor camps for the
Romani people and for Polish
children. Due to the value of the
goods that the ghetto population produced for the German military and
various civilian contractors, it was the last major ghetto to be
liquidated, in August 1944.
While occupied, thousands of new ethnic German
Volksdeutsche came to
Łódź from all across Europe, many of whom were repatriated from
Russia during the time of Hitler's alliance with the Soviet Union
before Operation Barbarossa. In January 1945, most of the German
population fled the city for fear of the Red Army. The city also
suffered tremendous losses due to the German policy of requisition of
all factories and machines and transporting them to Germany. Thus,
despite relatively small losses due to fighting and aerial
Łódź was deprived of most of its industrial
Prior to World War II, Łódź's Jewish community numbered around
233,000 and accounted for one-third of the city's total
population. The community was almost entirely
wiped out in the Holocaust. By the end of the
war, the city and its environs had lost approximately 420,000 of its
pre-war inhabitants, including approximately 300,000 Polish Jews and
Izrael Poznański's tomb at the New Jewish Cemetery in
one of the largest of its kind in the world
On 1 August 1944 the
Warsaw Uprising erupted, and the fate of the
remaining inhabitants of the
Łódź Ghetto was sealed. During the
last phase of its existence, some 25,000 inmates were murdered at
Chełmno; their bodies burned immediately after
death. As the front approached, German
officials decided to deport the remaining Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau
aboard Holocaust trains. A handful of people were left alive in the
ghetto to clean it up. Others remained in hiding with the
Polish rescuers. When the Soviet army entered
19 January 1945, only 877 Jews were still alive, 12 of whom were
children. Of the 223,000 Jews in
Łódź before the
invasion, only 10,000 survived the Holocaust in other
Soviet Red Army
Soviet Red Army entered the city on 18 January 1945. According to
Marshal Katukov, whose forces participated in the operation, the
Germans retreated so suddenly that they had no time to evacuate or
destroy any of the factories, as they had in other cities.
Łódź subsequently became part of the Polish People's Republic.
World War II
World War II in the Polish People's Republic
Fountain on Dąbrowski Square
At the end of World War II,
Łódź had fewer than 300,000
inhabitants. However the number began to grow as refugees from Warsaw
and territories annexed by the Soviet Union migrated. Until 1948 the
city served as a de facto capital of Poland, since events during and
Warsaw Uprising had thoroughly destroyed Warsaw, and most of
the government and country administration resided in Łódź. Some
planned moving the capital there permanently; however, this idea did
not gain popular support and in 1948 the reconstruction of Warsaw
Under the Polish Communist regime many of the rich industrialist and
business magnate families lost their wealth when the authorities
nationalised private companies. Once again the city became a major
centre of industry. A number of extensive panel block housing estates
(including Retkinia, Teofilów, Widzew, Radogoszcz and Chojny) were
constructed between 1960 and 1990, covering an area of almost 30
square kilometres (12 sq mi) and accommodating a large part
of the city's population. In mid-1981
famous for its massive hunger demonstration of local mothers and their
children. In 1988 the population
of the city peaked to 854,261, gradually dropping ever
since. After the period of economic transition during the
1990s, most enterprises were again privatised.
Łódź has a humid continental climate (Dfb in the Köppen climate
Climate data for Łódź
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
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Average precipitation days
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Łódź was previously subdivided into five boroughs (dzielnica):
Bałuty, Widzew, Śródmieście, Polesie, Górna.
However, the city is now divided into 36 osiedla (districts):
Bałuty-Centrum, Bałuty-Doły, Bałuty Zachodnie,
Julianów-Marysin-Rogi, Łagiewniki, Radogoszcz,
Osiedle Wzniesień Łódzkich, Chojny,
Chojny-Dąbrowa, Górniak, Nad Nerem, Piastów-Kurak, Rokicie, Ruda,
Osiedle im. Józefa Montwiłła-Mireckiego, Karolew-Retkinia
Wschód, Koziny, Lublinek-Pienista,
Retkinia Zachód-Smulsko, Stare
Polesie, Zdrowie-Mania, Złotno, Śródmieście-Wschód, Osiedle
Katedralna, Andrzejów, Dolina Łódki, Mileszki, Nowosolna,
Olechów-Janów, Stary Widzew, Stoki, Widzew-Wschód, Zarzew, and
Osiedle nr 33.
Textile factory employees in Łódź, 1950s
Łódź was Poland's second largest city until 2007, when it lost its
position to Kraków. This is because alongside the entire
Łódź Voivodeship, the city is experiencing
substantial population decline. Since the population peak
of 1988, when the number of inhabitants reached 854,261,
Łódź has lost more than 150,000 residents. Such a dramatic change
results mainly from low fertility rates and low life expectancy on the
one hand, and a negative migration balance on the other. A
major factor behind the shrinkage of the city was the transition from
socialist to market-based economy after 1989 and the resulting
economic crisis, but the economic growth following
Poland's accession to the European Union in 2004 has not reversed the
trend. The process of suburbanization also contributes to
it, with a number of non-urban areas in counties surrounding Łódź
steadily increasing in population. While the 'fringe area' around
Łódź is expected to register an insignificant growth of less than
2,000 people until 2050, the population of the city proper by the
middle of the 21st century is estimated to drop below the level of
500,000. The ongoing ageing and depopulation of
a major challenge for the future development of the city, putting
strain on social infrastructure and medical services.
Łódź has one of the highest feminization rates among Poland's major
cities, a legacy of the city's industrial past, when the textile
factories attracted large numbers of female employees. The
rising age of the population, coupled with a longer life expectancy
among women, further exacerbates the disproportion.
Places of interest
Artur Rubinstein on
Piotrkowska Street in Łódź,
where Rubinstein was born and raised
The most notable and recognizable landmark of the city is Piotrkowska
Street, which remains the high-street and main tourist attraction in
the city, runs north to south for a little over five kilometres (3.1
miles). This makes it one of the longest commercial streets in the
world. Most of the building façades, many of which date back to the
19th century, have been renovated. It is the site of most
restaurants, bars and cafes in Łódź's city centre.
Many neglected tenement houses throughout the entire city centre have
been renovated in recent years as part of the ongoing revitalization
project run by the local authorities. The best example of
urban regeneration in
Łódź is the
Manufaktura complex, occupying a
large area of a former cotton factory dating back to the nineteenth
century. The site, which was the heart of Izrael
Poznański's industrial empire, now hosts a shopping mall, numerous
restaurants, 4-star hotel, multiplex cinema, factory museum, bowling
and fitness facilities and a science exhibition centre.
Opened in 2006, it quickly became a centre of cultural entertainment
and shopping, as well as a recognizable city landmark
attracting both domestic and foreign tourists. The city is
also likely to receive a large boost in terms of tourism once the
massive revitalization project of the city's downtown (worth 4 billion
PLN) is completed. The local government's efforts to
transform the former industrial city into a thriving urban environment
and tourist destination formed the basis for the city's failed bid to
organise the 2022 International EXPO exhibition on the subject of
Light Move Festival in Łódź
Łódź has one of the best museums of modern art in Poland. Muzeum
Sztuki has three branches, two of which (ms1 and ms2) display
collections of 20th and 21st century art. The newest addition to the
museum, ms2 was opened in 2008 in the
The unique collection of the Museum is presented in an unconventional
way: instead of a chronological lecture on the development of art,
works of art representing various periods and movements are arranged
into a story touching themes and motifs important for the contemporary
public. The third branch of Muzeum Sztuki, located in one of the
city's many industrial palaces, also has more traditional art on
display, presenting works by European and Polish masters such as
Stanisław Wyspiański and Henryk Rodakowski.
Muzeum Sztuki, ms2 branch, a museum and gallery of modern art
Among the 14 registered museums to be found in Łódź,
there is the independent Book Art Museum, awarded the American
Printing History Association's Institutional Award for 2015 for its
outstanding contribution to the study, recording, preservation and
dissemination of printing history in
Poland over the last 35
years. Other notable museums include the Central Museum of
Textiles with its open-air display of wooden architecture, the
Cinematography Museum, located in Scheibler Palace, and the Museum of
Independence Traditions, occupying the building of a historical
Tsarist prison from the late 19th century. A more unusual
establishment, the Dętka museum offers tourists a chance to visit the
municipal sewer designed in the early years of the 20th century by the
British engineer William Heerlein Lindley.
Las Łagiewnicki (Lagiewniki Forest), part of the
Łódź also provides plenty of green spaces for recreation. Woodland
areas cover 9.61% of the city, with parks taking up an additional
2.37% of the area of
Łódź (as of 2014). Las
Łagiewnicki (Łagiewnicki Forest), the largest forest within city
limits, is referred to in scholarship as "the largest forested area
within the administrative borders of any city in Europe."
It has an area of 1,245 ha and is cut across by a number
of hiking trails that traverse the hilly landscape on the western edge
Łódź Hills Landscape Park. A "natural complex which
has remained nearly intact as oak-hornbeam and oak
woodland," the forest is also rich in history, and its
attractions include a
Franciscan friary dating back to the early 18th
century and two 17th-century wooden chapels. Out of a
total of 44 parks in
Łódź (as of 2014), 11 have historical status,
the oldest of them dating back to the middle of the 19th
century. The largest of these, Józef Piłsudski Park
(188,21 ha), is located near the
Łódź Zoo and the
city's botanical garden, and together with them it comprises an
extensive green complex known as Zdrowie serving the recreational
needs of the city.
Herbst Palace, an art gallery within a historical mansion, which
holds paintings from all over Europe
The Jewish Cemetery at Bracka Street, one of the largest of its kind
in Europe, was established in 1892. After the invasion of
Nazi Germany in 1939, this cemetery became a part of Łódź's eastern
territory known as the enclosed
Łódź ghetto (
Ghetto Field). Between
1940 and 1944, approximately 43,000 burials took place within the
grounds of this rounded-up cemetery. In 1956, a monument
by Muszko in memory of the victims of the
Łódź Ghetto was erected
at the cemetery. It features a smooth obelisk, a menorah, and a broken
oak tree with leaves stemming from the tree (symbolizing death,
especially death at a young age). As of 2014[update] the
cemetery has an area of 39.6 hectare. It contains approximately
180,000 graves, approximately 65,000 labelled tombstones, ohels and
mausoleums. Many of these monuments have significant architectural
value; 100 of these have been declared historical monuments and have
been in various stages of restoration. The mausoleum of Izrael and
Eleanora Poznanski is perhaps the largest Jewish tombstone in the
world and the only one decorated with mosaics.
Economy and infrastructure
High-rise buildings in central Łódź
Before 1990, the economy of
Łódź was heavily reliant on the textile
industry, which had developed in the city in the nineteenth century
owing to the abundance of rivers used to power the industry's fulling
mills, bleaching plants and other machinery. Because of
the growth in this industry, the city has sometimes been called the
"Polish Manchester". As a result,
Łódź grew from a
population of 13,000 in 1840 to over 500,000 in 1913. By the time
World War I
World War I
Łódź had become one of the most densely
populated industrial cities in the world, with 13,280 inhabitants per
km2, and also one of the most polluted. The textile industry declined
dramatically in 1990 and 1991, and no major textile company survives
Łódź today. However, countless small companies still provide a
significant output of textiles, mostly for export to
Russia and other
countries of the former Soviet Union.
Izrael Poznański Palace
The city benefits from its central location in Poland. A number of
firms have located their logistics centres in the vicinity. Two
motorways, A1 spanning from the north to the south of Poland, and A2
going from the east to the west, intersect northeast of the city. As
of 2012[update], the A2 is complete to
Warsaw and the northern
section of A1 is largely completed. With these connections, the
advantages of the city's central location should increase even
further. Work has also begun on upgrading the railway connection with
Warsaw, which reduced the 2-hour travel time to make the 137 km
(85 mi) journey 1.5 hours in 2009. As of 2018, travel time from
Warsaw is around 1.2 hours with the modern
Pesa SA Dart
Recent years have seen many foreign companies opening and establishing
their offices in Łódź. The Indian IT company
Infosys has one of its
centres in the city. In January 2009
Dell announced that it will shift
production from its plant in Limerick, Ireland to its plant in
Łódź, largely because the labour costs in
Poland are a fraction of
those in Ireland. The city's investor friendly policies
have attracted 980 foreign investors by January 2009.
Foreign investment was one of the factors which decreased the
unemployment rate in
Łódź to 6.5 percent in December 2008, from 20
percent four years earlier.
Major road network in the city
Łódź tram network
Łódź is situated near the geographical centre of Poland, only a
short distance away from the motorway junction in
Stryków where the
two main north-south (A1) and east-west (A2) Polish transport
corridors meet, which positions the city on two of the ten major
trans-European routes: from
Brno and from
Moscow via Warsaw. It is also part of the New
Silk Road, a regular cargo rail connection with the
Chinese city of
Chengdu operating since 2013.
served by the national motorway network, an international airport, and
long-distance and regional railways. It is at the centre of a regional
and commuter rail network operating from the city's various train
stations. Bus and tram services are operated by a municipal public
transport company. There are 130 km (81 mi) of bicycle
routes throughout the city.
Major roads include:
Częstochowa – Cieszyn
A2: Świecko (national border) –
Łódź – Warszawa
Piotrków Trybunalski –
Warszawa – Białystok
S14: Pabianice – Konstantynów Łódzki – Aleksandrów Łódzki
Łódź – Zduńska Wola – Sieradz
– Złoczew – Walichnowy
DK72: Konin – Turek – Poddębice –
Łódź – Brzeziny – Rawa
Gdańsk – Tczew –
Łódź – Piotrków
Trybunalski – Radomsko – Częstochowa
Władysław Reymont Airport
The city has an international airport:
Łódź Władysław Reymont
Airport located 6 kilometres (4 miles) from the city centre. Flights
connect the city with destinations in
Turkey. In 2014 the airport handled 253,772
passengers. It is the 8th largest airport in
See also: Trams in Łódź
Piotrkowska Centrum tram station, also known as "The Unicorn Stable"
The Municipal Transport Company –
Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne – Łódź), owned by the Łódź
City Government, is responsible for operating 58 bus routes and 19
Łódź has a number of long distance and local railway stations.
There are two main stations in the city, but with no direct rail
connection between them—a legacy of 19th-century railway network
planning. Originally constructed in 1866, the centrally-located
Łódź Fabryczna was a terminus station for a branch line of the
Warsaw-Vienna railway, whereas
Łódź Kaliska was built
more than thirty years later on the central section of the
Kalisz railway. For this reason most intercity train traffic
goes to this day through
Łódź Kaliska station, despite its relative
distance from the city centre, and
Łódź Fabryczna serves mainly as
a terminal station for trains to Warsaw. The situation will be
remedied in 2021 after the construction of a tunnel connecting the
two, which is likely to make
Łódź Poland's main railway
hub. The tunnel will additionally serve
Railway, providing a rapid transit system for the city, dubbed the
Łódź Metro by the media and local authorities. Two new
stations are to be constructed on the underground line, one serving
the needs of the
Manufaktura complex and the other located in the area
of Piotrkowska Street.
In December 2016, a few years after the demolition of the old building
Łódź Fabryczna station, a new underground station was
opened. It is considered to be the largest and most modern
of all train stations in
Poland and is designed to handle increased
traffic after the construction of the underground tunnel.
It also serves as a multimodal transport hub, featuring an underground
intercity bus station, and is integrated with a new transport
interchange serving taxis and local trams and buses. The
construction of the new
Łódź Fabryczna station was part of a
broader project of urban renewal known as Nowe Centrum Łodzi (New
Centre of Łódź).
The third-largest train station in
Łódź Widzew. There
are also many other stations and train stops in the city, many of
which were upgraded as part of the Łódzka Kolej Aglomeracyjna
commuter rail project. The rail service, founded as part of a major
regional rail upgrade and owned by
Łódź Voivodeship, operates on
routes to Kutno, Sieradz, Skierniewice, Łowicz, and on selected days
to Warsaw, with plans for further expansion after the construction of
the underground tunnel.
Łódź University of Technology rector's office (formerly Reinhold
Richter Villa, 1904)
Main article: Education in Łódź
Łódź is a thriving center of academic life. Currently
three major state-owned universities, six higher education
establishments operating for more than a half of the century, and a
number of smaller schools of higher education. The tertiary
institutions with the most students in
University of Łódź
University of Łódź (UŁ - Uniwersytet Łódzki)
Lodz University of Technology
Lodz University of Technology (TUL - Politechnika Łódzka)
University of Łódź
University of Łódź (Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi)
National Film School in Łódź
National Film School in Łódź (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Filmowa,
Telewizyjna i Teatralna w Łodzi)
Academy of Music in Łódź
Academy of Music in Łódź (Akademia Muzyczna im. Grażyny i
Kiejstuta Bacewiczów w Łodzi)
Academy of Fine Arts In Łódź (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Wł.
Strzemińskiego w Łodzi)
In the 2018 general ranking of state-owned tertiary education
institutions in Poland, the
University of Łódź
University of Łódź came 20th (6th place
among universities) and
Lodz University of Technology
Lodz University of Technology 12th (6th place
among technical universities). The Medical
University of Łódź
University of Łódź was
ranked 5th among Polish medical universities. Leading courses taught
Łódź include administration (UŁ - 3rd place), law (UŁ - 4th
place) and biology (UŁ - 4th place).
There is also a number of private-owned institutions of higher
learning in Łódź. The largest of these are the University of Social
Sciences (Społeczna Akademia Nauk) and the University of Humanities
and Economics in
Łódź (Akademia Humanistyczno-Ekonomiczna w
Łodzi). In the 2018 ranking of private universities in
former was ranked 9th, and the latter 23rd.
National Film School in Łódź
National Film School at Oskar Kon Palace
Main article: National Film School in Łódź
Leon Schiller National Higher School of Film, Television and Theatre
Łódź (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Filmowa, Telewizyjna i
Teatralna im. Leona Schillera w Łodzi) is the most notable academy
for future actors, directors, photographers, camera operators and TV
staff in Poland. It was founded on 8 March 1948 and was initially
planned to be moved to
Warsaw as soon as the city was rebuilt
Warsaw Uprising. However, in the end the school remained
Łódź and today is one of the best-known institutions of higher
education in the city.
At the end of the Second World War
Łódź remained the only large
Polish city besides
Kraków which war had not destroyed. The creation
of the National Film School gave
Łódź a role of greater importance
from a cultural viewpoint, which before the war had belonged
Warsaw and Kraków. Early students of the School
include the directors Andrzej Munk, Andrzej Wajda, Kazimierz Karabasz
(one of the founders of the so-called Black Series of Polish
Documentary) and Janusz Morgenstern, who at the end of the 1950s
became famous as one of the founders of the
Polish Film School of
Museum of Art in Łódź, the city's primary cultural institution
Museums in Łódź
Archaeological and Ethnographical Museum
Book Art Museum
Central Museum of Textiles
City of Lodz History Museum
Herbst Palace Museum
Muzeum Sztuki (Museum of Art)
Natural History Museum, University of Łódź
Muzeum Tradycji Niepodległościowych (Independence Traditions Museum)
with three parts:
Radegast train station
Mausoleum and museum in Radogoszcz – Radogoszcz prison
exhibition Kuźnia Romów (Roma forge) in former
Se-ma-for museum of stop-motion film animation
Łódź in literature and cinema
The contrast between the living conditions in industrial Łódź
were often mentioned in arts and literature. A notable example is The
Promised Land, a novel by Władysław Reymont
Three major novels depict the development of industrial Łódź:
Władysław Reymont's The Promised Land (1898), Joseph Roth's Hotel
Savoy (1924) and
Israel Joshua Singer's
The Brothers Ashkenazi (1937).
Roth's novel depicts the city on the eve of a workers' riot in 1919.
Reymont's novel was made into a film by
Andrzej Wajda in 1975. In the
1990 film Europa Europa, Solomon Perel's family flees pre-World War II
Berlin and settles in Łódź. Scenes of David Lynch's 2006 film
Inland Empire were shot in Łódź. Paweł Pawlikowski's film Ida was
partially shot in Łódź. Sections of Harry Turtledove's Worldwar
alternate history series take place in Łódź, and, in John
Axis of Time
Axis of Time alternate history trilogy,
Łódź gains the
unfortunate historical notoriety of becoming the first city to be
destroyed by an Atomic Bomb when the
USSR destroys the city on 5 June
Atlas Arena in Łódź
The city has experience as a host for international sporting events
such as the 2009 EuroBasket, and it will be one of the six
host cities of the 2019 FIFA U-20 World Cup, with the opening and
final to take place at Stadion Widzewa.
Łódź will also host the
sixth edition of the
European Universities Games in 2022.
Under communism it was common for clubs to participate in many
different sports for all ages and sexes. Many of these traditional
clubs still survive today. Originally they were owned directly by a
public body, but now they are independently operated by clubs or
private companies. However they get public support through the cheap
rent of land and other subsidies from the city. Some of their sections
have gone professional and separated from the clubs as private
companies. For example, Budowlani S.A is a private company that owns
the only professional rugby team in Łódź, while Klub Sportowy
Budowlani remains a community amateur club.
Budowlani Łódź – rugby (six times Polish champions), hockey,
ŁKS Łódź – association football (two times Polish champions),
basketball (Polish champions 1953), volleyball (two times Polish
champions), handball, boxing
SMS Łódź – association football, volleyball,
Łódź – road and track cycling
SKS Start Łódź – football, swimming
Widzew Łódź – association football (four time Polish champions,
semi-finalists of the 1982–83 European Cup)
In Ekstraklasa of Polish beach soccer
Łódź have three professional
clubs: Grembach, KP and BSCC
Horticultural Expo 2024
Łódź will host the Horticultural Expo in 2024.
Łódź bid for the
Specialized Expo 2022/2023 but lost out to Buenos Aires, Argentina.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
Łódź is home to nine foreign consulates, all of which are Honorary.
They are subordinate to the following states main representation in
Poland: French, Danish, German, Austrian, British, Belgian, Latvian,
Hungarian and Moldavian.
Twin towns – sister cities
Łódź is twinned with:
Germany (since 1972)
Germany (since 1988)
France (since 1991)
Lithuania (since 1991)
Russia (since 1992)
Russia (since 2002)
Belarus (since 1992)
Ukraine (since 1993)
Tel Aviv in
Israel (since 1994)
Tianjin in People's Republic of
China (since 1994)
Rustavi in Georgia (since 1995)
Portugal (since 1996)
Finland (since 1996)
Mexico (since 1996)
Spain (since 1999)
Sweden (since 2001)
Ukraine (since 2003)
Hungary (since 2008)
Guangzhou in People's Republic of
China (since 2014)
Łódź belongs also to the
Arthur Rubinstein, one of the greatest pianists of the twentieth
century, was born in Łódź
Daniel Libeskind, notable architect and designer
Andrzej Sapkowski, best known for
The Witcher book series
Daniel Amit, Israeli physicist
Grażyna Bacewicz, composer
Aleksander Bardini, stage director and actor
Andrzej Bartkowiak, cameraman and film director
Jurek Becker (1937–1997), writer
Sylwester Bednarek, high jumper
Kazimierz Brandys, writer
Artur Brauner, film producer
Edward Gustave Brisch (1901-1960), industrial coding and
classification expert. He was the designer of the Brisch
Classification, widely known and used in building and engineering.
Jacob Bronowski, writer, mathematician, and Britain's leading academic
TV figure of the 1970s.
Sabina Citron, Holocaust survivor, activist, and author
Bat-Sheva Dagan, Holocaust survivor, teacher, psychologist, author
Karl Dedecius, translator
Karl Dominik (Born:Karol Dominik Ignaczak), China's first Chinese
speaking Polish actor
Marek Edelman, Holocaust survivor, one of the leaders of the Warsaw
Solidarity activist, Polish politician, human rights
Max Factor Sr., businessman, founder of the
Max Factor cosmetics
Holocaust survivor and writer
Holocaust survivor and writer
Piotr Fronczewski, Polish actor
NBA basketball player for the Washington Wizards
Łódź ghetto photographer 
Józef Hecht (1891–1951), engraver and printmaker
Josef Joffe, journalist
Roman Kantor (1912-1943), épée fencer, Nordic champion and Soviet
champion; killed by the Nazis
Jan Karski, diplomat and anti-nazi resistant
Aharon Katzir (1914–1972), Israeli pioneer in study of
electrochemistry of biopolymers; killed in Lod Airport Massacre
Lea Koenig, Israeli actress
Paul Klecki, conductor
Katarzyna Kobro, sculptor
Jerzy Kosinski, writer
Jan Kowalewski, Polish cryptologist who broke Soviet military codes,
and ciphers during the Polish-Soviet War
Karolina Kowalkiewicz, UFC Strawweight Title challenger
Feliks W. Kres, fantasy writer
Washington, D.C. attorney
Daniel Libeskind, architect
Tadeusz Miciński, poet
Ruth Minsky Sender, author and survivor
Zew Wawa Morejno, Chief Rabbi
Konstantin Petrovich Nechaev,
White movement leader and mercenary
commander in China
Zbigniew Nienacki, writer
Marian P. Opala, Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice
Adam Ostrowski, better known as O.S.T.R., rapper
Władysław Pasikowski, director
Roman Polanski, cinema director, Oscar and Golden Palm winner
Piotr Pustelnik, alpine and high-altitude climber, the 20th man to
climb all fourteen eight-thousanders.
Ze'ev Raban, Israeli painter and sculptor
Władysław Reymont, writer,
Nobel Prize winner
Nobel Prize winner
Stefan Rozental, nuclear physicist
Artur Rubinstein, pianist
Arnold Rutkowski, opera singer
Zbigniew Rybczyński, animator and Oscar winner
Marek Saganowski, football player
Andrzej Sapkowski, fantasy writer
Carl Wilhelm Scheibler (1820–1881), one of the most important
Piotr Sobociński, cinematographer
Andrzej Sontag, track-and-field star
Natan Spigel (1900–1942), painter
Władysław Strzemiński, painter, Kobro's husband
Arthur Szyk, artist
Aleksander Tansman, composer and pianist
Jack Tramiel, computer manufacturer, the founder of
Julian Tuwim, poet
Miś Uszatek, cartoon character
Michał Wiśniewski, singer
Hanna Zdanowska, politician
Aleksandra Ziółkowska-Boehm, writer
Jerzy Janowicz, tennis player
Marek Belka, politician, former Prime Minister, Finance Minister of
Notable descendants of
This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by
verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements
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Ben Burns, American editor of African American publications
Lou Gold, American composer, pianist and band leader
Amy Totenberg, American district judge
Nina Totenberg, American
NPR legal affairs correspondent
Barbara Walters, American journalist, author, and television
Ada Yonath, Israeli crystallographer and Nobel laureate
Jaime Lerner, Brazilian architect, urban planner and politician.
Gallery of sights
Piotrkowska Street - the main promenade of the city
EC1 - former power station, now a museum and planetarium
Manufaktura - once a textile factory, now a shopping centre
Łódź City Hall, formerly Heinzel Palace
International Faculty of Engineering (TUL)
Andel's Hotel, near
Manufaktura shopping mall
Music Academy, formerly Poznański Palace
Izrael Poznański's Palace
Archcathedral Basilica of St. Stanislaus Kostka
Alexander Nevsky Orthodox church
Mieczysław Pinkus and Jakub Lende's
Karl Scheibler's Chapel
Karl Scheibler's Chapel in Old Cemetery
Workers' houses (famuły) at Księży Młyn
Special Economic Zone
Polonia Palast Hotel
Church of the Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary
Botanical Garden in Łódź
Łódź Fabryczna railway station
Archeological and Ethnographic Museum
Mural in city centre
European Union portal
Łódź Design Festival
^ English: /lɒdz/ LODZ, also US: /wuːtʃ, luːdʒ/ WOOCH, LOOJ and
UK: /wʊtʃ/ WUUCH.
^ a b "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 1 June
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.cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em Data for territorial unit
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See also: Bibliography of the history of Łódź
.mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em
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Alan Adelson and Robert Lapides,
Łódź Ghetto : A Community
History Told in Diaries, Journals, and Documents, Viking, 1989.
"A Stairwell in Lodz," Constance Cappel, 2004, Xlibris, (in
Horwitz, Gordon J. (2009). Ghettostadt:
Łódź and the making of a
Nazi city. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
pp. 27, 54–55, 62. ISBN 978-0674038790. Retrieved 21 March
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"Lodz – The Last
Ghetto in Poland," Michal Unger, Yad Vashem,
600 pages (in Hebrew)
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Łódź 2000 ISBN 83-86699-45-0.
Stefański, Krzysztof (2009). Ludzie którzy zbudowali Łódź
Leksykon architektów i budowniczych miasta (do 1939 roku), Łódź
2009 ISBN 978-83-61253-44-0.
Trunk, Isaiah; Shapiro, Robert Moses (2006).
Łódź Ghetto: a
history. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana.
ISBN 978-0-253-34755-8. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
Trunk, Isaiah; Shapiro, Robert Moses (2008) .
Łódź Ghetto: A
History. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press.
ISBN 978-0253347558. Retrieved 29 September 2015 – via
Google Book, preview.
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